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Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 10: The Dhammapada and Sutta Nipata, by Max Müller and Max Fausböll, [1881], at

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For all beings salvation is only to be found in Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha.--Text and translation in Childers' Khuddaka Pâtha, p. 6.

   1. Whatever spirits have come together here, either belonging to the earth or living in the air, let all spirits be happy, and then listen attentively to what is said. (221)

   2. Therefore, O spirits, do ye all pay attention, show kindness to the human race who both day and night bring their offerings; therefore protect them strenuously. (222)

   3. Whatever wealth there be here or in the other world, or whatever excellent jewel in the heavens, it is certainly not equal to Tathâgata. This excellent jewel (is found) in Buddha, by this truth may there be salvation. (223)

   4. The destruction (of passion), the freedom from passion, the excellent immortality which Sakyamuni attained (being) composed,--there is nothing equal to that Dhamma. This excellent jewel (is found) in the Dhamma, by this truth may there be salvation. (224)

   5. The purity which the best of Buddhas praised, the meditation which they call uninterrupted, there is no meditation like this. This excellent jewel (is

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found) in the Dhamma, by this truth may there be salvation. (225)

   6. The eight persons that are praised by the righteous[1], and make these four pairs, they are worthy of offerings, (being) Sugata's disciples; what is given to these will bear great fruit. This excellent jewel (is found) in the Assembly (sangha), by this truth may there be salvation. (226)

   7. Those who have applied themselves studiously with a firm mind and free from desire to the commandments of Gotama, have obtained the highest gain, having merged into immortality, and enjoying happiness after getting it for nothing. This excellent jewel (is found) in the Assembly, by this truth may there be salvation. (227)

   8. As a post in the front of a city gate is firm in the earth and cannot be shaken by the four winds, like that I declare the righteous man to be who, having penetrated the noble truths, sees (them clearly). This excellent jewel (is found) in the Assembly, by this truth may there be salvation. (228)

   9. Those who understand the noble truths well taught by the profoundly wise (i.e. Buddha), though they be greatly distracted, will not (have to) take the eighth birth. This excellent jewel (is found) in the Assembly, by this truth may there be salvation. (229)

   10. On his (attaining the) bliss of (the right) view three things (dhammas) are left behind (by him): conceit and doubt and whatever he has got of virtue and (holy) works. He is released also from the four hells, and he is incapable of committing the six

[1. The Commentator: satam pasatthâ ti sappurisehi buddhapakkekabuddhasâvakehi aññehi ka devamanusehi pasatthâ.]

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deadly sins. This excellent jewel (is found) in the Assembly, by this truth may there be salvation. (230)

   11. Even if he commit a sinful deed by his body, or in word or in thought, he is incapable of concealing it, (for) to conceal is said to be impossible for one that has seen the state (of Nibbâna). This excellent jewel (is found) in the Assembly, by this truth may there be salvation. (231)

   12. As in a clump of trees with their tops in bloom in the first heat of the hot month, so (Buddha) taught the excellent Dhamma leading to Nibbâna to the greatest benefit (for all). This excellent jewel (is found) in Buddha, by this truth may there be salvation. (232)

   13. The excellent one who knows what is excellent, who gives what is excellent, and who brings what is excellent, the incomparable one taught the excellent Dhamma. This excellent jewel (is found) in Buddha, by this truth may there be salvation. (233)

   14. The old is destroyed, the new has not arisen, those whose minds are disgusted with a future existence, the wise who have destroyed their seeds (of existence, and) whose desires do not increase, go out like this lamp. This excellent jewel (is found) in the Assembly, by this truth may there be salvation. (234)

   15. Whatever spirits have come together here, either belonging to the earth or living in the air, let us worship the perfect (tathâgata) Buddha, revered by gods and men; may there be salvation. (235)

   16. Whatever spirits have come together here, either belonging to the earth or living in the air, let us worship the perfect (tathâgata) Dhamma, revered by gods and men; may there be salvatlon. (236)

   17. Whatever spirits have come together here,

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either belonging to the earth or living in the air, let us worship the perfect (tathâgata) Sangha, revered by gods and men; may there be salvation. (237)

Ratanasutta is ended.


A bad mind and wicked deeds are what defiles a man; no outward observances can purify him. Comp. Gospel of S. Matthew xv. 10.

   1. Âmagandhabrâhmana: 'Those who eat sâmâka, kingûlaka, and kînaka, pattaphala, mûlaphala, and gaviphala (different sorts of grass, leaves, roots, &c.), justly obtained of the just, do not speak falsehood, (nor are they) desirous of sensual pleasures. (238)

   2. 'He who eats what has been well prepared, well dressed, what is pure and excellent, given by others, he who enjoys food made of rice, eats, O Kassapa, Âmagandha (what defiles one). (239)

   3. '(The charge of) Âmagandha does not apply to me,' so thou sayest, 'O Brahman (brahmabandhu, although) enjoying food (made) of rice together with the well-prepared flesh of birds. I ask thee, O Kassapa, the meaning of this, of what description (is then) thy Âmagandha?' (240)

   4. Kassapabuddha: 'Destroying living beings, killing, cutting, binding, stealing, speaking falsehood, fraud and deception, worthless reading[1], intercourse with another's wife;--this is Âmagandha, but not the eating of flesh. (241)

[1. Agghenakuggan ti niratthakânatthaganakaganthapariyâpunanam. Commentator.]

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   5. 'Those persons who in this world are unrestrained in (enjoying) sensual pleasures, greedy of sweet things, associated with what is impure, sceptics (natthikaditthi), unjust, difficult to follow;--this is Âmagandha, but not the eating of flesh. (242)

   6. 'Those who are rough, harsh, backbiting, treacherous, merciless, arrogant, and (who being) illiberal do not give anything to any one;--this is Âmagandha, but not the eating of flesh. (243)

   7. 'Anger, intoxication, obstinacy, bigotry, deceit, envy, grandiloquence, pride and conceit, intimacy with the unjust;--this is Âmagandha, but not the eating of flesh. (244)

   8. 'Those who in this world are wicked, and such as do not pay their debts, are slanderers, false in their dealings, counterfeiters, those who in this world being the lowest of men commit sin;--this is Âmagandha, but not the eating of flesh. (245)

   9. 'Those persons who in this world are unrestrained (in their behaviour) towards living creatures, who are bent upon injuring after taking others' (goods), wicked, cruel, harsh, disrespectful;--this is Âmagandha, but not the eating of flesh. (246)

   10. 'Those creatures who are greedy of these (living beings, who are) hostile, offending; always bent upon (evil) and therefore, when dead, go to darkness and fall with their heads downwards into hell;--this is Âmagandha, but not the eating of flesh. (247)

   11. 'Neither the flesh of fish, nor fasting, nor nakedness, nor tonsure, nor matted hair, nor dirt, nor rough skins, nor the worshipping of the fire, nor the many immortal penances in the world, nor hymns, nor oblations, nor sacrifice, nor observance of the

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seasons, purify a mortal who has not conquered his doubt[1]. (248)

   12. 'The wise man wanders about with his organs of sense guarded, and his senses conquered, standing firm in the Dhamma, delighting in what is right and mild; having overcome all ties and left behind all pain, he does not cling to what is seen and heard.' (249)

   13. Thus Bhagavat preached this subject again and again, (and the Brâhmana) who was accomplished in the hymns (of the Vedas) understood it; the Muni who is free from defilement, independent, and difficult to follow, made it clear in various stanzas. (250)

   14. Having heard Buddha's well-spoken words, which are free from defilement and send away all pain, he worshipped Tathâgata's (feet) in humility, and took orders at once. (251)

Âmagandhasutta is ended.


On true frendship.

   1. He who transgresses and despises modesty, who says, 'I am a friend,' but does not undertake any work that can be done, know (about) him: 'he is not my (friend).' (252)

   2. Whosoever uses pleasing words to friends without effect[2], him the wise know as one that (only) talks, but does not do anything. (253)

   3. He is not a friend who always eagerly suspects a breach and looks out for faults; but he with whom he dwells as a son at the breast (of his mother),

[1. Comp. Dhp. v. 141.

2. Ananvayan ti yam attham dassâmi karissâmîti bhâsati tena ananugatam. Commentator.]

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he is indeed a friend that cannot be severed (from him) by others. (254)

   4. He who hopes for fruit, cultivates the energy that produces joy and the pleasure that brings praise, (while) carrying the human yoke[1]. (255)

   5. Having tasted the sweetness of seclusion and tranquillity one becomes free from fear and free from sin, drinking in the sweetness of the Dhamma[2]. (256)

Hirisutta is ended.


Buddha defines the highest blessing to a deity.--Text by Grimblot in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (1871), p. 229, and by Childers in Kh. Pâtha, p. 4; translation by Gogerly in the Ceylon Friend, 1839, p. 208; by Childers in Kh. Pâtha, p. 4; and by L. Feer in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (1871), p. 296.

   So it was heard by me:

   At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Sâvatthî, in Getavana, in the park of Anâthapindika. Then, when the night had gone, a deity of beautiful appearance, having illuminated the whole Getavana, approached Bhagavat, and having approached and saluted him, he stood apart, and standing apart that deity addressed Bhagavat in a stanza:

   1. 'Many gods and men have devised blessings, longing for happiness, tell thou (me) the highest blessing.' (257)

   2. Buddha said: 'Not cultivating (the society of)

[1. Pâmuggakaranam thânam
     Pasamsâvahanam sukham
     Phalânisamso[*] bhâveti
     Vahanto porisam dhuram.

2. Comp. Dhp. v. 205.

*. Phalam patikankhamâno phalânisamso. Commentator.]

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fools, but cultivating (the society of) wise men, worshipping those that are to be worshipped, this is the highest blessing. (258)

   3. 'To live in a suitable country, to have done good deeds in a former (existence), and a thorough study of one's self, this is the highest blessing. (259)

   4. 'Great learning and skill, well-learnt discipline, and well-spoken words, this is the highest blessing. (260)

   5. 'Waiting on mother and father, protecting child and wife, and a quiet calling, this is the highest blessing. (261)

   6. 'Giving alms, living religiously, protecting relatives, blameless deeds, this is the highest blessing. (262)

   7. 'Ceasing and abstaining from sin, refraining from intoxicating drink, perseverance in the Dhammas, this is the highest blessing. (263)

   8. 'Reverence and humility, contentment and gratitude, the hearing of the Dhamma at due seasons, this is the highest blessing. (264)

   9. 'Patience and pleasant speech, intercourse with Samanas, religious conversation at due seasons, this is the highest blessing. (265)

   10. 'Penance and chastity, discernment of the noble truths, and the realisation of Nibbâna, this is the highest blessing. (266)

   11. 'He whose mind is not shaken (when he is) touched by the things of the world (lokadhamma), (but remains) free from sorrow, free from defilement, and secure, this is the highest blessing. (267)

   12. 'Those who, having done such (things), are undefeated in every respect, walk in safety everywhere, theirs is the highest blessing.' (268)

Mahâmangala is ended.

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The Yakkha Sûkiloma threatens to harm Buddha, if he cannot answer his questions. Buddha answers that all passions proceed from the body.

   So it was heard by me:

   At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Gayâ (seated) on a stone seat in the realm of the Yakkha Sûkiloma. And at that time the Yakkha Khara and the Yakkha Sûkiloma passed by, not far from Bhagavat. And then the Yakkha Khara said this to the Yakkha Sûkiloma: 'Is this man a Samana?'

   Sûkiloma answered: 'He is no Samana, he is a Samanaka (a wretched Samana); however I will ascertain whether he is a Samana or a Samanaka.'

   Then the Yakkha Sûkiloma went up to Bhagavat, and having gone up to him, he brushed against Bhagavat's body. Then Bhagavat took away his body. Then the Yakkha Sûkiloma said this to Bhagavat: 'O Samana, art thou afraid of me?'

   Bhagavat answered: 'No, friend, I am not afraid of thee, but thy touching me is sinful.'

   Sûkiloma said: 'I will ask thee a question, O Samana; if thou canst not answer it I will either scatter thy thoughts or cleave thy heart, or take thee by the feet and throw thee over to the other shore of the Gangâ.'

   Bhagavat answered: 'I do not see, O friend, neither in this world together with the world of the Devas, Mâras, Brahmans, nor amongst the generation of Samana and Brâhmanas, gods and men, the one who can either scatter my thoughts or cleave my heart, or take me by the feet and throw me over

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to the other shore of the Gangâ. However ask, O friend, what thou pleasest.' Then the Yakkha Sûkiloma addressed Bhagavat in a stanza:

   1. ' What origin have passion and hatred, disgust, delight, and horror? wherefrom do they arise? whence arising do doubts vex the mind, as boys vex a crow?' (269)

   2. Buddha said: 'Passion and hatred have their origin from this (body), disgust, delight, and horror arise from this body; arising from this (body) doubts vex the mind, as boys vex a crow. (270)

   3. 'They originate in desire, they arise in self, like the shoots of the banyan tree; far and wide they are connected, with sensual pleasures, like the mâluvâ creeper spread in the wood. (271)

   4. 'Those who know whence it (sin) arises, drive it away. Listen, O Yakkha! They cross over this stream that is difficult to cross, and has not been crossed before, with a view to not being born again.' (272)

kilomasutta is ended.


The Bhikkhus are admonished to rid themselves of sinful persons and advised to lead a pure life.

   1. A just life, a religious life, this they call the best gem, if any one has gone forth from house-life to a houseless life. (273)

   2. But if he be harsh-spoken, and like a beast delighting in injuring (others), then the life of such a one is very wicked, and he increases his own pollution. (274)

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   3. A Bhikkhu who delights in quarrelling and is shrouded in folly, does not understand the Dhamma that is preached and taught by Buddha. (275)

   4. Injuring his own cultivated mind, and led by ignorance, he does not understand that sin is the way leading to hell. (276)

   5. Having gone to calamity, from womb to womb, from darkness to darkness, such a Bhikkhu verily, after passing away, goes to pain. (277)

   6. As when there is a pit of excrement (that has become) full during a number of years,--he who should be such a one full of sin is difficult to purify. (278)

   7. Whom you know to be such a one, O Bhikkhus, (a man) dependent on a house, having sinful desires, sinful thoughts, and being with sinful deeds and objects, (279)

   8. Him do avoid, being all in concord; blow him away as sweepings, put him away as rubbish. (280)

   9. Then remove as chaff those that are no Samanas, (but only) think themselves, blowing away those that have sinful desires and those with sinful deeds and objects. (281)

   10. Be pure and live together with the pure, being thoughtful; then agreeing (and) wise you will put an end to pain. (282)

Dhammakariyasutta is ended.


Wealthy Brâhmanas come to Buddha, asking about the customs of the ancient Brâhmanas. Buddha describes their mode of life and the change wrought in them by seeing the king's riches, and furthermore, how they induced the king to commit the sin of

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having living creatures slain at sacrifices. On hearing Buddha's enlightened discourse the wealthy Brâhmanas are converted. Compare Sp. Hardy's Legends, p. 46.

   So it was heard by me:

   At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Sâvatthî, in Getavana, in the park of Anâthapindika. Then many wealthy Brâhmanas of Kosala, decrepit, elderly, old, advanced in age, or arrived at extreme old age, went to Bhagavat, and having gone to him they talked pleasantly with him, and after having had some pleasant and remarkable talk with him, they sat down apart. Sitting down apart these wealthy Brâhmanas said this to Bhagavat: 'O venerable Gotama, are the Brâhmanas now-a-days seen (engaged) in the Brâhmanical customs (dhamma) of the ancient Brâhmanas?'

   Bhagavat answered: 'The Brâhmanas now-a-days, O Brâhmanas, are not seen (engaged) in the Brâhmanical customs of the ancient Brâhmanas.'

   The Brâhmanas said: 'Let the venerable Gotama tell us the Brâhmanical customs of the ancient Brâhmanas, if it is not inconvenient to the venerable Gotama.'

   Bhagavat answered: 'Then listen, O Brâhmanas, pay great attention, I will speak.'

   'Yes,' so saying the wealthy Brâhmanas listened to Bhagavat. Bhagavat said this:

   1. The old sages (isayo) were self-restrained, penitent; having abandoned the objects of the five senses, they studied their own welfare. (283)

   2. There were no cattle for the Brâhmanas, nor gold, nor corn, (but) the riches and corn of meditation were for them, and theey kept watch over the best treasure. (284)

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   3. What was prepared for them and placed as food at the door, they thought was to be given to those that seek for what has been prepared by faith. (285)

   4. With garments variously coloured, with beds and abodes, prosperous people from the provinces and the whole country worshipped those Brâhmanas. (286)

   5. Inviolable were the Brâhmanas, invincible, protected by the Dhamma, no one opposed them (while standing) at the doors of the houses anywhere. (287)

   6. For forty-eight years they practised juvenile chastity, the Brâhmanas formerly went in search of science and exemplary conduct. (288)

   7. The Brâhmanas did not marry (a woman belonging to) another (caste), nor did they buy a wife; they chose living together in mutual love after having come together. (289)

   8. Excepting from the time about the cessation of the menstruation else the Brâhmanas did not indulge in sexual intercourse[1]. (290)

   9. They praised chastity and virtue, rectitude, mildness, penance, tenderness, compassion, and patience. (291)

   10. He who was the best of them, a strong Brâhmana, did not (even) in sleep indulge in sexual intercourse. (292)

   11. Imitating his practices some wise men in this world praised chastity and patience. (293)

   12. Having asked for rice, beds, garments, butter. and oil, and gathered them justly, they made sacrifices

[1. Aññatra tamhâ samayâ
     Utuveramanim pati
     Antarâ methunam dhammam
     Nâsu gakkhanti brâhmanâ.]

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out of them, and when the sacrifice came on, they did not kill cows. (294)

   13. Like unto a mother, a father, a brother, and other relatives the cows are our best friends, in which medicines are produced. (295)

   14. They give food, and they give strength, they likewise give (a good) complexion and happiness; knowing the real state of this, they did not kill cows. (296)

   15. They were graceful, large, handsome, renowned, Brâhmanas by nature, zealous for their several works; as long as they lived in the world, this race prospered. (297)

   16. But there was a change in them: after gradually seeing the king's prosperity and adorned women, (298)

   17. Well-made chariots drawn by noble horses, carpets in variegated colours, palaces and houses, divided into compartments and measured out, (299)

   18. The great human wealth, attended with a number of cows, and combined with a flock of beautiful women, the Brâhmanas became covetous. (300)

   19. They then, in this matter, having composed hymns, went to Okkâka, and said: 'Thou hast much wealth and corn, sacrifice thy great property, sacrifice thy great wealth.' (301)

   20. And then the king, the lord of chariots, instructed by the Brâhmanas, brought about assamedha, purisamedha, sammâpâsa, and vâkâpeyya without any hinderance, and having offered these sacrifices he gave the Brâhmanas wealth: (302)

   21. Cows, beds, garments, and adorned women, and well-made chariots, drawn by noble horses, carpets in variegated colours, (303)

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   22. Beautiful palaces, well divided into compartments; and having filled these with different (sorts of) corn, he gave this wealth to the Brâhmanas. (304)

   23. And they having thus received wealth wished for a store, and the desire of those who had given way to (their) wishes increased still more; they then, in this matter, having composed hymns, went again to Okkâka, and said: (305)

   24. 'As water, earth, gold, wealth, and corn, even so are there cows for men, for this is a requisite for living beings; sacrifice thy great property, sacrifice thy wealth.' (306)

   25. And then the king, the lord of chariots, instructed by the Brâhmanas, caused many hundred thousand cows to be slain in offerings. (307)

   26. The cows, that are like goats, do not hurt any one with their feet or with either of their horns, they are tender, and yield vessels (of milk),--seizing them by the horns the king caused them to be slain with a weapon. (308)

   27. Then the gods, the forefathers, Inda, the Asuras, and the Rakkhasas cried out: 'This is injustice,' because of the weapon falling on the cows. (309)

   28. There were formerly three diseases: desire, hunger, and decay, but from the slaying of cattle there came ninety-eight. (310)

   29. This injustice of (using) violence that has come down (to us), was old; innocent (cows) are slain, the sacrificing (priests) have fallen off from the Dhamma. (311)

   30. So this old and mean Dhamma is blamed by the wise; where people see such a one, they blame the sacrificing priest. (312)

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   31. So Dhamma being lost, the Suddas and the Vessikas disagreed, the Khattiyas disagreed in manifold ways, the wife despised her husband. (313)

   32. The Khattiyas and the Brâhmanas and those others who had been protected by their castes, after doing away with their disputes on descent, fell into the power of sensual pleasures. (314)

   This having been said, those wealthy Brâhmanas said to Bhagavat as follows:

   'It is excellent, O venerable Gotama! It is excellent, O venerable Gotama! As one raises what has been overthrown, or reveals what has been hidden, or tells the way to him who has gone astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark that those who have eyes may see the objects, even so by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the Dhamma has been illustrated; we take refuge in the venerable Gotama, in the Dhamma, and in the Assembly of Bhikkhus; may the venerable Gotama receive us as followers (upâsaka), who from this day for life have taken refuge (in him).'

Brâhmanadhammikasutta is ended.


On choosing a good and learned teacher.

   1. A man should worship him from whom he learns the Dhamma, as the gods (worship) Inda; the learned man being worshipped and pleased with him, makes the (highest) Dhamma manifest. (315)

   2. Having heard and considered that (Dhamma), the wise man practising the Dhamma that is in

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accordance with the (highest) Dhamma, becomes learned, expert, and skilful, strenuously associating with such a (learned teacher). (316)

   3. He who serves a low (teacher), a fool who has not understood the meaning, and who is envious, goes to death, not having overcome doubt, and not having understood the Dhamma. (317)

   4. As a man, after descending into a river, a turgid water with a rapid current, is borne along following the current,--how will he be able to put others across? (318)

   5. Even so how will a man, not having understood the Dhamma, and not attending to the explanation of the learned and not knowing it himself, not having overcome doubt, be able to make others understand it? (319)

   6. As one, having gone on board a strong ship, provided with oars and rudder, carries across in it many others, knowing the way to do it, and being expert and thoughtful, (320)

   7. So also he who is accomplished, of a cultivated mind, learned, intrepid, makes others endowed with attention and assiduity understand it, knowing (it himself). (321)

   8. Therefore indeed one should cultivate (the society of) a good man, who is intelligent and learned; he who leads a regular life, having understood what is good and penetrated the Dhamma, will obtain happiness. (322)

Nâvâsutta is ended.

p. 54


How to obtain the highest good.

   1. By what virtue, by what conduct, and performing what works, will a man be perfectly established (in the commandments) and obtain the highest good? (323)

   2. Let him honour old people, not be envious, let him know the (right) time for seeing his teachers, let him know the (right) moment for listening to their religious discourses, let him assiduously hearken to their well-spoken (words). (324)

   3. Let him in due time go to the presence of his teachers, let him be humble after casting away obstinacy, let him remember and practise what is good, the Dhamma, self-restraint, and chastity. (325)

   4. Let his pleasure be the Dhamma, let him delight in the Dhamma, let him stand fast in the Dhamma, let him know how to enquire into the Dhamma, let him not raise any dispute that pollutes the Dhamma, and let him spend his time in (speaking) well-spoken truths[1]. (326)

   5. Having abandoned ridiculous talk, lamentation, corruption, deceit, hypocrisy, greediness and haughtiness, clamour and harshness, depravity and foolishness, let him live free from infatuation, with a steady mind. (327)

   6. The words, the essence of which is understood, are well spoken, and what is heard, if understood, contains the essence of meditation; but the understanding and learning of the man who is hasty and careless, does not increase. (328)

[1. Comp. Dhp. v. 364.]

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   7. Those who delight in the Dhamma, proclaimed by the venerable ones, are unsurpassed in speech, mind and work, they are established in peace, tenderness and meditation, and have gone to the essence of learning and understanding. (329)

Kimsîlasutta is ended.


Advice not to be lukewarm and slothful.

   1. Rise, sit up, what is the use of your sleeping; to those who are sick, pierced by the arrow (of pain), and suffering, what sleep is there? (330)

   2. Rise, sit up, learn steadfastly for the sake of peace, let not the king of death, knowing you to be indolent (pamatta), befool you and lead you into his power. (331)

   3. Conquer this desire which gods and men stand wishing for and are dependent upon, let not the (right) moment pass by you; for those who have let the (right) moment pass, will grieve when they have been consigned to hell. (332)

   4. Indolence (pamâda) is defilement, continued indolence is defilement; by earnestness (appamâda) and knowledge let one pull out his arrow. (333)

Utthânasutta is ended.


Buddha recommends the life of a recluse to Râhula, and admonishes him to turn his mind away from the world and to be moderate.

   1. Bhagavat said: 'Dost thou not despise the wise man, from living with him constantly? Is he

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who holds up a torch to mankind honoured by thee?' (334)

   2. Râhula: 'I do not despise the wise man, from living with him constantly; he who holds up a torch to mankind is always honoured by me.' (335)


   3. Bhagavat: 'Having abandoned the objects of the five senses, the beautiful, the charming, and gone out from thy house with faith, do thou put an end to pain. (336)

   4. 'Cultivate (the society of) virtuous friends and a distant dwelling-place, secluded and quiet; be moderate in food[1]. (337)

   5. 'Robes, alms (in bowl), requisites (for the sick), a dwelling-place,--do not thirst after these (things), that thou mayest not go back to the world again. (338)

   6. 'Be subdued according to the precepts, and as to the five senses, be attentive as regards thy body, and be full of disgust (with the world). (339)

   7. 'Avoid signs, what is pleasant and is accompanied with passion, turn thy mind undisturbed and well composed to what is not pleasant. (340)

   8. 'Cherish what is signless, leave the inclinations for pride; then by destroying pride thou shalt wander calm.' (341)

   So Bhagavat repeatedly admomshed the venerable Râhula with these stanzas.

Râhulasutta is ended.

[1. Mitte bhagassu kalyâne
     Pantañ ka sayanâsanam
     Vivittam appanigghosam,
     Mattaññû hohi bhogane.
Comp. Dhp. v. 185 and v. 375.]

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Vangîsa desires to know the fate of Nigrodhakappa, whether he has been completely extinguished, or whether he is still with some elements of existence left behind. He is answered by Buddha.

   So it was heard by me:

   At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Alavî, in the temple of Aggâlava. At that time the teacher of the venerable Vangîsa, the Thera, by name Nigrodhakappa, had attained bliss not long before (akiraparinibbuta). Then this reflection occurred to the venerable Vangîsa, while retired and meditating:

   Whether my teacher be blessed (parinibbuta) or whether he be not blessed. Then the venerable Vangîsa, at the evening time, coming forth from his retirement went to Bhagavat, and having gone to him he sat down apart after saluting him, and sitting down apart the venerable Vangîsa said this to Bhagavat:

   'Lord, while retired and meditating, this reflection occurred to me here: Whether my teacher be blessed or whether he be not blessed.'

   Then the venerable Vangîsa, rising from his seat, throwing his robe over one shoulder and bending his joined hands towards Bhagavat, addressed him in stanzas:

   1. 'We ask the Master of excellent understanding: he who in this world had cut off doubt, died at Aggâlava, a Bhikkhu, well known, famous, and of a calm mind. (342)

   2. 'The name "Nigrodhakappa" was given to that Brâhmana by thee, O Bhagavat; he wandered

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about worshipping thee, having liberation in view, strong, and seeing Nibbâna. (343)

   3. 'O Sakka, thou all-seeing, we all wish to learn (something about) this disciple; our ears are ready to hear, thou art our Master, thou art incomparable. (344)

   4. 'Cut off our doubt, tell me of him, inform us of the blessed, O thou of great understanding; speak in the midst of us, O thou all-seeing, as the thousand-eyed Sakka (speaks in the midst) of the gods. (345)

   5. 'Whatever ties there are in this world (constituting) the way to folly, combined with ignorance, forming the seat of doubt, they do not exist before Tathâgata, for he is the best eye of men. (346)

   6. 'If a man does not for ever dispel the sin as the wind (dispels) a mass of clouds, all the world will be enveloped in darkness, not even illustrious men will shine. (347)

   7. 'Wise men are light-bringers, therefore, O wise man, I consider thee as such a one; we have come to him who beholds meditation, reveal Kappa to us in the assembly. (348)

   8. 'Uplift quickly, O thou beautiful one, thy beautiful voice, like the swans drawing up (their necks) sing softly with a rich and well-modulated voice; we will all listen to thee attentively. (349)

   9. 'Having earnestly called upon him who has completely left birth and death behind and shaken off (sin), I will make him proclaim the Dhamma, for ordinary people cannot do what they want, but the Tathâgatas act with a purpose[1]. (350)

[1. Pahînagâtimaranam asesam
     Niggayha dhonam vadessâmi dhammam,
     Na kâmakâro hi puthugganânam
     Samkheyyakâro ka tathâgatânam.]

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   10. 'This full explanation by thee, the perfectly wise, is accepted, this last clasping of the hands is well bent, O thou of high wisdom, knowing (Kappa's transmigration), do not delude us[1]. (351)

   11. ' Having perfectly[2] comprehended the Dhamma of the venerable ones, do not delude (us), O thou of unsurpassed strength, knowing (everything); as one in the hot season pained by the heat (longs for) water, so I long for thy words; send a shower of learning. (352)

   12. 'The rich religious life which Kappâyana led, has not that been in vain (to him), has he been (completely) extinguished; or is he still with some elements of existence (left behind)? How he was liberated, that we want to hear.' (353)

   13. Bhagavat: 'He cut off the desire for name and form in this world,'--so said Bhagavat,--'Kanha's (i.e. Mâra's) stream, adhered to for a long time, he crossed completely birth and death,' so said Bhagavat, the best of the five (Brâhmanas, pañkavaggiyâ). (354)

   14. Vangîsa: 'Having heard thy word, O thou the best of the Isis, I am pleased; not in vain have I asked, the Brâhmana did not deceive me. (355)

   15. 'As he talked so he acted, he was a (true) disciple of Buddha, he cut asunder the outspread strong net of deceitful death. (356)

   16. 'Kappiya (Kappâyana) saw, O Bhagavat, the beginning

[1. Sampannaveyyâkaranam tava-y-idam
     Samuggupaññassa samuggahîtam,
     Ayam añgali pakkhimo suppanâmito,
     Mâ mohayi gânam anomapañña.

2. Parovaran ti lokuttaralokiyavasena sundarâsundaram dûre santikam vâ. Commentator.]

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of attachment, Kappâyana verily crossed the realm of death, which is very difficult to cross.' (357)

Vangîsasutta is ended.


The right path for a Bhikkhu.

   1. 'We will ask the Muni of great understanding, who has crossed, gone to the other shore, is blessed (parinibbuta), and of a firm mind: How does a Bhikkhu wander rightly in the world, after having gone out from his house and driven away desire?' (358)

   2. 'He whose (ideas of) omens, meteors, dreams and signs are destroyed,'--so said Bhagavat,--'such a Bhikkhu who has abandoned the sinful omens, wanders rightly in the world. (359)

   3. 'Let the Bhikkhu subdue his passion for human and divine pleasures, then after conquering existence and understanding the Dhamma, such a one will wander rightly in the world. (360)

   4. 'Let the Bhikkhu, after casting behind him slander and anger, abandon avarice and be free from compliance and opposition, then such a one will wander rightly in the world. (361)

   5. 'He who having left behind both what is agreeable and what is disagreeable, not seizing upon anything, is independent in every respect and liberated from bonds, such a one will wander rightly in the world. (362)

   6. 'He does not see any essence in the Upadhis, having subdued his wish and passion for attachments,

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he is independent and not to be led by others, such a one will wander rightly in the world[1]. (363)

   7. 'He who is not opposed (to any one) in word, thought or deed, who, after having understood the Dhamma perfectly, longs for the state of Nibbâna, such a one will wander rightly in the world. (364)

   8. 'He who thinking "he salutes me" is not elated, the Bhikkhu who, although abused, does not reflect (upon it, and) having received food from others does not get intoxicated (with pride), such a one will wander rightly in the world. (365)

   9. 'The Bhikkhu who, after leaving behind covetousness and existence, is disgusted with cutting and binding (others), he who has overcome doubt, and is without pain, such a one will wander rightly in the world. (366)

   10. 'And knowing what becomes him, the Bhikkhu will not harm any one in the world, understanding the Dhamma thoroughly, such a one will wander rightly in the world. (367)

   11. 'He to whom there are no affections whatsoever, whose sins are extirpated from the root, he free from desire and not longing (for anything), such a one will wander rightly in the world. (368)

   12. 'He whose passions have been destroyed, who is free from pride, who has overcome all the path of passion, is subdued, perfectly happy (parinibbuta), and of a firm mind, such a one will wander rightly in the world. (369)

   13. 'The believer, possessed of knowledge, seeing

[1. Na so upadhîsu sâram eti
     Âdânesu vineyya khandarâgam
     So anissito anaññaneyyo
     Sammâ so.]

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the way (leading to Nibbâna), who is no partisan amongst the partisans (of the sixty-two philosophical views), wise after subduing covetousness, anger, such a one will wander rightly in the world. (370)

   14. 'He who is pure and victorious, who has removed the veil (of the world), who is subdued in the Dhammas, has gone to the other shore, is without desire, and skilled in the knowledge of the cessation of the Samkhâras, such a one will wander rightly in the world. (371)

   15. 'He who has overcome time (kappâtîta) in the past and in the future, is of an exceedingly pure understanding, liberated from all the dwelling-places (of the mind), such a one will wander rightly in the world. (372)

   16. 'Knowing the step (of the four truths), understanding the Dhamma, seeing clearly the abandonment of the passions, destroying all the elements of existence (upadhî), such a one will wander rightly in the world.' (373)

   17. 'Certainly, O Bhagavat, it is so: whichever Bhikkhu lives in this way, subdued and having overcome all bonds, such a one will wander rightly in the world.' (374)

Sammâparibbâganiyasutta is ended.


Buddha shows Dhammika what the life of a Bhikkhu and what the life of a householder ought to be.

   So it was heard by me:

   At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Sâvatthî, in Getavana, in the park of Anâthapindika. Then the follower (upâsaka) Dhammika, together with five

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hundred followers, went to Bhagavat, and having gone to Bhagavat and saluted him, he sat down apart; sitting down apart the follower Dhammika addressed Bhagavat in stanzas:

   1. 'I ask thee, O Gotama of great understanding, How is a Sâvaka (disciple) to act to be a good one? is it the one who goes from his house to the wilderness, or the followers with a house? (375)

   2. 'For thou knowest the doings of this world and that of the gods, and the final end; there is nobody like thee seeing the subtle meaning (of things); they call thee the excellent Buddha. (376)

   3. 'Knowing all knowledge thou hast revealed the Dhamma, having compassion on creatures; thou hast removed the veil (of the world), thou art all-seeing, thou shinest spotless in all the world. (377)

   4. 'The king of elephants, Erâvana by name, hearing that thou wert Gina (the Conqueror), came to thy presence, and having conversed with thee he went away delighted, after listening (to thee, and saying), "Very good!" (378)

   5. 'Also king Vessavana Kuvera came to ask thee about the Dhamma; him, too, thou, O wise man, answeredst when asked, and he also after listening was delighted. (379)

   6. 'All these disputatious Titthiyas and Âgîvikas and Niganthas do not any of them overcome thee in understanding, as a man standing (does not overcome) the one that is walking quickly. (380)

   7. 'All these disputatious Brâhmanas, and there are even some old Brâhmanas, all are bound by thy opinion, and others also that are considered disputants. (381)

   8. 'This subtle and pleasant Dhamma that has

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been well proclaimed by thee, O Bhagavat, and which we all long to hear, do thou, O thou best of Buddhas, speak to us when asked. (382)

   9. 'Let all these Bhikkhus and also Upâsakas that have sat down to listen, hear the Dhamma learnt (anubuddha) by the stainless (Buddha), as the gods (hear) the well-spoken (words) of Vâsava.' (383)

   10. Bhagavat: 'Listen to me, O Bhikkhus, I will teach you the Dhamma that destroys sin, do ye keep it, all of you; let him who looks for what is salutary, the thoughtful, cultivate the mode of life suitable for Pabbagitas. (384)

   11. 'Let not the Bhikkhu walk about at a wrong time, let him go to the village for alms at the right time; for ties ensnare the one that goes at a wrong time, therefore Buddhas do not go at a wrong time. (385)

   12. 'Form, sound, taste, smell, and touch which intoxicate creatures, having subdued the desire for (all) these things (dhammas), let him in due time go in for his breakfast. (386)

   13. 'And let the Bhikkhu, after having obtained his food at the right time and returned, sit down alone and privately; reflecting within himself let him not turn his mind to outward things, (but be) self-collected. (387)

   14. 'If he speak with a Sâvaka or with anybody else, or with a Bhikkhu, let him talk about the excellent Dhamma, (but let him) not (utter) slander, nor blaming words against others. (388)

   15. 'For some utter language contradicting others[1]; those narrow-minded ones we do not praise. Ties

[1. Vâdam hi eke patiseniyanti = virugghanti yugghitukâmâ hutvâ senâya patimukham gakkhantâ viya honti. Commentator.]

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from here and there ensnare them, and they send their mind far away in that (dispute). (389)

   16. 'Let a Sâvaka of him with the excellent understanding (Buddha), after hearing the Dhamma taught by Sugata, discriminately seek for food, a monastery, a bed and a chair, and water for taking away the dirt of his clothes. (390)

   17. 'But without clinging to these things, to food, to bed and chair, to water for taking away the dirt of his clothes, let a Bhikkhu be like a waterdrop on a lotus. (391)

   18. 'A householder's work I will also tell you, how a Sâvaka is to act to be a good one; for that complete Bhikkhu-dhamma cannot be carried out by one who is taken up by (worldly) occupations. (392)

   19. 'Let him not kill, nor cause to be killed any living being, nor let him approve of others killing, after having refrained from hurting all creatures, both those that are strong and those that tremble in the world. (393)

   20. 'Then let the Sâvaka abstain from (taking) anything in any place that has not been given (to him), knowing (it to belong to another), let him not cause any one to take, nor approve of those that take, let him avoid all (sort of) theft. (394)

   21. ' Let the wise man avoid an unchaste life as a burning heap of coals; not being able to live a life of chastity, let him not transgress with another man's wife. (395)

   22. 'Let no one speak falsely to another in the hall of justice or in the hall of the assembly, let him not cause (any one) to speak (falsely), nor approve of those that speak (falsely), let him avoid all (sort of) untruth. (396)

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   23. 'Let the householder who approves of this Dhamma, not give himself to intoxicating drinks; let him not cause others to drink, nor approve of those that drink, knowing it to end in madness. (397)

   24. 'For through intoxication the stupid commit sins and make other people intoxicated; let him avoid this seat of sin, this madness, this folly, delightful to the stupid. (398)

   25. 'Let him not kill any living being, let him not take what has not been given (to him), let him not speak falsely, and let him not drink intoxicating drinks, let him refrain from unchaste sexual intercourse, and let him not at night eat untimely food. (399)

   26. 'Let him not wear wreaths nor use perfumes, let him lie on a couch spread on the earth:--this they call the eightfold abstinence (uposatha), proclaimed by Buddha, who has overcome pain. (400)

   27. 'Then having with a believing mind kept abstinence (uposatha) on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and the eighth days of the half-month, and (having kept) the complete Pâtihârakapakkha[1] consisting of eight parts, (401)

   28. 'And then in the morning, after having kept abstinence, let a wise man with a believing mind, gladdening the assembly of Bhikkhus with food and drink, make distributions according to his ability. (402)

   29. 'Let him dutifully maintain his parents, and practise an honourable trade; the householder who observes this strenuously goes to the gods by name, Sayampabhas.' (403)

Dhammikasutta is ended.

Kûlavagga is ended.

[1. Compare T. W. Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 141.]

Next: III. Mahâvagga.