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Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 10: The Dhammapada and Sutta Nipata, by Max Müller and Max Fausböll, [1881], at

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   197. Let us live happily then, not hating those who hate us! among men who hate us let us dwell free from hatred!

   198. Let us live happily then, free from ailments among the ailing! among men who are ailing let us dwell free from ailments!

   199. Let us live happily then, free from greed among the greedy! among men who are greedy let us dwell free from greed!

   200. Let us live happily then, though we call nothing our own! We shall be like the bright gods, feeding on happiness!

   201. Victory breeds hatred, for the conquered is unhappy. He who has given up both victory and defeat, he, the contented, is happy.

[198. The ailment here meant is moral rather than physical. Cf. Mahâbh. XII, 9924, samprasânto nirâmayah; 9925, yo 'sau prânântiko rogas tâm trishnâm tyagatah sukham.

200. The words placed in the mouth of the king of Videha, while his residence Mithilâ was in flames, are curiously like our verse; cf. Mahâbh. XII, 9917,
      Susukham vata gîvâmi yasya me nâsti kiñkana,
      Mithilâyâm pradîptâyâm na me dahyati kiñkana.
'I live happily, indeed, for I have nothing; while Mithilâ is in flames, nothing of mine is burning.' Cf. Muir, Religious sentiments, p. 106.

The âbhassara, i.e. âbhâsvara, 'the bright gods,' are frequently mentioned. Cf. Burnouf, Introd. p. 611.

201. This verse is ascribed to Buddha, when he heard of the defeat of Agâtasatru by Prasenagit. It exists in the Northern or Sanskrit and in the Southern or Pâli texts, i.e. in the Avadâna-sataka, in the Samyutta-nikâya. See Feer, Comptes Rendus, 1871, p. 44. and Journal As. 1880, p. 509. In the Avadâna-sataka, the Sanskrit version is--
      Gayo vairam prasavati, duhkham sete parâgitah
      Upasântah sukham sete hitvâ gayaparâgayam.]

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   202. There is no fire like passion; there is no losing throw like hatred; there is no pain like this body; there is no happiness higher than rest.

   203. Hunger is the worst of diseases, the body the greatest of pains; if one knows this truly, that is Nirvâna, the highest happiness.

[202. I take kali in the sense of an unlucky die which makes a player lose his game. A real simile seems wanted here, as in verse 251, where, for the same reason, I translate graha by 'shark,' not by 'captivitas,' as Dr. Fausböll proposes. The same scholar translates kali in our verse by 'peccatum.' If there is any objection to translating kali in Pâli by 'unlucky die,' I should still prefer to take it in the sense of the age of depravity, or the demon of depravity. To judge from Abhidhânappadîpikâ, 1106, kali was used for parâgaya, i.e. loss at game, a losing throw, and occurs in that sense again in verse 252. The Chinese translation has, 'there is no distress (poison) worse than hate.' A similar verse occurs Mahâbh. Sântip. 175, v. 35.

'Body' for khandha is a free translation, but it is difficult to find any other rendering. The Chinese translation also has 'body.' According to the Buddhists each sentient being consists of five khandhas (skandha), or aggregates, the organized body (rûpakhandha) with its four internal capacities of sensation (vedanâ), perception (sañgñâ), conception (samskâra), knowledge (viâna). See Burnouf, Introd. pp. 589, 634; Lotus, p. 335.

203. Samskâra is the fourth of the five khandhas, but the commentator takes it here, as well as in verse 255, for the five khandhas together, in which case we can only translate it by 'body.' See also verse 278. Childers proposes 'organic life'. (Notes on Dhammapada, p. 1). There is, however, another samskâra, that which follows inimediately upon avidyâ, 'ignorance,' as the second of the nidânas, or 'causes of existence,' and this too might be called the greatest pain, considering that it is the cause of birth, which is the cause of all pain. Samskâra seems sometimes to have a different and less techninal meaning, being used in the sense of conceptions, plans, desires, as, for instance, in verse 368, where sankhârânam khayam is used much like tamhâkhaya. Again, in his comment on verse 75, Buddhaghosa says, upadhiviveko sankhârasanganikam vinodeti; and again, upadhiviveko ka nirupadhînâm puggalânam visankhâragatânâm.

For a similar sentiment, see Stanislas Julien, Les Avadânas, vol. i. p. 40, 'Le corps est la plus grande source de souffrance,' &c. I should say that the khandhas in verse 202 and the sankhâras in verse 203 are nearly, if not quite, synonymous. I should prefer to read gigakkhâ-paramâ as a compound. Gigakkhâ, or as it is written in one MS., digakkhâ (Sk. gighatsâ), means not only 'hunger,' but 'appetite; desire.']

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   204. Health is the greatest of gifts, contentedness the best riches; trust is the best of relationships, Nirvâna the highest happiness.

   205. He who has tasted the sweetness of solitude and tranquillity, is free from fear and free from sin, while he tastes the sweetness of drinking in the law.

   206. The sight of the elect (Arya) is good, to live with them is always happiness; if a man does not see fools, he will be truly happy.

   207. He who walks in the company of fools suffers a long way; company with fools, as with an enemy, is always painful; company with the wise is pleasure, like meeting with kinsfolk.

   208. Therefore, one ought to follow the wise, the intelligent, the learned, the much enduring, the dutiful, the elect; one ought to follow a good and wise man, as the moon follows the path of the stars.

[204. Childers translates, 'the best kinsman is a man you can trust.'

205. Cf. Suttanipâta, v. 256.

208. I should like to read sukho ka dhîrasamvâso.]

Next: Chapter XVI. Pleasure.