A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
luk 14:2HEALING OF A DROPSICAL MAN, AND MANIFOLD TEACHINGS AT A SABBATH FEAST. (Luke 14:1-24)
man before him--not one of the company, since this was apparently before the guests sat down, and probably the man came in hope of a cure, though not expressly soliciting it [DE WETTE].
luk 14:3(See on Mat 12:11-12).
luk 14:7a parable--showing that His design was not so much to inculcate mere politeness or good manners, as underneath this to teach something deeper (Luk 14:11).
chief rooms--principal seats, in the middle part of the couch on which they reclined at meals, esteemed the most honorable.
luk 14:8wedding--and seating thyself at the wedding feast. Our Lord avoids the appearance of personality by this delicate allusion to a different kind of entertainment than this of his host [BENGEL].
luk 14:9the lowest--not a lower merely [BENGEL].
with shame--"To be lowest is only ignominious to him who affects the highest" [BENGEL].
luk 14:10Friend--said to the modest guest only, not the proud one (Luk 14:9) [BENGEL].
worship--honor. The whole of this is but a reproduction of Pro 25:6-7. But it was reserved for the matchless Teacher to utter articulately, and apply to the regulation of the minutest features of social life, such great laws of the Kingdom of God, as that of Luk 14:11.
luk 14:11whosoever, &c.--couching them in a chaste simplicity and proverbial terseness of style which makes them "apples of gold in a setting of silver." (See on Luk 18:14).
luk 14:12call not thy friends--Jesus certainly did not mean us to dispense with the duties of ordinary fellowship, but, remitting these to their proper place, inculcates what is better [BENGEL].
lest . . . a recompense be given thee--a fear the world is not afflicted with [BENGEL]. The meaning, however, is that no exercise of principle is involved in it, as selfishness itself will suffice to prompt to it (Mat 5:46-47).
luk 14:13call the poor--"Such God Himself calls" (Luk 14:21) [BENGEL].
luk 14:14blessed--acting from disinterested, god-like compassion for the wretched.
luk 14:15when one . . . heard . . . he said, Blessed, &c.--As our Lord's words seemed to hold forth the future "recompense" under the idea of a great Feast, the thought passes through this man's mind, how blessed they would be who should be honored to sit down to it. Our Lord's reply is in substance this: "The great Feast is prepared already; the invitations are issued, but declined; the feast, notwithstanding, shall not want abundance of guests; but not one of its present contemners--who shall yet come to sue for admission--shall be allowed to taste of it." This shows what was lacking in the seemingly pious exclamation of this man. It was Balaam's, "Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like his" (Num 23:10), without any anxiety about living his life; fondly wishing that all were right with him at last, while all heedless of the precious present.
luk 14:16a great supper--(Compare Isa 25:6).
bade many--historically, the Jews (see on Mat 22:3); generally, those within the pale of professed discipleship.
luk 14:17supper-time . . . all now ready--pointing undoubtedly to the now ripening preparations for the great Gospel call. (See on Mat 22:4.)
luk 14:18all began to make excuse--(Compare Mat 22:5). Three excuses, given as specimens of the rest, answer to "the care of this world" (Luk 14:18), "the deceitfulness of riches" (Luk 14:19), and "the pleasures of this life" (Luk 14:20), which "choke the word" (Mat 13:22 and Luk 8:14). Each differs from the other, and each has its own plausibility, but all come to the same result: "We have other things to attend to, more pressing just now." Nobody is represented as saying, I will not come; nay, all the answers imply that but for certain things they would come, and when these are out of the way they will come. So it certainly is in the case intended, for the last words clearly imply that the refusers will one day become petitioners.
luk 14:21came, and showed, &c.--saying as in Isa 53:1. "It is the part of ministers to report to the Lord in their prayers the compliance or refusal of their hearers" [BENGEL].
angry--in one sense a gracious word, showing how sincere he was in issuing his invitations (Eze 33:11). But it is the slight put upon him, the sense of which is intended to be marked by this word.
streets and lanes--historically, those within the same pale of "the city" of God as the former class, but the despised and outcasts of the nation, the "publicans and sinners" [TRENCH]; generally, all similar classes, usually overlooked in the first provision for supplying the means of grace to a community, half heathen in the midst of revealed light, and in every sense miserable.
luk 14:22yet there is room--implying that these classes had embraced the invitation (Mat 21:32; Mar 12:37, last clause; Joh 7:48-49); and beautifully expressing the longing that should fill the hearts of ministers to see their Master's table filled.
luk 14:23highways and hedges--outside the city altogether; historically, the heathen, sunk in the lowest depths of spiritual wretchedness, as being beyond the pale of all that is revealed and saving, "without Christ, strangers from the covenant of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world" (Eph 2:12); generally, all such still. Thus, this parable prophetically contemplates the extension of the kingdom of God to the whole world; and spiritually, directs the Gospel invitations to be carried to the lowest strata, and be brought in contact with the outermost circles, of human society.
compel them to come in--not as if they would make the "excuses" of the first class, but because it would be hard to get them over two difficulties: (1) "We are not fit company for such a feast." (2) "We have no proper dress, and are ill in order for such a presence." How fitly does this represent the difficulties and fears of the sincere! How is this met? "Take no excuse--make them come as they are--bring them along with you." What a directory for ministers of Christ!
that my house may be filled--"Grace no more than nature will endure a vacuum" [BENGEL].
luk 14:24I say unto you, That none--Our Lord here appears to throw off the veil of the parable, and proclaim the Supper His own, intimating that when transferred and transformed into its final glorious form, and the refusers themselves would give all for another opportunity, He will not allow one of them to taste it. (Note. This parable must not be confounded with that of Pro 1:24-33; The Marriage Supper, Mat 22:2-14).
luk 14:25ADDRESS TO GREAT MULTITUDES TRAVELLING WITH HIM. (Luk 14:25-35)
great multitudes with him--on His final journey to Jerusalem. The "great multitudes" were doubtless people going to the passover, who moved along in clusters (Luk 2:44), and who on this occasion falling in with our Lord had formed themselves into one mass about Him.
luk 14:26If any man, &c.--(See on Mat 10:34-36, and Mar 8:34-35).
luk 14:28which of you, &c.--Common sense teaches men not to begin any costly work without first seeing that they have wherewithal to finish. And he who does otherwise exposes himself to general ridicule. Nor will any wise potentate enter on a war with any hostile power without first seeing to it that, despite formidable odds (two to one), he be able to stand his ground; and if he has no hope of this, he will feel that nothing remains for him but to make the best terms he can. Even so, says our Lord, "in the warfare you will each have to wage as My disciples, despise not your enemy's strength, for the odds are all against you; and you had better see to it that, despite every disadvantage, you still have wherewithal to hold out and win the day, or else not begin at all, and make the best you can in such awful circumstances." In this simple sense of the parable (STIER, ALFORD, &c., go wide of the mark here in making the enemy to be God, because of the "conditions of peace," Luk 14:32), two things are taught: (1) Better not begin (Rev 3:15), than begin and not finish. (2) Though the contest for salvation be on our part an awfully unequal one, the human will, in the exercise of that "faith which overcometh the world" (Jo1 5:4), and nerved by power from above, which "out of weakness makes it strong" (Heb 11:34; Pe1 1:5), becomes heroical and will come off "more than conqueror." But without absolute surrender of self the contest is hopeless (Luk 14:33).
luk 14:34Salt, &c.--(See on Mat 5:13-16; and Mar 9:50).