A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
luk 13:1THE LESSON, "REPENT OR PERISH," SUGGESTED BY TWO RECENT INCIDENTS, AND ILLUSTRATED BY THE PARABLE OF THE BARREN FIG TREE. (Luk 13:1-9)
Galileans--possibly the followers of Judas of Galilee, who, some twenty years before this, taught that Jews should not pay tribute to the Romans, and of whom we learn, from Act 5:37, that he drew after him a multitude of followers, who on his being slain were all dispersed. About this time that party would be at its height, and if Pilate caused this detachment of them to be waylaid and put to death as they were offering their sacrifices at one of the festivals, that would be "mingling their blood with their sacrifices" [GROTIUS, WEBSTER and WILKINSON, but doubted by DE WETTE, MEYER, ALFORD, &c.]. News of this being brought to our Lord, to draw out His views of such, and whether it was not a judgment of Heaven, He simply points them to the practical view of the matter: "These men are not signal examples of divine vengeance, as ye suppose; but every impenitent sinner--ye yourselves, except ye repent--shall be like monuments of the judgment of Heaven, and in a more awful sense." The reference here to the impending destruction of Jerusalem is far from exhausting our Lord's weighty words; they manifestly point to a "perdition" of a more awful kind--future, personal, remediless.
luk 13:4tower in Siloam--probably one of the towers of the city wall, near the pool of Siloam. Of its fall nothing is known.
luk 13:6fig tree--Israel, as the visible witness of God in the world, but generally all within the pale of the visible Church of God; a familiar figure (compare Isa 5:1-7; Joh 15:1-8, &c.).
vineyard--a spot selected for its fertility, separated from the surrounding fields, and cultivated with special care, with a view solely to fruit.
came and sought fruit--a heart turned to God; the fruits of righteousness; compare Mat 21:33-34, and Isa 5:2, "He looked that it should bring forth fruit"; He has a right to it, and will require it.
luk 13:7three years--a long enough trial for a fig tree, and so denoting probably just a sufficient period of culture for spiritual fruit. The supposed allusion to the duration of our Lord's ministry is precarious.
cut it down--indignant language.
cumbereth--not only doing no good, but wasting ground.
luk 13:8he answering, &c.--Christ, as Intercessor, loath to see it cut down so long as there was any hope (see Luk 13:34).
dig, &c.--loosen the earth about it and enrich it with manure; pointing to changes of method in the divine treatment of the impenitent, in order to freshen spiritual culture.
luk 13:9if . . . fruit, well--Genuine repentance, however late, avails to save (Luk 23:42-43).
after that, &c.--The final perdition of such as, after the utmost limits of reasonable forbearance, are found fruitless, will be pre-eminently and confessedly just (Pro 1:24-31; Eze 24:13).
luk 13:11WOMAN OF EIGHTEEN YEAR'S INFIRMITY HEALED ON THE SABBATH. (Luk 13:10-17)
spirit of infirmity--Compare Luk 13:17, "whom Satan hath bound." From this it is probable, though not certain, that her protracted infirmity was the effect of some milder form of possession; yet she was "a daughter of Abraham," in the same gracious sense, no doubt, as Zaccheus, after his conversion, was "a son of Abraham" (Luk 19:9).
luk 13:12said . . . Woman . . . and laid--both at once.
luk 13:14with indignation--not so much at the sabbath violation as at the glorification of Christ. (Compare Mat 21:15) [TRENCH].
said to the people--"Not daring directly to find fault with the Lord, he seeks circuitously to reach Him through the people, who were more under his influence, and whom he feared less" [TRENCH].
luk 13:15the Lord--(See on Luk 10:1).
hypocrite!--How "the faithful and true Witness" tears off the masks which men wear!
his ox, &c.--(See on Mat 12:9-13; and Luk 6:9).
luk 13:16ought not, &c.--How gloriously the Lord vindicates the superior claims of this woman, in consideration of the sadness and long duration of her suffering, and of her dignity notwithstanding, as an heir of the promise!
luk 13:18MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS. (Luk 13:18-30)
mustard seed . . . leaven--(See on Mar 4:30-32). The parable of "the Leaven" sets forth, perhaps, rather the inward growth of the kingdom, while "the Mustard Seed" seems to point chiefly to the outward. It being a woman's work to knead, it seems a refinement to say that "the woman" here represents the Church, as the instrument of depositing the leaven. Nor does it yield much satisfaction to understand the "three measures of meal" of that threefold division of our nature into "spirit, soul, and body," (alluded to in Th1 5:23) or of the threefold partition of the world among the three sons of Noah (Gen 10:32), as some do. It yields more real satisfaction to see in this brief parable just the all-penetrating and assimilating quality of the Gospel, by virtue of which it will yet mould all institutions and tribes of men, and exhibit over the whole earth one "Kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ." (See on Rev 11:15).
luk 13:23Lord, &c.--one of those curious questions by talking of which some flatter themselves they are religious.
said unto them--the multitude; taking no notice of the man or his question, save as furnishing the occasion of a solemn warning not to trifle with so momentous a matter as "salvation."
luk 13:24Strive--The word signifies to "contend" as for the mastery, to "struggle," expressive of the difficulty of being saved, as if one would have to force his way in.
strait gate--another figure of the same. (See on Mat 7:13-14).
for many . . . will seek--"desire," that is, with a mere wish or slothful endeavor.
and shall not be able--because it must be made a life-and-death struggle.
luk 13:25master of the house is risen up and hath shut to the door--awfully sublime and vivid picture! At present he is represented as in a sitting posture, as if calmly looking on to see who will "strive," while entrance is practicable, and who will merely "seek" to enter in. But this is to have an end, by the great Master of the house Himself rising and shutting the door, after which there will be no admittance.
Lord, Lord--emphatic reduplication, expressive of the earnestness now felt, but too late. (See on Mat 7:21-22).
luk 13:26See on the similar passage (Mat 7:22-23).
eaten and drunk, &c.--We have sat with Thee at the same table. (See on Mat 7:22).
taught in our streets--Do we not remember listening in our own streets to Thy teaching? Surely we are not to be denied admittance?
luk 13:27But he shall say, &c.--(See on Mat 7:23). No nearness of external communion with Christ will avail at the great day, in place of that holiness without which no man shall see the Lord. Observe the style which Christ intimates that He will then assume, that of absolute Disposer of men's eternal destinies, and contrast it with His "despised and rejected" condition at that time.
luk 13:28(See Mat 8:11-12). Also see on Mat 13:42.
luk 13:31MESSAGE TO HEROD. (Luk 13:31-35)
and depart hence--and "go forward," push on. He was on His way out of Perea, east of Jordan, and in Herod's dominions, "journeying towards Jerusalem" (Luk 13:22). Haunted by guilty fears, probably, Herod wanted to get rid of Him (see on Mar 6:14), and seems, from our Lord's answer, to have sent these Pharisees, under pretense of a friendly hint, to persuade Him that the sooner He got beyond Herod's jurisdiction the better it would be for His own safety. Our Lord saw through both of them, and sends the cunning ruler a message couched in dignified and befitting irony.
luk 13:32that fox--that crafty, cruel enemy of God's innocent servants.
Behold, I cast out devils and I do cures--that is, "Plot on and ply thy wiles; I also have My plans; My works of mercy are nearing completion, but some yet remain; I have work for to-day and to-morrow too, and the third day; by that time I shall be where his jurisdiction reaches not; the guilt of My blood shall not lie at his door; that dark deed is reserved for others." He does not say, I preach the Gospel--that would have made little impression upon Herod--in the light of the merciful character of Christ's actions the malice of Herod's snares is laid bare [BENGEL].
to-day, to-morrow, the third day--remarkable language expressive of successive steps of His work yet remaining, the calm deliberateness with which He meant to go through with them, one after another, to the last, unmoved by Herod's threat, yet the rapid march with which they were now hastening to completion. (Compare Luk 22:37).
I shall be perfected--I finish my course, I attain completion.
luk 13:33it cannot be that a prophet, &c.--"It would never do that," &c.--awful severity of satire this upon "the bloody city!" "He seeks to kill me, does he? Ah! I must be out of Herod's jurisdiction for that. Go tell him I neither fly from him nor fear him, but Jerusalem is the prophets' slaughter-house."
luk 13:34O Jerusalem, &c.--(See on Mat 23:37; Mat 23:39).