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NEXT in succession, it is necessary to detail the natures and properties of the fixed stars; all of which have their respective influences, analogous to the influences of the planets: and those stars which form the constellations of the zodiac require to be first described.

Aries. The stars in the head of Aries possess an influence similar in its effects to that of Mars and Saturn: those in the mouth act similarly to Mercury, and in some degree to Saturn; those in the hinder foot, to Mars; those in the tail, to Venus.

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Taurus. Those stars in Taurus, which are in the abscission of the sign, resemble in their temperament the influence of Venus, and in some degree that of Saturn: those in the Pleiades are like the Moon and Mars. Of the stars in the head, that one of the Hyades which is bright and ruddy, and called Facula, 1 has the same temperament as Mars: the others resemble Saturn, and, partly, Mercury; and those at the top of the horns are like Mars.

Gemini. The stars in the feet of Gemini have an influence similar to that of Mercury, and moderately to that of Venus.

The bright stars in the thighs are like Saturn: of the two bright stars on the heads, the one, which precedes and is called Apollo, 2 is like Mercury; the other which follows, called Hercules, 3 is like Mars.

Cancer. The two stars in the eyes of Cancer are of the same influence as Mercury, and are also moderately like Mars. Those in the claws are like Saturn and Mercury. The nebulous mass in the breast, called the Præsepe, has the same efficacy as Mars and the Moon. The two placed on either side of the nebulous mass, and called the Asini, have an influence similar to that of Mars and the Sun.

Leo. Of the stars in Leo, two in the head are like Saturn and partly like Mars. The three in the neck are like Saturn, and in some degree like Mercury. The bright one in the heart, called Regulus, 4 agrees with Mars and Jupiter. Those in the loins, and the bright one in the tail, are like Saturn and Venus: those in the thighs resemble Venus, and, in some degree, Mercury.

Virgo. The stars in the head of Virgo, and that at the top of the southern wing, operate like Mercury and somewhat like Mars: the other bright stars in the same wing, and those about the girdle, resemble Mercury in their influence, and also Venus moderately. The bright one in the northern wing, called Vindemiator, is of the same influence as Saturn and Mercury: that called Spica Virginis is like Venus and partly Mars: those at the points of the feet and at the bottom of the garments are like Mercury, and also Mars, moderately.

Libra5 Those stars at the points of the claws of Scorpio operate

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like Jupiter and Mercury: those in the middle of the claws, like Saturn, and in some degree like Mars.

Scorpio. The bright stars in the front of the body of Scorpio have an effect similar to that produced by the influence of Mars, and partly to that produced by Saturn: the three in the body itself, the middle one of which, called Antares, 1 is ruddy and more luminous, are similar to Mars and moderately to Jupiter: those in the joints of the tail are like Saturn and partly like Venus: those in the sting, like Mercury and Mars. The nebula is like Mars and the Moon.

Sagittarius. The stars at the point of the arrow in Sagittarius have influence similar to that of Mars and the Moon: those on the bow, and at the grasp of the hand, act like Jupiter and Mars: the nebula in the face is like the Sun and Mars: those in the waist and in the back resemble Jupiter, and also Mercury moderately: those in the feet, Jupiter and Saturn: the four-sided figure in the tail is similar to Venus, and in some degree to Saturn.

Capricorn. The stars in the horns of Capricorn have efficacy similar to that of Venus, and partly to that of Mars. The stars in the mouth are like Saturn, and partly like Venus: those in the feet and in the belly act in the same manner as Mars and Mercury: those in the tail are like Saturn and Jupiter.

Aquarius. The stars in the shoulders of Aquarius operate like Saturn and Mercury; those in the left hand and in the face do the same: those in the thighs have an influence more consonant with that of Mercury, and in a less degree with that of Saturn: those in the stream of water have power similar to that of Saturn, and, moderately, to that of Jupiter.

Pisces. Those stars in Pisces, which are in the head of the southern fish, have the same influence as Mercury, and, in some degree, as Saturn: those in the body are like Jupiter and Mercury: those in the tail and in the southern line are like Saturn, and, moderately, like Mercury. In the northern fish, those on its body and back-bone resemble Jupiter, and also Venus in some degree: those in the northern line are like Saturn and Jupiter; and the bright star in the knot acts like Mars, and moderately like Mercury. 2


17:1 The little Torch; now known by the name of Aldebaran.

17:2 Castor.

17:3 Pollux.

17:4 Cor Leonia.

17:5 Called by the ancients χηλαι Chelæ, or the claws of Scorpio; which sign they made to consist of 60 degrees, omitting Libra. Thus Virgil in the first Georgic, line 33, &c.

Quo locus Erigonen inter, Chelasque sequentes
Panditur: ipse tibi jam brachia contrahit ardens
Scorpius, et cœli justâ plus parte reliquit.

Ovid, likewise, takes the following notice of Scorpio

Porrigit in spatium signorum membra duorum.
                                                  Met. 2, l. 198.

18:1 Adams's Treatise on the Globes calls this star "Kalb al Akrab, or the Scorpion's heart," and adds, that "the word Antares (if it is not a corruption) has no signification." But it should be observed that Ptolemy states that this star partakes of the nature of Mars: it seems therefore not improbable that Antares may be a regular Greek word, compounded of αντι pro and αρης Mars, and signifying Mars's deputy, or lieutenant, or one acting for Mars.

18:2 Salmon, in his "Horn; Mathematics, or Soul of Astrology" (printed by Dawks, 1619) divides each sign of the zodiac into six faces of five degrees each, "because that in every sign there are various stars of differing natures"; p. 19 and he gives a particular description to each face, depending on its ascension or culmination. This seems an attempt to adapt Ptolemy's signification of the several stars, composing the different signs, to some general rule or mode of judgment: but it does not merit the implicit assent of astrologers. It is understood that Salmon was not the inventor of this division of the signs into faces, but that it came originally from the Arabian schools.

Next: Chapter X. Constellations North of the Zodiac