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THERE are in the heavens several bodies which appear to shed their light directly on this Earth; and also some others which, having no light of themselves, serve to reflect that of the Sun, and thereby become visible to our organs of sight. The former are termed Fixed Stars, because they appear to retain the same situation, or to be fixed in the same place; but the latter, being observed to wander, are termed Planets. The number and distance of the former are so extensive, that I shall take no further notice of them here, than to observe, that they are not much used in that portion of Astrology which is denominated Horary, and that those persons who desire to make use of them in nativities, will find their right ascensions and declinations given with great accuracy in the Nautical Almanack for each year. In the Appendix to this work, I shall give rules, to ascertain their latitude and longitude by, trigonometry, for the benefit of such persons as may be curious to make experiments as to their influence; though I do not, in general, pay much attention to them when judging a nativity.

Of the Planets.

These are ♅ Herschel, ♄ Saturn, ♃ Jupiter, ♂ Mars.

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[paragraph continues] ☉ Sol, the Sun, 1 ♀ Venus, ☿ Mercury, and ☽ Luna, Moon. These characters have been always in use, and may, (with the exception of ♅) be traced to the remotest antiquity, and their origin found among the hieroglyphics of Egypt. But as the object of this work is practical utility, no more need be said on the subject.

The Signs of the Zodiac.

They are twelve, each containing 30 degrees, thus making 360 degrees, into which every great circle is divided. The first six are,

Northern Signs.

♈ Aries, ♉ Taurus, ♊ Gemini, ♋ Cancer, ♌ Leo, ♍ Virgo.

Southern Signs.

♎ Libra, ♏ Scorpio, ♐ Sagittary, ♑ Capricorn, ♒ Aquarius, ♓ Pisces.

The first sign, ♈, commences the zodiac, its beginning being that spot in the heavens where the Sun is when crossing the equator in spring; and the latter sign, ♓, finishes the circle of the zodiac, the latter end of it being that spot in the heavens where the Sun is when he has gone his round, and is again about to enter ♈.

By referring to the annexed diagram, the student will perceive, that when the Sun enters ♈ (about the 21st of March) he proceeds northward, and increases in declination until he reaches the tropic of ♋ Cancer (about the 21st of June), when he speedily begins to return to the south; and when he reaches ♎, he again crosses the equator (about the 23d of September), where, having no declination, he causes equal

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day and night all over the world. He then declines away to the south; shortening our days in the northern hemisphere, until he reaches the southern tropic ♑, Capricorn; at length he returns towards the equator, and crosses it by entering the sign ♈ (about the 21st of March), where again he has no declination, and gives equal days and nights.

Diagram of the Sun's Motion in the Zodiac
Click to enlarge

Diagram of the Sun's Motion in the Zodiac

EXPLANATION.--The space between the two outer circles may be considered as the line of the Sun's motion; and than

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the sign opposite the name of each month will shew where the Sun is about the 21st of each month. The globe in the centre may be taken for the Earth, the northern parts of which receive the greater portion of the Sun's light in summer, and the southern parts in winter.

These signs are divided into,

Northern Signs

♈, ♉, ♊, ♋, ♌, ♍

Southern Signs

♎, ♏, ♐, ♑, ♒, ♓

Tropical Signs

♋, and ♑

Equinoctial Signs

♈, and ♎

Double-bodied Signs

♊, ♍, ♐, ♓

They are again divided into


♈, ♋, ♎, ♑


♊, ♍, ♐, ♓


♉, ♌, vi, ♒

Also into


♈, ♌, ♐.


♉, ♍, ♑.


♊, ♎, ♒.


♋, ♏, ♓.

The student must become well acquainted with the above particulars; but especially so with the northern and southern signs, the former being opposite to the latter. By attending to this, he will readily come to understand the figure of the heavens, and the relative situations of the planets.

N.B. The moveable, common, and fixed signs are always in square aspect to each other, three signs apart; and the fiery, earthy, airy, and watery signs are always in trine aspect to each other, four signs apart.


The Moon's north node is known by the character ☊,

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termed the Dragon's Head; and her south node by this ☋, termed the Dragon's Tail. The former of these in horary questions denotes good, and is considered of the character of ♃. and increases the good qualities of a benefic, with which it may be found; and diminishes the evil of a malefic planet. The latter is of the nature of ♄, and does the reverse. In nativities these characters have no avail, and are not to be considered, except with regard to the Moon, who is found to produce good or evil when she reaches them by direction. 1


This is that spot in the heavens which is equally distant from the degree ascending that the Moon is from the Sun. It is found by the following rule:--

To find the (⊕) Part of Fortune in a Nativity.

Add 90° to the right ascension of the meridian, and it will give the oblique ascension of the ascendant. From the oblique ascension of the ascendant subtract the oblique ascension of the Sun (having first added 360° to the former, if necessary); to the remainder add the right ascension of the Moon: the sum will be the right ascension of ⊕.

The ⊕ is always under the horizon before the full Moon, and above the horizon after the full Moon. Having found its right ascension, take it from that of the meridian above or below the earth, according as it may be situated; or, take that of the meridian from it, and the sum or difference will shew the distance of ⊕ from the cusp of the 10th or 4th house.

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A. R. of midheaven






Add thereto






Oblique asc. of the ascendant






Subtract oblique asc. of ⊕












Add right ascension of the ☽












Take away






It leaves right ascension of ⊕





Then, as the birth took place after full Moon, and the ⊕ will be above the Earth, find the difference of right ascension between it and the meridian above the Earth.


Right ascension of ⊕






Right ascension of the midheaven






Distance of ⊕ from the 10th house





If the ⊕ be in the same hemisphere as the ☽; that is, if both be above or below the Earth, it will have the semi-arc of the ☽; but if otherwise, it will have the opposite semi-arc; which may be found by taking the ☽'s from 180°. In this nativity (which is that of the Duke of Wellington) the semi-arc of the Moon is 90° 57', which taken from 180° leaves the semi-arc of ⊕ 89° 3', two-thirds of which are 59° 22'; and it appears that ⊕ is just 1° 22' outside the cusp of the 12th house. 1

The ⊕ has no influence on the health or life of the native;

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but it influences the pecuniary affairs very powerfully, and also, in some degree, the profession or employment. 1

To find the Place ofan the Figure of a Horary Question.

In horary astrology ⊕ is merely a symbol, and has much to do with all questions regarding property, loss or gain, &c. In this case it is found by a more simple rule, as follows:

Add together the longitude of the ascendant and longitude of the ☽, from which subtract the longitude of the ☉: the remainder will be the longitude of ⊕.

Example:--Where was the ⊕ at 3h. 20m. P.M. 28th of December, 1644? 2





The Ascendant was ♋ 11° 33, or




The ☽ was in ♉, 16° 49', or








For subtraction add








The ⊕ in ♑, 17° 54, or




Place of in the figure or ♏ 10° 28'.





14:1 The Sun and Moon are considered as planets in all astrological matters.

17:1 These nodes are the points in the ecliptic where the Moon crosses from north into south latitude, or the reverse, which occurs twice each month.

18:1 This is found by taking its distance from the 10th 5E° 0' from ### of its semi-arc 59° 22 .

19:1 In proof of this, it is evident that in the Duke's nativity ☽ came to ☌ of ⊕ in November 1834, when he was appointed to the ministry. Thus ⊕ is 58° from the meridian, and ☽ 124° 29'; the difference is 66° 29'; which arc of direction, added to the right ascension of ☉ at his birth 39° 21', gives 105° 50', the right asc. of ♋ 14° 34'. The ☉ arrived at this point at 1 P.M. 6th July 1769, or 65 days 13 hours after birth, which, the Placidian measure of a year for a day, gives 65 years 61 months, the Duke's age when the event occurred.--N.B. The ascendant came to ☌ of ☉ at the same time, which, by referring to our author's rules for the effects of directions, will be seen to cause such eminent preferment. The semi-arc of ☉ is 68° 13', ☉ dist from 4th house 1° 44'; the difference is 66° 29', the arc of direction.

19:2 See the figure--Question. "A ship at sea, if lost?"

Next: Chapter II.