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The Conductor then carefully emptied the ceremonial pipe on the chopping board which accompanies the ceremonial pipe and gave it to the Assistant, who put the residuum on the fire. This must be done in a formal manner whenever a ceremonial pipe is smoked, for it was considered a sacrilege to dispose of the residuum in a ceremonial pipe in such a manner that it might be trodden under foot. The Conductor then formally filled the pipe with cansasa, and lighted it as before, and standing in the door of the lodge, pointed the mouthpiece toward the sun, and said, "Grandfather , we will bring you a grandson this day." This alludes to the custom of the Hunkayapi, who often addressed the Great God, the Sun, as Grandfather, thus indicating that He is the patron God of the Hunkaya relationship; and the address meant that another Hunka would be made

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that day. The Conductor then sat at the catku and gave sweetgrass to the Assistant who made incense with it. The Conductor then addressed the younger man, saying, "I will now make you a Hunka. I will teach you how to live as a Hunka. These men before you whose bodies are painted red are Mihunkayapi. They will be Hunkayapi to you. When they speak your ears should be open."

Then each of the seven Mihunka present made a speech, the substance of each speech being commendation of Hunkaya, or a statement of the obligation of a Hunka to his Hunka and to the Hunkayapi, the substance of the latter being that a Hunka should give preference to his Hunka above all others of mankind, and that they should be willing to give anything to, or do anything for, each other; that they should listen to the Shamans so that they may please all the Gods; that if the Hunkayapi do this it will please the Gods, and They will give success in forays against the enemy to get women or horses; that when they seek the enemy the women will sing their songs in their praise; that their offerings to the Rock will please the Earth and the Buffalo, and They will give industrious women who will bear many children; that the Great Spirit will direct their arrows, and harden their shields, and put breath in their horses when they are old; that the Buffalo will provide them with robes and moccasins, and a place of honor in their tipis and that their spirits shall not wander over the world.

An explanation of the allusive portions of these addresses is that before going on a foray each Lakota should compose a song which will be known as his song. If he does a notable thing, then the women will sing his song as a meed of praise for him; that before going on such a foray each one should make an offering to the Rock, the patron God of success in war, and this will propitiate the Earth, the patron God of fertility, and the Buffalo, the patron God of nuptials and fecundity; that the Great Spirit is the God that gives movement to anything that moves, and controls the direction of a movement, and He also gives vitality to everything that breathes. The Buffalo is also the patron God of the chase and of providing. The doctrine is, that the spirit of a man that is adjudged unworthy to go to the spirit world, is condemned to wander forever over the world.

During all these rites the people were quiet and attentive. When the Mihunkayapi ceased speaking there was an intermission of about half an hour, during which some of the women began preparation for the feast.

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