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The Culture of the Luiseño Indians, by Philip Stedman Sparkman, [1908], at


Mountain trout are found in a few localities in the upper San Luis Rey river, also in some of the mountain streams which empty into it. The only other fish is a very small one. The trout were taken when the water was low by macerating a plant and throwing it in the pools, when they became stupefied and rose to the surface, where they were taken by hand, or scooped out with a rush basket. The small fish were taken with a dip net.

While fish formed an unimportant article of food for those who lived inland, it was the chief dependence of those who lived on the coast. They used a canoe or raft of rushes, with which they went out some distance from the shore to fish with a dip net. Seine nets were also used. Some wooden canoes were also made from the trunks of trees. It is stated that voyages were formerly made with these as far as San Clemente island. The coast people also fished with hook and line. The line was made from the fiber of Yucca Mohavensis and the hook from an abalone shell, the part near the center being used, where the grain is more twisted, and so more suitable for the purpose. Fish hooks were also made of bone. The coast people also consumed large quantities of shell fish of several species. Some say that they used a harpoon for spearing fish, the bone point being loosely inserted in a socket at the end of a pole, to which it was attached by a line, so that on striking a fish the point was pulled from the socket, but was still attached to the pole by the line. Others say that no harpoon was ever used by them. This may be true, but it is certain that the Diegueños used one, and it seems improbable that the Luiseños would not have employed it.

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