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25. On account of the difference of sense of piercing and so on.

The text of the Âtharvanikas exhibits at the beginning of their Upanishad some mantras, 'Pierce the sukra, pierce the heart.' The followers of the Sâma-veda read at the beginning of their rahasya-brâhmana 'O God Savitri, promote the sacrifice.' The Kâthakas and the Taittirîyakas have 'May Mitra be propitious to us, may Varuna be propitious.' The Sâtyâyanins have 'Thou art a white horse, a tawny and a black one!' The Kaushîtakins have a Brâhmana referring to the Mahavrata-ceremony, 'Indra having slain Vritra became great.' The Kaushîtakins also have a Mahâvrata-brâhmana. 'Pragâpati is the year; his Self is that Mahâvrata.' The Vâgasaneyins have a Brâhmana referring to the Pravargya, 'The gods sat

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down for a sattra-celebration.' With reference to all this a doubt arises whether these mantras and the sacrificial works referred to in the Brâhmana texts form parts of the meditations enjoined in the Upanishads or not.--The Pûrvapakshin affirms this, on the ground that as the mantras and works are mentioned in the immediate neighbourhood of the meditations the idea of their forming parts of the latter naturally presents itself. Such mantras as 'pierce the heart' and works such as the pravargya may indeed--on the basis of direct statement (sruti), inferential mark (linga), and syntactical connexion (vâkya), which are stronger than mere proximity--be understood to be connected with certain actions; but, on the other hand, mantras such as 'May Varuna be propitious' have no application elsewhere, and are suitable introductions to meditations. We therefore take them to be parts of the meditations, and hence hold that those mantras are to be included in all meditations.--This view the Sûtra sets aside 'on account of the difference of sense of piercing, and so on.' The inferential marks contained in texts such as 'pierce the sukra, pierce the heart'; 'I shall speak the right, I shall speak the true,' show that the mantras have an application in connexion with certain magical practices, or else the study of the Veda, and the like, and do not therefore form part of meditations. That is to say--in the same way as the mantra 'pierce the heart' enables us to infer that also the mantra 'pierce the sukra' belongs to some magical rite, so we infer from the special meaning of mantras such as 'I shall speak the right,' &c., that also mantras such as 'May Mitra be propitious' are connected with the study of the Veda, and do not therefore form part of meditations. That mantras of this kind and Brâhmana passages relative to the Pravargya and the like are placed at the beginning of Upanishads is owing to their having, like the latter, to be studied in the forest.--Herewith terminates the adhikarana of 'piercing and the like.'

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