Ozias Son of Joram (Mat 1:8); called also Uzziah (Kg2 15:32, Kg2 15:34).
Ozni Hearing, one of the sons of Gad; also called Ezbon (Gen 46:16; Num 26:16).
Paarai Opening of the Lord, "the Arbite," one of David's heroes (Sa2 23:35); called also Naarai, Ch1 11:37.
Padan A plain, occurring only in Gen 48:7, where it designates Padan-aram.
Padan-aram The plain of Aram, or the plain of the highlands, (Gen 25:20; Gen 28:2, Gen 28:5; Gen 31:18, etc.), commonly regarded as the district of Mesopotamia (q.v.) lying around Haran.
Pagiel God allots, a prince of the tribe of Asher (Num 1:13), in the wilderness.
Pahath-moab Governor of Moab, a person whose descendants returned from the Captivity and assisted in rebuilding Jerusalem (Ezr 2:6; Ezr 8:4; Ezr 10:30).
Paint Jezebel "painted her face" (Kg2 9:30); and the practice of painting the face and the eyes seems to have been common (Jer 4:30; Eze 23:40). An allusion to this practice is found in the name of Job's daughter (Job 42:14) Kerenhappuch (q.v.). Paintings in the modern sense of the word were unknown to the ancient Jews.
Palace Used now only of royal dwellings, although originally meaning simply (as the Latin word palatium , from which it is derived, shows) a building surrounded by a fence or a paling. In the Authorized Version there are many different words so rendered, presenting different ideas, such as that of citadel or lofty fortress or royal residence (Neh 1:1; Dan 8:2). It is the name given to the temple fortress (Neh 2:8) and to the temple itself (Ch1 29:1). It denotes also a spacious building or a great house (Dan 1:4; Dan 4:4, Dan 4:29; Est 1:5; Est 7:7), and a fortified place or an enclosure (Eze 25:4). Solomon's palace is described in Kg1 7:1 as a series of buildings rather than a single great structure. Thirteen years were spent in their erection. This palace stood on the eastern hill, adjoining the temple on the south. In the New Testament it designates the official residence of Pilate or that of the high priest (Mat 26:3, Mat 26:58, Mat 26:69; Mar 14:54, Mar 14:66; Joh 18:15). In Phi 1:13 this word is the rendering of the Greek praitorion , meaning the praetorian cohorts at Rome (the life-guard of the Caesars). Paul was continually chained to a soldier of that corps (Act 28:16), and hence his name and sufferings became known in all the praetorium. The "soldiers that kept" him would, on relieving one another on guard, naturally spread the tidings regarding him among their comrades. Some, however, regard the praetroium (q.v.) as the barrack within the palace (the palatium) of the Caesars in Rome where a detachment of these praetorian guards was stationed, or as the camp of the guards placed outside the eastern walls of Rome. "In the chambers which were occupied as guard-rooms," says Dr. Manning, "by the praetorian troops on duty in the palace, a number of rude caricatures are found roughly scratched upon the walls, just such as may be seen upon barrack walls in every part of the world. Amongst these is one of a human figure nailed upon a cross. To add to the 'offense of the cross,' the crucified one is represented with the head of an animal, probably that of an ass. Before it stands the figure of a Roman legionary with one hand upraised in the attitude of worship. Underneath is the rude, misspelled, ungrammatical inscription, Alexamenos worships his god. It can scarcely be doubted that we have here a contemporary caricature, executed by one of the praetorian guard, ridiculing the faith of a Christian comrade."
Palestine Originally denoted only the sea-coast of the land of Canaan inhabited by the Philistines (Exo 15:14; Isa 14:29, Isa 14:31; Joe 3:4), and in this sense exclusively the Hebrew name Pelesheth (rendered "Philistia" in Psa 60:8; Psa 83:7; Psa 87:4; Psa 108:9) occurs in the Old Testament. Not till a late period in Jewish history was this name used to denote "the land of the Hebrews" in general (Gen 40:15). It is also called "the holy land" (Zac 2:12), the "land of Jehovah" (Hos 9:3; Psa 85:1), the "land of promise" (Heb 11:9), because promised to Abraham (Gen 12:7; Gen 24:7), the "land of Canaan" (Gen 12:5), the "land of Israel" (Sa1 13:19), and the "land of Judah" (Isa 19:17). See map, Mountains of Palestine The territory promised as an inheritance to the seed of Abraham (Gen 15:18; Num 34:1) was bounded on the east by the river Euphrates, on the west by the Mediterranean, on the north by the "entrance of Hamath," and on the south by the "river of Egypt." This extent of territory, about 60,000 square miles, was at length conquered by David, and was ruled over also by his son Solomon (2 Sam. 8; 1 Chr. 18; Kg1 4:1, Kg1 4:21). This vast empire was the Promised Land; but Palestine was only a part of it, terminating in the north at the southern extremity of the Lebanon range, and in the south in the wilderness of Paran, thus extending in all to about 144 miles in length. Its average breadth was about 60 miles from the Mediterranean on the west to beyond the Jordan. It has fittingly been designated "the least of all lands." Western Palestine, on the south of Gaza, is only about 40 miles in breadth from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea, narrowing gradually toward the north, where it is only 20 miles from the sea-coast to the Jordan. Palestine, "set in the midst" (Eze 5:5) of all other lands, is the most remarkable country on the face of the earth. No single country of such an extent has so great a variety of climate, and hence also of plant and animal life. Moses describes it as "a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey; a land wherein thou shalt not eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass" (Deu 8:7). See map, Natural Divisions of Palestine "In the time of Christ the country looked, in all probability, much as now. The whole land consists of rounded limestone hills, fretted into countless stony valleys, offering but rarely level tracts, of which Esdraelon alone, below Nazareth, is large enough to be seen on the map. The original woods had for ages disappeared, though the slopes were dotted, as now, with figs, olives, and other fruit-trees where there was any soil. Permanent streams were even then unknown, the passing rush of winter torrents being all that was seen among the hills. The autumn and spring rains, caught in deep cisterns hewn out like huge underground jars in the soft limestone, with artificial mud-banked ponds still found near all villages, furnished water. Hills now bare, or at best rough with stunted growth, were then terraced, so as to grow vines, olives, and grain. To-day almost desolate, the country then teemed with population. Wine-presses cut in the rocks, endless terraces, and the ruins of old vineyard towers are now found amidst solitudes overgrown for ages with thorns and thistles, or with wild shrubs and poor gnarled scrub" (Geikie's Life of Christ). From an early period the land was inhabited by the descendants of Canaan, who retained possession of the whole land "from Sidon to Gaza" till the time of the conquest by Joshua, when it was occupied by the twelve tribes. Two tribes and a half had their allotments given them by Moses on the east of the Jordan (Deu 3:12; compare Num. 1:17-46; Jos 4:12). The remaining tribes had their portion on the west of Jordan. From the conquest till the time of Saul, about four hundred years, the people were governed by judges. For a period of one hundred and twenty years the kingdom retained its unity while it was ruled by Saul and David and Solomon. On the death of Solomon, his son Rehoboam ascended the throne; but his conduct was such that ten of the tribes revolted, and formed an independent monarchy, called the kingdom of Israel, or the northern kingdom, the capital of which was first Shechem and afterwards Samaria. This kingdom was destroyed. The Israelites were carried captive by Shalmanezer, king of Assyria, 722 B.C., after an independent existence of two hundred and fifty-three years. The place of the captives carried away was supplied by tribes brought from the east, and thus was formed the Samaritan nation (Kg2 17:24). Nebuchadnezzar came up against the kingdom of the two tribes, the kingdom of Judah, the capital of which was Jerusalem, one hundred and thirty-four years after the overthrow of the kingdom of Israel. He overthrew the city, plundered the temple, and carried the people into captivity to Babylon (587 B.C.), where they remained seventy years. At the close of the period of the Captivity, they returned to their own land, under the edict of Cyrus (Ezr 1:1). They rebuilt the city and temple, and restored the old Jewish commonwealth. For a while after the Restoration the Jews were ruled by Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, and afterwards by the high priests, assisted by the Sanhedrin. After the death of Alexander the Great at Babylon (323 B.C.), his vast empire was divided between his four generals. Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, and Coele-Syria fell to the lot of Ptolemy Lagus. Ptolemy took possession of Palestine in 320 B.C., and carried nearly one hundred thousand of the inhabitants of Jerusalem into Egypt. He made Alexandria the capital of his kingdom, and treated the Jews with consideration, confirming them in the enjoyment of many privileges. After suffering persecution at the hands of Ptolemy's successors, the Jews threw off the Egyptian yoke, and became subject to Antiochus the Great, the king of Syria. The cruelty and oppression of the successors of Antiochus at length led to the revolt under the Maccabees (163 B.C.), when they threw off the Syrian yoke. In the year B.C. 68, Palestine was reduced by Pompey the Great to a Roman province. He laid the walls of the city in ruins, and massacred some twelve thousand of the inhabitants. He left the temple, however, uninjured. About twenty-five years after this the Jews revolted and cast off the Roman yoke. They were however, subdued by Herod the Great (q.v.). The city and the temple were destroyed, and many of the inhabitants were put to death. About B.C. 20, Herod proceeded to rebuild the city and restore the ruined temple, which in about nine years and a half was so far completed that the sacred services could be resumed in it (Compare Joh 2:20). He was succeeded by his son Archelaus, who was deprived of his power, however, by Augustus, A.D. 6, when Palestine became a Roman province, ruled by Roman governors or procurators. Pontius Pilate was the fifth of these procurators. He was appointed to his office A.D. 25. Exclusive of Idumea, the kingdom of Herod the Great comprehended the whole of the country originally divided among the twelve tribes, which he divided into four provinces or districts. This division was recognized so long as Palestine was under the Roman dominion. These four provinces were, (1.) Judea, the southern portion of the country; (2.) Samaria, the middle province, the northern boundary of which ran along the hills to the south of the plain of Esdraelon; (3.) Galilee, the northern province; and (4.) Peraea (a Greek name meaning the "opposite country"), the country lying east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea. This province was subdivided into these districts, (a.) Peraea proper, lying between the rivers Arnon and Jabbok; (b.) Galaaditis (Gilead); (c.) Batanaea ; (d.) Gaulonitis (Jaulan); (e.) Ituraea or Auranitis , the ancient Bashan; (f.) Trachonitis ; (g.) Abilene ; (h.) Decapolis , i.e., the region of the ten cities. The whole territory of Palestine, including the portions allotted to the trans-Jordan tribes, extended to about eleven thousand square miles. Recent exploration has shown the territory on the west of Jordan alone to be six thousand square miles in extent, the size of the principality of Wales.