Gaddi Fortunate, the representative of the tribe of Manasseh among the twelve "spies" sent by Moses to spy the land (Num 13:11).
Gaddiel Fortune (i.e., sent) of God, the representative of the tribe of Zebulum among the twelve spies (Num 13:10).
Gahar Lurking-place, one of the chief of the Nethinim, whose descendants returned to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel (Ezr 2:47).
Gaius (1.) A Macedonian, Paul's fellow-traveler, and his host at Corinth when he wrote his Epistle to the Romans (Rom 16:23). He with his household were baptized by Paul (Co1 1:14). During a heathen outbreak against Paul at Ephesus the mob seized Gaius and Aristarchus because they could not find Paul, and rushed with them into the theatre. Some have identified this Gaius with No. (2). (2.) A man of Derbe who accompanied Paul into Asia on his last journey to Jerusalem (3.) A Christian of Asia Minor to whom John addressed his third epistle (Jo3 1:1).
Galatia Has been called the "Gallia" of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli. They were an intermixture of Gauls and Greeks, and hence were called Gallo-Graeci, and the country Gallo-Graecia. The Galatians were in their origin a part of that great Celtic migration which invaded Macedonia about 280 B.C.. They were invited by the king of Bithynia to cross over into Asia Minor to assist him in his wars. There they ultimately settled, and being strengthened by fresh accessions of the same clan from Europe, they overran Bithynia, and supported themselves by plundering neighbouring countries. They were great warriors, and hired themselves out as mercenary soldiers, sometimes fighting on both sides in the great battles of the times. They were at length brought under the power of Rome in 189 B.C., and Galatia became a Roman province B.C. 25. This province of Galatia, within the limits of which these Celtic tribes were confined, was the central region of Asia Minor. During his second missionary journey Paul, accompanied by Silas and Timothy (Act 16:6), visited the "region of Galatia," where he was detained by sickness (Gal 4:13), and had thus the longer opportunity of preaching to them the gospel. On his third journey he went over "all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order" (Act 18:23). Crescens was sent thither by Paul toward the close of his life (Ti2 4:10).
Galatians, Epistle to The genuineness of this epistle is not called in question. Its Pauline origin is universally acknowledged. Occasion of. The churches of Galatia were founded by Paul himself (Act 16:6; Gal 1:8; Gal 4:13, Gal 4:19). They seem to have been composed mainly of converts from heathenism (Gal 4:8), but partly also of Jewish converts, who probably, under the influence of Judaizing teachers, sought to incorporate the rites of Judaism with Christianity, and by their active zeal had succeeded in inducing the majority of the churches to adopt their views (Gal 1:6; Gal 3:1). This epistle was written for the purpose of counteracting this Judaizing tendency, and of recalling the Galatians to the simplicity of the gospel, and at the same time also of vindicating Paul's claim to be a divinely-commissioned apostle. Time and place of writing. The epistle was probably written very soon after Paul's second visit to Galatia (Act 18:23). The references of the epistle appear to agree with this conclusion. The visit to Jerusalem, mentioned in Gal 2:1, was identical with that of Acts 15, and it is spoken of as a thing of the past, and consequently the epistle was written subsequently to the council of Jerusalem. The similarity between this epistle and that to the Romans has led to the conclusion that they were both written at the same time, namely, in the winter of A.D. 57-8, during Paul's stay in Corinth (Act 20:2, Act 20:3). This to the Galatians is written on the urgency of the occasion, tidings having reached him of the state of matters; and that to the Romans in a more deliberate and systematic way, in exposition of the same great doctrines of the gospel. Contents of. The great question discussed is, Was the Jewish law binding on Christians? The epistle is designed to prove against the Jews that men are justified by faith without the works of the law of Moses. After an introductory address (Gal 1:1) the apostle discusses the subjects which had occasioned the epistle. (1.) He defends his apostolic authority (Gal 1:11; Gal 2:1); (2.) shows the evil influence of the Judaizers in destroying the very essence of the gospel (Gal. 3 and 4); (3.) exhorts the Galatian believers to stand fast in the faith as it is in Jesus, and to abound in the fruits of the Spirit, and in a right use of their Christian freedom (Gal. 5:1 - 6:10); (4.) and then concludes with a summary of the topics discussed, and with the benediction. The Epistle to the Galatians and that to the Romans taken together "form a complete proof that justification is not to be obtained meritoriously either by works of morality or by rites and ceremonies, though of divine appointment; but that it is a free gift, proceeding entirely from the mercy of God, to those who receive it by faith in Jesus our Lord." In the conclusion of the epistle (Gal 6:11) Paul says, "Ye see how large a letter I have written with mine own hand." It is implied that this was different from his ordinary usage, which was simply to write the concluding salutation with his own hand, indicating that the rest of the epistle was written by another hand. Regarding this conclusion, Lightfoot, in his Commentary on the epistle, says: "At this point the apostle takes the pen from his amanuensis, and the concluding paragraph is written with his own hand. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name (Th2 2:2; Th2 3:17) it seems to have been his practice to close with a few words in his own handwriting, as a precaution against such forgeries... In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too, in large, bold characters (Gr. pelikois grammasin ), that his hand-writing may reflect the energy and determination of his soul." (See JUSTIFICATION.)
Galbanum Heb. helbenah , (Exo 30:34), one of the ingredients in the holy incense. It is a gum, probably from the Galbanum officinale.
Galilean An inhabitant or native of Galilee. This word was used as a name of contempt as applied to our Lord's disciples (Luk 22:59; Act 2:7). All the apostles, with the exception of Judas Iscariot (Act 1:11), were Galileans. Peter was detected by his Galilean accent (Mat 26:69; Mar 14:70). This was also one of the names of reproach given to the early Christians. Julian the Apostate, as he is called, not only used the epithet himself when referring to Christ and his apostles, but he made it a law that no one should ever call the Christians by any other name.
Galilee Circuit. Solomon rewarded Hiram for certain services rendered him by the gift of an upland plain among the mountains of Naphtali. Hiram was dissatisfied with the gift, and called it "the land of Cabul" (q.v.). The Jews called it Galil. It continued long to be occupied by the original inhabitants, and hence came to be called "Galilee of the Gentiles" (Mat 4:15), and also "Upper Galilee," to distinguish it from the extensive addition afterwards made to it toward the south, which was usually called "Lower Galilee." In the time of our Lord, Galilee embraced more than one-third of Western Palestine, extending "from Dan on the north, at the base of Mount Hermon, to the ridges of Carmel and Gilboa on the south, and from the Jordan valley on the east away across the splendid plains of Jezreel and Acre to the shores of the Mediterranean on the west." Palestine was divided into three provinces, Judea, Samaria, and Galilee, which comprehended the whole northern section of the country (Act 9:31), and was the largest of the three. It was the scene of some of the most memorable events of Jewish history. Galilee also was the home of our Lord during at least thirty years of his life. The first three Gospels are chiefly taken up with our Lord's public ministry in this province. "The entire province is encircled with a halo of holy associations connected with the life, works, and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth." "It is noteworthy that of his thirty-two beautiful parables, no less than nineteen were spoken in Galilee. And it is no less remarkable that of his entire thirty-three great miracles, twenty-five were wrought in this province. His first miracle was wrought at the wedding in Cana of Galilee, and his last, after his resurrection, on the shore of Galilee's sea. In Galilee our Lord delivered the Sermon on The Mount, and the discourses on 'The Bread of Life,' on 'Purity,' on 'Forgiveness,' and on 'Humility.' In Galilee he called his first disciples; and there occurred the sublime scene of the Transfiguration" (Porter's Through Samaria). When the Sanhedrin were about to proceed with some plan for the condemnation of our Lord (Joh 7:45), Nicodemus interposed in his behalf. (Compare Deu 1:16, Deu 1:17; Deu 17:8.) They replied, "Art thou also of Galilee?... Out of Galilee ariseth no prophet." This saying of theirs was "not historically true, for two prophets at least had arisen from Galilee, Jonah of Gath-hepher, and the greatest of all the prophets, Elijah of Thisbe, and perhaps also Nahum and Hosea. Their contempt for Galilee made them lose sight of historical accuracy" (Alford, Com.). The Galilean accent differed from that of Jerusalem in being broader and more guttural (Mar 14:70).
Galilee, Sea of Mat 4:18; Mat 15:29), is mentioned in the Bible under three other names. (1.) In the Old Testament it is called the "sea of Chinnereth" (Num 34:11; Jos 12:3; Jos 13:27), as is supposed from its harp-like shape. (2.). The "lake of Gennesareth" once by Luke (Luk 5:1), from the flat district lying on its west coast. (3.) John (Joh 6:1; Joh 21:1) calls it the "sea of Tiberias" (q.v.). The modern Arabs retain this name, Bahr Tabariyeh. See map, of the Sea of Galilee This lake is 12 1/2 miles long, and from 4 to 7 1/2 broad. It surface is 682 feet below the level of the Mediterranean. Its depth is from 80 to 160 feet. The Jordan enters it 10 1/2 miles below the southern extremity of the Huleh Lake, or about 26 1/2 miles there is a fall in the river of 1,682 feet, or of more than 60 feet to the mile. It is 27 miles east of the Mediterranean, and about 60 miles north-east of Jerusalem. It is of an oval shape, and abounds in fish. Its present appearance is thus described: "The utter loneliness and absolute stillness of the scene are exceedingly impressive. It seems as if all nature had gone to rest, languishing under the scorching heat. How different it was in the days of our Lord! Then all was life and bustle along the shores; the cities and villages that thickly studded them resounded with the hum of a busy population; while from hill-side and corn-field came the cheerful cry of shepherd and ploughman. The lake, too, was dotted with dark fishing-boats and spangled with white sails. Now a mournful, solitary silence reigns over sea and shore. The cities are in ruins!" This sea is chiefly of interest as associated with the public ministry of our Lord. Capernaum, "his own city" (Mat 9:1), stood on its shores. From among the fishermen who plied their calling on its waters he chose Peter and his brother Andrew, and James and John, to be disciples, and sent them forth to be "fishers of men" (Mat 4:18, Mat 4:22; Mar 1:16; Luk 5:1). He stilled its tempest, saying to the storm that swept over it, "Peace, be still" (Mat 8:23; Mar 7:31); and here also he showed himself after his resurrection to his disciples (John 21). "The Sea of Galilee is indeed the cradle of the gospel. The subterranean fires of nature prepared a lake basin, through which a river afterwards ran, keeping its waters always fresh. In this basin a vast quantity of shell-fish swarmed, and multiplied to such an extent that they formed the food of an extraordinary profusion of fish. The great variety and abundance of the fish in the lake attracted to its shores a larger and more varied population than existed elsewhere in Palestine, whereby this secluded district was brought into contact with all parts of the world. And this large and varied population, with access to all nations and countries, attracted the Lord Jesus, and induced him to make this spot the centre of his public ministry."