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Pahlavi Texts, Part V: Marvels of Zoroastrianism (SBE47), E.W. West, tr. [1897], at


1. About the marvellousness which is manifested from the first conference onwards till the end of the seventh conference which occurred within the duration of ten years, also his pre-eminence in prophecy in the world, and the acceptance of the religion by the exalted Kaî-Vistâsp, as happened after the ten years of conference.

2. In the first two years, one marvel is this which is declared, that when he was back from the first conference, he then, by the first command of the lord and creator Aûharmazd, recited the unique formula (âyînŏ) in an assemblage (ram) of Kîgs and Karaps, the prophecy of his Mazda-worshipping religion and commemoration of Aûharmazd, as he chanted with a loud voice, and invited mankind to the religion of Aûharmazd. 3. Just as this passage of revelation mentions thus: 'Thereupon, the thorough inspection for this material existence of those with a sacred girdle, provided with dwellings and provided with cattle, was altogether arranged by Zaratûst.'

4. And when their announcement (nivêdisnŏ) for

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speaking to be heard was issued 1, then Zaratûst, on becoming exalted, called out unto the embodied world of righteousness to extol righteousness and to scorn the demons 2. 5. 'The homage of the Mazda-worship of Zaratûst, and the ceremonial and obeisance for the archangels are the best for you I assert and of deprecation (ayazisnîh) for the demons next-of-kin marriage is really the best intimation, so that, from the information which is given as to the trustworthiness of a good work, the greatest are the most intimate of them, those of father and daughter, son and she who bore him, and brother and sister.'

6. It is declared that, upon those words, innumerable demon-worshipping Kîgs and Karaps have rushed upon Zaratûst and strove for his death, just like this which revelation states:—'It is then a number (mar) have run away who have sat in the vicinity of Tûr's progeny (hûnûskŏ) 3, the arbitrator: and the shame of the brother of Tûr arose, like that of a person whose shame was that they spoke of his next-of-kin marriage so that he might contract it.'

7. This Tûr was Aûrvâîtâ-dang 4 the Tûr, the scanty giver, who was like a great sovereign of that

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quarter; many troops and much power were also maintained by him, and the multitude (mar) told him they would seize the great one from him who is little.

8. But the progeny of Aûrvâîtâ-dang the Tûr, the scanty giver, spoke thus: 'Should we for that speech destroy him, this great one who mingles together those propitious words for us—where we are thus without doubt as to one thing therein, such as next-of-kin marriage, that it is not necessary to contract it—it would make us ever doubtful whether it might be necessary to contract it.'

9. And Aûrvâîtâ-dang the Tûr, the scanty giver, spoke thus: 'Thou shalt not destroy that man whom mine eyes have seen as the most loving-eyed of the whole embodied existence; he will attain strength, for it has not seemed to me, when thou destroyest him on this account, that wisdom has arisen for a long time; so that no rule (âhankŏ) of wisdom will arise, in this earth, which is so counselling (hangamanîg) as this one is (that is, when they destroy a man who is counselling, wisdom will not arise for a long while).'

10. Aûrvâîtâ-dang the Tûr, the scanty giver to his own people, also spoke thus: 'For me thou art a pure man who is counselling.'

11. And Zaratûst spoke thus: 'I shall not always be that quiet speaker, by 1 whom that I have mentioned is the most propitious thing to be obtained; and of interfering 2 speaking and managing the temper there is a next-of-kin marriage, and the high-priest

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who has contracted 1 it is to perform the ceremonial.'

12. And here the good spiritual lordship and mightiness of glory of Zaratûst, those which are provided for commemoration of the supreme lord and creator Aûharmazd, are manifested as a great wonder to the multitude, and there is rendered visible the great pre-eminence which is in him as a prophet of the creatures, which for the baseness (nankîh) of the deceitful Agash 2, the secret-moving and deceiving-natured, is the concealed control of a good disposition. 13. Then idleness, like even the habit of fear and nature of apostasy, is an attractor of every one of the multitude, when it extends to much length; little by little, too, that guide and combatant becomes a petitioner for greatness, and it is manifest through that compassion (tang-libbemâîh) and superior mindfulness of his, and through the glory of that stout champion, there are much fame and treasure.

14. The nobles of Aûrvâîtâ-dang the Tûr, the ruler of the land, were angry and clamourers for Zaratûst's death; but he invited the Kîgs and Karaps to the religion of Aûharmazd, just as this passage of revelation states that Zaratûst also spoke thus: 'Worldly righteousness, O Aûrvâîtâ-dang, thou Tûr and scanty giver! is the whole of the worship of the demons and the termination of the Mazda-worship of Zaratûst.' 15. And Aûrvâîtâ-dang the Tûr, the scanty giver, spoke thus: 'O Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas! thou shalt not attract me to this evil in which thou really art.'

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16. Zaratûst also spoke thus: 'Aûharmazd enquired of me thus: "O Zaratûst! when thou hast come away to us, among the spiritual lords, who of the people in thy material existence was the protector of the powerful men who are warriors, that was most seeking benefit, most seeking cattle, most extensively associating, most fully-supplying (that is, he gives out most things), and most hospitable 1 (that is, one saw the door of a prince's (khidîvŏ) treasury)?" I replied to him thus: "Aûrvâîtâ-clang the Tûr, the scanty giver."'

17. 'And he spoke in reply to me thus: "Him, O Zaratûst! thou shalt attract, first of the men who are warriors, to thinking about, speaking about, and acting about this religion which is Aûharmazd's and Zaratûst's. 18. If you attract him, O Zaratûst! and he believes in it and also gives currency to this religion of thine, and sits before thee in discipleship, this that one calls discipleship of thine he shall undertake, and the religion he hears fully he shall propagate (rûbâk vabîdûnyên); he is also ever after, O Zaratûst! the first of the men who are warriors, the one most seeking benefit, most seeking cattle, most extensively associating, and most hospitable of those who have yet been born and who will henceforth be born. 19. And if you do not attract him, O Zaratûst! and he does not believe in it, nor gives currency to this religion of thine, nor hears it, nor even sits before thee, nor would sit before thee, so that it is obvious to me that he is not attracted, thou shalt speak unto him thus, O Zaratûst: 'Thou art a stricken supplicant for righteousness, and a producer of lamentation for the souls of Tanâpûhar sinners

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worthy of death;' for even so it is, and for this reason he becomes worthy of death, because the existence of the religion is known to him." 20. What I tell thee, O Aûrvâîtâ-dang, thou Tûr and scanty giver! is that thou art a stricken supplicant for righteousness, a producer of lamentation for the souls of Tanâpûhar sinners worthy of death.'

21. One prodigy of the demons is specified, who was the enemy of whatever sacred beings there are, a Karap, Vaêdvôis1 by name, of those unsanctified (ayastân) by Aûharmazd 2. 22. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'I so befriend that man, O Zaratûst! who is put forward by me over the creatures, whom thou shalt invite (khvânês), I who am Aûharmazd, because I am through righteousness opposed to harm (that is, through virtue I keep harm away from the creatures), and the archangels are opposed to harm. 23. Therefore do thou proceed, O Zaratûst! and thou shalt demand from him for me (that is, keep as my property) a hundred. youths of vigour (tôsh tal) 3, girls, and teams of four horses; so do thou speak to him thus: "O Vêdvoîst! Aûharmazd demands from thee a hundred youths of vigour, girls, and teams of four horses; if thou givest them 

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to him, splendour and glory are thine through that giving; and if thou dost not give to him, evil destiny is thine through that not-giving."'

24. Then Zaratûst walked on to that Vêdvoîst of those unsanctified, and spoke to him thus: 'O Vêdvoîst of the unsanctified! that which Aûharmazd demands from thee is a hundred youths of vigour, girls, and teams of four horses if thou givest them to him, splendour and glory are thine through that giving; and if thou dost not give to him, evil destiny is thine through that not-giving.' 25. And that Karap shouted in reply to Zaratûst thus 'For me there is no more from thee (that is, there is no opulence for me from thy action), nor from Aûharmazd; I am more of a divinity (bagtar) and am more forward in opulence than even Aûharmazd; many droves of a thousand swine are also acquired by me.'

26. On went Zaratûst, up to Aûharmazd and up to the archangels, and Zaratûst spoke thus: 'O Aûharmazd, propitious spirit, creator of the world of embodied beings, thou righteous one! thus spoke he in reply to me: "For me there is no more from thee, nor from Aûharmazd; I am more of a divinity than thee or even Aûharmazd, and many droves of a thousand swine are acquired by me."'

27. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'Owing to the splendour and glory of those which are ours, O Zaratûst! that man has acquired arrogance (that is, the cattle we produced are the many cattle of his arrogance). 28. This will be his retribution for it then, however, when he does not reach further alive at the end of the third night 1; in that third night

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they will have stood aloof from alongside his life (that is, they will have stood away from assisting it); those seven of them who are radiant and bright-eyed (spêdŏ dôîsar) make him rush up on high, and up there on high he shall be fed upon mouldy bread (parnân).'

29. One marvel is the great healthfulness owing to the Hôm-water and the bringing of this by Zaratûst from the river Dâîtî, which is manifested when Vohûmanô was conveying him to the conference. 30. Just as is declared in the words of Aûharmazd to Zaratûst thus: 'For them is the Hôm-water which thou bringest, O Zaratûst! not for those demon-worshipping people who worship the demons, or for a satisfier of courtezans (gêh-vigâr); they shall sprinkle it on to that bull thou shalt bring forward, who is a four-year-old of exhausted vigour, black-haired and useful; on drinking up the water, that bull will become quite sound from that infirmity.'

31. Thereupon, Zaratûst went on first into the embodied existence, on which dwelt, at the end of Sagâstân 1, that same Parshad whose title was Tôrâ (the Bull). 32. Parshad-tôrâ 2 also spoke to him

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thus: 'O Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas! give me this Hôm-water which thou bringest.' 13. And Zaratûst spoke thus: 'Do thou praise righteousness, O Parshad-tôrâ! and scorn the demons; also utter the profession 1 of the Mazda-worship of Zaratûst among the iniquitous.' 34. It was praised by Parshadrâ, and the demons were scorned by him; yet he did not speak among the iniquitous as to his accepting the Mazda-worship of Zaratûst. 35. Forward to him came Zaratûst at that praise of righteousness, for him was that Hôm-water which Zaratûst brought; not for those demon-worshipping people who have worshipped the demons, but for that bull of his which Zaratûst brought forward, a four-year-old of exhausted vigour, black-haired and useful; owing to that bringing forward of the water, the bull became quite sound from that infirmity.

36. One marvel is that which is declared regarding the rushing of the evil spirit for the slaughter of Zaratûst, just as revelation 2 mentions thus: 'From the northern quarter forth rushed the deadly evil spirit, and thus shouted he, astute in evil, the deadly evil spirit: "Rush on, O fiend! and destroy the righteous Zaratûst." 17. On to him they rushed, the fiend, the demon Bûd, and secret-moving Pestilence, the deceiver. 38. Zaratûst chanted aloud the Ahunavair; the fiend was confounded at that, and away they rushed, the demon Bûd and secret-moving Pestilence, the deceiver. 39. And the fiends shouted thus: "Thou art scornfully observing, O evil spirit! (that is, anything to the purpose thou

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dost not thoroughly observe, and what thou orderest us to do is not possible); the death of him who is Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas is not contemplated by us." 40. Owing to the full glory of the righteous Zaratûst, he perceived in his mind thus: "The wicked demons, astute in evil, consult together about my death;" and up stood Zaratûst, forth went Zaratûst.' 41. Here is manifested a great wonder to the multitude, in that which is mentioned thus: 'And a stone was put forth by the righteous Zaratûst, that was held in his hand, and the size of a hut, and which was obtained by him from the creator Aûharmazd, the spiritual Yathâ-ahû-vairyô 1.'

42. And one marvel is this which is manifested not only in the country of Irân to Irânians, but in every land and to every race: the shattering of the demons’ bodies through the chanting of the Ahunavair aloud by Zaratûst. 43. Just as that which a passage 2 mentions thus: 'I worship the resources of the Kayân glory, with which the righteous Zaratûst was associated in thinking about, speaking about, and acting about the religion which was, of all embodied existences, the most righteous in righteousness, the most lordly in sovereignty, the most radiant in radiance, and the most glorious in glory. 44. At his appearance 3 the demons have fallen before him, at his appearance their semen (mâyagân) also drops, at his appearance the courtezan is also withdrawn by them from mankind;

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on hearing 1 him they lamented, very violently is it lamented by the demons. 45. By the Ahunavair, which the righteous Zaratûst chanted aloud to them, all the demons are seized and buried in the earth, where the complete shattering of their bodies is manifest.' 46. So that, after the shattering of their bodies, it became evident to those in the world that they were not able to do mischief in the bodily form of a demon, and they have been declared of the nature of sacred beings to mankind, but mankind fully understood that they are not sacred beings, but demons.

47. Zaratûst revealed (gushûftŏ) to mankind by the word of Aûharmazd, how in this religion the latter tells in words to Zaratûst where and how, in the embodied existence, mankind consider a demon as exalted or as a high-priest, because they are where they say that they must consider some one as high-priest. 48. So Aûharmazd spoke to Zaratûst thus: 'How do they who are good people, O Zaratûst! consider a demon as exalted? and how are they that even tell a demon thus "We should accept you," because the demons speak thus: "It will happen to you"?'

49. And Zaratûst spoke thus: 'Only for the reason, O Aûharmazd! that people hasten on to that which is a jungly plain without dwellings, where no one resides from the departure of light until sunrise

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arrives, when it is two Hâsars 1 of night, and again silently (agôp) from sunset until their returning together when the two Hâsars of night are gone, they hear that no work, no men, and no voices of dogs are there. 50. Then they say as to that, on arriving back, thus: "We have consulted with the demons there; when we request (zâêm) monarchy (sâstârîh) and leadership from them, they give them to us; when we request the possession of flocks and opulence from them, they give them to us."'

51. Then Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'How can they do such a thing for them, O Zaratûst! (that is, how does it happen that it is continually given by them for those that speak thus: "It happened to us")?'

52. And Zaratûst spoke thus: 'They speak variously, O Aûharmazd! as to that generosity; there is one who speaks thus: "I have ever after been possessing more flocks, so long as I am in consultation with the demons;" and there is another who speaks thus: "I have ever after been worse and more ill-fated, so long as we are in consultation with those demons;" according as they possess a full subsistence for themselves from the demons (that is, when they diversely subsist fully on whatever they bespeak from the demons).' 53. Zaratûst also spoke thus: 'So they speak about it, O Aûharmazd! thus: "Observe further, where any one of us returns he is either shrunk together (that is, he holds his head down to his chest), or shrunk away (that is, he looks quite aside), or is only pleasantly

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cast down and, owing to acquiescence in him, the demons tempt (nes,hûnd) him away out of mankind."'

54. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'According to thy wish, do thou, O Zaratûst! fully observe thy existence, upwards from the head, downwards from the sole 1 of the foot, and afar on various sides; and thou shouldst beseech before and behind and in every direction, for we are not as to thee as the demons are as to mankind, we give away everything only in invisibility; but the demons, through close connection, when they rush out, tempt only with pleasantness. 55. Even unto thee, O Zaratûst! a fiend will rush, a female, golden-bodied and full-bosomed (so that she wears a bodice), and she rushes to request companionship from thee; a female, golden bodied and full-bosomed, to request conversation from thee, to request co-operation from thee. 56. But thou shouldst not grant her companionship, nor conversation, nor shalt thou prescribe any conduct for her; afterwards, to revert her downwards, thou shalt utter aloud that triumphant saying the Yathâ-ahû-vairyô.'

57. Zaratûst proceeded to the habitable and friendly world, for the purpose of fully observing that beaten track (khâpisnŏ) of the embodied existence; then that fiend came forward when he sat in the vicinity of a garment—that garment 2 which, when Vohûmanô was conveying him to the conference, was deposited by him—a female, golden-bodied and full-bosomed, and companionship, conversation,

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and co-operation were requested by her from him; she also whined (dandîdŏ): 'I am Spendarmad 1.'

58. And Zaratûst spoke thus: 'She who is Spendarmad was fully observed by me in the light of a cloudless day, and that Spendarmad appeared to me fine behind and fine before and fine all round (that is, in all positions she was handsome); do thou turn thy back, and I shall know if thou art Spendarmad.'

59. And the fiend spoke to him thus: 'O Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas! where we are, those who are females are handsome in front, but frightfully hideous behind; so do not make a demand for my back.' 60. After she had protested a third time, the fiend turned her back, and she was seen by Zaratûst behind in the groin; and when matter was exuded, it was full of serpents, toads, lizards, centipedes, and frogs.

61. And that triumphant saying, the Yathâ-ahû-vairyô, was uttered aloud by Zaratûst; then that fiend was annihilated, and Kêshmak 2 the Karap rushed forth. 62. And he grumbled in leaving, thus: 'The misery which is here below is such as I have obtained, because, owing to thee, I thought that thy sacred beings were more joyful than any heroes who through defeat go to hell; I proceed more joyfully than the sacred beings, as regards the life in the body, so that I fully deceive the life in thy body, and thou art fully deceived by me as regards thine.'

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63. Zaratûst also revealed (gushûftŏ) this secret to mankind, and their knowledge how to test a demon is manifested therein, even by a great wonder of the same nature to mankind: the visible rushing of the demons into the world before Zaratûst, and their bodies being afterwards shattered by the loud chanting of revelation by Zaratûst from the Avesta announced, which was the acceptance of its truth by the ruler Vistâsp and the people of that time; and if this had not been so, and Vistâsp and those of his time were not accepting the Avesta which was announced by Zaratûst in this fashion, through their considering it false, it would not have reached unto us.

64. One marvel is this, with which, too, he who was Zaratûst became aware from revelation, about the vileness and perverted religion of Zâk of the deadly Karaps of Vistâsp and many other Kaîs and Karaps who were at the residence of Vistâsp, their combination for the death of Zaratûst, the preparation for severe abuse of him to Vistâsp, and influencing Vistâsp for his death by command of Vistâsp, which extends to awful imprisonment and punishment. 65. Afterwards, too, his knowledge about his preservation therefrom, the manifestation of his wondrousness, and the evidence concerning his attainment unto prophesying; also after the continuance of the last questioning of the ten years of conference, his departure alone, by the advice and command of Aûharmazd, to the residence of Vistâsp and the precinct (var) of that terrible conflict. 66. His uttering, on the horse-course (aspânvar) of Vistâsp, a reminder of the power and triumph of Aûharmazd over himself, as he invited Vistâsp to

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the religion of Aûharmazd; and with great wisdom Vistâsp heard the words of Zaratûst, on account of his own complete mindfulness and spiritual knowledge of ritual, and would have asked for an outpouring of prophecy.

67. But thereupon, too—before the words of Zaratûst were fully heard by him, and he could have understood the character of Zaratûst—owing to the demonizing of the deadly Zâk and the rest of those Kîgs and Karaps, spoken out with slanderous knowledge and perverse actions to Vistâsp about Zaratûst, there then occurred his consignment of Zaratûst to that confinement and punishment as stated in the words of Zaratûst thus: 'I have spoken about their three enquiries, and I am bound by thirty of them, I with thirty-three fetters of murderers, wicked ones, and demon-worshippers 1. 68. But the hunger of manhood's inclination 2 violently affected the strength of my legs, but the hunger of manhood's inclination violently affected the force of my arms, but the hunger of manhood's inclination violently affected the hearing of my ears, but the hunger of manhood's inclination violently affected the sight of my eyes, and it would force away my bosom up to my back (so that it 3 would stay behind at my back) through the continuance of that deadly hunger of manhood's inclination.'

69. And here, through the mightiness of Zaratûst—who proceeded alone to the terrible combat with 

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evil, where there became manifest, in the mode which is written, the descent of his life into so much punishment, due to hunger and thirst, heavy fetters, and other misery unto which the strength of human nature is attaining, but unto which it is not destined—is manifested a great wonder to king Vistâsp and his officials, when his full-glorious person was found by them alive in awfulness, imprisonment, and those other transformations (padgastakîh) of long-continued starvation.

70. One marvel is this, that the sacred beings contrived, for the sake of (val vahân-î) his preservation from that awfulness, a body possessing life, and on his account it became lifeless and imperceptible; afterwards, in the great session of Vistâsp and the assembly of the world, Zaratûst, through the strength and blessedness of the true word, restored the same body anew, like that which is issuing in the statement of the wonder about the splendid horse of Vistâsp 1.

71. One marvel is his telling and disclosing the thoughts of king Vistâsp and of those of the realm, and many other concealed matters, through spiritual perception.

72. One marvel is several matters of evil deceit (vad gamâs) which Dahâk had done in Bâpêl 2

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through witchcraft, and mankind had come to idol-worship through that seduction, and its increase was the destruction of the world; but through the triumphant words of the religion, which Zaratûst proclaimed opposing it, that witchcraft is all dissipated and disabled.

73. One marvel is this which is manifested, with wonders owing to Zaratûst, in controversy about the religion with the famous learned of the realm, among whom, known for learning in the world, are the investigators (girâyagânŏ). of the words of speech; and among those things which are more surprisingly controversial are those later (sibastar) words which are to save their creatures by a later religion. 74. Also to proclaim its truth intelligibly, and to make king Vistâsp and those previously learned men without doubt as to the truth of the religion, the creator Aûharmazd sends some spirits, Vohûmanô, Ashavahistô, and the propitious fire 1, as a reminder to Vistâsp about the true prophesying of Zaratûst, and the desire of Aûharmazd for the acceptance of the religion of Mazda-worship by Vistâsp and for its propagation in the world.

75. The wondrousness which is manifested to Vistâsp and those of the realm—both through the travelling (vâzîdanŏ) of those archangels down from the sky to the earth, and in their travelling to the abode of Vistâsp—was like this which revelation mentions thus: ‘Then he who is the creator Aûharmazd spoke to them, to Vohûmanô, Ashavahistô, and also the fire of Aûharmazd, the propitious, thus: "Proceed! you who are archangels, unto the

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abode of Vistâsp, whose resources (afzâr) are cattle and who is far and widely famed, with a view to his reliance upon this religion (that is, till he shall stand up for this religion); and, as regards the answering words of the righteous Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas, to approve the nature (zag sân) of those words." 76. The archangels proceeded unto the abode of Vistâsp, whose resources are cattle and who is far and widely famed; their radiance, in that lofty residence, seemed to him, that Vistâsp, a heaven of complete light, owing to their great power and triumph; this was so that, when he thus looked upon it, the exalted Kaî-Vistâsp trembled, all his courtiers (pêsakŏ) trembled, all his chieftains (padŏ) were confused, and he of the superior class was like the driver of a chariot-horse.

77. ‘And the fire of Aûharmazd spoke, in the words of heroes, thus: “Fear not, for there is no fearing for thee, thou exalted Kaî-Vistâsp! they have not come for alarming thy abode, as a reminder of the deputed envoys of Argâsp 1; there have not come, for alarming thy abode, the two Khyôns of

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[paragraph continues] Argâsp who demand tribute and revenue (sâk vabâzŏ); and there has not come, for alarming thy abode, the all-overpowering thief who is an injurer, or the dog who is a highwayman. 78. We are three who have come over (taristŏ) to thy abode, Vohûmanô, Ashavahistô, and also the fire of the propitious lord; of these thy knowledge is most wisely most just. 79. If thou helpest vision, so that it becomes wisdom for thee, the worldly existence requires the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, which proceeds purely through the recitation which Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas teaches. 80. Do thou chant the Ahunavair, do thou praise perfect righteousness 1, and utter no worship 2 for the demons! because the desire of Aûharmazd, as regards thee, is for thy reliance upon this religion; it is also the desire of the archangels, and the desire, as regards thee, of the other sacred beings who are beneficent (sapîrdahakŏ) and righteous.’”

81. '"And as the recompense in this life, if you praise the good and pure religion of the righteous Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas, we will give unto thee a long reign and sovereignty, and the long lifetime of a life of 150 years; we will give unto thee Good Integrity and Rectitude 3 which is long-continued in desire for constantly assisting, good for assistance

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through constantly assisting, and not passing away; and we will give unto thee a son, Pêshyôtan 1 is his name, he is immortal, and so is undecaying, hungerless, and thirstless, living and predominant in both existences, those of the embodied beings and of the spirits. 82. But, as the recompense in this life, if you do not praise the good and pure religion of the righteous Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas, we will not convey thee up on high, and we will order thine end; the vultures which are mindful of decay will see and eat up those and these of thine, thy blood will reach the ground, and the waters will not reach thy body."'

83. One marvel is that connected with the confidence (vâvarî-hastanŏ) of Vistâsp in the religion, even through that occurrence of the speech of the archangels; and, afterwards, the obedience (patyasâî?) of his thoughts in the case of the delays through the bloodshed owing to Argâsp 2 the Khyôn and his attendant heroes (pas-gurdânŏ) through-out the same Khyôns, because of the acceptance of the religion. 84. Also, for the sake of daily and visibly showing to Vistâsp the certified victory over Argâsp and the Khyôns, and his own superior position, unceasing rule, splendour, and glory, the creator Aûharmazd sends, at the same time, the angel Nêryôsang 3 to the abode of Vistâsp, as a reminder for the archangel Ashavahistô to give to Vistâsp to drink of that fountain of life, for looking

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into the existence of the spirits, the enlightening food by means of which great glory and beauty are seen by Vistâsp.

85. Just as this passage of revelation mentions thus: ‘And he who is the creator Aûharmazd spoke to the angel Nêryôsang thus: “Proceed and travel, O Nêryôsang the assembler 1! unto the abode of Vistâsp, whose resources are cattle and who is far and widely famed, and thou shalt say this to Ashavahistô, thus: ‘O Ashavahistô! do thou authoritatively take this fine saucer (tastô), which is fully finer than the other saucers that are made (that is, the cup (gâm) is as fine as is possible to make for royalty), and carry up to Vistâsp the Hôm and Vars 2 (mûî) which are for us; and do thou give it 3 unto the ruler Vistâsp to drink up, by whose word it is accepted.’” 86. Ashavahistô authoritatively taking the fine saucer from him, also, thereupon, gave it unto the exalted ruler Kaî-Vistâsp to drink from 4; and the ruler of the country (dîh), the exalted Kaî-Vistâsp, lay down when divested of his robes, and he spoke to Hûtôs 5 thus: “You, O Hûtôs! are she

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whom the prompt ability (têzŏ hûnar) of Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas should reach; and through the diligence of the prompt ability of Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas, you 1 would expound the religion of Aûharmazd and Zaratûst.”’

87. One marvel is this which is declared, that when Vistâsp, accepting the religion, praises righteousness, the demons in hell are disabled, and the demon Aeshm 2 rushes to the country of the Khyôns and to Argâsp, the deadly one of the Khyôns, because he was the mightiest of the tyrants at that time; and the most hideous of all, of so many of them in the country of the Khyôns, are poured out by him for war.

88. And here, too, is manifested a great wonder also to the host (ram) of Irân who have been coming there, unto the residence of Argâsp the Khyôn, like this which revelation mentions thus: 'Then, just at the time his legion is separately displayed, Aeshm the unredeemable (tanâpûharak) adheres (gêrevêdŏ) to him, as being himself without escort (agurôh), and quite opposes (barâ sperezêdŏ) him, because: "You, who are a Khyôn, have become unlucky through want of success after you engage in conflict."' 89. Henceforth, it is not that the victory of Irân has come over foreigners and Khyôns-through companionship at the abode of that man who is mightier by the birth of Zaratûst

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of the Spîtâmas—when that hideous sovereignty of Argâsp, the deadly Khyôn, is swallowed up by him (Vistâsp), for the confusion of the deadly species (that is, they are further smitten by him, one through the other; and are swallowed together by him, mutually struggling and through mutually devouring). 90. And apart from him, that bitter and well-hardened Khyôn that is quite disabled by him the good Vistâsp, that deadly fiend is disturbed about him of eloquent abilities (Zaratûst); and so he grumbled at the hideous sovereignty thus: 'Prompt ability comes into existence and the Khyôn came; thereupon prompt ability comes into existence and the Irânian has come 1.'


51:1 From this point §§ 4-8 and 11 have been already translated in S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 412, 413, in illustration of the meaning of Khvêtûk-das in Sasanian times and later.

51:2 Av. staomî ashem; nâismî daêvô (Yas. XI, 19; XII, r).

51:3 An opprobrious term for the progeny of evil beings and animals, also used by a Karap when speaking of Zaratûst in Chap. III, 21.

51:4 As this name has not been found in the extant Avesta, its correct reading is uncertain. In Zs. XX, 8, it can be read Aûrvaîtŏ-dih, in which dih is the Pahl. translation of Av. dang,hu, of which dang is a Pahl. transliteration; and the whole name may mean 'friendly to the province,' which seems suitable to this particular ruler. The MS. appears to have dêng.

52:1 Or 'from.'

52:2 It may be 'parenthetical or ambiguous.'

53:1 Or, perhaps, 'celebrated.'

53:2 The demon of the evil eye (see Bd. XXVIII, 33); Av. Aghashi, Vd. XX, 3, 7, 9.

54:1 Literally 'most many-doored.'

55:1 Here written in Pâzand, but the Pahlavi form, Vêdvoîst, occurs in §§ 23, 24.

55:2 Or 'of the non-worshippers of Aûharmazd.'

55:3 For an instance of gifts of slaves see the Pahlavi inscription on an engraved stone from Baghdâd, in Indian Antiquary, vol. xi, p. 224, ll. 2, 3 of inscription: 'kevan bîdûn va-kanîgakŏ . . . lakhvâr . . . shedrûnam . . . va-zak shibâ rîdŏ va-shibâ kanîgakŏân shedrûnt:'—'Now . . . I send back a slave-boy and slave-girl . . . and those seven slave-boys and seven slave-girls are sent.' This inscription was probably engraved in the seventh century, judging from the forms of the letters.

56:1 Apparently the third night after death, on the passing away of p. 57 which the soul is supposed to have its destination determined, until the resurrection (see Hâdôkht Nask, II, 18; III, 17). If the seven sacred beings who stand aloof from him be the archangels, they treat Vêdvoîst very leniently; but this legend treats of a period which it assumes to be earlier than the laws of Zaratûst.

57:1 The modern Sîstân, bordering upon Afghânistân and Bulûkistân.

57:2 Av. Parshad-gau, mentioned twice in Yt. XIII, 96, 127, but it is not certain that both allusions refer to the same individual. The name also occurs in Bd. XXIX, 5, but only hi one old MS.; in all others another name is given, though the locality appears to be p. 58 nearly the same. In § 31 the first part of the name is here written Parshêd.

58:1 The Fravarânê, Yas. XI, 16.

58:2 Pahl. Vd. XIX, 1-4.

59:1 The first three words of the Ahunavair formula.

59:2 See Yt. XIX, 78-81.

59:3 Reading vêndâvdahakih, but the first letter is omitted in all three occurrences of the word.

60:1 If the word be Pahlavi, it is probably intended for snâyân, hearing'; but it may be merely an approximate transcript of Av. snaodhentis, which word, if this be the case, must have puzzled Sasanian scholars as much as it does those of the present time. As a transcript, the word might be read snôdîyân, and we might guess the meaning of the phrase to be 'thereupon weeping they lamented.'

61:1 Av. hâthra, which, as a measure of time, varies from one to two hours (see Farh. Um, p. 43, ll. 1-3).

62:1 Assuming that lêlyâ stands for zêrîh; the only difference, in Pahlavi writing, being in the first letter.

62:2 See Chap, III, 60.

63:1 The female archangel Bountiful Devotion, in whose special charge are the earth and virtuous women; see Sls. XV, 5, 20-24.

63:2 See Chap. II, 44, 45.

65:1 Compare Zs. XXIII, 5.

65:2 Reading gûsn-girâîh; but it might be dûs-vîrâîh, 'bad provision.' He was left to starve to death in prison.

65:3 The bosom. The idea of the writer appears to have been that in case of utter starvation the chest would totally collapse, so that the breast bone would touch the spine.

66:1 This very slight allusion to the cure of Vistâsp's horse by Zaratûst is sufficient to show that this legend existed in the ninth century; but the writer of the Dînkard seems inclined to trace it back to a tale that he vaguely relates in the earlier part of this section, and which he evidently found in older writings; this tale, however, does not mention a horse, but only an animated body. The Persian Zaratûst-nâma develops the legend of the sick horse, whose legs are drawn up to its belly, into 160 couplets.

66:2 Babylon; see Yt. V, 29-31; XV, 19-21.

67:1 Compare Zs. XXIII, 7.

68:1 Av. Aregad-aspa, king of the Hvyaonas (Pahl. Khyôns), mentioned in Yt. V, 109, 113, 116; XVII, 50; XIX, 87. His war with Vistâsp, for the purpose of compelling the latter to abjure his new religion, is described in the Yâdkâr-î Zarîrân (see Geiger in Sitzungsberichten der p.-p. and h. Classe der k. bayer. Akad. der Wiss. 1890, Bd. II, pp. 43-84). Argâsp sends two envoys, Vîdrafs the wizard and Nâmkhvâst of the Hazârs, to demand Vistâsp's submission; this is refused defiantly by advice of Zarîr, the king's brother; and both nations prepare for war. When the Irânians meet the Khyôns, Vistâsp consults his vazîr Gâmâsp, who prognosticates prodigious slaughter. And, after losing most of their chieftains (including twenty-three brothers and sons of Vistâsp), the Irânians utterly annihilate the Khyôn army. This war is called the 'war of the religion' in Bd. XII, 33; Byt. III, 9.

69:1 That is, recite the Yathâ-ahû-vairyô and the Ashem-vohû formulas.

69:2 Pahl. a-aîzisnîh, literally, a 'non-worship,' which may mean something worse than 'no worship;' but 'execration or malediction' is usually expressed by gazisn, 'cursing,' which is written exactly like yazisn, 'worship.'

69:3 Pahl. Aharîsvang and Râê-astisnîh, the equivalents of Av. Ashis-vanguhi and Rasãstât who are spiritual personifications of the qualities mentioned in the text.

70:1 Written Pêshyâôtanŏ, both here and in Chap. V, 12. He is the immortal priestly ruler of Kangdez, who was expected to come to restore the religion in Iran in the time of Aûshêdar, see Bd. XXIX, 5; Byt. III, 25-32, 36-42, 51, 52.

70:2 Here written Argadâspô; see § 77.

70:3 Written Nêryôsang here and in § 85.

71:1 Compare Vd. XXII, 7.

71:2 A lock of three, five, or seven hairs from the tail of a white bull, that is tied to a metal thumb-ring which is put into the Hôm-strainer when the Hôm-juice is about to be poured through it. See Haug's Essays, 3rd ed., pp. 397-403. This ring and lock of hair may be the relic of a hair-sieve that may have been used for straining the Hôm-juice in former times.

71:3 The saucer, or cup, of strained Hôm-juice.

71:4 The foregoing twenty-six words, excepting two, have been here repeated by the writer of the old Bombay MS., after turning over a folio.

71:5 Av. Hutaosa, wife of Vistâsp and descendant of Nôdar (Av. Naotara); see Yt. XV, 35, 36. According to the later authority of the Yâdkar-î Zarîrân, § 48, she was also a sister or Vistâsp. p. 72 The similarity of her name to that of Atossa, the wife and sister of Cambyses, whom Darius afterwards married, is striking.

72:1 As the verbal forms of the present third person singular and second person plural are alike in Pahlavi, it is doubtful which personal pronoun to use.

72:2 The demon of Wrath; see Bd. XXVIII, 15-17.

73:1 According to the numbering of the folios of the old MS. of 1659 (brought from Persia to India in 1783) one folio, numbered 313 in Persian words, is here missing. It has not yet been found in India, and, owing to folio 312 apparently completing a sentence, and folio 314 evidently beginning a new chapter, the loss of text is hardly perceptible. It would have filled the next two pages.

Next: Chapter V