Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. , at sacred-texts.com
1. The seventh fargard, Tâ-ve-urvâtâ 2, is that by him who possesses advantage through virtue, the world of righteousness is freed from 3 destruction 4; even for this reason, because the possession of advantage through virtue arises through the non-participation of the demons and the vile therein, and the participation of, the sacred beings and the
good; and, when one shall act so, the advantage of spiritual origin becomes more powerful through guarding the advantage from the destroyers. 2. This, too, that, by him who welcomes Aûharmazd in his person, apostates are likewise forced to make the religion of Aûharmazd progressive 1; even for this reason, because owing to 2 the apostasy of apostates being a religion produced by Aharman, they are only able to make the religion progressive through the appellation of Aûharmazd; apostasy and priesthood, and the apostates and priests, are fraternal opponents, and whenever the priesthood and multitudes of the priesthood are triumphant, multitudes of the apostates of apostasy perish (aôshênd), and when the multitudes of the apostates of apostasy are bold, the priests of the priesthood are weak; and the priests are superior in power and success when their priesthood is properly limited, and their properly-limited priesthood, toowhich can arise through mankindconsists in the welcome precedence of Aûharmazd.
3. About the completeness (spôrîkîh) of the priesthood in that quality now, when the priests of the multitude are the habitation (mêhônŏ) of Aûharmazd, and the power of the priests of the priesthood has increased, the valour of the apostates of apostasy is smitten, and the apostates are defeated by the abundant splendour of the priests, also their power as regards making the religion of Aharman progressive through the appellation of Aûharmazd is fettered, and they keep apostasy concealed 3.
[paragraph continues] 4. And then also they, with the appellation of priests, truly speak and teach the religion of Aûharmazd, and make it progressive, just as it is solemnized and made easy by them, even Though the will of the sacred beings be unheard and undesired through apostasy.
5. This, too, that he proclaims the miraculousness of Aûharmazd 1, who shall appoint for ordeal that which is certainly a doubt; even for this reason, because, through accomplishing an ordeal, that which is doubtful is forcibly rendered visible (vênâvdahakî-aîtŏ) to the eyes, as certain clearness, through the power of the spirit, which is itself a miracle of Aûharmazd. 6. This, too, that by him who shall make a public decision thereon, as to the acquitted and convicted 2, gratification is afforded to him whose maintenance of the dispute 2 is righteous; even for this reason, because the needful is delivered by him to its own requirer who thereby becomes even renowned. 7. This, too, that even the rite of ordeal [is produced] 3 by him [who is an advantage to the righteous; for this reason, because the rite of ordeal is for the advancement of the ordeal, and the religious ordeal] proceeds through sovereignty; these righteous are those of the good religion, and their advantage is that belonging to the multitude, which is the sovereignty now, and every one who is given for that advantage, to the
righteous of those of the good religion, becomes the performer of any rite of ordeal really produced, because the origin of that giving of advantage is even the rite of ordeal. 8. This, too, that by him who gives a priest and righteous man for propagating the religion, the rite of ordeal is also proclaimed; even for this reason, because the teacher and one rightly merciful (hû-âmûrzîdâr) give 1 the sacred text by which even the rite of ordeal is declared.
9. This, too, that he who recites the revelation of Aûharmazd, and who shall do it with exceeding goodness, becomes an increaser of wisdom; even for this reason, because the wisdom of a man increases in these two ways, either he speaks and teaches himself, or he exemplifies the excellence of a portion to the wise who become speakers and teachers of wisdom. 10. This, too, that his homage is for Aûharmazd, who thoroughly teaches a righteous employer of animals and human beings (kîrâ vavîr) that he considers him as their controller (dastôbar); because, since the productiveness of the completion of the creatures is produced through the nourishment of the creatures by Aûharmazd through his fulfilling his own productiveness, that righteous employer in the world is intended for the nourishment of his creatures, owing to that outward subjection and propitiation of theirs, and the righteous employer is connected with their subjection and propitiation for the creator.
11. This, too, that by him who gives thought to the religion of Zaratûst, the soul is given to Zaratûst;
even for this reason, because with a man's having given thought to the religion of Zaratûst is connected the receiving of his soul by Zaratûst for preservation from hell. 12. This, too, that by him who teaches the nature of the sacred beings to mankind, consultation with Aûharmazd is also further taught; even for this reason, because the nature of the sacred beings is consulting a spiritual lord, and becomes also the consulting of Aûharmazd.
13. This, too, that by him who keeps the produce of sheep as the property of Aûharmazd, a sheep is given to him who is diligent and moderate 1; even for this reason, because produce kept as the property of Aûharmazd is for being given for good works, being given for good works is being truly kept as a beginning for the possession of produce, and a beginning truly kept is kept even through a sheep, as a beginning of excellence, in the control (dastôbarîh) of him who is a diligent and moderate shepherd 2. 14. This, too, that by him who is liberal to the liberal the increase owing to developers is brought into the world; even for this reason, because a liberal man, on account of even that gift given back to the worthy, becomes even for usthrough the development of the worldhim who is first praised therein with the sacred beings. 15. This, too, that whoever shall form a store for sheep, becomes an agent even in the development of sheep by the creator; because, on account of the increase of sheep through the existence of nourishment for them having arisen, whoever has arranged nourishment for sheep, becomes an agent even in the development
of sheep by the creator. 16. This, too, that by him who teaches inward prayer (vâkakŏ) to the good, it is also taught to eaters; even for this reason, because, everything connected with eating being declared by the religion, when the religion is taught by any one to the good, in which even that information is proclaimed, even eaters are taught about it. 17. This, too, that whoever maintains a sheep, or human being, as our property, is taught to maintain it through the high-priest of Zaratûst; even for this reason, because it is so maintained as the property of the sacred beings, when he maintains it as the property of Zaratûst.
18. This, too, that by him who gave predominance to those of the nature of Gâyômard 1, the sovereignty also of those of the religion of Zaratûst is desired; even for this reason, because the religion of Zaratûst is the nature of Gâyômard, and the nature of Gâyômard is the religion of Zaratûst. 19. This, too, that when one is alone among rulers a way of speaking to the rulers such words as are really true is thereby provided; even for this reason, because the utterance of blessings by a solitary person is for advantage. 20. This, too, that by him who keeps the sovereignty which is his within the will of Aûharmazd, the best thing is done unto Aûharmazd; even for this reason, because a sovereignty is so kept within the will of Aûharmazd when he who is the ruler gives to Aûharmazd the individuality in which is the sovereignty, and when its proximity and closeness have given to Aûharmazd that thing which is best and supreme.
21. This, too, that when one teaches the sayings
[paragraph continues] (vâkakŏ) of the benefiters, the information which is owing to the religion is illustrated 1 by him to his own; even for this reason, because the knowledge of religion, which is in its causing liberality by him, is increased even by the repeated enquiry of disciples. 22. This, too, that by him who teaches an applicant the virtuous way and doctrine (pand) the liturgy is then taught; even for this reason, because knowledge arises through the virtuous course of the liturgy 2. 23. This, too, that by him who thinks of the affairs of virtue, the liturgy is maintained and taught with virtuousness 2; even for this reason, because the maintenance of the liturgy with virtuousness arises through virtuous thinking.
24. This, too, that whoever shall provide the nourishment of creatures with propriety, his Vohûman (good thought) is Aûharmazd's progeny 3; and whoever properly maintains those which are in his keeping, his position becomes Aûharmazd's fatherhood of Vohûman 4 even for this reason, because every proper nourishing is that in which the nourished becomes an offspring such as Vohûman unto Aûharmazd; and every proper protection of the creatures, over those which are protected by it, is a fatherhood such as that of Aûharmazd over Vohûman. 25. This, too, that by him who shall provide nourishment with propriety for the creation which is good, it is taught that the good creation was produced by Aûharmazd; even for this reason, because from the nourishment of the creation with propriety, together with the discriminating action of the nourisher, the goodness of the nourished is also
evident, from the goodness of the nourished creation the goodness of him who is its creator is evident, and the creator of the good creation is Aûharmazd himself.
26. This, too, that whoever shall spiritually make Aûharmazd the ruler over his own person becomes a ruler as to actions 1; even for this reason, because whoever is making Aûharmazd ruler over his person is a leader of wisdom, a leader of wisdom is a decider taking account of sin and good works, taking account of sin and good works is abstaining from sin and practising good works, and owing to abstinence from sin and practising good works one becomes a ruler over actions. 27. This, too, that Spendarmad 2 is given to Aûharmazd by him who is as reverent unto Aûharmazd as a daughter unto a father; even for this reason, because the Spendarmadic nature (Spendarmadîh) is provided by him for Aûharmazd.
28. This, too, that for him who thinks of the care of cattle there arises that wisdom 3 which the control (patîh) of cattle gives; even for this reason, because the nature of the wisdom for a production of cattle is provided in mankind, and, when mankind apply their thoughts to seeking that wisdom, they obtain it. 29. This, too, that by him who is admitting the male to cattle at the proper time, the care of cattle is also thought of; even for this reason, because the admittance of the male becomes productiveness, and whoever 4 would cause productiveness thinks also of nourishment.
30. This, too, that by him who has prepared himself for the priests the way to yonder 1 world is taught; even for this reason, because the way to yonder world is declared by the religion, and its indicator is the priest; therefore, by him who is prepared for the priests, through discipleship, that way is known and is made known. 31. This, too, that in him who shall do that which is something that is an assistance to the renovation of the universe, thoughts of the bounty (dahîh) of the creator arise; even for this reason, because creativeness is through thinking of the renovation, thinking of the renovation arises through the renovation, the renovation arises through anything which is done that is an assistance of the renovation, the doing of anything that is an assistance of the renovation is through thinking of sagacity, and thinking of sagacity becomes thoughts of the bounty of the creator.
32. This, too, that by him who loves the affairs of the archangels a heart and mind 2, for not being misled from the way of the sacred beings, are recommended to mankind; even for this reason, because from the religion of the sacred beings being loved arises increasing power of the sacred beings, from the increasing power of the sacred beings arises their greater authority among mankind, and from the greater authority of the sacred beings among mankind arises the resistance of heart and mind of mankind, even in their not being misled by the very demons. 33. This, too, that whoever shall act with reverence to Vohûman sees the sin which is concealed in him mingled with good works
thereby 1; even for this reason, because reverence for Vohûman becomes submission (hêrîh) in virtuousness, with virtuous submission are connected freedom from Kîkship and from Karapship 2, and with freedom from Kîkship and from Karapship is connected one sound of life and eye, whereby he is an observant decider, and atonement for sin arises from good works.
34. This, too, that by him who shall provide liberality for the liberal, the giving of a loans to mankind is also taught; even for this reason, because liberal giving by any one is accounting for his own debt, and he endeavours to repay it fully observantly and with complete gratification; besides that, the power of liberality becomes extendible among mankind, and through loans and other gifts 3 of generosity (dahisnîkîh) they become ardent. 35. This, too, that by him who pays homage (franâmêdŏ) to the affairs of Aûharmazd, as much as he is able, the non-injury of the innocent is also taught; even for this reason, because to intertwine further (frôvâftanŏ) with the affairs of Aûharmazd, as much as possible, is first to commit no sin and to perform as many good works as possible, and abstaining from the essentials of sin is non-injury of the innocent. 36. This, too, that by him who possesses a ruler and high-priest Aûharmazd is
spiritually made ruler over his person 1; even for this reason, because, through the requirement of Aûharmazd, the angels are lord and master of the worldly existence of that man.
37. This, too, that whoever decides duty and opinion becomes also an informer of others; even for this reason, because it informs others that he is possessing wisdom, and this is what is said, that 'the wisdom of a man is evident from his deciding as to affairs.' 38. This, too, that whoever shall provide nurture with propriety becomes also an indicator (dakhshakînîdâr) 2 for others; even for this reason, because the happiness of the nurturer becomes also a happy indicator even for thee; and this, too, is what one says, that 'always good, happy, and free from serfs 3 is he who is not a master of vagabonds (padŏ-î pûân).'
39. This, too, that by him who is a ruler who, by a command given, appoints him who is liturgical (mânsarîk), and gives anything to him which it is desirable to give, the necessary demeanour for true and virtuous statements 4 is taught; even for this reason, because the uttering of true and virtuous statements, in fearlessness 4 of rulers, is owing to a well-established sovereignty, and their well-established sovereignty is more particularly through these two things, good commanding and helpfulness; when they establish that liturgical one by a command given it is good commanding, and when they give
anything to him which it is desirable to give the helpfulness is provided; also, owing to their good commanding, the helpfulness is a good establishment of the sovereignty, owing to a well-established sovereignty there is fearlessness also in uttering true and virtuous statements, and, owing to freedom from concealment in uttering true and virtuous statements, the necessary demeanour for true and virtuous statements arises. 40. This, too, that he who gives personal service unto the king of kings, and who considers the product (bar) as the property of Aûharmazd, is empowered for indicating the acquitted and convicted 1 by the spirits, his indicators of the acquitted and convicted; even for this reason, because the person being given in service to the king of kings is the preparation (nîvârisnŏ) of subjection, and the product being considered as the property of Aûharmazd is to consider the innocence of its origin (bûn) and to make the product well-selecting (hû-kînakŏ) through virtuousness; owing to the progress of these two, the virtuousness in the world becomes great and increasing productiveness for all the good spiritual and worldly existences which are in it, even those who are angels indicating the acquitted and convicted.
41. This, too, that by him who becomes immortal progress 2 for him who is immortally progressive, complete progress 2 is given to him who is completely progressive; and its routine (dâdistân), too,
is even this, that by him who wishes 1 to make that which is his own soul immortal, and would afford it assistance, every benefit is given to him who is a supplicant for every benefit and becomes a giver of every benefit which he begs, which becomes an assistance to him whom he asks in attaining thereto. 42. This, too, that whoever gratifies that which is enjoyment renders his soul immortal; even for this reason, because the soul subsists through good works, and good works are all those which gratify enjoyment. 43. This, too, that whoever keeps himself always in good works 2 has produced perfection and happiness by any goodness and worthiness of his; even for this reason, because keeping oneself always in good works becomes perfect diligence in industry, within perfect diligence in industry is also comprised opposition to any harm whatever, and it is opposition to harm and perfect goodness that are worthy of every happiness.
44. This, too, that by him who possesses wealth as high-priest of the priests, predominance as their high-priest is maintained 3 and taught; even for this reason, because the provision of sovereignty and its progress are really through wealth. 45. This, too, that by him who would act for the pleasure of others, owing to virtue, the growth and increase owing to Vohûman 4 are produced; even for this reason, because that which has given virtuous pleasure is the nourishment of the creatures by the producer of increase and growth.
46. This, too, that by him who welcomes Aûharmazd
in himself 1, and teaches good works to mankind, every virtuous instruction is taught; even for this reason, because the welcoming of Aûharmazd in oneself is the non-committal of sin, and the teaching of good works to mankind is more particularly the performance of good works oneself; innocence and the practising of good works are the end of every instruction, and he in whom they exist becomes a teacher of every goodness. 47. This, too, that by him who shall occasion benefit through him who is a propagator of good works, the evidence of him who is well-informed 2 is taught through one well-informed; even for this reason, because the chief evidence as to sagacity is to occasion benefit for the good. 48. This, too, that by him who gives commands as to the affairs of Aûharmazd, Aûharmazd is made welcome in his person 1; even for this reason, because the throne of Aûharmazd in the worldly existence is more particularly in a ruler of well-commanding person.
49. The excellence of righteousness is perfect.
327:2 See Chap. VIII, 1 n.
327:3 Assuming that mûn, 'which,' stands for min.
327:4 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 1 b.
328:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 1 c.
328:2 Assuming that lâ, 'not,' stands for râî.
328:3 The passage in the Pahlavi commentary on this Nask, which p. 329 is here described, must evidently have been written shortly after some great triumph of the priesthood over some heresy, probably either that of Mânî, or that of Mazdak.
329:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 2 b.
329:2 Ibid. 3 a.
329:3 Ibid. 3 b. The words in brackets translate a passage inserted in the MS. at the time the folios were patched, like that in Chap. LII, 7, 8.
330:1 Assuming that yehevûnd, 'they are,' stands for yehabûnd.
331:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 10 a.
331:2 Ibid. 10 b.
332:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 11 b, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 1.
333:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 6 a.
333:2 Ibid. 6 b.
333:3 Ibid. 8 a.
333:4 Ibid. 8 b.
334:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 8 c.
334:2 Ibid. 9 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3.
334:3 Ibid. 9 a.
334:4 Assuming that min, 'from,' stands for mûn.
335:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 9 b.
335:2 Ibid. 12 b.
336:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 13 c, where, after hômanih, J2, Pt4, and Mf4 insert the following words: vinâs dên avŏ kirfakŏ gûmîkhtŏ yekavîmûnêdŏ, madam aharâyîh ak sardâr hômanih.
336:2 Pahl. akîkîh va-akarapîh; see Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 13 n for the two idolatrous priestly tribes here alluded to. On its second occurrence the first word is corrupted into âkâs which closely resembles akîgîh in Pahlavi letters.
336:3 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 14 b.
337:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, .16 a.
337:2 Ibid. 17 c.
337:3 Pahl. avârûnŏ; but, as freedom from servants is not exactly an Oriental idea of happiness, the word may also be read anâlônŏ, a possible variant of anâlânŏ, 'unlamenting.'
337:4 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 19 b.
338:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 19 c.
338:2 Ibid. 21 a; amarg-rûbisnîh and hamâk-rûbisnîh are Pahlavi translations of Av. ameretâd and haurvatâd, as may be seen in Ibid. 6 b.
339:1 Written yetîbunêd with mû above it as a partial correction into yezbemûnêd which is evidently the proper word.
339:2 See Pahl. Yas, XXXI, 21 a.
339:3 Ibid. 21 b.
339:4 Ibid. 21 c.
340:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 22 c.
340:2 Ibid. 22 a.