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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at

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dkar Nask.

1. The eleventh fargard, the Yasna 1, is about the assembly of the angels of the spiritual existences on account of the complaint of fire; and the complaint of fire in the assembly, with its statement of this, too 2: 'I am not of the world here, and from here I will extricate myself, from the earth up to the sky, and there I will shine on to the earth of seven regions, like the moon and sun and even the divinely-produced stars when they shine with their own light.' 2. The words of Aûharmazd about the just complaining of fire as regards the contamination 3 of the creatures, the impossibility of keeping the fire undisturbed, and satisfying the fire concerning the creation of the creatures for the worldly existence, along with the disturbed condition of fire, too, owing to the impossibility of maintaining 4 the uncreated state which, with the freedom from disturbance of fire also, was better; likewise proclaiming the care of it. 3. And the speech of the fire was thus: 'If there be not that one mode whereby I may thus shine, owing to those that have acted according to my request 5, thou art aware, O Aûharmazd! there

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are some among the creatures that I cannot grant so much to; therefore carry me away, O Aûharmazd! then give me away there! and be thou carrying me away into the midst of Aîrân-vêg 1!'

4. The propitious 2 fire is from the creator Aûharmazd, and it is produced by him in a dwelling, without being handled (barâ sûdakŏ) 3, by aid of bringing together 4. 5. And so he spoke in words thus: 'Such is thine own growth, thou who art my fire! in every dwelling where thou comest, and in every village, every community, and every province; and as exalted as thou are the water and plants, and he, too, who is a guardian spirit of the righteous, when they shall bring forward holy-water for delivering up to thee 5; and, when they shall bring forward to thee firewood which is dry, a person—through the light which he observes—has spoken of it thus: "This is the Gûsn-asp 6 fire."'

6. About so much reward of the hewer and inspector and kindler of the firewood—when all three shall do it for the sake of affection—as they

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are possessing righteousness. 7. About the character and reward of the washer (âsnôtâr) and the producer of the purity and cleansing of that which the fire has dropped 1, of the introducer of the firewood and the washer upwards 2, of the stirrer of the fire and the carrier-away of the firewood, who are strictly directed; the lawful work done with a cooking-pot and such-like, and the sin of him who is a disturber of it. 8. About the destroyer of that which the fire has dropped, and the introducer of damp firewood into it. 9. About the blessing of fire for people by whom it is satisfied.

10. About advice as regards not bringing to the fire that which is due to theft, or the power of extortion, and the grievous bridge-judgment 3 of him who is bringing it; also the defilement (âlûdan) and hurting of the fire from that which occurs when he likewise consecrates his hoard (hanbarisnŏ), owing to the corruption by the demons 4 thus arisen. 11. This, too, that it is owing to want of attention to fire when it is not at every menstrual excitement they produce, in a woman assisted by a propensity

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for a son (pûs radîh), that the progeny is a son. 12. And about the penalty for 1 the progress of other impropriety which occurs to fire; also about the person who has attained to the guardianship of fire and does not lawfully control it.

13. About an admonition to Zaratûst as to consecrating to the sacred beings anything whatever which one eats, and not eating what is unconsecrated. 14. About the wish of the evil spirit that no one shall be performing (vadîdûnâñ-âdŏ) worship and obeisance to the sacred beings, and that the people shall possess no ruler and high-priest, so that no desire of theirs shall arise for any virtuousness. 15. About an admonition as to indispensably worshipping the sacred beings with the best ceremonial, that of a priest (âsrûkŏ) without sin; or with an average one, that of a priest whose sin is not more than one Aredûs 2 without a basis (a-bûn); or with the lowest one, that of a priest whose sin is not more than one Khôr 3 on a basis (pavan bûn). 16. Whoever, in a village of Mazda-worshippers, has not chanted the sacred hymns after fifteen years of age, through sinfulness, is as a dog they have thrown provisions to, and it has occurred for a basis of the sin of unseasonable chattering 4; also the inadmissibility of his soul by Mânsarspend 5,

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17. About the coming of Ast-vîdâd 1, at all times, to mortals whom death has reached 2, and also whom it has not. 18. About the ideas of the wicked, that the best existence does not exist, that the production of the renovation of the universe does not occur, that there are no dead whom they raise up thereby, and it is not that change one attains. 19. This, too, that is false, for the same reason they observe, being wicked; because the best existence exists, there occurs a production of the renovation which is good, they raise up the dead thereby, and thus one attains that change.

20. About an admonition as to not making lamentation and weeping over those passed away; and, after the passing away of every righteous one of the religion to the spirits, one is not to augment the distress of the very spirit of life by making lamentation and weeping over the departed. 21. And this, too, that the guardian spirits of the righteous claim no lamentation and weeping after their own ceremonial and the blessing of righteous men. 22. This, too, that the body of every one is not of like will with the soul; food is the desire of the body, and also a store of wealth; righteous action is the desire of the soul, and also the gifts which they give away.

23. About an enquiry of the righteous Zaratûst as to who it is who has banished (âpârinîdŏ) all goodness and perfection from his own self, but thinks them not banished, and does not complain of

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that loss 1. 24. And the reply of Aûharmazd, that it is he who is deceived 2 by his own tongue through the utterance of words, so that, through speaking falsely, he has become worthy of death. 25. This, too, that for him it is the weapon of the evil spirit; even so complete mindfulness is the reign of Spendarmad 3, and thus a liar is more a power for the religion when a man, on account of dulness of thought, gives no reply, so that he may not speak falsely through dulness of thought.

26. This, too, that he worships the demons with thousand-fold holy-water, who establishes him who is not a member of the community 4 in the Zôti duty 5, sooner than him who is a wise Zôti. 27. And this, too, that thou shouldst fetch him who is a member of the community for the Zôti duty, not him who is not a member of the community, for thus thy advance is to the supreme heaven (garôdmânŏ). 28. Also this, that a bad Zôti is worse from the Zôti duty.

29. This, too, that that which is the earliest controller (ayûkhtâr) of sin is thought which is subdued 6, then forgiveness, then shame, and then listening; and, afterwards, through the sinfulness of the fiend 7,

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one becomes a promise-breaker. 30. This, too, that they shall bring every man who is a wounder before the convocation composed of any priest who is a controller of recitation (srâyisnŏ ayûkhtâr), any priest who is of the district (âdehîk), any priest who is of an out-district (aûzdehîk), and any priest who is the man's own kinsman.

31. 'Thus say I unto thee, O Spîtâmân! let there be no breach of promise; neither when the conversation, that they would make a support, was with the wicked, and there is no great judiciousness in it; nor when it was with those of thine own religion, the righteous, as to anything of great judiciousness; because both of them are promises, both with the wicked and the righteous 1.'

32. It is the excellence of righteousness that is perfect.


189:1 The Yasna of seven chapters, Av. yasna haptanghâiti (Yas. XXXV, 3-XLI, 6), here written asnô (for yêsnô) in both MSS.

189:2 The spirit of fires, after repeating to the heavenly council the complaint he had already made to Aûharmazd alone, concludes with the same threat as in Chap. XI, 11.

189:3 B gûmêkhtakîh (K gûmêzakîh) implies deterioration by an 'intermingling' of evil.

189:4 K omits these last four words by mistake.

189:5 That is, if he cannot desert the world, owing to the necessity of stopping with those who act properly.

190:1 The primeval home of Mazda-worship, the abode of Yim, and the scene of Zaratûst's first promulgation of the religion, the Airyanem vaêgô of the Avesta (see Vend. I, 1, 3, II, 21; Bd. XX, 32, XXXII, 3).

190:2 Pahl. afzûnîk; the spenista ('most bounteous') fire of Yas. XVII, 11, XXXVI, 3. According to Pahl. Yas. XVII, 67 it 'stands in heaven before Aûharmazd in a spiritual state.'

190:3 Or it may mean 'being rubbed out,' that is, 'by friction;' but compare the use of the word sûdakîh in Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVII, 19.

190:4 Referring probably to the establishment of a sacred fire by bringing together every possible variety of fire that can be obtained.

190:5 Merely as a formal offering, or for purifying the fire-stand, not for mingling with the fire itself.

190:6 One of the three original sacred fires, which is said to have p. 191 been established, in the time of king Kaî-Khûsrô, upon the Asnavand mountain in Âtûr-pâtakân, not far from Lake Kêkast (see Bd. XVII, 7; Zs. XI, 8-10).

191:1 B srakhtô, K srakhtô, both here and in § 8; compare Av. srask.

191:2 Pahl. frâz âsnâtâr must mean one who washes in the mode defined by the Av. frasnâiti, as distinguished from upasnâiti, in Vend. VIII, 98, 99, Ep. II, iii, 2; this mode is explained as lâlâîk, 'upwards,' and distinguished from the frôdgûnŏ, 'downward mode,' in Ep. II, iv, 2.

191:3 B inserts 'thus arisen through the demons,' the same phrase as concludes the section.

191:4 K has 'owing to a single word of the demons,' by substituting aêvak gôbisnŏ for âhûkînisnŏ.

192:1 Assuming that pa stands for pavan.

192:2 See Bk. VIII, Chaps. XX, 64, XXXI, 39.

192:3 A sin twice as great as an Aredûs (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXI, 39).

192:4 The sin of talking while eating, praying, or any other occasion when a prayer (vâg) has been taken inwardly, as a spell, and is not yet spoken out.

192:5 A personification of the liturgy, Av. mãthra spenta, 'the bounteous text.'

193:1 Av. Astô-vîdhôtu, one of the demons of death (see Bd. XXVIII, 35; Dd. XXXVII, 44).

193:2 Those who have attained old age, the natural time of death.

194:1 B has 'and there is no complaint of the loss.'

194:2 K zîvînîdŏ.

194:3 The female archangel who has special charge of the earth and virtuous women (see Sls. XV, 20-24); she is a personification of Av. spenta ârmaiti, 'bountiful devotion,' of which phrase the latter word is translated by Pahl. bûndak-mînisnîh, 'complete mindfulness.' See also Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3, and S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 393, 396.

194:4 K adâhm; B has khêshm, 'wrath,' here, but not so in § 27.

194:5 See Bk. VIII, Chap. VII, 5, 9.

194:6 B has 'he who is a controller of sin is Vohûman, owing to thinking of the spirits, which is subdued.'

194:7 K has only 'through sinfulness.'

195:1 This admonition occurs repeatedly (see Chap. XX, 5; Yt. X, 2; AV. LII, 7).

Next: Chapter XIII