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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at


1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 'By what does Aharman most deceive and lead people to hell? 3. And from what is his pleasure most? 4. Where is the place he has a foundation?

p. 88

[paragraph continues] 5. Where, also, is his coming, together with the demons, most? 6. And from what is his food?'

7. The spirit of wisdom answered (8) thus: Aharman deceives people most by prosperity and adversity 1, the fiend of apostasy, scepticism, and covetousness. 9. His pleasure, also, is most from the discord of men. 10. And his food is from the impenitence 2 and reticence of men. 11. He has a foundation in the malicious 3. 12. And his coming and going are most with the wrathful.'


88:1 Or 'superfluity and scarcity.'

88:2 Assuming that apatôtakîh stands for apatîtakîh, 'non-renunciation of sin.' L19 has 'immoderate eating.'

88:3 L19 has 'in the slanderous and malicious.'

Next: Chapter XLVI