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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at

p. 57


1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 'Wherefore have the people who were from Gâyômard 1, and those, too, who were lords and monarchs, from Hôshâng 2, the Pêsd, even unto Vistâsp 3, the king of kings, been such doers of their own wills? 3. Much benefit was also obtained by them from the sacred beings, (4) and they have been mostly those who were ungrateful unto the sacred beings, (5) and there are some even who have been very ungrateful, promise-breaking, and sinful. 6. For what benefit then have they been severally created, (7) and what result and advantage proceeded from them?'

8. The spirit of wisdom answered (9) thus: 'That which thou askest concerning them, as to benefit, or as to the reverse 4, thou shouldst become aware of and fully understand. 10. Because the affairs of the world of every kind proceed through destiny and time and the supreme decree of the self-existent eternity (zôrvân), the king and long-continuing lord. 11. Since, at various periods, it happens unto every one, for whom it is allotted, just as that which is necessary to happen. 12. As even from the mutual connection of those ancients, who are passed

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away, it is manifest (13) that, ultimately, that benefit arose which was necessary to come from them to the creatures of Aûharmazd.

14. 'Because the advantage from Gâyômard was this, (15) first, the slaying of Ârzûr 1, and making delivery of his own body, with great judiciousness, to Aharman 2. 16. And the second advantage was this, (17) that mankind and all the guardian spirits of the producers of the renovation of the universe, males 3 and females 4, were produced from his body. 18. And, thirdly, this 5, that even the metals were produced and formed 6 from his body 7.

19. 'And the advantage from Hôshâng, the Pêsd, was this, (20) that, of three parts, he slew two parts of the demons of Mâzendar 8, who were destroyers of the world.

21. 'The advantage from Tâkhmorup 9, the well-grown,

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was this, (22) that the accursed evil one, the wicked, was kept by him thirty years as a charger 1. 23. And the writing of penmanship of seven kinds, which that wicked one kept in concealment, he brought out to publicity.

24. 'The advantage from the well-flocked Yimshêd 2, son of Vîvangha, was this, (25) that an immortality of six hundred years, six months, and sixteen days 3 is provided by him for the creatures and creation, of every kind, of the creator Aûharmazd; (26) and they are made unsuffering, undecaying, and undisturbed 4. (27) Secondly, this 5, that the enclosure formed by Yim 6 was made by him; (28) and when that rain of Malkôs 7 occurs—since it is declared in revelation that mankind and

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the other creatures and creations of Aûharmazd, the lord, are mostly those which shall perish 1—(29) one shall afterwards open the gate of that enclosure formed by Yim, (30) and the people and cattle, and other creatures and creations of the creator Aûharmazd, shall come out from that enclosure, (31) and arrange the world again. 32. Thirdly, (33) when 2 he brought back the proportion of the worldly existences, which that evil-producing wicked one 3 had swallowed, from his belly 4. Fourthly, when a goat (gôspend) was not given by him to the demons in the character of an old man 5.

34. 'And the advantage from Az-î Dahâk, the

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[paragraph continues] Bêvarâsp 1, and the accursed Frâsîyâk of Tûr 1 was this, (35) that, if the dominion should not have come to Bêvarâsp and Frâsîyâk, the accursed evil spirit would then have given that dominion unto Aeshm 2; (36) and when it would have come unto Aeshm, it would not have been possible to take it away from him till the resurrection and future existence, (37) for this reason, because he has no bodily existence 3.

38. 'And the advantage from Frêdûn 4 was this, (39) such as the vanquishing and binding of Az-î Dahâk, the Bêvarâsp 5, who was so grievously sinful. 40. And, again too, many demons of Mâzendar 6 were smitten by him, and expelled from the region of Khvanîras 7.

41. 'And the advantage from Mânûskîhar 8 was this, (42, 43) that, in revenge for Aîrîk, who was his grandfather, Salm and Tûg were kept back by him from disturbing the world 9. 44. From the land of

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[paragraph continues] PadashKhvârgar 1 unto the beginning of Dûgakŏ 2, such as Frâsîyâk 3 had taken, by treaty (padmânŏ) 4 he seized back from Frâsîyâk, and brought it into the possession of the countries of Irân. And as to the enlargement of the sea of Kânsâî 5, such as Frâsîyâk supplied, he also expelled the water from it.

45. 'And the advantage from Kaî-Kavâd 6 was

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this, (46) that he became a thanksgiver unto the sacred beings. 47. Dominion, also, was well exercised by him, (48) and the family and race of the Kayâns proceeded again from him.

49. 'And the advantage from Sâhm] 1 was [this], (50) that the serpent Srôvar 2 and the wolf Kapûd 3, which they also call Pêhînŏ 4, the watery demon Gandarep 5, the bird Kamak 6, and the deluding demon were slain by him. 51. And he also performed many other great and valuable actions, (52) and kept back much disturbance from the world, (53) as to which, when one of those disturbances, in particular, should have remained behind, it would not have been possible to produce the resurrection and future existence.

54. 'And the advantage from Kâî-Ûs 7 was this,

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[paragraph continues] (55) as Sîyâvakhsh 1 was produced from his body. 56. Many other actions also proceeded from him.

57. 'And the advantage from Sîyâvakhsh was this, (58) such as the begetting of Kaî-Khûsrôî 2, and the formation of Kangdez 3.

59. 'And the advantage from Kaî-Khûsrôî was this, (60) such as the slaying of Frâsîyâk 4, (61) the extirpation of the idol-temples which were on the lake of Kêkast 5, (62) and the management of Kangdez. 63. And he is able to do good through his assistance of the raising of the dead 6 by the restorer of the dead, the triumphant Sôshâns 7, which is in the future existence.

64. 'And the advantage from Kai-Lôharâsp 8 was

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this, (65) that dominion was well exercised by him, (66) and he became a thanksgiver unto the sacred beings. 67. He demolished the Jerusalem of the Jews 1, and made the Jews dispersed and scattered; and the accepter of the religion, Kaî-Vistâsp 2, was produced from his body.

68. 'And the advantage from Vistâsp was this, (69) such as the acceptance and solemnization of the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, (70) through the divine voice (bakân aêvâz) of the Ahunavar 3, the word of the creator Aûharmazd; (71) the annihilation and destruction of the bodies of the demons and fiends; (72) and the pleasure and comfort of water and fire and all the angels and spirits of the worldly existences 4. 73. And he was full of the hope of the good and worthy, (74) through a virtuous desire for his own determination, (75) the compensation (nôs dasnŏ) 5 and gratification of Aûharmazd, with the archangels, (76) and the affliction and destruction of Aharman and the 6 miscreations.'


57:1 Av. Gaya-maretan, the primeval man from whom the whole human race is supposed to have sprung, and who lived for thirty years after the advent of the evil spirit (see Bd. III, 22, XXXIV, 2).

57:2 Av. Haoshyangha, the first monarch of the Irânian world, and founder of the Pêsd (Av. paradhâta, 'early law') dynasty. He was the great-grandson of Mâshya, the first earthly man that sprang from Gâyômard, and is said to have reigned for forty years (see Bd. XV, 21-28, XXXI, I, XXXIV, 4).

57:3 See Chap. XIII, 14 n.

57:4 L19 has 'evil.'

58:1 Written Aîrzûr in TD2. It has been suggested by Windischmann (Zor. Stud. p. 5) that this was the name of a demon, afterwards applied to the Arezûr ridge at the gate of hell (see Bd. XII, 8), but this requires confirmation. Regarding this ridge the following explanation occurs in the Pahlavi Rivâyat which precedes Dd. in many MSS.:—'They say that hell is the ridge (pûstŏ) of Arekzûr; and hell is not the ridge of Arekzûr, but that place where the gate of hell exists is a ridge (grîvakŏ) such as the ridge named Arekzûr, and owing to that they assert that it is the ridge (pûstŏ) of Arekzûr.' The explainer appears to mean that the ridge at the gate of hell was named after the other Mount Arezûr, in Arûm (see Bd. XII, 16).

58:2 Compare Bd. III, 21-23.

58:3 L19 has 'righteous males.'

58:4 Fifteen of each, as stated in Bd. XXX, x7.

58:5 L19 has 'this advantage.'

58:6 L19 omits the former verb.

58:7 See Zs. X, 2, Dd. LXIV, 7.

58:8 See Dd. LXV, 5, referring probably to the demon-worshippers of Mâzendarân, south of the Caspian.

58:9 Av. Takhmô-urupa, the Tahmûras of the Shâhnâmah; he p. 59 is said to have been a great-grandson of Hôshâng, whom he succeeded on the throne, and to have reigned thirty years (see Bd. XXXI, 2, XXXIV, 4). Written Takhmôrîdŏ in TD2.

59:1 See Râm Yt. 12, Zamyâd Yt. 29.

59:2 Av. Yima khshaêta, 'Yim the splendid;' he was a brother of his predecessor, Tâkhmorup, and the Bundahis states that he reigned six hundred and sixteen years and six months in glory, and one hundred years in concealment (see Chap. VIII, 27, Bd. XXXI, 3, XXXIV, 4).

59:3 TD2 has only 'three hundred years,' by the accidental omission of a cipher; it also omits the months and days.

59:4 See Vend. II, 16, Râm Yt. 16, Zamyâd Yt. 33.

59:5 L19 has 'this advantage.'

59:6 See Chap. LXII, 15-19. The formation of this enclosure is ordered by Aûharmazd in Vend. II, 61-92, for the preservation of mankind, animals, and plants from the effects of a glacial epoch which he foretells, and which is here represented as the rain of Malkôs.

59:7 This term for 'deluging rain' may be traced either to Chald. ‏מַלְקוֹשׁ‎ 'autumnal rain,' or to Av. mahrkûsô, the title of a demon regarding whom nothing is yet known (see Dd. XXXVII, 94 n and SBE, vol. xviii, p. 479).

60:1 L19 has merely 'shall mostly perish,' in place of these last six words.

60:2 L19 has 'thirdly, this advantage, that.'

60:3 L19 adds 'who is Aharman.'

60:4 According to a legend preserved in the Persian Rivâyats (see MH10, fol. 52) Aharman, while kept as a charger by Tâkhmorup, induced the wife of the latter to ascertain from her husband whether he ever felt fear while riding the fiend, and, acting upon the information thus obtained, he threw the king from his back while descending from the Alburz mountains, and swallowed him. Information of this event was conveyed to Yim by the angel Srôsh, who advised him to seek the fiend and propitiate him. Yim, accordingly, went into the wilderness singing, to attract Aharman, and, when the fiend appeared, Yim ingratiated himself into his favour and, taking advantage of an unguarded moment, he dragged Tâkhmorup out of the fiend's entrails, and placed the corpse in a depository for the dead. In consequence of this feat his hand was attacked with leprosy, from which he suffered greatly until it was accidentally washed in bull's urine, which healed it. This legend is related for the purpose of recommending the use of bull's urine for purification of the body.

60:5 Or, perhaps, 'as a substitute for an old man.' This fourth advantage is found only in TD2, where the text is as follows:—'Kahârûm, amatas gôspend pavan gôharîk-î pîr val sêdân lâ. yehabûntô.'

61:1 See Chap. VIII, 29.

61:2 The demon of wrath (see Chap. II, 115).

61:3 And would, therefore, have continued to live and reign till the resurrection.

61:4 See Chap. VIII, 27. He is said to have reigned for five hundred years (see Bd. XXXIV, 6), but this period includes the lives of ten generations of his descendants who did not reign (see Bd. XXXI, 14).

61:5 He is said to have been confined in Mount Dimâvand (see Bd. XXIX, 9).

61:6 See § 20.

61:7 The central region of the earth, containing all the countries best known to the Irânians, and supposed to be as large as the six outer regions united (see Bd. XI, 2-6).

61:8 The successor of Frêdûn, who reigned one hundred and twenty years (see Bd. XXXIV, 6). He was a descendant, in the tenth generation, from Aîrîk, one of the sons of Frêdûn, who had been slain by his brothers Salm and Tûg (see Bd. XXXI, 9-14).

61:9 L19 has 'that he slew Salm and Tûg, who were his great-uncles, p. 62 in revenge for Aîrîk, and kept them back from disturbing the world.'

62:1 The mountainous region in Taparistân and Gîlân, south of the Caspian (see Bd. XII, 17).

62:2 L19 has 'hell.' This Dûgakŏ may possibly be meant for the Duzakô of Vend. I, 34, of which Vaêkereta was the chief settlement, and this latter is identified with Kâvûl (Kâbul) by the Pahlavi translators. The name can also be read Gangakŏ, which might be identified with Canzaca, but this would not correspond so well with the legend, alluded to in the text, which relates how Mânûskîhar, having shut himself up in the impregnable fortress of Âmul in Taparistân, could not be conquered by Frâsîyâk, who was compelled to come to terms, whereby all the country within an arrow-shot east of Mount Dimâvand should remain subject to Mânûskîhar. The arrow was shot and kept on its flight from dawn till noon, when it fell on the bank of the Oxus, which river was thenceforward considered the frontier of the Irânians. This frontier would fully include all the territory between Taparistân and Kâbul mentioned in the text. In Bd. XXXI, 21 the success of Mânûskîhar is attributed to some dispute between Frâsîyâk and his brother, Aghrêrad.

62:3 See Chap. VIII, 29 n.

62:4 L19 has 'such as was made the portion (padmânŏ) of Frâsîyâk.'

62:5 Called Kyânsîh in Bd. XIII, 16, XX, 34, where it is stated that it was formerly fresh, but latterly salt, and that Frâsîyâk diverted many rivers and streams into it. It is the brackish lake and swamp now called Hâmûn, 'the desert,' or Zarah, 'the sea,' in Sîstân. In the Avesta it is called Kãsu, and the future apostles of the Mazda-worshipping faith are expected to be born on its shores.

62:6 Av. Kavi Kavâta, the Kaî-Qubâd of the Shâhnâmah. He p. 63 was the founder of the Kayân dynasty, and reigned fifteen years (see Bd. XXXI, 24, 25, XXXIV, 7).

63:1 The brackets indicate the end of the passage taken from TD2 and the Pâzand version, in consequence of the nine folios containing Chaps. XIV, 1-XXVII, 49 being lost from K43. From this point the translation follows the text of K43. Sâhm (Av. Sâma) was the family name of the hero Keresâsp (see Fravardin Yt. 61, 136), who was a son of Thrita the Sâman (see Yas. IX, 30, 31). For the legends relating to him, see SBE, vol. xviii, pp. 369382. His name is written Sâm in Pâzand.

63:2 Av. azi srvara (see Yas. IX, 34-39, Zamyâd Yt. 40).

63:3 Or 'the blue wolf;' not yet identified in the Avesta.

63:4 Darmesteter (SBE, vol. xxiii, p. 295, note 4) identifies this name with Pathana of Zamyâd Yt. 41, which seems to mean 'highwayman;' but this identification appears to depend merely on similarity of sound.

63:5 Av. Gandarewa of Âbân Yt. 38, Râm Yt. 28, Zamyâd Yt. 41.

63:6 A gigantic bird mentioned in the Persian Rivâyats as overshadowing the earth and keeping off the rain, while it ate up men and animals like grains of corn, until Keresâsp killed it with arrows shot continuously for seven days and nights.

63:7 See Chap. VIII, 27 n. He was a grandson of Kaî-Kavâd, p. 64 whom he succeeded, and is said to have reigned a hundred and fifty years (see Bd. XXXI, 25, XXXIV, 7), but perhaps this period may have included the reign of his father, whom tradition has nearly forgotten.

64:1 Av. Syâvarshân, the Siyâvush of the Shâhnâmah. Though both his father and son were kings, he did not reign himself. L19 has Kaî-Syâvash.

64:2 See Chap. II, 95.

64:3 Av. Kangha. A fortified settlement said to have been 'in the direction of the east, at many leagues from the bed of the wide-formed ocean towards that side,' and on the frontier of Aîrân-vêg (see Chap. LXII, 13, Bd. XXIX, 10).

64:4 See Chap. VIII, 29. This name must have been applied rather to a dynasty than to a single individual, as he reigned in Irân in the time of Mânûskîhar, nearly two hundred years earlier.

64:5 See Chap. II, 95.

64:6 He is expected to assist in the renovation of the universe at the resurrection, together with Keresâsp and other heroes (see Chap. LVII, 7, Dd. XXXVI, 3).

64:7 See Chap. II, 95.

64:8 Av. Kavi and Aurvadaspa. He was a descendant of Kaî-Kavâd in the fifth generation, being a second cousin once removed of his predecessor, Kaî-Khûsrôî, and reigned a hundred and twenty years (see Bd. XXXI, 25, 28, XXXIV, 7).

65:1 Aûrîsalêm-i Yahûdânŏ. The first fourteen words of § 67 do not occur in the Pâz.-Sans. version, but a corresponding statement is found in a Persian metrical version, described by Sachau in his Contributions to the Knowledge of Parsee Literature (JRAS., New Series, vol. iv, pp. 229-283), also in the works of several Arab writers of the tenth century (see Nŏldeke, Gŏt. gel. Anz. 188 2, p. 964).

65:2 See Chap. XIII, 14 n.

65:3 The most sacred formula of the Mazda-worshippers, consisting of twenty-one words, forming three metrical lines of sixteen syllables each, beginning with yathâ ahû vairyô, 'as a patron spirit is desirable.' It is supposed to have been uttered by Aûharmazd, for the discomfiture of Aharman, on the first appearance of that evil spirit in the universe (see Bd. I, 21).

65:4 L19 has 'all the angels of the spiritual and worldly existences.'

65:5 L19 has u shnâisn, 'and the propitiation.'

65:6 L19 has 'his.'

Next: Chapter XXVIII