Pahlavi Texts, Part II (SBE18), E.W. West, tr. , at sacred-texts.com
THE great ceremony of purification for any Parsi man or woman who has become unclean by contact with the dead, or through any other serious defilement, lasts for nine nights, and is called the Bareshnûm, which is the Avesta name for the 'top' of the head, the first part of the body appointed to be washed in the ceremony, after the hands. The description of this ceremony, given in Pahl. Vend. IX, I-145, which does not differ very materially from the rite still in use, is as follows 1:--
Pahl. Vend. IX, 1. Zaratûst enquired of Aûharmazd thus: 'O Aûharmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world! who art the righteous one [of righteousness!' that is, Aûharmazd is the righteous creator through invocation, and the rest through praise]. 2. 'How, when in the material existence they see a [clean] man together with [that which is polluted], (3) how shall they purify him clean who
is with that fraught with corruption [together with pollution] owing to that dead body? [that is, how should they make him thoroughly clean?]'
4. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'A righteous man, O Zaratûst the Spîtamân! [a purifier], (5) who is a speaker [that is, it is possible for him to speak], a true-speaker [that is, falsehood is little spoken by him], an enquirer of the liturgy [that is, the ritual is performed by him], and righteous, (6) he who specially understands the purification of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers [that is, he knows the rite], (7) such a one shall cut up the plants on the fruitful earth, (8) for a length of nine separate reeds 1 in every one of the four directions, (9) at a place on this earth which is most devoid of water, most devoid of trees, land most purified [from bodily refuse] 2, and with the driest ground [that is, there is no damp in that extent of it]. to. Even where least upon the paths do cattle and beasts of burden step forth, and the fire of Aûharmazd, the sacred twigs 3 spread forth with righteousness, and the righteous man 4 do least exist.'
11. 'Creator of the material world! thou righteous one! how far from the fire? how far from the water? how far from the sacred twigs spread forth
with righteousness? how far from a man of the righteous?'
12. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'Thirty steps 1 from the fire, thirty steps from the water, thirty steps from the sacred twigs spread forth with righteousness, and three steps 2 from the men of the righteous. 13. The cutting out for the first hole [for bull's urine] 3, after the coming on of summer, is two finger-breadths in excavation; after the coming on of hail-fraught (sôngagân-hômand) winter it is as it were a cup of four finger-breadths 4. 14. So also for the second hole, for the third hole, for the fourth hole, the fifth, and the sixth.'
'How much is one such hole from another hole 5?'
'As much as one step onwards.'
15. 'What kind of one step?'
'Just like three feet.'
6. 'The rutting out of the three other holes [which are for water, (17) after the coming on of summer, is as much as two finger-breadths in excavation; after the coming on of hail-fraught winter it is as much as four finger-breadths.'
18. 'How much from those former ones [for bull's urine]?'
'As much as three steps.'
19. 'What kind of three steps?'
'As much as the steps one plants in walking with the steps he would take.'
20. 'What kind of walking with steps?'
'Just like nine feet.'
21. Thou shalt also plough up a furrow with the blade due to Shatryŏvair 1.'
22. 'How much from the holes?'
'As much as three steps.'
'What kind of three steps?'
'As much as in walking with the steps one would take and plant.'
23. 'How much is the walking with steps?'
'As much as nine feet.'
24. 'Then, afterwards, is the ploughing up of the twelve furrows. 25. By the ploughing up of three from among them three holes are separated within them. 26. Thou shalt plough up three from among them with six holes separated within. 27. Thou shalt plough up three from among them with nine holes separated within. 28. And thou shalt plough
Click to enlarge
PLAN OF BARESHNÛM GÂH.
up three, within which are the [three] holes that are apart, [which are for water, and] beyond [those within, which are for bull's urine] 1.
29. 'Thou shalt carry three loads of stones on to those spaces of nine feet 2, as an approach to the holes; (30) or potsherds, or knotty and massive blocks, or a clod of the earth of Vistâsp, or [a pot or something of] any hard earth whatever.
31. 'Afterwards, he who has been by the dead shall come to that approach, which is the approach to the holes. 32. Thereupon thou, O Zaratûst! hast to stand up more aside, by the furrows 3.
[paragraph continues] 33. Then these words are to be murmured [by thee, that is]: "Praise to Spendarmad 1, the propitious!" 34. And he who has been by the dead shall speak in reply to it thus: "Praise to Spendarmad, the propitious!" 35. Then the fiend becomes disabled by every word [of each repetition]; (36) the smiting of the evil spirit, the wicked one, is owing to it; (37) the smiting of Aeshm 2, the impetuous assailant, is owing to it; (38) the smiting of the Mâzînîkân demons 3 is owing to it; (39) the smiting of all the demons is owing to it.
40. 'Afterwards, thou shalt sprinkle bull's urine upon him with an iron, or with a leaden, ladle. 41. If thou shalt sprinkle upon him with a leaden one 4, thou shalt strongly demand, O Zaratûst! the stem of a reed whose nine customary parts (pîsak) you have mentioned 5 [as nine knots]; (42) and one should tie that leaden ladle strongly on its foremost part 6.
43. 'He shall first wash over his hands [even to the elbows]. 44. When he does not wash over his hands, (45) he then makes all his own body impure [and polluted]. 46. When he shall have washed over his hands for three times, (47) then, when thy hands
shall have been washed over, (48) thou shalt sprinkle him on the front of the top of his head, [as far as the hair has grown.] 49. Then the fiend of corruption 1 rushes in front, upon some of the space between the brows of that man.
50. 'Thou shalt sprinkle in front, on some of the space between the brows of that man, [from the place where the hair has grown, as far as to the ears backwards, and both cheeks at the bottom.] 51. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon the back of his heat).
52. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on the back of his head, [from the place where the hair has grown, casting (stunak) one-fourth to the spine.] 53. Then the fiend of corruption rushes in front upon his jaws.
54. 'Thou shalt sprinkle in front, on his jaws, [both cheeks as far as to the ears backwards, casting one-fourth unto the throat.] 55. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right ear.
56. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right ear. 57. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left ear.
58. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left ear, [just as the ear is turned, casting one-fourth to the liquid 2.]
[paragraph continues] 59. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right shoulder.
60. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right shoulder. 61. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left shoulder.
62. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left shoulder, [on the side in front, just as it is turned, even unto the elbow.] 63. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right armpit.
64. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right armpit. 65. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left armpit.
66. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left armpit, [as far as the hair has grown.] 67. Then the fiend of corruption rushes in front upon his chest.
68. 'Thou shalt sprinkle in front on his chest, [half the liquid to the shoulders, and half to the region of the throat, within three finger-breadths of the face 1.] 69. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his back.
70. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his back, [from the slender part of the spine unto the anus.] 71. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right nipple.
72. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right nipple. 73. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left nipple.
74. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left nipple, [just as the nipple shall be turned; and those of women (zanagânŏ) are to be held up.] 75. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right side.
76. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right side. 77. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left side.
78. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left side; [this, moreover, is because one specially recites for ever on that side.] 79. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right hip 1.
80, 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right hip. 81. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left hip.
82. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left hip, [just as it is turned, as far as to the hollow 2 of it (gûyak-î valman) below the thigh.] 83. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his sexual part.
84. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his sexual part. 85. If it be a male, thou shalt sprinkle behind it before-hand and in front of it afterwards; (86) and if it be a female, thou shalt sprinkle in front of it before-hand, and behind it afterwards; [on this occasion half is for the front and half for behind, and it is rubbed in in front.] 87. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right thigh.
88. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right thigh. 89. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left thigh.
90. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left thigh, [from the prominence (gôhâk) below the thigh to the knee.] 91. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right knee.
92. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right knee. 93. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left knee.
94. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left knee, [above just as it is turned, and below the slender part; there are some who would say thus: "As much above it as below."] 95. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right shin.
96. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right shin. 97. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left shin.
98. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left shin, [from the knee unto the place where the leg and foot unite.] 99. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right ankle 1.
100. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right ankle. 101. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left ankle.
102. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left ankle, [just as the leg and foot unite, that is, while the ten toes are back to the ground.] 103. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his right instep.
104. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his right instep. 105. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left instep.
106. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left instep, [from the place where the leg and foot unite, to the end of his toes.] 107. Then the fiend of corruption turns dejected under the sole of the foot, and its likeness is as it were the wing of a fly's body.
108. 'The toes being held quite in union with the ground, his heel is held up from the ground. 109. Thou shalt sprinkle on his right sole. 110. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left sole.
111. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left sole. 112. Then the fiend of corruption turns dejected under the toes, and its likeness is as it were the wing of a fly.
113. 'The heel being held quite in union with the ground, his toes are held up from the ground. 114. Thou shalt sprinkle on his right toes. 115. Then the fiend of corruption rushes upon his left toes.
116. 'Thou shalt sprinkle on his left toes. 117. Then the fiend of corruption returns dejected to the northern quarter in the shape of a raging fly, bandy-legged, lean-hipped, illimitably spotted, so that spot is joined to spot, like the most tawdry 1 noxious creature, and most filthy.
118. 'Then these words are to be murmured, which are most triumphant and most healing 2:--
'"As is the will of the patron spirit [as is the will of Aûharmazd], so should be the earthly master [so should be the high priest], owing to whatever are the duty and good works of righteousness; [that is, he is always to perform duty and good works as authoritatively as the will of Aûharmazd] That which is the gift of good thought is the work of both existences [and the work] of Aûharmazd; [that is, the reward and recompense they give to good thought, they give also to him; there are some who would say thus: 'It is the possession of good thought.]
[paragraph continues] The sovereignty is given to Aûharmazd, [that is, Aûharmazd has made the ruler for himself,] who has given protection and nourishment to the poor, [that is, he would provide assistance and intercession for them.] 1
'"Who is given to me by thee, O Aûharmazd! as a protection? [when 2 I shall do duty and good works, who would provide me protection?]--when I am in custody of the malice of that wicked [Aharman, that is, he retains malice with me in his thoughts]--other than thy fire and good thought? [this I know, that they would do so on account of you; but, apart from you, who would provide me protection?] When in their employ I invoke righteousness, O Aûharmazd! [that is, I shall do duty and good works, who would provide me protection?] That which thou shalt proclaim to me as religion through a high-priest [this I say, that is, preach religion through a high-priest] 3.
'"Who is the smiter with triumph, through this thy teaching of protection? [that is, so far as is declared by the revelation of scripture, who should inflict the punishment for sinners?] With clearness the superintendence (radîh) of the creation in both existences is to be taught to me, [that is, it is necessary for thee to give unto me the high-priesthood here and there 4.] The arrival of virtuous obedience (Srôsh), with good thought (Vohûman), is here,
[paragraph continues] [that is, it is necessary for thee to give Vistâsp 1 unto me as assistance.] O Aûharmazd! [the arrival of] that one [is according to my wish], who is he according to the wish of every one, [that Sôshâns 2 that shall be necessary for every one, so that they may thereby convey away their misery, the misery it is possible he should convey away from every one. 3
'"Let us be guarded from the most afflicting one [here, and apart from the sinners], O Aûharmazd and Spendarmad 4! [that is, keep us away from the harm of the evil spirit!] Perish, thou demon fiend! [as I speak in front of thee.] Perish, thou race of the demons! [that is, their race is from that place.] 5 Perish, thou work transformed by the demons [for uselessness]! Perish, thou work produced by the demons [heretofore and hereafter! this produced without the sacred beings, and produced by them (the demons) even for uselessness]. Perish utterly, thou fiend! [that is, mayst thou become invisible!] Perish utterly, thou fiend! [that is, rush away from here, and mayst thou become invisible on any path!] Perish utterly and apart, thou fiend! [that is, stand not again on any path!] Thou shalt perish again to the north! [the path was mentioned thus: 'Go in the direction of the north!'] do not destroy the material world of righteousness 6!"
119. 'At the first hole the man becomes freer from the fiend of corruption, [that is, it shall depart a little from his body, like a flock when they disperse it.]
120. 'Then these words are to be murmured by thee, &c. [as in § 33-118. At] the second [hole, &c., as in § 119. And the same routine is to be followed at] the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth [holes] 1.
'Afterwards he shall sit--he who has been by the dead--within the precinct (sitrâ.) of the holes 2 apart from those holes [which are for bull's urine]. 121. So much from that [of the previous ones for bull's urine] as four finger-breadths 3. 12 2. They shall also dig up those full diggings up of this earth, [they should accomplish this well.] 123. They shall scrape together fifteen handfuls of the earth, [so that they shall quite dislodge the damp purely.] 4 124. And they shall remain about it the whole period from that time until the time when the hair on his head shall become dry, (125) and until the time when the wet earth on his body shall become dry.
126. 'Then he who has been by the dead shall come to that approach to those other holes [which are for water]. 127. At, the first hole he shall then purify over his own body once with water. 128. At the second hole he shall then purify over his own
body twice with water. 129. At the third hole he shall then purify over his own body thrice with water.
130. 'Afterwards, he who is perfumed with sandarac (râsnŏ) 1, or benzoin, or aloes 2, or any other of the most odoriferous of plants, (131) shall then put on his clothes. 132. Then he who has been by the dead shall come to that approach, the approach to his abode 3.'
[a. The clothing is always cleansed by the Khshvash-maunghô ("the six-months’ process") 4.
b. Afarg 5 said two purifiers are requisite 6, and of the two he is suitable who has performed the ritual; thus they have been very unanimous; when he scores the furrow, washes that unclean person in the customary places, and utters the Avesta he has performed it; the other, when he has not performed it,
is unsuitable; when there shall also be one who is suitable 1 he fully solemnizes a Vendidâd service, for this purpose, with a dedication (shnumanŏ) to Srôsh.
c. For every single. person, at the least, one cup, alike of water and bull's urine, is to be set down in that place 2, and at the beginning of its consecration it is to be thoroughly inspected, and at the Vendidâd it is to be thoroughly inspected 3; afterwards, when it is covered, it is also well; the pebbles cast into it 4 they should carry back to the holy-water, there is no use for them; when thoroughly consecrated it is always suitable, until it becomes quite fetid 5.
d. For the avoidance of an unsecluded (agûbâl) menstruous woman nava vîbâzva drâgô ('the length of nine fathoms') 6 from her is necessary, when she stands nearest; in a wild spot the herbage is to be dug up 7; when they shall make the purifying place in the town, and a path, or a stream, or a wall does not extend into it, it is suitable; and the cleanly plucking up of its small trees, extracting them in the daytime with recitation of the Avesta of Zaratûst 8--those which are thick not existing among the holes--is proper.
e. And every one who digs the holes, with whatever he digs, and whenever he digs, is suitable; four finger-breadths and two finger-breadths 9 is no matter;
each hole is at a minimum distance of three feet 1, at a maximum as much as one thoroughly purifies his body in; and they are to be formed in it from the north, and are to. be dug in the direction towards its more southern side.
f. In the daytime is the purifier's scoring of the furrows and with a blade they are to be scored; with the recital of the Avesta 2 they are to be scored; in the day they are to be scored 3; in that day they are to be scored, when a furrow is scored, three Ashemvohûs 4, the Fravarânê 5, whatever period of the day one considers it to be, the dedication to Srôsh 6, and its inward prayer 7 are to be taken up inwardly.
g. It is also to be done inside it from the north, and its end is to be passed back at the end; for every single furrow there is one Yathâ-ahû-vairyô 8 at the least, and at the most as many as are possible for it; a furrow is not to be scored again for a furrow, until it is to be put into use; whenever it is fully disturbed it is to be scored again with the recital of its Avesta; when prepared for use and one scores it again it is no matter.
h. Once the outside of the body is to be made quite clean from the bodily refuse 1 of the world; and the hair being tied up--it is no use to cut the pubes (nihânŏ)--he is also to be brought into it (the precinct) from the north to the holes.
i. The purifier stands up on the right-hand side, and when he retains the inward prayer from scoring the furrows 2 it is proper; when not, the prayer to be taken inwardly by him--which is his utterance of Nemaskâ yâ ârmaitis îzâkâ ('and the homage which is devotion and nourishment') 3--is also that which is to be uttered by the unclean person; and when he is not able to speak, it is both times to be uttered for him.
j. And his hands are to be thoroughly washed three times, not in the inside; as to the other customary parts (pîsak) Afarg has said three times, not in the inside, but Mêdôk-mâh 4 one time; also the water and bull's urine, such as are necessary for him, are to be conveyed on to him; and a portion (bahrak) is to be preserved for him away from the body, and, when anything comes upon him, a little bull's urine is to be dropped down upon him; likewise,
any customary part, while being washed by him, is to be preserved from that which is not washed; when it comes upon it, it is improper.
k. When a drop of water (âv yûgakŏ-1) shall remain upon him, his hand is to be thoroughly rubbed over it; when at the same hole and he becomes doubtful as to a customary part 1, when he knows which, it is to be washed by him again, and from that onwards they are always to be washed again by him; when he does not know which, the beginning of the washing at the hole is to be done again by him, and when he comes unto that which he did before, when he knows it, he is also to go again to that after it, from his doing again of the beginning of the washing at the hole; when he becomes doubtful as to the hole, he is to go back to that which is not doubtful.
l. And when they go from hole to hole, the dog 2 is to be held once, the Avesta 3 of the purifier is to be spoken, and it is to be done by him thus:--When he arrives at the place, it is done by him; when not, the head is to be done thoroughly--there are some who would say thus: 'In the same hole the head is to be done thoroughly'--and all four feet of the dog are to be put by him into the hole; he is also to sit down within four finger-breadths 4, and the Pankadasa zemŏ hankanayen ('fifteen times of earth they shall
scrape together') 1 are to be well completed by him, it is also to be thoroughly done by him, and he is to be fully guarded while he properly and thoroughly well perseveres.
m. And, after it, he is to go unto the holes for water; the different times with water are just like the different holes for bull's urine, except holding the dog; the dog, too, works for him inside.
n. When he seeks for it, it 2 is to be thoroughly warmed for him; when he hungers for it, bread is to be given to him; when the necessity of making water arises, something is to be held unto him; when, on account of his imperfect strength (vad zôrîh), he is quite unable to wash, some one is to sit down inside with him; when he is only just 3 washed, he is to come into his position therein before, the inward prayer is to be spoken out by him, and the inward prayer is to be again offered by him, his customary parts are also washed, and are to be considered as washed.
o. When he shall keep on for three washings 4, though not clean, it is not improper; when he does not attain three washings, it is not proper; when the enclosure is not to be formed to the north 5, it is not proper; when one shall not solemnize the Vendidâd service 6, it is not proper.
p. When the purifier shall not have performed the ritual, it is not proper; when the purifier is not a man, it is not proper.
q. When he shall not wash on the customary parts, it is not proper; when he does not utter the Avesta, it is not proper; and when the dog 1 is not held, it is not proper; when there is no digging of the holes, it is not proper; when he does not perform the Pankadasa zemô hankanayen (fifteen times of earth they shall scrape together') 2, it is not proper.
r. When it is not the purifier who scores the furrows, and he does not score them with a blade 3, nor does he score them with the recitation of the Avesta, nor does he score them in the daytime, it is not proper.
s. When he shall see anything impure in the hole, it is not proper; when they shall cause rain to come within a hole for bull's urine, it is not proper; when night shall come in upon him, it is not proper; when in everything there is suitableness, but as to one thing doubt arises, through that suitableness it is not proper.]
133. 'He 4 is to sit down in the place of the secluded (armêstânŏ) 5, within the precinct (sitrâ) of his abode, apart from the other Mazda-worshippers. 134. He shall not come with authorization to fire, nor to water, nor to earth, nor to animals, nor to plants, nor to a righteous man, nor to a righteous
woman, (135) at all from that time, until the time when his three nights shall fully elapse.
136. 'After those three nights he shall wash over his body, and his clothes are purified over in such a way as with bull's urine and also with water. 137. He shall sit in the place of the secluded, within the precinct of his abode, apart from the other Mazda-worshippers. 138. He shall not come with authorization to fire, &c. [just as has been written in § 134], (139) at all from that time, until the time when his six nights shall fully elapse.
140. 'After those six nights 1 he shall wash over his body, and his clothes are purified over in such a way as with bull's urine and also with water. 141-143. He shall sit in the place of the secluded [just as has been written in §§ 133-135] until the time when his nine nights shall fully elapse.
144. 'Then, after the nine nights, he shall wash over his body, and his clothes are purified over in such a way as with bull's urine and also with water. 145. Then he shall come with authorization unto fire, unto water, unto earth, unto animals, unto plants, unto. a righteous man, unto a righteous woman.
Besides. the above fully detailed description of the Bareshnûm ceremony we find two other accounts of the rite, in the Vendidâd, Of these the most detailed is contained in Vend. VII I, 117-228, which mentions the use of the dog 2, the nine holes, the washing with bull's urine and water, and all the
detail of driving the fiend of corruption from one part of the body to another (by sprinkling with 'the good waters') till it flies away to the north as in Vend. IX, 117. But it omits the description of the purifier, the dimensions of the purifying place, the scoring of the furrows, the placing of the stones, the exorcism 1, the seclusion for nine nights, and all the washings after the first day.
The other account, which is much shorter., is given in Vend. XI X, 67-84. It specifies that the urine must be that of a young bull, and that the purifier must score a furrow; it mentions the recitation of a hundred Ashem-vohûs and two hundred Yathâ-ahû-vairyôs, four washings with bull's urine and two with water, nine nights' exposure, followed by attention to the fire and fumigation, when the man clothes himself while paying homage to the sacred beings, and is clean; but no other details are given.
431:1 Observing that the passages in brackets do not occur in the Avesta text, but are added by the Pahlavi translators; and that the sections are numbered to correspond with the alternating Avesta and Pahlavi sections in the MSS., which is the division adopted in Spiegel's edition of the texts. The readings adopted are those of L4, wherever they are not defective; this MS. was written about A.D. 1324, and differs occasionally from Spiegel's printed text; it begins the ninth fargard with the following heading:--'May it be fortunate! may it destroy the corruption (nasûs) which rushes on from a dead dog and men on to the living! May the pure, good religion of the Mazda-worshippers be triumphant!'
432:1 Which would be 42 feet (see Dd. XLIII, 5 n); but the phrase gvîd nâî (which, in Pahl. Vend. VII, 90, has become gvîd hanâ by misreading gvîdŏ-aê, and then substituting Huz. hanâ for Piz. aê) is merely an attempted translation of Av. vîbâzu, which latter appears to mean the 'two arms' outstretched, or a fathom. So the 'separate reed' should be understood as a longer kind of reed, equal to a fathom, instead of 4 feet 8 inches.
432:2 See Dd. XLVIII, 19 n. L4 omits this clause altogether.
432:3 See Dd. XLIII, 5 n.
432:4 Any priest not engaged in the purification.
433:1 As the step is three feet (see § 15), and the foot, being fourteen finger-breadths (see Bd. XXVI, 3 n), may be taken as 10½ inches, these thirty steps would be nearly 79 English feet.
433:2 That is, 7 feet 10½ inches. This diminution of distance enables a purifying priest to stand near enough to an unclean person to hand him the purifying liquid in a ladle tied to a stick (see §§ 40-42), without going within the furrows traced around the holes or ablution seats at the same distance of three steps (see §§ 21-23).
433:3 That is, at which the unclean person is sprinkled with the urine (see §§ 48-116). The urine should he that of a bull, according to Vend. XIX, 70; but Vend. VIII, 35, 36 state that it mat be that of cattle or draught oxen, generally, or even that of those who perform Khvêtûk-das (see p. 391). At the present time the term magh, which means 'a hole' in the Avesta, is applied to the stones which are used as ablution seats for squatting upon.
433:4 The greater depth of the hole for catching the ablution droppings in the winter, would provide for the larger quantity of liquid that could not sink into the soil, or evaporate, during the tedious washing, owing to the soil and air being damper than in summer.
433:5 The probable positions of these holes, and of the furrows enclosing them, are shown upon the plan of the Bareshnûm Gâh on p. 435. which differs but little from the plan still in use.
434:1 That is, made of metal, which is under the special protection of the archangel Shatryŏvair or Shatvaîrô (see Dd. XLVIII, 17 n).
436:1 The arrangement, here described, is that of six holes in a row, one step apart; then an interval of three steps, followed by three more holes, one step apart, in the same line. This row of nine holes, from north to south (see § 232, e), is surrounded by three furrows, the first six holes and the last three are both surrounded by a second series of three furrows, and the first three holes are surrounded by a third series of three furrows. And these furrows are not less than three steps from the holes in any place, except where they separate the three series of holes from each other. The object of the furrows, which are scored during the recitation of certain formulas (see § 132, f, g), is to prevent the fiend of corruption from forcing its way from the unclean person within the furrows to any other person outside them. And, as the fiend is supposed to be strongest at first, and to become gradually weakened by the progress of the purification (see § 119), the first three holes are surrounded by the strongest barrier of nine furrows.
436:2 There were three such spaces, one between the furrows and the first hole, one between the sixth and seventh holes, and one between the last hole and the furrows (see the plan). It is not distinctly stated that these stones were to be distributed, as ablution seats, to each of the nine stations, as at present; but this was probably intended. At the present time an additional group of stones is placed outside the furrows, at the entrance to the north, as a station for the preliminary washing.
436:3 That is, the priest is to stand outside, to the right (see § 132, i), but close to the furrows.
437:1 See p. 393, note 2. This exclamation is a Pahlavi version of a quotation from the Gâthas (Yas. XLVIII, 10, c)
437:2 The demon of wrath (see Dd. XXXVII, 44).
437:3 See Dd. XXXVII, 81, This passage (§§ 36-39) is quoted from Yas. XXVII, 2, LVI, xii, 5.
437:4 These words are omitted in the Pahlavi text, but occur in the Avesta.
437:5 Or, perhaps, 'murmured over' with prayers.
437:6 This nine-knotted reed, or stick, must be so long that the ladle, tied to its end, can easily reach the unclean person at the holes, when the stick is held by the priest who stands outside the furrows.
438:1 The Nasûs fiend (see Dd. XVII, 7).
438:2 The word, both here and in § 68, must be Av. ifs, 'water,' and not a Pâzand term for any part of the body, as any such term would be inadmissible in § 68. It would seem as if a smaller supply of liquid were requisite for the ears than for the other customary parts, so that a quarter of the supply is directed to be returned to the vessel holding the liquid. The remarks made by the Pahlavi translator, upon the sprinkling of the left-hand members of the body, are evidently intended also to apply, in nearly all cases, to the sprinkling of the right-hand members.
439:1 Reading dîmak, but it may be gâmak (compare Pers. gâm, jaw'). L4 has gîmak.
440:1 Reading srînak, as in Pahl. Vend. VIII, 178-182; but here the word is four times written sînak.
440:2 Or, perhaps, 'prominence' is meant, as in § 90; although the two words gûyak and gôhâk are written differently, they refer Probably to the same part.
441:1 The word zang means rather 'the lower part of the leg.'
442:1 Reading bôg-âkîntûm, 'most stuffed with ostentation,' as in L4. In AV. XVII, 12 the word can be read bazak-âyîntûm, 'most sin-accustomed.'
442:2 Only the initial and final words of the Avesta of the following passages are given in the MSS. here, but they are given at length, with their Pahlavi translation, in Vend. VIII, 49-62, whence the Pahlavi version is here taken.
443:1 This paragraph is the Pahlavi version of the Ahunavar, or Yathâ-ahû-vairyô formula (see p. 385).
443:2 Reading amat, instead of mûn, 'who,' (see Dd. LXII, 4 n.)
443:3 This paragraph is the Pahlavi version of the Kem-nâ-mazdâ stanza of the Gâthas (Yas. XLV, 7).
443:4 Both in this world and the next.
444:1 The king in the time of Zaratûst (see Dd. XXXVII, 36).
444:2 The last of the future apostles (see Dd. II, 10).
444:3 This paragraph is the Pahlavi version of a passage in the Gâthas (Yas. XLIII, 16, b-e).
444:4 See p. 393, note 2.
444:5 From hell, the place of the demons.
444:6 It appears from what follows, in § 120, that the whole of the sprinklings and exorcisms, detailed in §§ 33-118, are to be repeated at each of the first six holes.
445:1 This paragraph is omitted in the Pahlavi text, being merely given in the Avesta (for the sake of brevity) so far as the words are not included in the brackets.
445:2 The three holes for washing with water.
445:3 That is, three English inches south of the six furrows which separate the first six holes from the last three, at the point D on the plan.
445:4 That is, the person undergoing purification shall be rubbed with dust until he is quite dry.
446:1 Av. urvâsna (which is translated by Pahl. râsnŏ) is supposed, in India, to mean sandal-wood.
446:2 These are supposed, in India, to be the two substances meant by the Av. vohû-gaona and vohû-kereti, which are merely transcribed by the Pahl. hû-gôn and hû-keret. The Avesta text adds a fourth perfume, named hadhâ naêpata, which is understood to mean the pomegranate bush, although that plant seem s. to yield no perfume.
446:3 For the continuation of the instructions see § 133; the text being here interrupted by a long Pahlavi commentary on the whole of the foregoing description of the ceremony.
446:4 This sentence is evidently incomplete in the Pahlavi text. The process is thus described in Pahl. Vend. VII, 36: If it be that it is woven, they shall wash it over six times with bull's urine, they shall scrape together six times on the earth with it [so that they quite dislodge its moisture purely], they shall wash it over six times with water, and they shall perfume over it six months at a window in the house.' For the Avesta version of this description, which is nearly the same, see Sls. II, 95 n.
446:5 See Ep. I, v, 1.
446:6 See Ep. I, vi, 4, II, ii, 7.
447:1 See Ep. I, vi, 7.
447:2 See Ep. I, vii, 1.
447:3 L4 has 'it is to be taken up,' by omitting the first letter of nikîrisnŏ.
447:4 See Ep. I, vii, 16, II, iii, 12.
447:5 See Ep. I, viii, r-6.
447:6 See § 8.
447:7 See § 9.
447:8 These twelve words do not occur in L4.
447:9 See § 13.
448:1 See §§ 14, 15.
448:2 The Ahunavar or Yathâ-ahû-vairyô (see § g).
448:3 So in L4.
448:4 See Dd. LXXIX, 1, note.
448:5 That is, the profession of faith (Yas. I, 65), which is as follows:--'I will profess myself a Zarathustrian Mazda-worshipper, opposed to the demons and of the Ahura faith.' This is followed by the dedication to the period of the day, which is given for the first period only in Yas. I, 66, 67; the dedications for the other periods will be found in Gâh II-V, 1.
448:6 Sir. I, 17.
448:7 See Dd. XL, 5, note. All the prayers here detailed are to be murmured merely as a preliminary spell, but while each furrow is being scored a further formula is to be recited (see § g).
448:8 See pp. 385-386.
449:1 See Dd. XLVIII, 19 n.
449:2 That is, when he has not broken its spell by talking, since he began the scoring.
449:3 These are the Avesta words from Yas. XLVIII, 10, c, of which the Pahlavi version is given in §§ 33, 34.
449:4 Written Mêdyôk-mâh in Ep. I, v, 1. The statement here attributed to Mêdôk-mâh is ascribed to Afarg in Ep. I, vi, 7, 9, II, ii, 6, but Afarg is there said to be 'the prior deponent,' as he is here; we should, therefore, probably transpose the 'three times' and 'one time' in our text; the blunder having originated from the frequent substitution of liana for aê in Pahlavi, both meaning 'this,' while aê also means 'one' and is the cipher for '3.'
450:1 That is, when he is doubtful which he washed last.
450:2 The dog is not mentioned in the Avesta account of the Bareshnûm in Vend. IX, but it is ordered to be brought before the unclean person in another such account in Vend. VIII, 120, 123. The use of the dog is that its sight or touch is supposed to destroy or drive away the Nasûs, or fiend of corruption.
450:3 The exorcism in § 118.
450:4 See §121.
451:1 The Avesta version of § 123.
451:2 The. water, apparently.
451:3 Perhaps it should be kand tâk, 'several times,' instead of kîgûn tâk, 'only just.'
451:4 See §§ 136, 140, 144.
451:5 See § e.
451:6 See § b.
452:1 See § l.
452:2 See § 123.
452:3 See § f.
452:4 He who has been by the dead, as stated in § 132, in connection with which this sentence is to be read; the foregoing §§ a-s being interpolated by the Pahlavi translators.
452:5 The original meaning of armêst was probably 'most stationary,' as it is a term applied to water in tanks, helpless cripples, and insane people, as well as to unclean persons who have to remain apart from their friends (see Sls. II, 98 n).
453:1 The MSS. omit several words, when sentences are repeated, for the sake of brevity.
453:2 See .§ l above.
454:1 That is, the exorcism is not found in the Pahlavi version, but is introduced in the Vendidâd sâdah in an abbreviated form, possibly copied from Vend. IX, 118.