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Pahlavi Texts, Part I (SBE05), E.W. West, tr. [1880], at

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1. For in the third fargard ('chapter) of the Vendidad of Mêdôk-mâh 1 it is declared that when life is resigned without effort 2, at the time when the life departs, when a dog is tied to his foot, even then the Nasûs 3 rushes upon it, and afterwards, when seen by it, the Nasûs is destroyed by it. 2. This is where it is stated which is the dog which destroys the Nasûs 4, the shepherd's dog, the village-dog, the blood-hound, the slender hound 5, and the rûkûnîk 6;

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and as to the rûkûnîk there have been divers opinions, as Vand-Aûharmazd 1 asserted, from the teaching of Afarg, that it does not destroy it. 3. The dog destroys the Nasûs at the time when it sees the flesh, and when it sees the hair or nails it does not destroy it 2. 4. A blind dog also destroys it at the time when it places a paw 3 on the corpse; and when it places it upon the hair or nails it does not destroy it 4. 5. The birds which destroy the Nasûs are three: the mountain kite, the black crow, and the vulture 5; the bird, moreover, destroys it at the time when its shadow falls upon it; when it sees it in the water, a mirror, or a looking-glass, it does not destroy it 6.

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6. Vand-Aûharmazd said, where a pregnant woman is to be carried by two men 1, both are to be cleansed by the Bareshnûm ceremony 2, and the head of the corpse, when they carry it away, is to be set towards the Dakhma 3. 7. And on account of contamination

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[paragraph continues] (padvîshak) 1 two are not to be carried at one time, and two by one person are not proper; one dog and one person are proper 2. 8. Every one who understands the care of a corpse is proper; two boys of eight years old, who understand the care, are proper; a woman free from menstruation, or free from dead

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matter 1, or a man, with a woman or a child of eight years old, is proper.

9. It is not to be carried all covered up 2, for that is burying the corpse; to carry it in the rain is worthy of death 3. 10. When clouds have been around 4, it is allowable to carry it away from the house; and when rain sets in upon the road it is not allowable to carry it back to the house; but when it is before a veranda (dâhlîz) one should put it down there; that is allowable when he who owns the veranda is apprehensive, and when he does not allow it inside; and, afterwards, it is to be carried away to its place, and when the water stands the height of a javelin (nîzak) inside 5, one puts it down and brings it away yet again. 11. Mêdôk-mâh 6 says that there should be a shelter (var) 7 one should

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fasten above that place, and it would make it dry below 1; one should place the corpse under that shelter, and they may take the shelter and bring it away.

12. From the fifth fargard of the Vendidad of Mêdôk-mâh 2 they state thus, that at the place where one's life goes forth, when he shall die upon a cloth, and a hair or a limb remains upon the bed-place and the ground 3, the ground conveys the pollution, even not originating with itself (ahambûnik), in like manner down unto the water 4. 13. And when he is on a bedstead, and its legs are not connected with the ground, when a hair or a limb remains behind on the bedstead, it does not convey the pollution down. 14. When he shall die on a plastered floor the plaster is polluted, and when they dig up that plaster, and spread it again afterwards, it is clean. 15. When he shall die on a stone, and the stone is connected with the ground, the stone will become clean, along with the ground, in the length of a year; and when they dig up the place, the stone being polluted is to be washed at the time. 16. When a stone is connected with the ground, or is separated, and one shall die upon it, so much space of the stone as the corpse occupied is polluted  5;

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when they shall leave it, in the length of a year it will become clean along with the ground; and when they dig it up, the stone is all polluted, and is to be washed at the time; when the stone is not made even with the ground, above the ground the stone is all polluted, and is to be washed at the time.

17. Dung-fuel and ashes, when the limbs of a menstruous woman come upon them, are both polluted; and the salt and lime for washing her shift (kartak-shûî) are to be treated just like stone 1.

18. If one shall die on a terrace roof (bân) 2, when one of his limbs, or a hair, remains behind at the edge of the roof, the roof is polluted for the size of the body as far as the water; and they should carry down all the sacred twigs (baresôm) 3 in the house, from the place where the pollution is, until there are thirty steps of three feet 4 to the sacred twigs, so that the sacred twigs may not be polluted; and when his hair or limb has not come to the eaves (parakân) the roof is polluted to the bottom (tôhîk). 19. And when one shall die on a rîtâ 5 it is polluted

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for the size of the body as far as the water; in the length of a year it will become clean along with the ground. 20. A built bridge is liable just like a terrace roof. 21. When one shall die on the terrace roof of a trellised apartment (varam), that is also liable just like a terrace roof. 22. When he shall die in a trellised apartment, when one of his limbs, or a hair, does not remain on the borders (parakân), it does not convey the pollution down, but when any of him remains behind it conveys it down; it is allowable when they dig it up 1, and one also spreads it again afterwards, and it is clean.

23. When one shall die by strangulation and a rope in a crowd, when there is no fear of his falling down they should not carry him down; and when there is a fear of his falling down, when that fear is as regards one side of him, they should carry him down on that side; and when he has fallen down they should carry him down in such place as he has fallen. 24. When one is seated upright and shall die, when there is fear of his falling on one side they should carry him down on that one side, and when there is fear on all four sides, then on all four sides; and when he has fallen down they should carry him down in such place as he has fallen 2.

25. And when one shall die on a tree, when its

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bark is green and there is no fear of falling off, they should not carry him down; and when there is fear of it, they should carry down the whole of the body (tanû masâî). 26. And when the bark of the tree is withered, when there is fear of it and when there is no fear of it, they should carry it down. 27. When he shall die on a branch of a tree which is green, when there is no fear of his falling off they should not carry him down. 28. And when there is fear of it, or it is a branch of a withered tree, when also, a hair originating with him, or a limb, remains behind on the particular tree, they should carry down the whole of the body 1. 29. And when it does not remain behind him on the particular tree, but when there is fear of its falling off, they should not carry it below (vad frôd2.

30. When a corpse (nasâî-1) 3, from outside of it, remains behind on a jar (khûmbŏ) in which there may be wine, the jar is polluted, and the wine is clean. 31. And when one shall die inside, in the wine in the jar, if not even a hair or a curl originating with him remains behind on the jar, the wine is polluted and the jar not polluted 4. 32. When it is

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a jar in which there is oil 1, and dead matter (nasâî), from outside of it, remains behind on it, this is even as though it remains inside it, because the oil comes outside and goes back to the inside, and both are polluted, the jar and the oil; and even on making the jar dry 2 it is not fit to put anything in.

33. When a serpent (garzak) is in a jar in which there is wine, both are useless and polluted, for it makes them contaminated (padvîshak). 34. And when corn shall be in it, the jar is polluted and the corn clean; and when nothing originating with the serpent inside the jar remains behind on the jar, so much of the corn as includes the serpent, and upon which the touch (mâlisn) of the serpent has gone—because the touch of the serpent's seed might be the death of one—is to be taken out and to be thrown away. 35. And when hair or dead matter, even not originating with the serpent, remains behind on the jar, the jar is polluted, but is serviceable (shâyad) on making it dry 3.

36. Brick, earth, and mortar are separated by

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their own substance (pavan mindavam-i nafsman), and are connected with the ground; being separated by their own substance is this, that so much space as dead matter 1 comes upon is polluted; being connected with the ground is this, that they would convey the pollution down unto the water. 37. Dung-fuel, ashes, flour, and other powdered things are connected with their own substance, and are separated from the ground; being connected with their own substance is this, that when dead matter comes upon them the whole of them is polluted; and being separated from the ground is this, that when dead matter comes upon them it does not make the ground polluted 2.

38. At a house in which the sacred ceremony (yazisn) is prepared, and a dog or a person passes 3 away in it, the first business to be done is this, that the fire is to be preserved from harm; moreover, if it be only possible to carry the fire so that they would carry it away within three steps of the corpse 4, even then it is to be carried away, and the

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wall is not to be cut. 39. Rôshan 1 said that an earthen one is to be cut into, but a mortar one is not to be cut; below and above no account is taken of damaging (bodôzêdîh) 2 the wall 3. 40. To bring the fire within 4 the three steps from the corpse is a Tanâpûhar sin; and when exudation happens to the corpse, it is worthy of death 5. 41. The prepared food in that house is all useless, and that which is not prepared is usable in the length of nine nights

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or a month 1. 42. Clothing also in like manner, except that which one wears on the body; that, even in that time, is not clean, since it remains in use. 43. And the holy-water (zôhar) 2, too, which is taken and remains in that place, is to be carried away immediately to the water; also the sacred milk (gîv) 3 and butter (gum) 4 in like manner. 44. Of the prayer 5 clothing Vand-Aûharmazd 6 said that it is usable in the length of nine nights or a month, the writer 7 (dapîr) said that it is when they perform the washing of hands, and wash it thoroughly, it will become clean at the time.

45. If in a house there are three rooms (gungînak), and one shall die in the entrance place (dargâs), if it be so that they may set the door open, and the corpse comes to this side, only this

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side is polluted; and if the corpse comes to that side, only that side is polluted; when it comes to both sides at once (aêvâk), only the entrance place is polluted alone, both the dwelling-rooms (khânak) are clean.

46. And the vault of the sacred fires 1 alone does not become polluted.

47. If one shall die in a wild spot (vaskar), prepared food which is within three steps is all useless, and beyond four steps it is not polluted. 48. Prepared food is this, such as bread, boiled and roast meat, and prepared broth 2.

49. And the ashes (var) of the sacred fire 3 become in a measure polluted.

50. Should they carry in the fire into that house in which the length of nine nights or a month is requisite for becoming clean, there is a sin of one Tanâpûhar 4 through carrying it in, and one Tanâpûhar through kindling it; and every trifling creature (khûr or khûl) which shall die and shall remain causes a sin of one Tanâpûhar. 51. Also through carrying water in, there is a sin of one Farmân; and to pour water on the place where any one's life departs is a sin of one Tanâpûhar, and to pour it on a different place is a sin of one Yât. 52. And to

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undergo ablution 1 inside the unclean house is all non-ablution. 53. And whoever goes into it needlessly, his body and clothes are to be every time thoroughly washed, and his sin is one Tanâpûhar 1; and when he goes in needfully it is neither good work nor sin 2.

54. And this pollution is all in the sharp account (tîkhak amâr) when the life departs 3; the only thing which amounts to polluting is contact with the flesh, and even with the hair and nails. 55. Of the contact which is stated in the Avesta 4, the account is that it is from one side, and it ever cleaves to one; the curse (gazisn) 5 which is stated in the Avesta advances from all four sides. 56. Sôshyans 6 said it is, until its exhibition to a dog, just as it becomes at the time when its life departs 7; a priest, a

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warrior, and a husbandman are no use, for merely a dog is stated. 57. Kûshtanŏ-bûgêd 1 said the account is at the time when its life departs; and that which Kûshtanŏ-bûgêd specially said is, 'when anything is inside it (the place) the pollution is as far as to the place where that thing stands.' 58. When a dog, or a goat, or a pig is requisite (dârvâî) 2 it is proper, for the pollution does not attack further there; and the pollution of a child in the womb is along with the mother.

59. The direct pollution of a hedgehog 3 cleaves to one, and not the indirect pollution. 60. Direct pollution (hamrêd4 is that when the body is in contact with a corpse, and indirect pollution (paîtrêd)

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is that when 1 one is in contact with him who touched the corpse and from contact with him who is the eleventh 2 indirect pollution cleaves to one in the same manner. 61. The indirect pollution of an ape 3 and a menstruous woman, not acting the same way, remains. 62. The shepherd's dog, and likewise the village-dog, and others also of the like kind carry contamination to eight 4; and when they, shall carry the carcase down on the ground the place 5 is clean immediately; and that, too, which dies on a balcony (âskûp), until they shall carry it down to the bottom, is polluted for the length of a year.

63. Whoever brings dead matter (nasâî) on any person is worthy of death; he is thrice worthy, of

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death 1 at the time when a dog has not seen the corpse (nasâî); and if through negligence of appliances and means (kâr va tûbânŏ) he disturbs it, and disturbs it by touching it, he knows that it is a sin worthy of death; and for a corpse that a dog has seen, and one that a dog has not seen, the accountability is to be understood to be as much 2, and for the death and sickness 3 of a feeble man and a powerful one. 64. Afarg has said there is no account of appliances and means 4, for it is not allowable to commit a sin worthy of death in cases of death and sickness.

65. When they move a corpse which a dog has not seen with a thousand men, even then the bodies of the whole number are polluted 5, and are to be washed for them with ceremony (pîsak) 6. 66. And for that which a dog has seen, except that one only when a man shall move it all 7 by touching it, his washing is then not to be with ceremony. 67. And when he is in contact and does not move it, he is to be washed with bull's urine and water. 68. And

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when he shall move with a stake (dâr) 1 a corpse which a dog has not seen, except that one only when he shall move it all, the washing for him is not to be with ceremony.

69. And when a man shall move a corpse, which a dog has not seen, by the hand of another man, he who moves it by the hand of a man, and he also whose own hand's strength does it are polluted in the bodies of both; and it is the root of a Tanâpûhar 2 sin for him himself and of a Tanâpûhar for the other one, for this reason, because his own body and that also of the other are both made polluted through sinfulness. 70. And when there is not in him, nor even originating with him (ahambûnik), the strength of him whose own hand it is, it is just as though, he would move it (the corpse) with a stake 3; and he who held it in the way of contact with his hand is to be washed with ceremony; and it is the root of a Tanâpûhar sin for him whose own hand it is, and of a Khôr 4 for himself. 71. When he shall move a corpse by the hand of a man, and the corpse is of those which a dog has seen—except that one only when he shall move it all 5—the washing for him is not to be with ceremony.

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72. When one is going by a place at night, and comes back there on the morrow, and a corpse lies there, and he does not know whether the evil (dûs) was there when he came by 1, or not, it is to be considered by him that it was not there.

73. Of a flock in which is a sheep by whom dead matter is eaten, of a forest in which is a tree with which dead matter is mingled, and of a firewood-stand (aesamdân) in which is a stick of firewood with which grease is mingled, Afarg said that it is not proper to make the flock and the forest fruitful, and the firewood is useless 2.

74. About a door on which a corpse impinges; as to the door of a town and city they have been of the same opinion, that it is to be discarded by his comrades (hamkâr) 3; as to a door which is mostly closed (badtûm) 4 they have been of different opinions,

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[paragraph continues] Gôgôsasp 1 said that discarding it by his comrades is likewise proper, and Sôshyans said that it is not proper; and as to other doors they have been of the same opinion, that it is not proper. 75. The door of one's own chief apartment (shah-gâs) is fit for that of the place for menstruation (dastânistân), and that of the place for menstruation is fit for that of the depository for the dead (khazânŏ) 2, and that of the depository of the dead is not fit for any purpose whatever 3; that of the more pleasant is fit for that of the more grievous.

76. Any one who, through sinfulness, throws a corpse into the water, is worthy of death on the spot 4; when he throws only one it is one sin worthy of death, and when he throws ten at one time it is then one sin worthy of death; when he throws them separately it is a sin worthy of death for each one. 77. Of the water, into which one throws dead matter, the extent of pollution is three steps of three feet in the water advancing, nine steps of three feet in the water passed over, and six steps of three feet in the water alongside 5; six steps of three feet in the depth of the water, and three steps of three feet in the water pouring over the dead matter are polluted as regards the depth 6. 78. When it is thrown into the midst of a great standing water, in like manner, the proportion it comes is ever as much as it goes, and

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is the proportion of it they should always carry away with the dead matter 1.

79. And when a man comes forth, and a corpse lies in the water, when he is able to bring it out, and it is not an injury to him, it is not allowable to abandon it except when he brings it out 2. 80. Sôshyans 3 said that, when it is an injury, it is allowable when 4 he does not bring it out; and when it is not an injury, and he does not bring it, his sin is a Tanâpûhar 5. 81. Kûshtanŏ-bûgêd 6 said that even in case of injury it is not allowable to abandon it, except when he brings it out; when he does not bring it he is worthy of death. 82. And Gôgôsasp 7 said that it is even in case of injury not allowable, except when he brings it out; and when, in case of injury, he does not bring it out his sin is a Tanâpûhar; and when it is no injury to him, and he does not bring it, he is worthy of death.

83. And when he shall wish to bring it his clothing is to be laid aside 8, for it makes the clothing

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polluted, and whatever he is first able and best able to bring is to be brought out by him. 84. When, too, he is able to bring it out through the breadth of the water, then also it is to be brought out so 1; and when he is not able, it is to be brought out through the length of the water; and showing it to a dog and the two men are not to be waited for 2.

85. And it is to be carried by him so much away from the neighbourhood of the water that, when he puts it down, the water which comes out dropping from the corpse does not reach back to the water; for when the water which comes out from the corpse reaches continuously back to the water he is worthy of death; and after that (min zak frâg) it is to be shown to a dog, and it is to be carried away by two men. 86. And when he wishes to throw it out from the water, Mard-bûd 3 said it is allowable to throw it out thus, so that the water of the dripping corpse does not reach continuously back to the water; Rôshan said it would be allowable to throw it out far.

87. To drag it over the water is allowable, to grasp and relinquish it is not allowable 4; and when it is possible to act so that he may convey it from a great water to a small water, when the water is

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connected it is allowable, and when separated it is not allowable. 88. Afarg 1 said it is allowable to drag it below through the water, but to drag it over is not allowable, for this has come on the water as a danger 2, and that has not come on it as a danger. 89. Mêdôk-mâh 1 said it is allowable to drag it above, but to drag it below is not allowable, for the danger has gone out across the water, and the danger is not now to be brought upon it; and on that which is below, on which the danger has not come, the danger will at last arrive.

90. When he goes into the water he is to go into it with this idea, that 'should there be many below, then I will even bring all;' for whoever goes in not with this idea, and shall disturb any other one which lies there, will become polluted 3. 91. And if the corpse be heavy and it is not possible to bring it out by one person; and he goes out with this idea, that 'I will go and prepare means, and bring this corpse out of the water;' and when through sinfulness 4 he does not go back his body is polluted and worthy of

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death, and when he is unable to go back he is not polluted.

92. When the corpse is so decomposed (pûdak), when it is thus necessary to bring it out, that, he must cut off various fragments, even after he cuts them off they are to be brought out; and for every fragment his hands and knife are to be washed with bull's urine (gômêz), and with dust and moisture (nambŏ) they are clean 1. 93. And they are to be torn off 2 by him, and for every single fragment which he brings out his good work is one Tanâpûhar.

94. And when rain is falling the corpse lies in the water; to take it from the water to deposit it in the rain is not 3 allowable.

95. Clothing which is useless 4, this is that in which they should carry a corpse, and that even when very much or altogether useless; of that on which they shall decompose 5 (barâ vishûpênd), and of that on which the excretions (hîkhar) of the dead come, so much space is to be cut away 6, and the rest is to be

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thoroughly washed for the six-months’ period 1. 96. That which a menstruous woman has in wear (mahmânîh) 2 is to be discarded in like fashion.

97. The clothing which is to be washed for the six-months’ period is such as is declared in the Avesta 3. 98. If the clothing be leathern it is to be thoroughly washed three times with bull's urine (gômêz), every time to be made quite dry with dust, and to be thoroughly washed three times with water, and to be laid out three months in a place to be viewed by the sun 4; and then it is proper for an unclean person (armêst) 5 who has not performed

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worship, or it is proper for a menstruous woman. 99. Other clothing, when hair is on it 1, is liable just like woven cloth (tadak); all the washing of wool, floss silk, silk, hair, and camel's hair is just like that of woven cloth; and woven clothing is to be washed six times 2.

100. Wool which is connected together, when one part is twisted over another, and a corpse rests 3 upon it, is all polluted on account of the connection; and when fleece (mêsh) rests upon fleece, then so much space as the corpse rests upon is polluted. 101. When one shall die upon a rich carpet (bûp) when the carpet is on a coarse rug (namad) and is made connected, the rug and carpet are both polluted, and when separated the rug is clean. 102. When several cushions are heaped (nikîd) one upon the other, and are not made connected, and dead matter comes upon them, they have been unanimous that only that one is polluted on which the dead matter came. 103. A cushion together with wool 4 is liable just like a carpet with a rug 5. 104. Of several cushions which are tied down together, when dead matter comes to the tie, both are polluted, the cord and the cushions; and when the dead matter comes to a cushion, and does not come to the tie, the cushions are all polluted on account of the connection, and the tie is clean 6.

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105. A pregnant woman who devours dead matter through sinfulness is polluted and worthy of death, and there is no washing for her 1; and as for the child, when it has become acquainted with duties (pîsak-shinâs), ashes 2 and bull's urine are for its eating and for its washing. 106. As for a child who is born of solitary carriers of the dead 3, although its father and mother may both have devoured dead matter through sinfulness, that which is born is clean on the spot, for it does not become polluted by birth.

107. Rôshan 4 said that every one, who, through sinfulness, has become polluted by means of dead matter, is worthy of death, and his polluted. body never becomes clean; for this one is more wretched than the fox which one throws into the water living, and in the water it will die. 108. One worthy of death never becomes clean; and a solitary carrier of the dead is to be kept at thirty steps from ceremonial ablution (pâdîyâvîh).

109. Whichsoever of the animal species has eaten their dead matter 5, its milk, dung, hair, and wool are polluted the length of a year; and if pregnant when it has eaten it, the young one has also eaten it, and the young one is clean after the length of a year from being born of the mother. 110. When a male which has eaten it mounts a female, the female is not polluted. 111. When dead matter is eaten by it,

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and even while it is not digested it shall die, it is liable just like a leathern bag (anbân) in which is dead matter.

112. Gold, when dead matter comes upon it, is to be once thoroughly washed with bull's urine (gômêz), to be once made quite dry with dust, and to be once thoroughly washed with water, and it is clean 1. 113. Silver is to be twice thoroughly washed with bull's urine, and to be made quite dry with dust, and is to be twice thoroughly washed with water, and it is clean 2. 114. And iron, in like manner, three times, steel four times, and stone six times 3. 115. Afarg said: 'Should it be quicksilver (âvgînak) 4 it is liable just like gold, and amber (kahrupâî) just like stone, and all jewels just like iron. 116. The pearl (mûrvârîd5, amber, the

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ruby (yâkand) gem, the turquoise 1, the agate (shapak), coral-stone (vasadîn sag), bone, and other substances (gôhar) which are not particularly mentioned, are to be washed just like wood 2; and when they are taken into use there is no washing 3, and when they are not taken their washing is once. 117. Of earthen and horny articles there is no washing; and of other substances which are not taken for use the washing is once, and they are declared out of use.

118. Firewood, when green, is to be cut off the length of a span (vitast), one by one, as many sticks as there are—and when dry one span and two finger-breadths 4—and is to be deposited in some place the length of a year, and water is not to be dropped upon it; and it is drawn out after the length of a year; Sôshyans 5 said that it is proper as firewood for ordinary fires, and Kûshtanŏ-bûgêd 6 said that it is just as declared in the Avesta: 'The

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washed one, even then, is proper in dried clothing 1.' 119. About corn 2 they have been unanimous that so much space is polluted as the dead matter comes upon; and of that which is lowered into pits 3, or is wanted to be so, and of that which is scattered (afsîd) at such a place there are different opinions; Sôshyans said: 'Should it be of such a place it is polluted as much as the dead matter has come upon it;' and Gôgôsasp 4 said: 'Should it be so it is all polluted, and the straw is all polluted.'

120. A walnut 5, through its mode of connection, is all polluted, and the washing of both its shell and kernel (pôst va mazg) is just like that of wood. 121. A pomegranate also is of such nature as a walnut. 122. As to the date, when its stalk 6 is not connected the date is polluted and the stalk and stone (âstak) are clean; the washing of the date is just like that of corn; and when it is touched upon the stalk, when the stalk, stone, and date are connected, the whole is polluted; as to the date when not connected with the stalk, and touched at the

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stalk, the date is clean, and the washing of the stone is just like that of wood. 123. The pomegranate, citron, quince, apple, pear, and other fruit, when in bearing and the rind (pazâvisnŏ) is perceptible on it, when dead matter comes upon it there is no pollution of it; and when the rind (pazâmisnŏ) is not perceptible on it, its washing is just like that of corn; and rind is ever with the citron 1. 124. For meat, butter, milk, cheese, and preserves (rîkâr) there is no washing 2.


245:1 Alluding probably to Mêdôk-mâh's complete commentary on the Vendidad (now no longer extant), as the commentary on Pahl. Vend. III, 48, which treats of Sag-dîd or dog-gaze, does not mention Mêdôk-mâh or any of the details described here in the text; these details, however, are to be found in Pahl. Vend., VII, 4.

245:2 Reading amat barâ zôr gân dâd. This phrase occurs only in M6 (as a marginal note) and in the text of its descendants. Assuming that barâ may be a miswriting of pavan (see p. 176, note 5), we might read amat pavan zôr shûyâd, 'when he shall wash with holy-water.'

245:3 The 'corruption' which is supposed to enter a corpse shortly after death, whence it issues in the form of a fiend and seizes upon any one who touches the corpse, unless it has been destroyed, or driven away, by the gaze of a dog, as mentioned in the text (compare Vend. VIII, 38-48). The carcase of a dog is considered equally contagious with the corpse of a human being, and when the fiend of corruption (Nasûs or Nas of Bund. XXVIII, 29) has seized upon any one, it can be driven out only by a long and troublesome form of purification described in Vend. VIII. 111-228, IX, 4-117.

245:4 This statement is now to be found in Pahl. Vend. VII, 4.

245:5 See Bund. XIV, 19. The Persian Rivâyats of Kâmah Bahrah and Kâûs Kâmân (quoted in B29) describe these dogs as 'the shepherd's dog, the house-dog, the strange or tame (gharîb) dog, and the puppy.'

245:6 Probably the Av. sukuruna of Vend. V, 100, XIII, 48, which p. 246 is translated by hûkar or hûkûr in the Pahlavi version. This fifth kind of dog is called 'the blind (kûr) dog' in the Persian Rivâyats; but Pahl. Vend. VII, 4 asserts that, 'Sôshâns said the rûkunîk also destroys it,' and then speaks of the blind dog as in § 4.

246:1 See the note on Chap. I, 4.

246:2 This is also stated in Pahl. Vend. III, 138.

246:3 See Pahl. Vend. VII, 4.

246:4 The Persian Rivâyats say this is because the Nasûs is concealed beneath the hair and nails (compare Vend. VII, 70).

246:5 These are the birds 'created for devouring dead matter' (see Bund. XIX, 25). Pahl. Vend. VII, 4 substitutes an eagle (dâlman) for the vulture.

246:6 This sentence is probably defective, as the last clause evidently refers to the dog's gaze (see Pahl. Vend. III, 138), and not to the bird's shadow; the rule, however, is applicable to both. Thus the Persian Rivâyats state that if the bird's shadow falls upon the hair or the nails of the corpse, or if the bird's shadow, or the dog's gaze falls upon a corpse in the water, or upon its reflection in a mirror, the Nasûs is not destroyed. Dastûr Jâmâspji is of opinion that the utility of the bird's shadow is intended to apply only to cases of death in uninhabited places, where a dog is not procurable. As all three birds are such as feed upon corpses, it seems probable that the rule as to their utility was intended to prevent p. 247 any neglect of corpses found in wild places, where some of these birds would be sure to approach and let their shadows fall upon the dead. after which the finder of the corpse would suppose that the Nasûs was destroyed or driven away, and the corpse safer to approach.

247:1 This is an exceptional case, when not more than two men are available; the usual custom (see Chap. X, 10) is to employ four men and two dogs (double the usual number) in disposing of the corpse of a pregnant woman, on account of the double risk of contamination, owing to the Nasûs, or fiend of corruption, having seized upon two corpses at once. In consequence of the exceptional nature of the case, the mode of purification is also exceptional.

247:2 A long purification ceremony lasting nine nights, and described in Vend. IX, 1-145. Its name, according to Dastûr Hoshangji, is derived from the first word of the instructions for sprinkling the unclean person, which commence (Vend. IX, 48) as follows: Bareshnûm hê vaghdhanem paourum paiti-hinkôis, 'sprinkle in, front on the top of his head.' As it is usual to quote chapters by their initial words, the initial word of these instructions for the ceremony became a name for the ceremony itself.

247:3 The building in which the dead are finally deposited; here called by its Huzvâris name, khazân. The Dakhmas used by the Parsis in India are like low circular towers in external appearance, and consist of a high wall enclosing a larger or smaller circular space which is open to the sky. The only opening in the wall is a small doorway, closed with an iron door. In the centre of the circular area is a circular well a few feet in depth, and the space around it is paved so as to slope gently downwards from the enclosing wall to the brink of the well. This paved annular area is divided (by shallow gutters grooved into its surface) into spaces, each large enough for one corpse to be laid, upon it, with the head towards the wall and the feet towards the well. These spaces are arranged in two or more concentric rings around the well, and the gutters (which isolate each space on all four sides) drain into the p. 248 well. After a sufficient time has elapsed the dry bones are said to be thrown into the well, and when the well is full the Dakhma ought to be finally closed, and another one brought into use. These Dakhmas are erected upon some dry and barren spot, remote from habitations and water; upon the summit of a hill, if possible, as prescribed in Vend. VI, 93, and usually more than a mile from the town. In Bombay the town has gradually approached the Dakhmas, and to some extent surrounded them, but has been kept away from their immediate vicinity by the judicious measures of influential Parsis, who have acquired all the neighbouring land, and refrain from building on it. The reason for thus exposing their dead to the sun and carnivorous birds is that the Parsis consider fire, water, and earth too sacred to be defiled by corpses; and they have less consideration for the air. Next to burning, the Parsi mode of disposing of the dead is the most rapid and effectual, as it avoids most of the concentrated evils which must accumulate in crowded cemeteries in the course of time, and which require ages to dissipate. As it is, most of the offensive effluvium in the immediate vicinity of a Dakhma arises not from direct contamination of the air, but indirectly through the ground, which becomes polluted, in the course of time, by impure filtrations.

248:1 Dastûr Jâmâspji prefers reading patôshak, and thinks it means 'necessity,' as in cases where two deaths occur nearly simultaneously in the same house, when both corpses cannot be removed the same day. Such a meaning might suit this passage, but the word occurs again, in § 33 and Chap. IX, 7, where it can refer only to 'contamination,' and the etymology of padvîshak (Av. paiti + vish) is plain enough.

248:2 That is, when two persons cannot be found to carry a corpse, one can do it alone, provided he holds a dog by a string. This course is adopted, Dastûr Jâmâspji says, when a person happens to die in a place where only one Parsi is available.

249:1 In the terms avî-dashtânŏ and avî-nasâî the compound av is written in an obsolete manner, both in M6 and K20. The meaning of the text is that either or both of the corpse-carriers may be any Parsi man, woman, or child who understands the proper precautions. Compare Pahl. Vend. VIII, 28.

249:2 K20 has 'when curved it is not to be carried.'

249:3 That is, it is a mortal sin to allow rain to fall upon a corpse before it is deposited in the Dakhma.

249:4 Or 'withheld,' or 'continuous,' according as we compare hâmûn with Pers. âmûn (âman), amân, or hâmân.

249:5 Inside the Dakhma apparently. The meaning seems to be, that when the Dakhma is flooded the corpse is to be laid down in some dry place in its vicinity until the flood has abated. But according to Pahl. Vend. VIII, 17, it is allowable to throw the corpse in when the Dakhma is full of water.

249:6 See Chaps. I, 3, II, 1. Here, again, the quotation must be from his complete commentary, as it is not extant in the present Pahlavi Vendidad.

249:7 From Av. var, 'to cover, to shelter;' compare Pers. gullah, 'a bower or shed.' Nowadays the Parsis have a permanent shelter near the Dakhma. Pahl. Vend. VIII, 17 says, 'to carry p. 250 an umbrella (avargash) from behind, or to hold up a shelter, is of no use.'

250:1 Or, 'it would make it very dry,' if we read avîr, 'very,' instead of agîr, 'below;' these two words being written alike in Pahlavi.

250:2 Quoting again from his lost commentary.

250:3 Or, perhaps, 'floor.'

250:4 This translation is somewhat doubtful, but the text seems to imply that the ground is polluted as deep as it contains no water.

250:5 K20 has had, 'the stone is all polluted, and will become clean at the time when they dig it up, the stone is all polluted, in so p. 251 much space as the corpse occupied it is polluted;' but the additional matter seems to be struck out. Something analogous to the details in this paragraph will be found in Pahl. Vend. VI, 9.

251:1 This section would be more appropriate in Chap. III.

251:2 Or 'an upper floor;' Pahl. Vend. VI, 9 has, 'when he shall die on an upper floor, when nothing of him remains behind at the partitions (pardakân), the floor is polluted as far as the balcony (âskûp) and the balcony alone is clean; when anything of him remains behind at the partitions, the floor is polluted as far as the balcony, the ground is polluted as far as the water, about the balcony alone it is not clear.'

251:3 See note on Chap. III, 32.

251:4 The gâm, 'step,' being 2 feet 7½ inches (see note on Bund. XXVI, 3) these thirty steps are about 79 English feet.

251:5 Meaning uncertain; the word looks like Huzvâris, but it is possible to read rîd-aê instead of rîtâ-1.

252:1 That is, the floor of the apartment; which would probably be formed of earth beaten down, which, in India, is nearly always overspread with diluted cow-dung to hinder cracks in the smooth surface. A better class of floor is spread with lime plaster on a stony surface.

252:2 The object of these rules is evidently to avoid disturbing the corpse more than is absolutely necessary, provided there be no fear of its polluting more of the ground by falling upon it.

253:1 K20 has a portion of § 30 inserted here by mistake.

253:2 The object of these rules is likewise to prevent the risk of the corpse defiling more of the ground than is absolutely necessary by falling upon it, as it might do by the breaking of a dead branch.

253:3 Nasâî (Av. nasu) means not only a corpse or carcase of a human being, dog, or other animal of the good creation, but also any portion of such corpse or carcase; that is, solid 'dead matter' in general, as distinguished from dirt or refuse from the living body, or any liquid exudation from a corpse or carcase, which is called hîkhar (Av. hikhra).

253:4 Pahl. Vend. VI, 9 states, that 'when one shall die on a jar of wine, the jar is useless, and the wine becomes just as though its p. 254 course (ravisn) had been within three steps of the corpse. And when he shall die in the wine, when nothing of him remains behind on the jar, the jar is proper on making it dry' (or, perhaps, 'the jar is fit for bran-flour').

254:1 Or 'clarified butter;' in this case the 'jar' is probably a globular vessel, or carboy, made of hide, through which the oil, or liquid butter, penetrates so far as to keep the outer surface greasy, which accounts for the remark about the oil passing in and out. Such vessels, called dabar, are commonly used for oil and liquid butter in India.

254:2 Assuming that khûskar stands for khûsk-kar, as it does in Pahl. Vend., VI, 71; otherwise we should have to read thus: 'and the jar is mot even fit to put any bran-flour in.'

254:3 Again assuming as in § 32; otherwise we must read thus: 'but is fit for bran-flour (khûskar).'

255:1 Or 'a corpse;' K20 has 'stands upon.' The meaning is that these substances do not communicate the contamination throughout their own substance, but only downwards to the ground, which conveys it farther down, so far as it contains no water.

255:2 That is, these substances communicate the contamination throughout their own substance, but not down to the ground.

255:3 The verb vidardanŏ (Huz. vabrûntanŏ), 'to cross over, to pass away' (Av, vi + tar, Pers. guDHastan), can only be used when referring to the death of good people or animals; but the verb mûrdanŏ (Huz. yemîtûntanŏ), 'to die, to expire' (Av. mar, Pers. murdan), can be used generally, though usually applied to the wicked and to evil creatures. Pahl. Vend. V, 134 contains nearly the same text as §§ 38, 39.

255:4 Under ordinary circumstances fire must not be brought within thirty steps, or about 79 English feet, of a corpse (see Vend. VIII, p. 256 17). But the spirit of the Mazdayasnian law is reasonable, and, although strict, it allows for practical difficulties and chooses the least of two evils in a more judicious manner than might be expected (a fact which it would be well for Parsis and others to observe in doubtful cases). Here, breaking through the wall of a house is considered a greater evil than the possible pollution of the fire by passing at a distance of three steps, or eight English feet, from a corpse.

256:1 The name of a commentator, or commentary, often quoted in Pahlavi translations (see, the note on Chap. I, 4).

256:2 Literally, 'destroying the consciousness,' or 'injuring the existence.' Bôdôzêd or bôdyôzad is a particular kind of sin which appears to consist chiefly of the ill-treatment of animals and injury of useful property. It is mentioned in Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 1b, Pahl. Vend. V, 107, XIII, 38, Farh. Okh. pp. 32, 33; and in some editions of the Khurdah Avesta it is defined as selling stolen men or animals into misery, or one's own domestic cattle to the butcher, also spoiling and tearing up good clothing, or wasting and spoiling good food.

256:3 The meaning is, that if it became necessary to break through the wall in order to remove the fire unpolluted, the sin committed through damaging the wall will not be punished either in this world or the next.

256:4 That is, nearer than three steps, which is considered to be the minimum distance at which any degree of purity can be maintained.

256:5 A marg-argân sin, on committing which the sinner is required to place his life at the disposal of the high-priest (see Chap. VIII, 2, 5, 6, 21). It is usually considered equivalent to fifteen Tanâpûhars (see Chap. I, 1, 2).

257:1 According to the season of the year, the period of uncleanness being nine nights in the five winter months, and a month in the seven summer months (see Vend. V, 129).

257:2 Av. zaothra; this holy-water is consecrated by the priest reciting certain prayers while holding the empty metal cups in his hands, while filling them with water, and after filling them (see Haug's Essays, p. 397).

257:3 The Av. gâus gîvya, 'product of the living cow,' which is kept in a metal saucer during the ceremonies, and used for sprinkling the sacred twigs (baresôm), and for mixing with the holy-water and Hôm-juice in the mortar (see Haug's Essays, pp. 403, 405, 06).

257:4 Compare Pers. kûm, 'fat;' it is the Av. gâus hudhau, 'product of the well-yielding cow,' a small piece of which is placed upon one of the sacred pancakes, or wafers (drôn), during the ceremonies (see Haug's Essays, pp. 396, 407).

257:5 Reading yast; but it may be gast, 'changed.'

257:6 See the note on Chap. I, 4.

257:7 There appear to be, as yet, no means of ascertaining the name of the writer of the Shâyast lâ-shâyast, who gives his own opinion here.

258:1 Literally, 'the vault of the fires of Vâhrâm.' Pahl. Vend. V, 134 says 'the vault of the fires is liable just like an empty house.' Both this section and § 49 seem out of place.

258:2 See Pahl. Vend. V, 134.

258:3 Literally, 'the produce of the fire of Vâhrâm,' a term for 'ashes,' which is used in Pahl. Vend. V, 150 along with the equivalent phrase, 'clothing of the fire' (see Chap. III, 27).

258:4 See Chap. I, 1, 2 for the degrees of sin mentioned in §§ 50, 51, 53.

259:1 That is, the ceremonial ablution (pâdîyâvîh), or 'washing, with water, the hands and arms up to the elbows, the face as far as behind the ears, and the feet up to the ankles,' whilst a certain form of prayer is recited (see AV. p. 148, note).

259:2 Here again, as in § 38, the strict letter of the law is relaxed in case of necessity.

259:3 Meaning, apparently, that any pollution is taken into account, as a sin, in the investigation the soul has to undergo upon entering the other world. Much of this paragraph will be found in Pahl. Vend. V, 107.

259:4 Referring to Vend. V, 82-107, which gives an account of the number of persons through whom the pollution of a corpse or carcase will pass, which is in proportion to the importance of the dead individual. The statement here made is that the infection, passing from one to the other, enters each person only on one side, but the demon of corruption attacks them on all sides.

259:5 Meaning, probably, the Nasûs, or demon of corruption (see § 1 who is said to rush upon all those polluted as detailed in Vend. V, 82-107.

259:6 See Chap. I, 3.

259:7 That is, until seen by the dog the corpse remains pervaded by the demon of corruption and hazardous to approach (see §§ 1-4).

260:1 See Chap. I, 4, note. This name is nearly always written Kushtanŏ-bûgêd in Sls. in K20 and M6; it is not mentioned in Pahl. Vend. II, 107, although the details here quoted are there given in part.

260:2 The meaning is not quite clear, but this sentence is probably to be read in connection with the preceding one, as implying that where such domestic animals are kept they can be used for stopping the infection, as effectually as any inanimate object. The pig is here mentioned as a common domestic animal, but Parsis have long since adopted the prejudices of Hindus and Muhammadans as regards the uncleanness of the pig.

260:3 As Vend. V, 108-112 says the same of the dog urupi, it would seem that the writer of our text considered the urupi to be a hedgehog (zûzak); the Pahlavi translation of the Vendidad renders it by rapuk or rîpûk, which appears to be merely an approximate transcript of the Avesta word; traditionally, this is read raspûk and compared with Pers. râsû, 'ichneumon;' its identification with the hedgehog is certainly doubtful, although it appears to be admitted in Pahl. Vend. V, 112, where the same words are used as in this section.

260:4 The technical terms hamrêd and paîtrêd, for contagion and infection, are merely corruptions of Av. hãm-raêthwayêiti and paiti-raêthwayêiti. The definition of the latter one is omitted in K20 by mistake.

261:1 Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mûn, 'which' (see note to Bund. I, 7).

261:2 Vend. V, 86, 87 limits the pollution to the eleventh person infected, in the extreme case of the corpse having been a priest; but Pahl. Vend. V, 107 quotes the opinion of Sôshâns that until a dog has gazed at the corpse the pollution extends to the twelfth, but only the first ten require the ceremonial purification of the bareshnûm, the others being cleansed by ordinary washing with bull's urine and water.

261:3 Pahl. Vend. V, 107 states, however, that 'everything of the ape (kapîk) is just like mankind.' The meaning of § 61 is very uncertain, as the text can be both read and translated several ways, and none of them are very satisfactory.

261:4 That is, in the case of the shepherd's dog (see Vend. V, 92, 93); the carcases of other dogs occasion the indirect pollution of fewer persons, in proportion to their inferior importance; but Pahl. Vend. V, 107 states, with regard to this importance, that when 'in doubt, every man is to be considered as a priest, and every dog as a shepherd's dog,' so as to be on the safe side, by exacting, the maximum amount of purification in all doubtful cases.

261:5 The Pahlavi text leaves it doubtful whether the place, the people, or the carcase becomes clean, but the first is the most probable.

262:1 That is, he has committed a sin equivalent to three mortal sins (marg-argân).

262:2 Reading ves as equivalent to vês.

262:3 Reading râkhtakîh (compare Pers. rakhtah, 'sick, wounded').

262:4 This opinion of Afarg (see Chap. I, 3) is also quoted in Pahl. Vend. III, 48.

262:5 This statement is repeated in Chap. X, 33.

262:6 That is, with the Bareshnûm ceremony.

262:7 This exception (which is repeated in §§ 68, 71) seems to imply that §§ 66, 68, 71 refer to the collection of any fragments of a corpse found in the wilderness, or in water; and the exemption from the troublesome purification ceremony in such cases, is probably intended to encourage people to undertake the disagreeable duty of attending to such fragments.

263:1 The interposition of the stake, or piece of wood, prevents the direct attack of the Nasûs, or demon of corruption, which has not been driven away by a dog. That inanimate objects are supposed to stop the progress of the pollution appears from § 57.

263:2 See Chap. I, 1, 2. A sin is figuratively said to take root in the body, when it has to be eradicated, or figuratively dug up.

263:3 See § 68. If he employs another man to move the corpse merely because he is physically unable to do it himself, he escapes with less pollution than when he is able to do the work himself; but the man employed suffers the same in both cases.

263:4 See Chap. I, 1, 2.

263:5 See § 66.

264:1 Literally, 'when I came by;' the usual Persian idiom in such phrases.

264:2 This statement of Afarg's, so far as it relates to greasy firewood, will be found in Pahl. Vend. V, 14.

264:3 Or, 'by the community.' The same rule is mentioned in Pahl. Vend. V, 14.

264:4 There is some uncertainty about this word. It is not the Pers. badtum, 'worst, vilest,' because that is written vadtûm or vatûm in Pahlavi; besides, the rule must apply to other than the vilest doors, otherwise it would not harmonize with § 75. It is not a miswriting of nîtûm, 'lowest, most debased,' for the same reason, and because it occurs elsewhere. It is not a miswriting of bêtman, a possible variant of bêtâ, 'a house' (although 'a house-door' would suit the context very well), because it occurs also in Pahl. Vend. V, 14, XI, 10, in which latter place it is clearly an adjective partially translating Av. bendvô. And it would be hazardous to connect it with Pers. bîdûn, 'outside,' which seems merely a corruption or misreading of bîrûn. The view taken here is that badtûm stands for bandtûm, 'most shut up,' the nasal being often dropped in Pahlavi, as in sag for sang, 'stone,' &c.

265:1 See Chap. I, 3.

265:2 The Huz. equivalent of Pâz. dakhmak (see § 6).

265:3 See Pahl. Vend. V, 14.

265:4 Compare Pahl. Vend. VII, 66.

265:5 See Vend. VI, 80.

265:6 That is, the pollution extends about eight English feet up-stream and upwards, sixteen feet sideways and downwards, and twenty-four feet down-stream. Some of the latter part of the sentence is omitted in K20 by mistake.

266:1 The sentence is obscure, but this seems to be the meaning; that is, when a corpse or any dead matter is thrown into a pond or tank, the pollution extends sixteen feet from it in all directions; and that quantity of water ought to be drawn off, in order to purify the tank (see Vend. VI, 65-71). As the corpse, in nearly all cases, must be either at the bottom or on the surface, the quantity of polluted water to be drawn off must be a hemispherical mass sixteen feet in radius, or about forty-eight tons of water.

266:2 See Pahl. Vend. VI, 64, where it states that bringing it out is a good work of one Tanâpûhar, and leaving it is a sin of the same amount.

266:3 See Chap. I, 3.

266:4 Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mûn, 'which' (see Bund. I, 7, note).

266:5 See Chap. I, 1, 2.

266:6 See Chap. I, 4, note.

266:7 See Chap. I, 3.

266:8 See Pahl. Vend. VI, 64.

267:1 So that less water may be polluted by the corpse taking the shortest route through it; but if that be impossible it must come out quickly, at any rate.

267:2 That is, the otherwise indispensable dog's gaze and two bearers must be dispensed with, if not at hand, in order to save time, until the corpse is out of the water (see § 85).

267:3 It might be, 'there was a man who said,' but Mard-bûd occurs in the Nîrangistân as the name of a commentator (see Chap. I, 4, note).

267:4 See Pahl. Vend. VI, 64 for this prohibition.

268:1 See Chap. I, 3.

268:2 Or 'fear.' The difference of opinion between the two commentators on this question in casuistry, appears to have arisen from Afarg regarding the water merely as the representative of a spirit, who might be endangered or frightened by the source of impurity becoming more visible when above the water, while Mêdôk-mâh considered the water in its material aspect, and wished to save it from the further pollution consequent upon drawing the corpse through more of it.

268:3 See Pahl. Vend. VI, 64.

268:4 These rules generally distinguish clearly between offences committed 'through sinfulness,' that is, wilfully, and those arising from accidental inability; more stress being laid upon the intention than upon the action.

269:1 See Pahl. Vend. VI, 64 for §§ 92, 93.

269:2 Or 'twisted off;' the Huz. neskhûntanŏ must be traced to Chald. ‏נְסַח‎ 'to pluck out, to tear away,' and seems to have a similar meaning in Pahlavi; its Paz. equivalent vîkhtanŏ (Av. vig) ought to be compared rather with Pers. kîkhtan, 'to bruise or break,' than with bêkhtan or pêkhtan, 'to twist.'

269:3 This negative is omitted in M6 by mistake.

269:4 Compare Pahl. Vend. VII, 32.

269:5 Or 'go to pieces;' that this is the meaning of vishûpênd appears clearly from Pahl. Vend. VII, 123, but a Persian gloss in the modern MS. M9 explains it as 'deposit fragments from the beak of a bird,' meaning, of course, fragments of dead matter dropped by a carrion bird.

269:6 As useless, being incapable of purification; such cuttings are to be buried, according to the Avesta of Vend. VII, 32, though the Pahlavi commentary explains that they are to be thrown away.

270:1 Khshvâs-mâûgôk is merely a corruption of the Av. khshvas maunghô, 'six months,' of Vend. VII, 36, where this form of cleansing is thus described: 'If (the clothing) be woven, they should wash it out six times with bull's urine, they should scour it six times with earth, they should wash it out six times with water, they should fumigate it six months at the window of the house.'

270:2 See Pahl. Vend. VII, 3 2.

270:3 That is; woven clothing, as declared in Vend. VII, 36 (quoted above in note 1).

270:4 See Vend. VII, 35.

270:5 A Persian gloss defines armêst as 'a woman who has brought forth a dead child,' and this is the general opinion; but that seems to be only a particular example of an unclean person who would be included under the general term armêst, for according to Pahl. Vend. IX, 133, 137, 141 a man when only partially purified must remain apart in the place for the armêst (Av. airima, compare Sans. il or rî) for a certain time. Nêryôsang, in his Sanskrit translation of Mkh. (XXXVII, 36, XXXIX, 40, LI, 7), explains armêst as 'lame, crippled, immobility;' it also means 'stagnant,' when applied to water; and its primitive signification was, probably, 'most stationary' an appropriate term for such unclean persons as are required to remain in a particular place apart from all others, as well as for helpless cripples, and insane persons under restraint (see Chap. VI, x). The meaning 'most polluted' would hardly apply to tank water.

271:1 Pahl. Vend. VII, 35 says 'when a single hair is on it.'

271:2 As mentioned in a note on § 95.

271:3 Literally, 'impinges.' Here, as in many other places, 'dead matter' may be read instead of 'corpse,' as nasâî means both or either of them.

271:4 That is, laid upon wool.

271:5 See § 101.

271:6 See Pahl. Vend. VII, 27.

272:1 That is, she cannot be purified.

272:2 Reading var (see note on § 49).

272:3 Carrying a corpse by a single person being prohibited (see §§ 7, 8); but why he is supposed to devour it is not clear.

272:4 See Chap. I, 4, note.

272:5 Compare Pahl. Vend. VII, 192.

273:1 The purification here detailed is prescribed for golden vessels in Vend. VII, 186.

273:2 This is the purification prescribed for silver vessels in Vend. VII, 74 W.; it is found in the Vendidad Sâdah, but is omitted (evidently by mistake) in the Vendidad with Pahlavi translation, and has, therefore, been omitted in Spiegel's edition of the texts. By this accidental omission in the MSS. silver is connected with the purification for stone (see § 114).

273:3 See Vend. VII, 75 W., much of which is omitted in the Vendidad with Pahlavi translation, and in Spiegel's edition (see the preceding note), the sixfold washing of stone being erroneously applied to silver (see Vend. VII, 187 Sp.), owing to this omission of the intervening text. It appears from this section that the AV. haosafna, which has usually been translated as 'copper,' was understood to be pûlâvd, 'steel,' by the Pahlavi translators.

273:4 Or 'a mirror' (Pers. âbgînah), but the word is evidently used for a metal in SZS. X, 2, and very likely here also.

273:5 Most of the substances mentioned in §§ 115, 116 are detailed in Pahl. Vend. VII, 188, where it is stated that 'as to the pearl there have been different opinions, some say that it is liable just like gold, some say that it is just like the other jewels, and some say that there is no washing for it.'

274:1 This is doubtful; the word can be read pirînak, and has the Pers. gloss pîrûzah, 'turquoise,' in some MSS. If read pilînak it might perhaps be taken for 'ivory.' But in Pahl. Vend. VII, 188 it is vafarinô, 'snowy,' and the reading there seems to be 'jet-black and snow-white stone-coral;' so here the original meaning may have been 'snow-white, and jet-black coral-stone.'

274:2 Vend. VII, 188 says that 'earthen or wooden or porcelain vessels are impure for everlasting.'

274:3 Meaning, apparently, that they cannot be purified for immediate use.

274:4 That is, one-sixth longer than when green, the vitast being twelve finger-breadths, or nine inches (see Bund. XXVI, 3, note). The purification of firewood, here prescribed, is simply drying it for a year in short lengths; but Vend. VII, 72-82 requires it also to be sprinkled once with water, and to be cut into longer pieces.

274:5 See Chap. I, 3.

274:6 See Chap. I, 4, note.

275:1 Something similar is said in Pahl. Vend. VI, 71.

275:2 According to Vend. VII, 83-93 polluted corn and fodder are to be treated like polluted firewood, but to be cut into pieces of about double the length.

275:3 Reading dên gôpân farôstak; the practice of storing corn in dry pits underground is common in the East and in some parts of Europe. In Pahl. Vend. VII, 93 it is den gôpân âvist, 'concealed in pits.'

275:4 See Chap. I, 3.

275:5 Pahl. Vend. VII, 93 classes the almond with the walnut as a connected fruit and the date with the pomegranate as a separated one.

275:6 The word is kûrâpak or kûrâzak, but its meaning is doubtful.

276:1 Pahl. Vend. VII, 9 3 says, 'fruit whose rind (pazâv) exists is also just like that in a pod (kûvak), and for that which does not remain in a rind, when pollution shall come upon it, there is no cleansing whatever. Afarg said that there is ever a rind (pazâvisnŏ) with the citron.'

276:2 Pahl. Vend. VII, 93 says, 'for everything separated there is a washing, except meat and milk.' Articles for which there is no washing cannot be purified.

Next: Chapter III