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Last Judgment Posthumous, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1762], tr. by John Whitehead [1914], at

Last Judgment Posthumous


[278] THE MORAVIANS. I do not write of those who are in the world, but of those who are out of the world, I spoke with these and I heard. [279] (1) They are mere Arians, and deny the Divine of the Lord, saying that He has the Divine, such as man has. When it was said to them that He was conceived of Jehovah, they come together, nor do they wish easily to admit it, wishing to deny the Scripture lest they should be refuted; but still they say something that the Jews do. Others when they are convinced, say that He was born that He might be adopted. They confirm themselves by the Lord's word that in His freedom He was left to suffer the cross, not knowing why this was done. They say that they love Him, because He took it upon Himself to suffer the cross, and also because it is commanded by the Father, then especially because He is loved by the Father on account of the passion of the cross. (2) They reject the Old Testament as no longer for them but for the Jews. (3) They also despise the Gospels, saying that the Lord is spoken of as a simple man, and thus that there is nothing Divine in them. (4) Concerning faith in Him spoken of in the Gospels, they say that He so wished it, and that it ought not speak thus. (5) They acknowledge the Epistles of Paul only, and also the historicals of the Word, but they do not believe in the holiness of the Word. (6) They say concerning good works and charity, that they ought not to be together with faith, and that they shudder at doing good works for the sake of heaven, and that in their heaven they would rather adopt the most malevolent than such; in a word they condemn them to hell. (7) In speaking they utter the greatest fallacies; they speak with each one according to his heart in religion. They guard lest those mysteries should be disclosed; the rest which are concerning the Holy Supper and Baptism they think and teach violently. They are such things as do not agree with the faith of the Reformed, nor do they admit to the Holy Supper any others than those who receive those three mysteries, because they have confirmed them. (8) From these things it is evident that they are among the worst who profess Christianity. (9) They make much of their sensation, but it was shown to them, that their sensation is with their spirits, who were enthusiastic spirits from their assembly in the world, who come nearer to them, who think much of their religion and love it, saying that they are more loving and happy than others. These confirm them very greatly, thence is their sensation.


[280] They are held in the lower earth to the left in a society separated from the rest; because they are among themselves, and they are a society of interior friendship, which if it should be in the neighborhood of others, they would destroy their delights. They recede by turns from that society towards the left, into a desert which is for them alone, where there is no grass, where there are crags and cliffs.


[281] THE DUTCH. How formally and courteously they invite their wives and bring and lead them to their house, and show how well it is with those who act together in unity in their houses, and also how clean and well furnished their houses are; and on the contrary how unclean those are where there is the dominion of one over the other; savory food is also given those who act in unity, and they are taught by these things the quality of their delight when one is of the other mutually and reciprocally. Therefore when they see those things and apperceive them to be true they desist from dominion; and then they obtain a habitation nearer to the middle, and are led into a house better furnished. The reason is that there is then conjugial love, which regarded in itself is celestial love itself.


[282] THE MORAVIANS IN LONDON, THE HERRENHUTERS AND THE JEWS. The Moravians dwell in the furthest corner of the place of exit mostly at the side there, but when they journey into the city as to their sanctuary, they appear to proceed towards the middle and thence a little to the south, and thus to their corner, which is done because they wish to appear to others as Christians, of a similar doctrine. Afterwards from their corner they go into the west where the presbyters are who are in faith alone, concerning whom we have before spoken, and they return thence. From their corner, which is as it were their inn there, they go out by turns, and descend into a vault which stretches deeply under the west, where the presbyters are of whom we have before spoken, and their hell is there, from which they are no longer let out, except some into deserts. It is not allowed them to dwell near others, nor elsewhere, because they form a society of interior friendship, which takes away the spiritual delight of others. They say to others that they should dwell here and there even to the middle, but still they dwell at that corner, of which they have an idea as of their inn. [283] They appear in a way towards the middle, because they persuade that they are of the Anglican religion and speak with the English piously as if they were; and that they differ only as to ceremonials, which are like those of the Apostles. When they are asked why their preachers are clothed in blue, they say because that color is loved; nor do they dare to say that they should be clothed like the English preachers in a black gown, because they fear lest their mysteries should be disclosed. They very greatly fear to be sincere and just on account of religion. They are altogether averse to this, wherefore they are prone to all kinds of evils, taking care only lest they be discovered, because with others this would be hurtful to their religion.


[284] Moreover the Jews do not dwell upon the earth in London, but under the earth there, on the northern side below, where Towerhill is. They enter there through a dark opening. And the citizens of the city do not know where they dwell.


[285] THE LOVE OF KNOWING. The love of knowing is the external of the will, the use on account of which [it is done] is the internal of the will.


[286] With infants and boys the external rules, in process of time the internal is formed. [Marginal Note:] [291] Use of life makes the internal of the will originating from the sun of heaven. It [that is the exterior] is as in the time of winter, and like what is foul shining exteriorly.


[287] Then there is formed the love of knowing for the sake of use, these are formed whether they are good or evil.


[288] But the love of understanding whether a thing is true or not, and thence the love of being wise, is also the external of the will, originating from the light of heaven and its variegation.


[289] This love, because it is the external of the will, can be separated from its internal, and then it is the love of one's own glory, on account of glory and not on account of any use then. Therefore it can be given also with the evil.


[290] Or the external of the will in the understanding is the love of truth on account of glory, thus on account of the external.


[292] THE JEWS. The Jews less than others know that they are in the spiritual world. They think there of the Messiah as they did in the world and expect Him. And they say that He will come. But when it is said to them that it will be in Bethlehem, and from the house of David, and they are asked where is Bethlehem now, and where is the house of David, they do not know how to answer other than that He knows where that city is, and where that family is. Some of them in the other life say that the Messiah is in heaven, and that He will not come to those in the spiritual world before He is born a boy in the world. [293] When they are asked whether they only who are in the world will be led into Canaan, they reply that they will then return into the world, and they will dwell with them in the land of Canaan. When they are asked whether they will then be again born, they say they will not, but that they will descend to them, believing that thus they will be men like them. When they are asked whether Canaan will be capacious enough for all who have been born from that nation from the time of Abraham, they say that the land of Canaan will then be enlarged. When they are asked how the Messiah, the Son of Jehovah, can dwell with such evil persons, they say that they are not evil. When it is said that Moses in his song said that they were the worst, and do they read it and sing it as was commanded by Moses, they reply that Moses was angry when he wrote that, because they departed from him, and therefore they do not read it, but run through it quickly. When it is said to them that their origin is from a Canaanitess, and from whoredom with a daughter-in-law, they then are angry and depart, saying that it is enough that they are from Abraham and Jacob. They say that Moses and David will also return and go with the Messiah, one at His right and the other at His left. They narrate many fabulous things concerning the Messiah, how He will introduce them into the land of Canaan, and how rich Christians will follow them freely, if they give them their money. Nevertheless many of them who know that Christ who is the Messiah rules all things in the heavens, say that they wish to receive this, but cannot; they hear it from Moses, who sometimes appears above with a rod, and teaches this, and when they hear, they go away in various directions. They said to me, "Why did He suffer the cross?" I replied, "Because He was the greatest prophet, and therefore He carried the iniquities of the people, like the prophet who lay on his right side and on the left, and ate bread made of barley and filth, of whom it is said that he bore their iniquities; likewise other prophets, one who took a harlot to wife, who put on ashes, who went barefoot, who thus bore their iniquities; in like manner it is said of the Messiah" (Isa. 53). When they heard this they said that they would go off among themselves and consult together. They who have not become foul from filthy avarice, and who have not become devils from hatred, fraud and revenge, are tolerated below the heavens where their habitations are, because they regard the Word as holy, and they who suffer themselves to be instructed concerning the Lord, are transferred to societies where they are instructed, and are sent back to those who have not yet received. Their business is dealing in diamonds and precious stones as in the world. They procure them for themselves from heaven. They learn that they have that business, because they regard the Word as holy, because the sense of the letter corresponds to those stones and signifies them. Therefore the more holy they regard the Word, the better do they succeed there in that business.


[303] DEGREES. There is a natural kingdom, a spiritual kingdom, and a celestial kingdom.


[304] In the natural kingdom are men whilst they live in the world. In the spiritual kingdom are spiritual angels; in the celestial kingdom are celestial angels; for there are these three universals, the natural, the spiritual, and the celestial.


[305] In each kingdom there are two degrees, in the natural two, in the spiritual two, and in the celestial two; thus in the three kingdoms there are six degrees. [306] All these degrees are discrete, or discontinuous, and are called degrees of altitude. [307] Discrete degrees are to each other as thought to speech, or as the affection to gesture, or as the affection of the mind to the countenance; and in the material world as the ether to the air, or as a nerve to the fibers of which it is composed. All compositions in the whole natural world and in the spiritual world are of this character, and they consist either of two or three degrees of this kind in their order. These degrees are called prior and posterior, higher and lower, interior and exterior; and, in general, they are as cause and effect, or as a substance and a substantiate, or as the aggregate from substances, or as a principle and the principiates, or the thing formed from principles.


[308] There are also continuous or cohering degrees; each discrete degree has its continuous degree. The continuous degree of each discrete degree is as light verging to shade, and at length to the obscurity of night; and also as the rational thought which is in light to sensual and, as it were, at length to corporeal thought, which is in a dense shade according as it descends to the body. In such a degree continually decreasing is the human mind. In a similar degree, but lower; are man's sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch; in like manner his speech and his singing; for man has a tone like the tone of a lyre, and like the sound of a drum. It is also similar with harmonies and beauties; for they proceed by continuous degrees from the highest harmony and beauty, to the least. These degrees are of the cause in itself and of the effect in itself; they are distinguished from the former degrees, because these are of the cause and the effect in themselves. Continuous degrees are called degrees of what is purer or grosser. An idea of these degrees can be had chiefly from light and shade, and also from the aerial atmosphere in its lower and higher regions; for in the lower region it is grosser, denser, and more compressed, and in the higher region it is purer, rarer, and more extended.


[309] Unless one procures a knowledge of these two kinds of degrees, he cannot have an idea of the interiors and exteriors of man, thus neither of the soul and the body, nor indeed of causes and effects. Nor can he have an idea of the distinction between the heavens, nor of the wisdom of the angels in the heavens; nor can he have any idea of correspondences, of representatives, of influx, of order, thus he cannot have an idea of those things which are of order, both in the natural world and in the spiritual world, thus scarcely any just idea of anything.


[310] Few hitherto have had any other idea of degrees than of continuous degrees, which is, as was said, from what is pure to what is gross, or from greatest to least. From which it follows that only one kind of degrees has been known, and that the natural degree and the spiritual degree are distinguished only as what is pure and gross; in like manner the difference between the heavens, and also in the wisdom of the angels. Whereas the difference is according to discrete degrees, the nature of which we shall presently show from experience.


[311] There are, therefore, as stated above, six discrete degrees, two in the natural kingdom, two in the spiritual kingdom, and two in the celestial kingdom; but these degrees are those in which men and angels are, as to their thoughts, their affections, and their wisdom therefrom. Degrees are as follows: Below these six degrees of life, there follow similar degrees, and also material, even to the ultimate, and above those six degrees ascend degrees of the infinite even to the Divine itself. For the Divine itself cannot flow into any angel or man from itself but by discrete degrees; for if it flowed in immediately, or by what is continuous, both angel and man, from the ardor of the Divine love, and from the light of the Divine wisdom, would be entirely consumed. This would be as though the sun, of the world, from its fire, were to flow immediately into the objects of the earth, and not mediately through the atmospheres according to distinct discrete degrees.


[312] There are three natural atmospheres arising from the sun of the world, and there are three spiritual atmospheres arising from the sun of heaven, which is the Lord. The three natural atmospheres arising from the sun of the world are the purer ether, which is universal, from which is all gravitation; the middle ether, which forms the vortex around the planets, in which are the moons and the satellites, from which is magnetism; and the ultimate ether which is the air. By these three atmospheres all the corporeal and material things of the earth are held together, which are so composed as to be applicable to those three degrees. The three spiritual atmospheres arising from the sun of heaven, are those in which are the angels of the three heavens. In the two higher atmospheres are the angels of the Lord's celestial kingdom; in the third and the first natural, which is pure ether, are the angels of the Lord's spiritual kingdom, and in the atmospheres following those two which are the middle and the ultimate ether, which is the air, are men while they are in the natural world.


[313] But it should be known, that the atmospheres arising from the sun of heaven, which is the Lord, properly speaking, are not three, but six, there are three above the sun of the world, and there are three below it. The three below the sun of the world constantly accompany the three natural atmospheres, and enable a man in the natural world to think and to feel. For the atmospheres arising from the sun of the world have not life in themselves, because they originate from a sun which is pure fire; but the atmospheres arising from the sun of heaven, which is the Lord, have life in themselves, because they originate in the sun, which is pure love and pure wisdom. The atmospheres which originate from the sun of the world, which is pure fire, cause those things on the earth, and in the human body, to subsist and be held in connection together, and they are not changed except according to the laws of natural order. Hence is the difference between things in the natural world and in the spiritual world, concerning which difference more will be said in what follows.


[314] That in the spiritual world which is above the natural world, there are also atmospheres, is evident from the light and heat there, which before the eyes and senses of the angels appear similar to the light and heat before the eyes and senses of men; and angels are spiritual, but men are natural, and there cannot possibly be any light and heat with their differences without atmospheres. That there are also spiritual atmospheres is evident from many appearances in the spiritual world, as from the appearance of colors there, of meteors, of clouds both thin and thick, of winds, of gravities, pressures, and consequent consistencies, which although they appear entirely similar to such things as are in the natural world, nevertheless, they are spiritual and not natural; although before the angels, because they are spiritual, they appear similar. That there are spiritual atmospheres, is evident especially from the respiration of angels and spirits. For angels and spirits breathe in like manner as men in the world; but angels breathe from their atmospheres, and men from theirs. The angels in the celestial kingdom breathe from their atmosphere which is more pure, but the angels of the spiritual kingdom breathe from their atmosphere which is less pure.


[315] But the things which we have hitherto said concerning degrees and atmospheres are, for the most part, theoretical; but all theoretical things should be drawn and concluded from the facts of experience, and also be confirmed by them. For unless the facts of experience, as it were, lead the hand of man in coming to conclusions, he may be deceived in theoretical things, and from some imaginary hypothesis, be carried away into false principles entirely opposed to what is true, which he can then confirm by fallacies and appearances of every kind; for false principles may be confirmed by appearances and fallacies to such a degree, that a man may believe that they are truths themselves. I wish, therefore, now to produce some facts of experience, by which not only what has been said may be confirmed, but also by which everyone who is in the light of the mind or who has natural ability, may draw conclusions as to many other things.


[316] In the natural kingdom in which men are whilst they live in the world, and in the spiritual kingdom where the spiritual angels are, and in the celestial kingdom in which are the celestial angels, similar things appear, so much so that there is scarcely any other difference than that the like things in the spiritual kingdom are more perfect than in the natural kingdom, and in the celestial kingdom still more perfect than in the spiritual kingdom. A spirit or an angel appears like a man in the world, even so that he knows no otherwise than that he is a man of the world. He has a similar face and a similar body, and in the face similar eyes, nostrils, ears, lips, mouth, and similar hair; and in the body also a similar breast, abdomen, loins, hands and feet, and also similar organs of generation; in a word, he is a man in external form altogether like a man of the world. He has similar lungs, because he breathes; and he has a similar heart, because it pulsates. The other interior viscera of the body are also similar, because there are societies in heaven which equally correspond to these viscera. There is likewise a ruddiness in the face, hands, arms, and body, as if from blood in the arteries and veins. There are also similar fibers, nerves, and muscles, because in like manner a spirit moves his limbs like a man in the world. Moreover, he has similar sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. He also has similar speech and singing; he has also a similar power of imagination, thought, intellect, and will, also affection and cupidity. In a word, an angel or a spirit is so similar to a man of the world, that he himself knows no otherwise than that he is a man of the world. Conjugial love is also similar with all its effect; moreover there is not propagation, but in place of it unition of minds, and thence an increase of intelligence and wisdom. Thence it is that in the Word in its spiritual sense by marriage is meant the conjunction of truth and good, and by daughters goods, and by sons truths, and so on.


[317] Their garments also are similar to the garments of men; they have tunics, mantles, breeches, stockings, shoes, caps, tiaras and undergarments like those in the world, with some difference as to colors, especially of the tunics. The reason is, because colors signify the appearances of truth from good, and garments signify truths, and hence the clothing of the understanding.


[318] They have also similar houses, in which are apartments and chambers with courts as in the world, and within there are tables, benches, utensils, and various decorations. In heaven there are palaces so magnificent that palaces in the world cannot be compared to them. These palaces are of a magnitude so great, and of such symmetrical and architectural beauty, both without and within, and are decorated in such forms with gold and precious stones, that no picture painter on earth could possibly express them. There are also marble houses and houses of a blue color. The use of every apartment is known from its decorations.


[319] They have also similar food and drink as in the world, and various kinds of food and drink are named.


[320] In the spiritual world are likewise earths, mountains, hills, plains, grassy fields, paradises or gardens, groves and woods. There are ways everywhere tending to various societies, some are guarded. These ways then first appear to a spirit when he goes into his own society. There are also in that world fountains, lakes, and seas.


[321] There appear likewise animals of the earth and all kinds of flying things, greater and smaller. There also appear compound animals, such as are described in the Word, there are also various insects or worms.


[322] In a word, in the spiritual world there are not only similar things as in the natural world, but innumerable others; and everything exists with infinite variety and harmony, from which there breathes forth delight. In a word, in heaven there is a heaven in all and in each thing, in general and in every particular. Thus every external sense has its own heaven, and everything of the internal sense has also its own heaven, and an angel is a heaven in its least form, and each one, as he has heaven in himself, has also heaven outside of himself.


[323] But it must be known that all things, and each now mentioned, are not material but spiritual, or are from a spiritual origin; and yet spirits know no otherwise than that they are material; the reason is, that when what is spiritual touches or tastes what is spiritual, it is altogether like when what is material touches or tastes what is material. Concerning this appearance I have often had a discussion with spirits, who believe that the things which they see and touch are material. I have shown them by various methods, and by various reasons even to the life, that nothing in the spiritual world is material, but that everything there is spiritual. I demonstrated it to them by the houses, which in a moment are formed, and in a moment are destroyed and dissipated; also by their garments, which in a moment are put on, and in a moment are changed; new garments are also given in a moment. In like manner I have demonstrated it from their dinners and repasts, showing that the tables upon which is the food, exist in a moment, and are afterwards dissipated in a moment; and that the spirits themselves can enter into the houses through the walls, and oftentimes not entering in through the doors. There was a certain individual known to me, with whom I conversed when his body which he had in the world was being buried, and I told him that he was now being buried, when he replied that he did not know what of him was being buried, because he had all things with him, a similar body as before, and other things similar, for he, like others, did not know otherwise than that he was still material, whereas he was spiritual. He was soon instructed that his material body, which he carried about with him in the world, and which then clothed his spiritual body, was being buried.


[324] WONDERFUL THINGS [CONCERNING THE LANGUAGE OF SPIRITS]. Spirits and angels do not know otherwise than that they speak the same language they did in the world, write as they did in the world, and think as they did in the world, when yet they speak the spiritual language, in which there is no expression similar to any in the world; and they write by letters and characters; but it differs so much from writings in the world, that there is nothing whatever that is similar, except the letters and some points. Yea, they think altogether otherwise than in the world, so differently, that no thought is similar; but still they do not know otherwise than that all things are similar. That it is so I have often experienced by this, that spirits and angels when they are with me, are in my natural state; and it was said to them that in their spiritual state they should speak words and sentences, and retain the words with me in the natural state; and then there was not a single word alike, nor did they understand one of their words. They like-wise wrote a sentence in the spiritual state, and when it had been written it was shown in the natural state; there was nothing similar but the letters and points. Likewise when they thought in the spiritual state, they could not bring forth any idea of thought in the natural state. As for example, they say Rocky [scopulosum] and to wish life [vitam velle]. Scopulosum in the spiritual language signifies that he casts out of doors, and vitam velle, that it is afar off. When they retain these expressions in the natural state, they do not understand them, nor any expression in the natural state when they come into the spiritual state. When they write scopulosum, they write ---, and when they write vitam velle, they write ---, and they suppose that they have written it fully. They write the sense of the words by alphabetic letters, each one of which signifies a thing ---. They write also by many signs, so that the greater the angelic wisdom is, the more things of wisdom they understand in the writing; the Word is thus written.


[325] From these things it may be concluded that there is no ratio given by continuity between the natural and the spiritual; and that spirits and angels who are with men do not know that they are with them, nor an angel or a spirit that he is with a man. These wonderful things were disclosed to me before those in the spiritual world who were with me today, because they could be with me in my natural state and not before.


[326] It is altogether similar between the thought, speech and writing of the angels of the Lord's celestial kingdom and of the angels of the spiritual kingdom, as there is between those who are in the spiritual kingdom in relation to those who are in the natural kingdom. This also has been confirmed by experience. 334-1


[327] THE ENGLISH. The garments of the English are not like their garments in the world, neither those of the virgins nor of the women. They are adapted altogether to their general affection. When viewed in the spiritual state they appear graceful and beautiful, because they are altogether in agreement with their genius. But when the same are seen in their natural state, they do not appear so beautiful. The reason is that garments signify truths, and therefore all are clothed according to the reception of truth.


[328] 336-1 In London there are ten moderators of similar authority.


[329] The understanding teaches the will and does not lead it, or faith teaches, but does not produce good works. For man can discern and see what is good and evil, but still act contrary there to, and then he either shuns it, or holds it in hatred, the will in the understanding is then opposite, yea in time dissipates it. Truth seen is what one acknowledges, but this is not the truth of life. But what once becomes of the will is either evil or good, this is stirred up by the sight and by the understanding, or the thought, and then the will is stirred up, and thence it exists in the thought. It is thus effected in all things reborn. It then appears as if the will was aroused by the thought; but it is not so. It is as if the sight should teach the feet to walk cautiously, and the hands to do the work. It appears as if that leads, but it does not lead, but shows and teaches. It is altogether like the heart and the lungs. The lungs do not respire unless the heart also acts, nor can there be given a reciprocal conjunction from the lungs but from the heart. See more below.


[330] It is to be observed, that there may be anything either spiritual, moral or civil whose effect man has produced and thence has loved; the man (1) hears it from another, or he reads it in a book. (2) Thence it becomes his thought. (3) In the thought there is raised up a perception of it, because this was the first of that thing. (4) His affection is in the perception, thus the affection of truth. (5) This affection which is called the affection of truth is from the affection of good, which is of the will, thus from the will in the affection of truth there is effected the conjunction of good and truth, in which conjunction the will and the understanding or good and truth act as one. (6) Thus one is concealed in the other, within, and all are aroused from the ultimate, even through the hearing and sight, that is, the rousing up, namely because the will is concealed inmostly in the hearing, and thence in the thought, and it goes forth not otherwise than the spiritual sense and the celestial sense from the natural sense into the hearing, and thence sight is simultaneous. But it does not produce; production is effected by the will or the affection of good into the affection of truth, thence into the perception and from this into the thought; but not vice versa. From these things it is evident whence are appearances.


[331] Thought is also given from hearing, and within the thought is perception, and within the perception is the affection of truth, and not at the same time the affection of the good of that truth. The affection of its good can be given with the love of self, of reputation, honor, and gain, but this is not marriage, but adultery. The reason is that this good which is merely natural, can be opposite to the good of truth itself, which is spiritual in various ways and respects. Examples may teach this.


[332] When man is in his natural good, which in itself is evil, he then either does not know that [spiritual good], or denies it. He does so when he is in his proprium.


[333] There is given the affection of knowing and understanding truth on account of glory, gain, and remuneration. The love of knowing and understanding is the love of natural light; the love of knowing and understanding truths is the love of spiritual light, which love is especially given with those who are in the love of good, but it is also given with those who are in the love of glory. From experience it has been given me to know that the love of light on account of glory as also of use is given with those who are in the love of evil; but with them the love of evil is then hidden or is lulled to sleep. It touches only the surface, as beauty from various colors, and the more it is hidden or lulled to sleep, the more it can feel delight. The love of knowing and understanding truths is from the external, which can be given provided the internal is hidden or is lulled to sleep; but it is a spurious love; it is like some filthy object covered over with a beautiful color, yea, with gold, underneath which surface there is evil. Therefore when good is in evil, one cannot know and understand those things, yea, he holds them in hatred, for he then confirms himself against truths. Thus the internal dissipates the external. Yea, there is given a holy external and a profane internal, the internal is lulled to sleep, but not the external; the external is not asleep.


[334] IN THE TREATISE ON THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. It must treat of faith and of the understanding of truth.


[335] (1) What faith is. (2) That there is conjunction with good works, and there is so much of faith as there is of life. (3) That life is the soul of faith. (4) That faith separate is not faith, it is inanimate. (5) It is the dragon; it is the he-goat; it is Philistia; it is Cain; it is Reuben. (6) What is faith? It is truth. (7) At this day how sterile [is faith separate], and religion is nothing.


[336] (1) In heaven they altogether reject the dogma that the understanding is to be held under obedience to faith. (2) All things of theology can be comprehended by the understanding. (3) Not only by the spiritual understanding by the angels, but by the rational understanding by men. (4) Otherwise from theological authority they could say whatever they wished.


[337] FOODS. There were some in the lowest heaven, to whom the atmosphere above appeared like water. I spoke with them and they said that they have choice foods, and they take them from the table and keep them until evening, and eat therefrom at will; but it is not allowed them to hide them until morning. This is what is meant in the Lord's prayer, "Give us daily bread." Concerning the manna it is said that it bred worms when it was kept. Then they were to burn up what was left of the paschal lamb; neither should they let anything from the sacrifices remain over; also that the bread of faces should be replaced anew every day. Thence it is evident why everyone is provided with spiritual daily bread by the Lord, and that it is not given as their own, and thus there should be no care concerning tomorrow, what they should eat and drink. Thus and not otherwise are good spirits in their works, and in their life and faith. Nothing is given to the evil, but only to him who is in work. Thus also all are held in bonds, thus every use is remunerated. [Marginal Note:] [338] Some are nourished at the tables of others, but those who are evil and hateful sit at the table and do not see the food.


[339] MARRIAGE AND ADULTERY. (1) Adultery is hell itself, thus it is the Devil himself and Satan. It has been shown by many things as also by experience, that all in hell are adulterers, that they rage like furies when they perceive conjugial love; which is a sign that they are from hell; that they desire to violate chaste marriages, and many other things; then that they are in the marriage of evil and falsity. (2) Marriage is heaven itself because all there are in conjugial love, everyone in his own degree. That love is the fundamental love of all the loves of heaven, because an angel by it becomes love in form, because they who are in marriage are in good and truth; and therefore heaven cooperates in marriages and nuptials and hell in adulteries and whoredoms. (3) Thence it follows that as far as a man detests adulteries as a diabolic sin, and looks to the Lord, so far he is in a like degree in heaven.


[340] Marriage and adultery must be treated of especially, because he who is in marriage is in the conjunction of good and truth but he who is in adultery is in evil and falsity. And because adultery is all sin against the Decalogue, for he who is in that is in all the evil of the Decalogue and vice versa; and because these are involved and as it were contained in marriage and adultery in summaries, therefore they must be treated of especially. (2) At this day in the Christian world adulteries are more prevalent than in any other religion, because they separate good from truth or charity from faith; and when these are separated, then from influx it cannot be otherwise. Therefore they confirm adulteries and not marriages; and therefore it is not known what conjugial love is, it must be shown how the faith of the present day separates and thus falsifies the Word, then how it perverts man's rational, thence adulteries are delightful, but not so marriages.


[341] Adulteries are the worst of all abominations, because the seed of man is his life which is conjoined with the life of the wife, so that they are not two but one flesh; but when the lives of many men are immitted into one woman, there becomes such foulness that on account of the abomination it cannot be described, it becomes such before the angels. 348-1


[342] TO DO GOODS AND NOT TO FIGHT AGAINST EVILS IS TO DO GOODS FROM SELF AND NOT FROM THE LORD. It is believed by many that they will be saved because they have done goods, as that they have given to the poor, benefitted their neighbor, acted sincerely and justly in their duty and work, and yet have never fought against the evils opposed to their goods; believing that thus evils are removed. It appears to them, moreover, as if goods removed evils; saying in heart, "If I do good then I shall avoid evil." Nevertheless the case is as follows: that such a one does good from obedience to the precepts of the Lord, yet not from the Lord but from himself, thus not from any spiritual law except only apparently, but from a moral and civil law actually. In this case his evils nevertheless remain; for although he does not do them, yet he is not averse to them. Consequently when the love of evil with its delight returns, he does not resist the evil, but either excuses it and does it, or omits doing it on account of himself and the world; moreover, he does not then know that it is evil. The case is otherwise when he fights against evil from the spiritual law; for, insofar as he does this, he censures evil, and he then loves good and its truth; and in proportion as he does good from the Lord and not from himself, in the same proportion the Lord, by the good and truth in the man, removes his evils.


[343] I have heard spirits saying, that they know no otherwise than that to do good is to shun evil. But they receive for reply, that in this case they no otherwise shun evil than that they do not do it; but that nevertheless they do not hold evil in hatred, and reject it as sin, unless as far as they have fought against it. By fighting against it evil is removed, and then good succeeds, that is, by combat the devil is removed and the Lord enters. To do good, and not to fight against evil, is to do good only in externals and not in internals; but to fight against evil and thus to do good, is to do good in internals. Man is not made spiritual except by combat. Some of those who have been sincere, just, chaste, and have not fought against what is insincere, unjust, and unchaste, are after death let into combats, and then it clearly appears how much they have done good from themselves, or on account of themselves, or from the Lord; and by combats they are reformed.


334-1 Following n. [326] in Tafel's Latin text is a paragraph "On the Spiritual Sense;" this and numbers following 339, 347, and 355 properly belong to The Word of the Lord from Experience, where they will be found in this volume. Nos. xxi., xxii., xxiii., xxiv. and xxvi. We make our numbering of paragraphs consecutive.

336-1 Following n. 328 in Tafel's Latin text is a paragraph "On the Spiritual Sense;" this and numbers following 339, 347, and 355 properly belong to The Word of the Lord from Experience, where they will be found in this volume. Nos. xxi., xxii., xxiii., xxiv. and xxvi. We make our numbering of paragraphs consecutive.

348-1 Following n. 326 in Tafel's Latin text is a paragraph "On the Spiritual Sense;" this and numbers following 339, 347, and 355 properly belong to The Word of the Lord from Experience, where they will be found in this volume. Nos. xxi., xxii., xxiii., xxiv. and xxvi. We make our numbering of paragraphs consecutive.

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