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Conjugial Love, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1768] at

Conjugial Love


XV. OF THESE, ALTHOUGH POLYGAMISTS, SUCH ARE SAVED AS ACKNOWLEDGE A GOD, AND FROM A RELIGIOUS NOTION LIVE ACCORDING TO THE CIVIL LAWS OF JUSTICE. All throughout the world who acknowledge a God and live according to the civil laws of justice from a religious notion, are saved. By the civil laws of justice we mean such precepts as are contained in the Decalogue, which forbid murder, theft, adultery, and false witness. These precepts are the civil laws of justice in all the kingdoms of the earth; for without them no kingdom could subsist. But some are influenced in the practice of them by fear of the penalties of the law, some by civil obedience, and some also by religion; these last are saved, because in such case God is in them; and every one, in whom God is, is saved. Who does not see, that among the laws given to the sons of Israel, after they had left Egypt, were those which forbid murder, adultery, theft, and false witness, since without those laws their communion or society could not subsist? and yet these laws were promulgated by Jehovah God upon Mount Sinai with a stupendous miracle: but the cause of their being so promulgated was, that they might be also laws of religion, and thus that the people might practise them not only for the sake of the good of society, but also for the sake of God, and that when they practised them from a religious notion for the sake of God, they might be saved. From these considerations it may appear, that the pagans, who acknowledge a God, and live according to the civil laws of justice, are saved; since it is not their fault that they know nothing of the Lord, consequently nothing of the chastity of the marriage with one wife. For it is contrary to the divine justice to condemn those who acknowledge a God, and from their religion practise the laws of justice, which consist in shunning evils because they are contrary to God, and in doing what is good because it is agreeable to God.


XVI. BUT NONE EITHER OF THE LATTER OR OF THE FORMER CAN BE ASSOCIATED WITH THE ANGELS IN THE CHRISTIAN HEAVENS. The reason of this is, because in the Christian heavens there are celestial light, which is divine truth, and celestial heat, which is divine love; and these two discover the quality of goods and truths, and also of evils and falses; hence, there is no communication between the Christian and the Mahometan heavens, and in like manner between the heavens of the Gentiles. If there were a communication, none could have been saved but those who were in celestial light and at the same time in celestial heat from the Lord; yea neither would these be saved if there was a conjunction of the heavens: for in consequence of conjunction all the heavens would so far fall to decay that the angels would not be able to subsist; for an unchaste and lascivious principle would flow from the Mahometans into the Christian heaven, which in that heaven could not be endured; and a chaste and pure principle would flow from the Christians into the Mahometan heaven, which again could not be there endured. In such case, in consequence of communication and thence of conjunction, the Christian angels would become natural and thereby adulterers; or if they remained spiritual, they would be continually sensible of a lascivious principle about them, which would intercept all the blessedness of their life. The case would be somewhat similar with the Mahometan heaven: for the spiritual principles of the Christian heaven would continually encompass and torment them, and would take away all the delight of their life, and would moreover insinuate that polygamy is sin, whereby they would be continually eluded. This is the reason why all the heavens are altogether distinct from each other, so that there is no connection between them, except by an influx of light and heat from the Lord out of the sun, in the midst of which he is: and this influx enlightens and vivifies everyone according to his reception; and reception is according to religion. This communication is granted, but not a communication of the heavens with each other.


To the above I shall add TWO MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. I was once in the midst of the angels and heard their conversation. It was respecting intelligence and wisdom; that a man perceives no other than that each is in himself, and thus that whatever he thinks from his understanding and intends from his will, is from himself; when nevertheless not the least portion thereof is from the man, but only the faculty of receiving the things of the understanding and the will from God: and as every man (_homo_) is by birth inclined to love himself, it was provided from creation, to prevent man's perishing by self-love and the conceit of his own intelligence, that that love of the man (_vir_) should be transferred into the wife, and that in her should be implanted from her birth a love for the intelligence and wisdom of her husband, and thereby a love for him; therefore the wife continually attracts to herself her husband's conceit of his own intelligence, and extinguishes it in him, and vivifies it in herself, and thus changes it into conjugial love, and fills it with unbounded pleasantnesses. This is provided by the Lord, lest the conceit of his own intelligence should so far infatuate the man, as to lead him to believe that he has understanding and wisdom from himself and not from the Lord, and thereby make him willing to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and thence to believe himself like unto God, and also a god, as the serpent, which was the love of his own intelligence, said and persuaded him: wherefore the man (_homo_) after eating was cast out of paradise, and the way to the tree of life was guarded by a cherub. Paradise, spiritually understood, denotes intelligence; to eat of the tree of life, in a spiritual sense, is to be intelligent and wise from the Lord; and to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, in a spiritual sense, is to be intelligent and wise from self.


The angels having finished this conversation departed; and there came two priests, together with a man who in the world had been an ambassador of a kingdom, and to them I related what I had heard from the angels. On hearing this they began to dispute with each other about intelligence and wisdom, and the prudence thence derived, whether they are from God or from man. The dispute grew warm. All three in heart believed that they are from man because they are in man, and that the perception and sensation of its being so confirm it; but the priests, who on this occasion were influenced by theological zeal, said that there is nothing of intelligence and wisdom, and thus nothing of prudence from man; and when the ambassador retorted, that in such case there is nothing of thought from man, they assented to it. But as it was perceived in heaven, that all the three were in a similar belief, it was said to the ambassador, "Put on the garments of a priest, and believe that you are one, and then speak." He did so; and instantly he declared aloud that nothing of intelligence and wisdom, and consequently nothing of prudence, can possibly exist but from God; and he proved it with his usual eloquence full of rational arguments. It is a peculiar circumstance in the spiritual world, that a spirit thinks himself to be such as is denoted by the garment he wears; because in that world the understanding clothes every one. Afterwards, a voice from heaven said to the two priests, "Put off your own garments, and put on those of political ministers, and believe yourselves to be such." They did so; and in this case they at the same time thought from their interior self, and spoke from arguments which they had inwardly cherished in favor of man's own intelligence. At that instant there appeared a tree near the path; and it was said to them, "It is the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; take heed to yourselves lest ye eat of it." Nevertheless all the three, infatuated by their own intelligence, burned with a desire to eat of it, and said to each other, "Why should not we? Is not the fruit good?" And they went to it and eat of it. Immediately all the three, as they were in a like faith, became bosom friends; and they entered together into the way of self-intelligence, which led into hell: nevertheless I saw them return thence, because they were not yet prepared.


THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. On a time as I was looking into the spiritual world, I saw in a certain green field some men, whose garments were like those worn by men of this world; from which circumstance I knew that they were lately deceased. I approached them and stood near them, that I might hear what they were conversing about. Their conversation was about heaven; and one of them who knew something respecting it, said, "In heaven there are wonderful things, such as no one can believe unless he has seen them: there are paradisiacal gardens, magnificent palaces constructed according to the rules of architecture, because the work of the art itself, resplendent with gold; in the front of which are columns of silver; and on the columns heavenly forms made of precious stones; also houses of jasper and sapphire, in the front of which are stately porticos, through which the angels enter; and within the houses handsome furniture, which no art or words can describe. The angels themselves are of both sexes: there are youths and husbands, also maidens and wives: maids so beautiful, that nothing in the world bears any resemblance to their beauty; and wives still more beautiful, who are genuine images of celestial love, and their husbands images of celestial wisdom; and all these are ever approaching the full bloom of youth; and what is more, they know no other love of the sex than conjugial love; and, what you will be surprised to hear, the husbands there have a perpetual faculty of enjoyment." When the novitiate spirits heard that no other love of the sex prevailed in heaven than conjugial love, and that they had a perpetual faculty of enjoyment, they smiled at each other, and said, "What you tell us is incredible; there cannot be such a faculty: possibly you are amusing us with idle tales." But at that instant a certain angel from heaven unexpectedly stood in the midst of them, and said, "Hear me, I beseech you; I am an angel of heaven, and have lived now a thousand years with my wife, and during that time have been in the same flower of my age in which you here see me. This is in consequence of the conjugial love in which I have lived with my wife; and I can affirm, that the above faculty has been and is perpetual with me; and because I perceive that you believe this to be impossible, I will talk with you on the subject from a ground of rational argument according to the light of your understanding. You do not know anything of the primeval state of man, which you call a state of integrity. In that state all the interiors of the mind were open even to the Lord; and hence they were in the marriage of love and wisdom, or of good and truth; and as the good of love and the truth of wisdom perpetually love each other, they also perpetually desire to be united; and when the interiors of the mind are open, the conjugial spiritual love flows down freely with its perpetual endeavour, and presents the above faculty. The very soul of a man (_homo_), being in the marriage of good and truth, is not only in the perpetual endeavour of that union, but also in the perpetual endeavour of the fructification and production of its own likeness; and since the interiors of a man even from the soul are open by virtue of that marriage, and the interiors continually regard as an end the effect in ultimates that they may exist, therefore that perpetual endeavor for fructifying and producing its like, which is the property of the soul, becomes also of the body: and since the ultimate of the operation of the soul in the body with two conjugial partners is into the ultimates of love therein, and these depend on the state of the soul, it is evident whence they derive this perpetuality. Fructification also is perpetual, because the universal sphere of generating and propagating the celestial things which are of love, and the spiritual things which are of wisdom, and thence the natural things which are of offspring, proceeds from the Lord, and fills all heaven and all the world; and that celestial sphere fills the souls of all men, and descends through their minds into the body even to its ultimates, and gives the power of generating. But this cannot be the case with any but those with whom a passage is open from the soul through the superior and inferior principles of the mind into the body to its ultimates, as is the case with those who suffer themselves to be led back by the Lord into the primeval state of creation. I can confirm that now for a thousand years I have never wanted faculty, strength, or vigor, and that I am altogether a stranger to any diminution of powers, which are continually renewed by the influx of the above-mentioned sphere, and in such case also cheer the mind (_animum_), and do not make it sad, as is the case with those who suffer the loss of those powers. Moreover love truly conjugial is just like the vernal heat, from the influx of which all things tend to germination and fructification; nor is there any other heat in our heaven: wherefore with conjugial partners in that heaven there is spring in its perpetual _conatus_, and it is this perpetual _conatus_ from which the above virtue is derived. But fructifications with us in heaven are different from those with men on earth. With us fructifications are spiritual, which are the fructifications of love and wisdom, or of good and truth: the wife from the husband's wisdom receives into herself the love thereof; and the husband from the love thereof in the wife receives into himself wisdom; yea the wife is actually formed into the love of the husband's wisdom, which is effected by her receiving the propagations of his soul with the delight arising therefrom, in that she desires to be the love of her husband's wisdom: thus from a maiden she becomes a wife and a likeness. Hence also love with its inmost friendship with the wife, and wisdom with its happiness with the husband, are continually increasing, and this to eternity. This is the state of the angels of heaven." When the angel had thus spoken, he looked at those who had lately come from the world, and said to them, "You know that, while you were in the vigor of love, you loved your married partners; but when your appetite was gratified, you regarded them with aversion; but you do not know that we in heaven do not love our married partners in consequence of that vigor, but that we have vigor in consequence of love and derived from it; and that as we perpetually love our married partners, we have perpetual vigor: if therefore you can invert the state, you may be able to comprehend this. Does not he who perpetually loves a married partner, love her with the whole mind and with the whole body? for love turns every thing of the mind and of the body to that which it loves; and as this is done reciprocally, it conjoins the objects so that they become a one." He further said, "I will not speak to you of the conjugial love implanted from the creation in males and females, and of their inclination to legitimate conjunction, or of the faculty of prolification in the males, which makes one with the faculty of multiplying wisdom from the love of truth; and that so far as a man loves wisdom from the love thereof, or truth from good, so far he is in love truly conjugial and in its attendant vigor."


When he had spoken these words, the angel was silent; and from the spirit of his discourse the novitiates comprehended that a perpetual faculty of enjoyment is communicable; and as this consideration rejoiced their minds, they exclaimed, "O how happy is the state of angels! We perceive that you in the heavens remain for ever in a state of youth, and thence in the vigor of that age; but tell us how we also may enjoy that vigor." The angel replied, "Shun adulteries as internal, and approach the Lord, and you will possess it." They said, "We will do so." But the angel replied, "You cannot shun adulteries as infernal evils, unless you in like manner shun all other evils, because adulteries are the complex of all; and unless you shun them, you cannot approach the Lord; for the Lord receives no others." After this the angel took his leave, and the novitiate spirits departed sorrowful.



The subject of jealousy is here treated of, because it also has relation to conjugial love. There is a just jealousy and an unjust;--a just jealousy with married partners who mutually love each other, with whom it is a just and prudent zeal lest their conjugial love should be violated, and thence a just grief if it is violated; and an unjust jealousy with those who are naturally suspicious, and whose minds are sickly in consequence of viscous and bilious blood. Moreover, all jealousy is by some accounted a vice; which is particularly the case with whoremongers, who censure even a just jealousy. The term JEALOUSY (_zelotypia_) is derived from ZELI TYPUS (the type of zeal), and there is a type or image of just and also of unjust zeal; but we will explain these distinctions in the following series of articles: I. _Zeal, considered in itself, is like the ardent fire, of love._ II. _The burning or flame of that love, which is zeal, is a spiritual burning or flame, arising from an infestation and assault of the love._ III. _The quality of a man's (homo) zeal is according to the quality of his love; thus it differs according as the love is good or evil._ IV. _The zeal of a good love and the zeal of an evil love are alike in externals, but altogether unlike in internals._ V. _The zeal of a good love in its internals contains a hidden store of love and friendship; but the zeal of an evil love in its internals contains a hidden store of hatred and revenge._ VI. _The zeal of conjugial love is called jealousy._ VII. _Jealousy is like an ardent fire against those who infest love exercised towards a married partner, and like a terrible fear for the loss of that love._ VIII. _There is spiritual jealousy with monogamists, and natural with polygamists._ IX. _Jealousy with those married partners who tenderly love each other, is a just grief grounded in sound reason lest conjugial love should be divided, and should thereby perish._ X. _Jealousy with married partners who do not love each other, is grounded in several causes: arising in some instances from various mental weaknesses._ XI. _In some instances there is not any jealousy; and this also from various causes._ XII. _There is a jealousy also in regard to concubines, but not such as in regard to wives._ XIII. _Jealousy likewise exists among beasts and birds._ XIV. _The jealousy of men and husbands is different from that of women and wives._ We proceed to an explanation of the above articles.


I. ZEAL, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF, IS LIKE THE ARDENT FIRE OF LOVE, What jealousy is cannot be known, unless it be known what zeal is; for jealousy is the zeal of conjugial love. The reason why zeal is like the ardent fire of love is, because zeal is of love, which is spiritual heat, and this in its origin is like fire. In regard to the first position, it is well known that zeal is of love: nothing else is meant by being zealous, and acting from zeal, than acting from the force of love: but since when it exists, it appears not as love, but as unfriendly and hostile, offended at and fighting against him who hurts the love, therefore it may also be called the defender and protector of love; for all love is of such a nature that it bursts into indignation and anger, yea into fury, whenever it is disturbed in its delights: therefore if a love, especially the ruling love, be touched, there ensues an emotion of the mind; and if it be hurt, there ensues wrath. From these considerations it may be seen, that zeal is not the highest degree of the love, but that it is ardent love. The love of one, and the correspondent love of another, are like two confederates; but when the love of one rises up against the love of another, they become like enemies; because love is the _esse_ of a man's life; therefore he that assaults the love, assaults the life itself; and in such case there ensues a state of wrath against the assailant, like the state of every man whose life is attempted by another. Such wrath is attendant on every love, even that which is most pacific, as is very manifest in the case of hens, geese, and birds of every kind; which, without any fear, rise against and fly at those who injure their young, or rob them of their meat. That some beasts are seized with anger, and wild beasts with fury, if their young are attacked, or their prey taken from them, is well known. The reason why love is said to burn like fire is, because love is spiritual heat, originating in the fire of the angelic sun, which is pure love. That love is heat as it were from fire, evidently appears from the heat of living bodies, which is from no other source than from their love; also from the circumstance that men grow warm and are inflamed according to the exaltation of their love. From these considerations it is manifest, that zeal is like the ardent fire of love.


II. THE BURNING OR FLAME OF THAT LOVE, WHICH IS ZEAL, IS A SPIRITUAL BURNING OR FLAME, ARISING FROM AN INFESTATION AND ASSAULT OF THE LOVE. That zeal is a spiritual burning or flame, is evident from what has been said above. As love in the spiritual world is heat arising from the sun of that world, therefore also love at a distance appears there as flame: it is thus that celestial love appears with the angels of heaven; and thus also infernal love appears with the spirits of hell: but it is to be observed, that that flame does not burn like the flame of the natural world. The reason why zeal arises from an assault of the love is, because love is the heat of every one's life; wherefore when the life's love is assaulted, the life's heat kindles itself, resists, and bursts forth against the assailant, and acts as an enemy by virtue of its own strength and ability, which is like flame bursting from a fire upon him who stirs it: that it is like fire, appears from the sparkling of the eyes from the face being inflamed, also from the tone of the voice and the gestures. This is the effect of love, as being the heat of life, to prevent its extinction, and with it the extinction of all cheerfulness, vivacity, and perceptibility of delight, grounded in its own love.


It may be expedient here to show how the love by being assaulted is inflamed and kindled into zeal, like fire into flame. Love resides in a man's will; nevertheless it is not inflamed in the will itself, but in the understanding; for in the will it is like fire, and in the understanding like flame. Love in the will knows nothing about itself, because there it is not sensible of anything relating to itself, neither does it there act from itself; but this is done in the understanding and its thought: when therefore the will is assaulted, it provokes itself to anger in the understanding, which is effected by various reasonings. These reasonings are like pieces of wood, which the fire inflames, and which thence burn: they are therefore like so much fuel, or so many combustible matters which give occasion to that spiritual flame, which is very variable.


We will here unfold the true reason why a man becomes inflamed in consequence of an assault of his love. The human form in its inmost principles is from creation a form of love and wisdom. In man there are all the affections of love, and thence all the perceptions of wisdom, compounded in the most perfect order, so as to make together what is unanimous, and thereby a one. Those affections and perceptions are rendered substantial; for substances are their subjects. Since therefore the human form is compounded of these, it is evident that, if the love is assaulted, this universal form also, with everything therein, is assaulted at the same instant, or together with it. And as the desire to continue in its form is implanted from creation in all living things, therefore this principle operates in every general compound by derivation from the singulars of which it is compounded, and in the singulars by derivation from the general compound: hence when the love is assaulted, it defends itself by its understanding, and the understanding (defends itself) by rational and imaginative principles, whereby it represents to itself the event; especially by such as act in unity with the love which is assaulted: and unless this was the case the above form would wholly fall to pieces, in consequence of the privation of that love. Hence then it is that love, in order to resist assaults, hardens the substance of its form, and sets them erect, as it were in crests, like so many sharp prickles, that is, crisps itself; such is the provoking of love which is called zeal: wherefore if there is no opportunity of resistance, there arise anxiety and grief, because it foresees the extinction of interior life with its delights. But on the other hand, if the love is favored and cherished, the above form unbends, softens, and dilates itself; and the substances of the form become gentle, mild, meek, and alluring.


III. THE QUALITY OF A MAN'S ZEAL IS ACCORDING TO THE QUALITY OF HIS LOVE; THUS IT DIFFERS ACCORDING AS THE LOVE IS GOOD OR EVIL. Since zeal is of love, it follows that its quality is such as the quality of the love is; and as there are in general two loves, the love of what is good and thence of what is true, and the love of what is evil and thence of what is false, hence in general there is a zeal in favor of what is good and thence of what is true, and in favor of what is evil and thence of what is false. But it is to be noted, that of each love there is an infinite variety. This is very manifest from the angels of heaven and the spirits of hell; both of whom in the spiritual world are the forms of their respective love; and yet there is not one angel of heaven absolutely like another as to face, speech, gait, gesture, and manner; nor any spirit of hell; yea neither can there be to eternity, howsoever they be multiplied into myriads of myriads. Hence it is evident, that there is an infinite variety of loves, because there is of their forms. The case is the same with zeal, as being of the love; the zeal of one cannot be absolutely like or the same with the zeal of another. In general there are the zeal of a good and the zeal of an evil love.


IV. THE ZEAL OF A GOOD LOVE AND THE ZEAL OF AN EVIL LOVE ARE ALIKE IN EXTERNALS, BUT ALTOGETHER DIFFERENT IN INTERNALS. Zeal in externals, with every one, appears like anger and wrath; for it is love enkindled and inflamed to defend itself against a violator, and to remove him. The reason why the zeal of a good love and the zeal of an evil love appear alike in externals is, because in both cases love while it is in zeal, burns; but with a good man only in externals, whereas with an evil man it burns in both externals and internals; and when internals are not regarded, the zeals appear alike in externals; but that they are altogether different in internals will be seen in the next article. That zeal appears in externals like anger and wrath, may be seen and heard from all those who speak and act from zeal; as for example, from a priest while he is preaching from zeal, the tone of whose voice is high, vehement, sharp, and harsh; his face is heated and perspires; he exerts himself, beats the pulpit, and calls forth fire from hell against those who do evil: and so in many other cases.


In order that a distinct idea may be formed of zeal as influencing the good, and of zeal as influencing the wicked, and of their dissimilitude, it is necessary that some idea be previously formed of men's internals and externals. For this purpose, let us take a common idea on the subject, as being adapted to general apprehension, and let it be exhibited by the case of a nut or an almond, and their kernels. With the good, the internals are like the kernels within as to their soundness and goodness, encompassed with their usual and natural husk; with the wicked, the case is altogether different, their internals are like kernels which are either not eatable from their bitterness, or rotten, or worm-eaten; whereas their externals are like the shells or husks of those kernels, either like the natural shells or husks, or shining bright like shell-fish, or speckled like the stones called irises, Such is the appearance of their externals, within which the above-mentioned internals lie concealed. The case is the same with their zeal.


V. THE ZEAL OF A GOOD LOVE IN ITS INTERNALS CONTAINS A HIDDEN STORE OF LOVE AND FRIENDSHIP; BUT THIS ZEAL OF AN EVIL LOVE IN ITS INTERNALS CONTAINS A HIDDEN STORE OF HATRED AND REVENGE. It was said just above, that zeal in externals appears like anger and wrath, as well with those who are in a good love, as with those who are in an evil love: but whereas the internals are different, the anger and wrath in each case differs from that of the other, and the difference is as follows: 1. The zeal of a good love is like a heavenly flame, which in one case bursts out upon another, but only defends itself, and that against a wicked person, as when he rushes into the fire and is burnt: but the zeal of an evil love is like an infernal flame, which of itself bursts forth and rushes on, and is desirous to consume another. 2. The zeal of a good love instantly burns away and is allayed when the assailant ceases to assault; but the zeal of an evil love continues and is not extinguished. 3. This is because the internal of him who is in the love of good is in itself mild, soft, friendly, and benevolent; wherefore when his external, with a view of defending itself, is fierce, harsh, and haughty, and thereby acts with rigor, still it is tempered by the good in which he is internally: it is otherwise with the wicked; with such the internal is unfriendly, without pity, harsh, breathing hatred and revenge, and feeding itself with their delights; and although it is reconciled, still those evils lie concealed as fires in wood underneath the embers; and these fires burst forth after death, if not in this world.


Since zeal in externals appears alike both in the good and the wicked, and since the ultimate sense of the Word consists of correspondence and appearances, therefore in the Word, it is very often said of Jehovah that he is angry and wrathful, that he revenges, punishes, casts into hell, with many other things which are appearances of zeal in externals; hence also it is that he is called zealous: whereas there is not the least of anger, wrath, and revenge in him; for he is essential mercy, grace and clemency, thus essential good, in whom it is impossible such evil passions can exist. But on this subject see more particulars in the treatise on HEAVEN AND HELL, n. 545-550; and in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 494, 498, 525, 714, 806.


VI. THE ZEAL OF CONJUGIAL LOVE IS CALLED JEALOUSY. Zeal in favor of truly conjugial love is the chief of zeals; because that love is the chief of loves, and its delights, in favor of which also zeal operates, are the chief delights; for, as was shewn above, that love is the head of all loves. The reason of this is, because that love induces in a wife the form of love, and in a husband the form of wisdom; and from these forms united into one, nothing can proceed but what savors of wisdom and at the same time of love. As the zeal of conjugial love is the chief of zeals, therefore it is called by a new name, JEALOUSY, which is the very type of zeal.


VII. JEALOUSY IS LIKE AN ARDENT FIRE AGAINST THOSE WHO INFEST LOVE EXERCISED TOWARDS A MARRIED PARTNER, AND LIKE A TERRIBLE FEAR FOR THE LOSS OF THAT LOVE. The subject here treated of is jealousy of those who are in spiritual love with a married partner; in the following article we shall treat of the jealousy of those who are in natural love; and afterwards of the jealousy of those who are in love truly conjugial. With those who are in spiritual love the jealousy is various, because their love is various; for one love, whether spiritual or natural, is never altogether alike with two persons, still less with several. The reason why spiritual jealousy, or jealousy with the spiritual, is like an ardent fire raging against those who infest their conjugial love, is, because with them the first principle of love is in the internals of each party, and their love from its first principle follows its principiates, even to its ultimates, by virtue of which ultimates and at the same time of first principles, the intermediates which are of the mind and body, are kept in lovely connection. These, being spiritual, in their marriage regard union as an end, and in union spiritual rest and the pleasantness thereof: now, as they have rejected disunion from their minds, therefore their jealousy is like a fire stirred up and darting forth against those who infest them. The reason why it is also like a terrible fear is, because their spiritual love intends that they be one; if therefore there exists a chance, or happens an appearance of separation, a fear ensues as terrible as when two united parts are torn asunder. This description of jealousy was given me from heaven by those who are in spiritual conjugial love; for there are a natural, a spiritual, and a celestial conjugial love; concerning the natural and the celestial conjugial love, and their jealousy, we shall take occasion to speak in the two following articles.


VIII. THERE IS SPIRITUAL JEALOUSY WITH MONOGAMISTS, AND NATURAL WITH POLYGAMISTS. The reason why spiritual jealousy exists with monogamists is, because they alone can receive spiritual conjugial love, as has been abundantly shewn above. It is said that it exists; but the meaning is that it is capable of existing. That it exists only with a very few in the Christian world, where there are monogamical marriages, but that still it is capable of existing there, has also been confirmed above. That with polygamists conjugial love is natural, may be seen in the chapter on Polygamy, n. 345, 347; in like manner jealousy is natural in the same case, because this follows love. What the quality of jealousy is among polygamists, we are taught from the relations of those who have been eyewitnesses of its effects among the orientals: these effects are, that wives and concubines are guarded as prisoners in work-houses, and are withheld from and prohibited all communication with men; that into the women's apartments, or the closets of their confinement, no man is allowed to enter unless attended by a eunuch; and that the strictest watch it set to observe whether any of the women look with a lascivious eye or countenance at a man as he passes; and that if this be observed, the woman is sentenced to the whip; and in case she indulges her lasciviousness with any man, whether introduced secretly into her apartment, or from home, she is punished with death.


From these considerations it is plainly seen what is the quality of the fire of jealousy into which polygamical conjugial love enkindles itself,--that it is into anger and revenge; into anger with the meek, and into revenge with the fierce. The reason of this effect is, because their love is natural, and does not partake of anything spiritual. This is a consequence of what is demonstrated in the chapter on Polygamy,--that polygamy is lasciviousness, n. 345; and that a polygamist, so long as he remains such, is natural, and cannot become spiritual, n. 347. But the fire of jealousy is different with natural monogamists, whose love is inflamed not so much against the women as against those who do violence, becoming anger against the latter, and cold against the former: it is otherwise with polygamists, whose fire of jealousy burns also with the rage of revenge: this likewise is one of the reasons why, after the death of polygamists, their concubines and wives are for the most part set free, and are sent to seraglios not guarded, to employ themselves in the various elegant arts proper to women.


IX. JEALOUSY WITH THOSE MARRIED PARTNERS WHO TENDERLY LOVE EACH OTHER, IS A JUST GRIEF GROUNDED IN SOUND REASON LEST CONJUGIAL LOVE SHOULD BE DIVIDED, AND SHOULD THEREBY PERISH. All love is attended with fear and grief; fear lest it should perish, and grief in case it perishes: it is the same with conjugial love; but the fear and grief attending this love is called zeal or jealousy. The reason why this zeal, with married partners who tenderly love each other, is just and grounded in sound reason, is, because it is at the same time a fear for the loss of eternal happiness, not only of its own but also of its married partner's, and because also it is a defence against adultery. In respect to the first consideration,--that it is a just fear for the loss of its own eternal happiness and of that of its married partner, it follows from every thing which has been heretofore adduced concerning love truly conjugial; and also from this consideration, that married partners derive from that love the blessedness of their souls, the satisfaction of their minds, the delight of their bosoms, and the pleasure of their bodies; and since these remain with them to eternity, each party has a fear for eternal happiness. That the above zeal is a just defence against adulteries, is evident: hence it is like a fire raging against violation, and defending itself against it. From these considerations it is evident, that whoever loves a married partner tenderly, is also jealous, but is just and discreet according to the man's wisdom.


It was said, that in conjugial love there is implanted a fear lest it should be divided, and a grief lest it should perish, and that its zeal is like a fire raging against violation. Some time ago, when meditating on this subject, I asked the zealous angels concerning the seat of jealousy? They said, that it is in the understanding of the man who receives the love of a married partner and returns it; and that its quality there is according to his wisdom: they said further, that jealousy has in it somewhat in common with honor, which also resides in conjugial love; for he that loves his wife, also honors her. In regard to zeal's residing with a man in his understanding, they assigned this reason; because conjugial love defends itself by the understanding, as good does by truth; so the wife defends those things which are common with the man, by her husband; and that on this account zeal is implanted in the men, and by them, and for their sake, in the women. To the question as to the region of the mind in which jealousy resides with the men, they replied, in their souls, because it is also a defence against adulteries; and because adulteries principally destroy conjugial love, that when there is danger of the violation of that love, the man's understanding grows hard, and becomes like a horn, with which he strikes the adulterer.


X. JEALOUSY WITH MARRIED PARTNERS WHO DO NOT LOVE EACH OTHER, IS GROUNDED IN SEVERAL CAUSES; ARISING IN SOME INSTANCES FROM VARIOUS MENTAL WEAKNESSES. The causes why married partners who do not mutually love each other, are yet jealous, are principally the honor resulting from power, the fear of defamation with respect both to the man himself and also to his wife, and the dread lest domestic affairs should fall into confusion. It is well known that the men have honor resulting from power, that is, that they are desirous of being respected in consequence thereof; for so long as they have this honor, they are as it were of an elevated mind, and not dejected when in the company of men and women: to this honor also is attached the name of bravery; wherefore military officers have it more than others. That the fear of defamation, with respect both to the man himself and also to his wife, is a cause of jealousy that agrees with the foregoing: to which may be added, that living with a harlot, and debauched practices in a house, are accounted infamous. The reason why some are jealous through a dread lest their domestic affairs should fall into confusion, is because, so far as this is the case, the husband is made light of, and mutual services and aids are withdrawn; but with some in process of time this jealousy ceases and is annihilated, and with some it is changed into the mere semblance of love.


That jealousy in certain cases arises from various mental weaknesses, is not unknown in the world; for there are jealous persons, who are continually thinking that their wives are unfaithful, and believe them to be harlots, merely because they hear or see them talk in a friendly manner with or about men. There are several vitiated affections of the mind which induce this weakness; the principal of which is a suspicious fancy, which if it be long cherished, introduces the mind into societies of similar spirits, from whence it cannot without difficulty be rescued; it also confirms itself in the body, by rendering the serum, and consequently the blood, viscous, tenacious, thick, slow, and acrid, a defect of strength also increases it; for the consequence of such defect is, that the mind cannot be elevated from its suspicious fancies; for the presence of strength elevates, and its absence depresses, the latter causing the mind to sink, give way, and become feeble; in which case it immerses itself more and more in the above fancy, till it grows delirious, and thence takes delight in quarrelling, and, so far as is allowable, in abuse.


There are also several countries, which more than others labor under this weakness of jealousy: in these the wives are imprisoned, are tyrannically shut out from conversation with men, are prevented from even looking at them through the windows, by blinds drawn down, and are terrified by threats of death if the cherished suspicion shall appear well grounded; not to mention other hardships which the wives in those countries suffer from their jealous husbands. There are two causes of this jealousy; one is, an imprisonment and suffocation of the thoughts in the spiritual things of the church; the other is, an inward desire of revenge. As to the first cause,--the imprisonment and suffocation of the thoughts in the spiritual things of the church, its operation and effect may be concluded from what has been proved above,--that everyone has conjugial love according to the state of the church with him, and as the church is from the Lord, that that love is solely from the Lord, n. 130, 131; when therefore, instead of the Lord, living and deceased men are approached and invoked, it follows, that the state of the church is such that conjugial love cannot act in unity with it; and the less so while the mind is terrified into that worship by the threats of a dreadful prison: hence it comes to pass, that the thoughts, together with the expressions of them in conversation, are violently seized and suffocated; and when they are suffocated, there is an influx of such things as are either contrary to the church, or imaginary in favor of it; the consequence of which is, heat in favor of harlots and cold towards a married partner; from which two principles prevailing together in one subject, such an unconquerable fire of jealousy flows forth. As to the second cause,--the inward desire of revenge, this altogether checks the influx of conjugial love, and swallows it up, and changes the delight thereof, which is celestial, into the delight of revenge, which is infernal; and the proximate determination of this latter is to the wife. There is also an appearance, that the unhealthiness of the atmosphere, which in those regions is impregnated with the poisonous exhalations of the surrounding country, is an additional cause.


XI. IN SOME INSTANCES THERE IS NOT ANY JEALOUSY; AND THIS ALSO FROM VARIOUS CAUSES. There are several causes of there being no jealousy, and of its ceasing. The absence of jealousy is principally with those who make no more account of conjugial than of adulterous love, and at the same time are so void of honorable feeling as to slight the reputation of a name: they are not unlike married pimps. There is no jealousy likewise with those who have rejected it from a confirmed persuasion that it infests the mind, and that it is useless to watch a wife, and that to do so serves only to incite her, and that therefore it is better to shut the eyes, and not even to look through the key-hole, lest any thing should be discovered. Some have rejected jealousy on account of the reproach attached to the name, and under the idea that any one who is a real man, is afraid of nothing: some have been driven to reject it lest their domestic affairs should suffer, and also lest they should incur public censure in case the wife was convicted of the disorderly passion of which she is accused. Moreover jealousy passes off into no jealousy with those who grant license to their wives, either from a want of ability, or with a view to the procreation of children for the sake of inheritance, also in some cases with a view to gain, and so forth. There are also disorderly marriages, in which, by mutual consent, the licence of unlimited amour is allowed to each party, and yet they are civil and complaisant to each other when they meet.


XII. THERE IS A JEALOUSY ALSO IN REGARD TO CONCUBINES, BUT NOT SUCH AS IN REGARD TO WIVES. Jealousy in regard to wives originates in a man's inmost principles; but jealousy in regard to concubines originates in external principles; they therefore differ in kind. The reason why jealousy in regard to wives originates in inmost principles is, because conjugial love resides in them: the reason why it resides there is, because marriage from the eternity of its compact established by covenant, and also from an equality of right, the right of each party being transferred to the other, unites souls, and lays a superior obligation on minds: this obligation and that union, once impressed, remain inseparable, whatever be the quality of the love afterwards, whether it be warm or cold. Hence it is that an invitation to love coming from a wife chills the whole man from the inmost principles to the outermost; whereas an invitation to love coining from a concubine has not the same effect upon the object of her love. To jealousy in regard to a wife is added the earnest desire of reputation with a view to honor; and there is no such addition to jealousy in regard to a concubine. Nevertheless both kinds of jealousy vary according to the seat of the love received by the wife and by the concubine; and at the same time according to the state of the judgment of the man receiving it.


XIII. JEALOUSY LIKEWISE EXISTS AMONG BEASTS AND BIRDS. That it exists among wild beasts, as lions, tigers, bears, and several others, while they have whelps, is well known; and also among bulls, although they have not calves: it is most conspicuous among dung-hill cocks, who in favor of their hens fight with their rivals even to death: the reason why the latter have such jealousy is, because they are vain-glorious lovers, and the glory of that love cannot endure an equal; that they are vain-glorious lovers, above every genus and species of birds, is manifest from their gestures, nods, gait, and tone of voice. That the glory of honor with men, whether lovers or not, excites, increases, and sharpens jealousy, has been confirmed above.


XIV. THE JEALOUSY OF MEN AND HUSBANDS IS DIFFERENT FROM THAT OF WOMEN AND WIVES. The differences cannot however be distinctly pointed out, since the jealousy of married partners who love each other spiritually, differs from that of married partners who love each other merely naturally, and differs again with those who disagree in minds, and also with those who have subjected their consorts to the yoke of obedience. The jealousies of men and of women considered in themselves are different, because from different origins: the origin of the jealousies of men is in the understanding, whereas of women it is in the will applied to the understanding of the husband: the jealousy of a man therefore, is like a flame of wrath and anger; whereas that of a woman is like a fire variously restrained, by fear, by regard to the husband, by respect to her own love, and by her prudence in not revealing this love to her husband by jealousy: they differ also because wives are loves, and men recipients thereof; and wives are unwilling to squander their love upon the men, but the case is not so with the recipients towards the wives. With the spiritual, however, it is otherwise; with these the jealousy of the man is transferred into the wife, as the love of the wife is transferred into the husband; therefore with each party it appears like itself against the attempts of a violator; but the jealousy of the wife is inspired into the husband against the attempts of the violating harlot, which is like grief weeping, and moving the conscience.


To the above I shall add two MEMORABLE RELATIONS. I was once in much amazement at the great multitude of men who ascribe creation, and consequently whatever is under the sun and above it, to nature; expressing the real sentiments of their hearts as to the visible things of the world, by this question, "What are these but the works of nature?" And when they are asked why they ascribe them to nature and not to God, when nevertheless they occasionally join in the general confession, that God has created nature, and therefore they might as well ascribe creation to God as to nature, they return for answer, with an internal tone of voice, which is scarcely audible, "What is God but nature?" From this persuasion concerning nature as the creator of the universe, and from this folly which has to them the semblance of wisdom, all such persons appear so full of their own importance, that they regard all those who acknowledge the creation of the universe to be from God, as so many ants which creep along the ground and tread in a beaten path, and in some cases as butterflies which fly in the air; ridiculing their opinions as dreams because they see what they do not see, and deciding all by the question, "Who has seen God, and who has not seen nature?" While I was thus amazed at the great multitude of such persons, there stood near me an angel, who asked me, "What is the subject of your meditation?" I replied, "It is concerning the great multitude of such as believe that nature created the universe." The angel then said to me, "All hell consists of such persons, who are there called satans and devils; satans, if they have confirmed themselves in favor of nature to the denial of God, and devils, if they have lived wickedly, and thereby rejected all acknowledgement of God from their hearts; but I will lead you to the _gymnasia_, which are in the south-west, where such persons dwell, having not yet departed to their infernal abodes." He took me by the hand and led me there. I saw some small houses, in which were apartments for the studious, and in the midst of them one which served as a principal hall to the rest. It was constructed of a pitchy kind of stone, covered with a sort of glazed plates, that seemed to sparkle with gold and silver, like the stones called _Glades Mariæ_; and here and there were interspersed shells which glittered in like manner. We approached and knocked at the door, which was presently opened by one who bade us welcome. He then went to the table, and fetched four books, and said, "These books are the wisdom which is at this day the admiration of many kingdoms: this book or wisdom is the admiration of many in France, this of many in Germany, this of some in Holland, and this of some in England:" He further said, "If you wish to see it, I will cause these four books to shine brightly before your eyes:" he then poured forth and spread around them the glory of his own reputation, and the books presently shone as with light; but this light instantly vanished from our sight. We then asked him what he was now writing? He replied, that he was now about to bring forth from his treasures, and publish to the world, things of inmost wisdom, which would be comprised under these general heads: I. Whether nature be derived from life, or life from nature. II. Whether the centre be derived from the expanse, or the expanse from the centre. III. On the centre and the expanse of nature and of life. Having said this, he reclined on a couch at the table; but we walked about in his spacious study. He had a candle on the table, because the light of the sun never shone in that room, but only the nocturnal light of the moon; and what surprised me, the candle seemed to be carried all round the room, and to illuminate it; but, for want of being snuffed, it gave but little light. While he was writing, we saw images in various forms flying from the table towards the walls, which in that nocturnal moon-light appeared like beautiful Indian birds; but on opening the door, lo! in the light of the sun they appeared like birds of the evening, with wings like network; for they were semblances of truth made fallacies by being confirmed, which he had ingeniously connected together into series. After attending some time to this sight, we approached the table, and asked him what he was then writing? He replied, "On the first general head, WHETHER NATURE BE DERIVED FROM LIFE, OR LIFE FROM NATURE;" and on this question he said, that he could confirm either side, and cause it to be true; but as something lay concealed within which excited his fears, therefore he durst only confirm this side, that nature is of life, that is, from life, but not that life is of nature, that is, from it. We then civilly requested him to tell us, what lay concealed within, which excited his fears? He replied, he was afraid lest he should be called a naturalist, and so an atheist, by the clergy, and a man of unsound reason by the laity; as they both either believe from a blind credulity, or see from the sight of those who confirm that credulity. But just then, being impelled by a kind of indignant zeal for the truth, we addressed him in saying, "Friend, you are much deceived; your wisdom, which is only an ingenious talent for writing, has seduced you, and the glory of reputation has led you to confirm what you do not believe. Do you know that the human mind is capable of being elevated above sensual things, which are derived into the thoughts from the bodily senses, and that when it is so elevated, it sees the things that are of life above, and those that are of nature beneath? What is life but love and wisdom? and what is nature but their recipient, whereby they may produce their effects or uses? Can these possibly be one in any other sense than as principal and instrumental are one? Can light be one with the eye, or sound with the ear? Whence are the senses of these organs but from life, and their forms but from nature? What is the human body but an organ of life? Are not all things therein organically formed to produce the things which the love wills and the understanding thinks? Are not the organs of the body from nature, and love and thought from life? And are not those things entirely distinct from each other? Raise the penetration of your ingenuity a little, and you will see that it is the property of life to be affected and to think, and that to be affected is from love, and to think is from wisdom, and each is from life; for, as we have said, love and wisdom are life: if you elevate your faculty of understanding a little higher, you will see that no love and wisdom exists, unless its origin be somewhere or other, and that its origin is wisdom itself, and thence life itself, and these are God from whom is nature." Afterwards we conversed with him about his second question, WHETHER THE CENTRE BE OF THE EXPANSE, OR THE EXPANSE OF THE CENTRE; and asked him why he discussed this question? He replied, "With a view to conclude concerning the centre and the expanse of nature and of life, thus concerning the origin of each." And when we asked him what were his sentiments on the subject, he answered, as in the former case, that he could confirm either side, but for fear of suffering in his reputation, he would confirm that the expanse is of the centre, that is, from the centre; although I know, said he, that something existed before the sun, and this in the universe throughout, and that these things flowed together of themselves into order, thus into centres. But here again we addressed him from the overflowing of an indignant zeal, and said, "Friend, you are insane." On hearing these words, he drew his couch aside from the table, and looked timidly at us, and then listened to our conversation, but with a smile upon his countenance, while we thus proceeded: "What is a surer proof of insanity, than to say that the centre is from the expanse? By your centre we understand the sun, and by your expanse the universe; and thus, according to you, the universe existed without the sun: but does not the sun make nature, and all its properties, which depend solely on the heat and light proceeding from the sun by the atmospheres? Where were those things previous to the sun's existence? But whence they originated we will shew presently. Are not the atmospheres and all things which exist on the earth, as surfaces, and the sun their centre? What are they all without the sun; or how could they subsist a single moment in the sun's absence? Consequently what were they all before the sun, or how could they subsist? Is not subsistence perpetual existence? Since therefore all the parts of nature derive their subsistence from the sun, they must of consequence derive also their existence from the same origin: every one sees and is convinced of this truth by the testimony of his own eyes. Does not that which is posterior subsist from what is prior, as it exists from what is prior? Supposing the surface to be the prior and the centre the posterior, would not the prior in such case subsist from the posterior, which yet is contrary to the laws of order? How can posterior things produce prior, or exterior things produce interior, or grosser things produce purer? consequently, how can surfaces, which constitute the expanse, produce centres? Who does not see that this is contrary to the laws of nature? We have adduced these arguments from a rational analysis, to prove that the expanse exists from the centre, and not the centre from the expanse; nevertheless every one who sees aright, sees it to be so without the help of such arguments. You have asserted, that the expanse flowed together of itself into a centre; did it thus flow by chance into so wonderful and stupendous an order, where one thing exists for the sake of another, and everything for the sake of man, and with a view to his eternal life? Is it possible that nature from any principle of love, by any principle of wisdom, should provide such things? And can nature make angels of men, and heaven of angels? Ponder and consider these things: and your idea of nature existing from nature will fall to the ground." Afterwards we questioned him as to his former and present sentiments concerning his third inquiry, relating to the CENTRE AND EXPANSE OF NATURE AND OF LIKE; whether he was of opinion that the centre and expanse of life are the same with the centre and expanse of nature? He replied, that he was in doubt about it, and that he formerly thought that the interior activity of nature is life; and that love and wisdom, which essentially constitute the life of man, are thence derived; and that the sun's fire, by the instrumentality of heat and light, through the mediums of the atmospheres, produce those principles; but that now, from what he had heard concerning the eternal life of men, he began to waver in his sentiments, and that in consequence of such wavering, his mind was sometimes carried upwards, sometimes downwards; and that when it was carried upwards, he acknowledged a centre of which he had before no idea; but when downwards, he saw a centre which he believed to be the only one that existed; and that life is from the centre which before was unknown to him; and nature is from the centre which he before believed to be the only one existing; and that each centre has an expanse around it. To this we said, Well, if he would only respect the centre and expanse of nature from the centre and expanse of life, and not contrariwise; and we informed him, that above the angelic heaven there is a sun which is pure love, in appearance very like the sun of the world; and that from the heat which proceeds from that sun, angels and men derive will and love, and from its light they derive understanding and wisdom; and that the things which are of life, are called spiritual and that those which proceed from the sun of the world, are what contain life, and are called natural; also that the expanse of the centre of life is called the SPIRITUAL WORLD, which subsists from its sun, and that the expanse of nature is called the NATURAL WORLD, which subsists from its sun. Now, since of love and wisdom there cannot be predicated spaces and times, but instead thereof states, it follows, that the expanse around the sun of the angelic heaven is not extended, but still is in the extense of the natural sun, and present with all living subjects therein according to their receptions, which are according to forms. But he then asked, "Whence comes the fire of the sun of the world, or of nature?" We replied, that it is derived from the sun of the angelic heaven, which is not fire, but divine love proximately proceeding from God, who is love itself. As he was surprised at this, we thus proved it: "Love in its essence is spiritual fire; hence fire in the Word, in its spiritual sense, signifies love: it is on this account that priests, when officiating in the temple, pray that heavenly fire may fill their hearts, by which they mean heavenly love: the fire of the altar and of the candlestick in the tabernacle amongst the Israelites, represented divine love: the heat of the blood, or the vital heat of men and animals in general is from no other source than love, which constitutes their life: hence it is that a man is enkindled, grows warm, and becomes on fire, while his love is exalted into zeal, anger, and wrath; wherefore from the circumstance, that spiritual heat, which is love, produces natural heat with men, even to the kindling and inflaming of their faces and limbs, it may appear, that the fire of the natural sun has existed from no other source than the fire of the spiritual sun, which is divine love. Now, since the expanse originates from the centre, and not the centre from the expanse, as we said above, and the centre of life, which is the sun of the angelic heaven, is divine love proximately proceeding from God, who is in the midst of that sun; and since the expanse of that centre, which is called the spiritual world, is hence derived; and since from that sun existed the sun of the world, and from the latter its expanse, which is called the natural world; it is evident, that the universe was created by one God." With these words we took our leave, and he attended us out of the court of his study, and conversed with us respecting heaven and hell, and the divine government, from a new acuteness of genius.


THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. On a time as I was looking around into the world of spirits, I saw at a distance a palace surrounded and as it were besieged by a crowd; I also saw many running towards it. Wondering what this could mean, I speedily left the house, and asked one of those who were running, what was the matter at the palace? He replied, that three new comers from the world had been taken up into heaven, and had there seen magnificent things, also maidens and wives of astonishing beauty; and that being let down from heaven they had entered into that palace, and were relating what they had seen; especially that they had beheld such beauties as their eyes had never before seen, or can see, unless illustrated by the light of heavenly _aura_. Respecting themselves they said, that in the world they had been orators, from the kingdom of France, and had applied themselves to the study of eloquence, and that now they were seized with a desire of making an oration on the origin of beauty. When this was made known in the neighbourhood, the multitude flocked together to hear them. Upon receiving this information, I hastened also myself, and entered the palace, and saw the three men standing in the midst, dressed in long robes of a sapphire color, which, having threads of gold in their texture at every change of posture shone as if they had been golden. They stood ready to speak behind a kind of stage; and presently one of them rose on a step behind the stage, and delivered his sentiments concerning the origin of the beauty of the female sex, in the following words.


"What is the origin of beauty but love, which, when it flows into the eyes of youths, and sets them on becomes beauty? therefore love and beauty are the same thing; for love, from an inmost principle, tinges the face of a marriageable maiden with a kind of flame, from the transparence of which is derived the dawn and bloom of her life. Who does not know that the flame emits rays into her eyes, and spreads from these as centres into the countenance, and also descends into the breast, and sets the heart on fire, and thereby affects (a youth), just as a fire with its heat and light affects a person standing near it? That heat is love, and that light is the beauty of love. The whole world is agreed, and firm in the opinion, that every one is lovely and beautiful according to his love: nevertheless the love of the male sex differs from that of the female. Male love is the love of growing wise, and female love is that of loving the love of growing wise in the male; so far therefore as a youth is the love of growing wise, so far he is lovely and beautiful to a maiden; and so far as a maiden is the love of a youth's wisdom, so far she is lovely and beautiful to a youth; wherefore as love meets and kisses the love of another, so also do beauties. I conclude therefore, that love forms beauty into a resemblance of itself."


After him arose a second, with a view of discovering, in a neat and elegant speech, the origin of beauty. He expressed himself thus: "I have heard that love is the origin of beauty; but I cannot agree with this opinion. What human being knows what love is? Who has ever contemplated it with any idea of thought? Who has ever seen it with the eye? Let such a one tell me where it is to be found. But I assert that wisdom is the origin of beauty; in women a wisdom which lies concealed and stored up in the inmost principles of the mind, in men a wisdom which manifests itself, and is apparent. Whence is a man (_homo_) a man but from wisdom? Were it not so, a man would be a statue or a picture. What does a maiden attend to in a youth, but the quality of his wisdom; and what does a youth attend to in a maiden, but the quality of her affection of his wisdom? By wisdom I mean genuine morality; because this is the wisdom of life. Hence it is, that when wisdom which lies concealed, approaches and embraces wisdom which is manifest, as is the case interiorly in the spirit of each, they mutually kiss and unite, and this is called love; and in such case each of the parties appears beautiful to the other. In a word, wisdom is like the light or brightness of fire, which impresses itself on the eyes, and thereby forms beauty."


After him the third arose, and spoke to this effect: "It is neither love alone nor wisdom alone, which is the origin of beauty; but it is the union of love and wisdom; the union of love with wisdom in a youth, and the union of wisdom with its love in a maiden: for a maiden does not love wisdom in herself but in a youth, and hence sees him as beauty, and when a youth sees this in a maiden, he then sees her as beauty; therefore love by wisdom forms beauty, and wisdom grounded in love receives it. That this is the case, appears manifestly in Heaven. I have there seen maidens and wives, and have attentively considered their beauties, and have observed, that beauty in maidens differs from beauty in wives; in maidens being only the brightness, but in wives the splendor of beauty. The difference appeared like that of a diamond sparkling from light, and of a ruby shining from fire together with light. What is beauty but the delight of the sight? and in what does this delight originate but in the sport of love and wisdom? This sport gives brilliancy to the sight, and this brilliancy vibrates from eye to eye, and presents an exhibition of beauty. What constitutes beauty of countenance, but red and white, and the lovely mixture thereof with each other? and is not the red derived from love, and the white from wisdom? love being red from its fire, and wisdom, white from its light. Both these I have clearly seen in the faces of two married partners in heaven; the redness of white in the wife, and the whiteness of red in the husband; and I observed that they shone in consequence of mutually looking at each other." When the third had thus concluded, the assembly applauded and cried out, "He has gained the victory." Then on a sudden, a flaming light, which is the light of conjugial love, filled the house with its splendor, and the hearts of the company with satisfaction.



There are evident signs that conjugial love and the love of infants, which is called _storge_, are connected; and there are also signs which may induce a belief that they are not connected; for there is the love of infants with married partners who tenderly love each other, and also with married partners who disagree entirely, and likewise with those who are separated from each other, and in some cases it is more tender and stronger with the latter than the former; but that still the love of infants is always connected with conjugial love, may appear from the origin from which it flows in; for although this origin varies with the recipients, still those loves remain inseparable, just as the first end in the last, which is the effect. The first end of conjugial love is the procreation of offspring, and the last, or the effect, is the offspring procreated. That the first end enters into the effect, and is therein as in its origin, and does not withdraw from it, may be seen from a rational view of the orderly progression of ends and causes to effects. But as the reasonings of the generality commence merely from effects, and from them proceed to some consequences thence resulting, and do not commence from causes, and from them proceed analytically to effects, and so forth; therefore the rational principles of light must needs become the obscure principles of cloud; whence come derivations from truth, arising from appearances and fallacies. But that it may be seen that conjugial love and the love of infants are interiorly connected, although exteriorly disjointed, we will proceed to demonstrate it in the following order. I. _Two universal spheres proceed from the Lord to preserve the universe in its created State; of which the one is the sphere of procreating, and the other the sphere of protecting the things procreated._ II. _These two universal spheres make a one with the sphere of conjugial love and the sphere of the love of infants._ III. _These two spheres universally and singularly flow into all things of heaven, and all things of the world from first to last._ IV. _The sphere of the love of infants is a sphere of protection and support of those who cannot protect and support themselves._ V. _This sphere affects both the evil and the good, and disposes every one to love, protect, and support his offspring from his own love._ VI. _This sphere principally affects the female sex, thus mothers, and the male sex, or fathers, by derivation from them._ VII. _This sphere is also a sphere of innocence and peace from the Lord._ VIII. _The sphere of innocence flows into infants, and through them into the parents, and affects them._ IX, _It also flows into the souls of the parents, and unites with the same sphere (as operative) with the infants; and it is principally insinuated by means of the touch._ X. _In the degree in which innocence retires from infants, affection and conjunction also abate, and this successively even to separation._ XI. _A state of rational innocence and peace with parents towards infants is grounded on the circumstance, that they know nothing and can do nothing from themselves, but from others, especially from the father and mother; and that this state also successively retires, in proportion as they know and have ability from themselves, and not from others._ XII. _The above sphere advances in order from the end through causes into effects and makes periods; whereby creation is preserved in the state foreseen and provided for._ XIII. _The love of infants descends and does not ascend._ XIV. _Wives have one state of love before conception and another after, even to the birth._ XV. _With parents conjugial love is conjoined with the love of infants by spiritual causes, and thence by natural._ XVI. _The love of infants and children is different with spiritual married partners from what it is with natural._ XVII. _With spiritual married partners that love is from what is interior or prior, but with natural from what is exterior or posterior._ XVIII. _In consequence hereof that love prevails with married partners who mutually love each other, and also with those who do not at all love each other._ XIX. _The love of infants remains after death, especially with women._ XX. _Infants are educated under the Lord's auspices by such women, and grow in stature and intelligence as in the world._ XXI. _It is there provided by the Lord, that with those infants the innocence of infancy becomes the innocence of wisdom, and thus the infants become angels._ We now proceed to an explanation of each article.


I. TWO UNIVERSAL SPHERES PROCEED FROM THE LORD TO PRESERVE THE UNIVERSE IN ITS CREATED STATE; OF WHICH THE ONE IS THE SPHERE OF PROCREATING AND THE OTHER THE SPHERE OF PROTECTING THE THINGS PROCREATED. The divine which proceeds from the Lord is called a sphere, because it goes forth from him, surrounds him, fills both the spiritual and the natural world, and produces the effects of the ends which the Lord predestinated in creation, and provides since creation. All that which flows from a subject, and surrounds and environs it, is named a sphere; as in the case of the sphere of light from the sun around it, of the sphere of life from man around him, of the sphere of odor from a plant around it, of the sphere of attraction from the magnet around it, and so forth: but the universal spheres of which we are here treating, are from the Lord around him; and they proceed from the sun of the spiritual world, in the midst of which he is. From the Lord by means of that sun, proceeds a sphere of heat and light, or what is the same, a sphere of love and wisdom, to produce ends, which are uses; but that sphere according to uses, is distinguished by various names: the divine sphere which looks to the preservation of the universe in its created state by successive generations, is called the sphere of procreating; and the divine sphere which looks to the preservation of generations in their beginnings, and afterwards in their progressions, is called the sphere of protecting the things procreated: besides these two, there are several other divine spheres which are named according to their uses, consequently variously, as may be seen above, n. 222. The operations of uses by these spheres are the divine providence.


II. THESE TWO UNIVERSAL SPHERES MAKE A ONE WITH THE SPHERE OF CONJUGIAL LOVE AND THE SPHERE OF THE LOVE OF INFANTS. That the sphere of conjugial love makes a one with the sphere of procreating, is evident; for procreation is the end, and conjugial love the mediate cause by which (the end is promoted), and the end and the cause in what is to be effected and in effects, act in unity, because they act together. That the sphere of the love of infants makes a one with the sphere of protecting the things procreated, is also evident, because it is the end proceeding from the foregoing end, which was procreation, and the love of infants is its mediate cause by which it is promoted: for ends advance in a series, one after another, and in their progress the last end becomes the first, and thereby advances further, even to the boundary, in which they subsist or cease. But on this subject more will be seen in the explanation of article XII.


III. THESE TWO SPHERES UNIVERSALLY AND SINGULARLY FLOW INTO ALL THINGS OF HEAVEN AND ALL THINGS OF THE WORLD, FROM FIRST TO LAST. It is said universally and singularly, because when mention is made of a universal, the singulars of which it is composed are meant at the same time; for a universal exists from and consists of singulars; thus it takes its name from them, as a whole exists from, consists of, and takes its name from its parts; therefore, if you take away singulars, a universal is only a name, and is like a mere surface which contains nothing: consequently to attribute to God universal government, and to take away singulars, is vain talk and empty preaching: nor is it to the purpose, in this case, to urge a comparison with the universal government of the kings of the earth. From this ground then it is said, that those two spheres flow in universally and singularly.


The reason why the spheres of procreating and of protecting the things procreated, or the spheres of conjugial love and the love of infants, flow into all thing of heaven and all things of the world, from first (principles) to last, is because all things which proceed from the Lord, or from the sun which is from him and in which he is, pervade the created universe even to the last of all its principles: the reason of this is, because divine things, which in progression are called celestial and spiritual, have no relation to space and time. That extension cannot be predicated of things spiritual, in consequence of their not having any relation to space and time, is well known: hence whatever proceeds from the Lord, is in an instant from first (principles) in last. That the sphere of conjugial love is thus universal may be seen above, n. 222-225. That in like manner the sphere of the love of infants is universal, is evident from that love's prevailing in heaven, where there are infants from the earths; and from that love's prevailing in the world with men, beasts and birds, serpents and insects. Something resembling this love prevails also in the vegetable and mineral kingdoms; in the vegetable, in that seeds are guarded by shells or husks as by swaddling clothes, and moreover are in the fruit as in a house, and are nourished with juice as with milk; that there is something similar in minerals, is plain from the matrixes and external covering, in which noble gems and metals are concealed and guarded.


The reason why the sphere of procreating, and the sphere of protecting the things procreated, make a one in a continual series, is, because the love of procreating is continued into the love of what is procreated. The quality of the love of procreating is known from its delight, which is supereminent and transcendent. This love influences the state of procreating with men, and in a remarkable manner the state of reception with women; and this very exalted delight with its love continues even to the birth, and there attains its fulness.


IV. THE SPHERE OF THE LOVE OF INFANTS IS A SPHERE OF PROTECTION AND SUPPORT OF THOSE WHO CANNOT PROTECT AND SUPPORT THEMSELVES. That the operations of uses from the Lord by spheres proceeding from him, are the divine providence, was said above, n. 386; this divine providence therefore is meant by the sphere of protection and support of those who cannot protect and support themselves: for it is a law of creation that the things created are to be preserved, guarded, protected, and supported; otherwise the universe would fall to decay: but as this cannot be done immediately from the Lord with living creatures, who are left to their own choice, it is done mediately by his love implanted in fathers, mothers, and nurses. That their love is from the Lord influencing them, is not known to themselves, because they do not perceive the influx, and still less the Lord's omnipresence: but who does not see, that this principle is not of nature, but of the divine providence operating in and by nature; and that such a universal principle cannot exist except from God, by a certain spiritual sun, which is in the centre of the universe, and whose operation, being without space and time, is instant and present from first principles in last? But in what manner that divine operation, which is the Lord's divine providence, is received by animate subjects, will be shewn in what follows. That mothers and fathers protect and support infants, because they cannot protect and support themselves, is not the cause of that love, but is a rational cause derived from that love's falling into the understanding; for a man, from this cause alone, without love inspired and inspiring it, or without law and punishment compelling him, would no more than a statue provide for infants.


V. THIS SPHERE AFFECTS BOTH THE EVIL AND THE GOOD, AND DISPOSES EVERY ONE TO LOVE, PROTECT, AND SUPPORT HIS OFFSPRING FROM HIS OWN LOVE. Experience testifies that the love of infants prevails equally with the evil and the good, and in like manner with tame and wild beasts; yea, that in some cases it is stronger and more ardent in its influence on evil men, and also on wild beasts. The reason of this is, because all love proceeding from the Lord and flowing into subjects, is changed in the subject into the love of its life; for every animate subject has no other sensation than that its love originates in itself, as it does not perceive the influx; and while also it actually loves itself, it makes the love of infants proper to itself; for it sees as it were itself in them, and them in itself, and itself thus united with them. Hence also this love is fiercer with wild beasts, as with lions and lionesses, he and she bears, leopards and leopardesses, he and she wolves, and others of a like nature, than with horses, deer, goats, and sheep; because those wild beasts have dominion over the tame, and hence self-love is predominant, and this loves itself in its offspring; therefore as we said, the influent love is turned into self-love. Such an inversion of the influent love into self-love, and the consequent protection and support of the young offspring by evil parents, is of the Lord's divine providence; for otherwise there would remain but few of the human race, and none of the savage beasts, which, nevertheless, are of use. From these considerations it is evident, that every one is disposed to love, protect, and support his offspring, from his own love.


VI. THIS SPHERE PRINCIPALLY AFFECTS THE FEMALE SEX, THUS MOTHERS AND THE MALE SEX, OR FATHERS, BY DERIVATION FROM THEM. This follows from what was said above, in regard to the origin of conjugial love,--that the sphere of conjugial love is received by the women, and through them is transferred to the men: because women are born loves of the understanding of the men, and the understanding is a recipient. The case is the same with the love of infants, because this originates in conjugial love. It is well known that mothers are influenced by a most tender love of infants, and fathers by a love less tender. That the love of infants is inherent in conjugial love, into which women are born, is evident from the amiable and endearing love of girls towards infants, and towards their dolls, which they carry, dress, kiss, and press to their bosoms: boys are not influenced by any such affection. It appears as if mothers derived the love of infants from nourishing them in the womb out of their own blood, and from the consequent appropriation of their life, and thus from sympathetic union: but still this is not the origin of that love; for if another infant, without the mother's knowledge, were to be put after the birth in the place of the genuine infant, the mother would love it with equal tenderness as if it were her own: moreover infants are sometimes loved by their nurses more than by their mothers. From these considerations it follows, that this love is from no other source than from the conjugial love implanted in every woman, to which is joined the love of conceiving; from the delight of which the wife is prepared for reception. This is the first of the above love, which with its delight after the birth passes fully to the offspring.


VII. THIS SPHERE IS ALSO A SPHERE OF INNOCENCE AND PEACE (FROM THE LORD). Innocence and peace are the two inmost principles of heaven; they are called inmost principles, because they proceed immediately from the Lord: for the Lord is innocence itself and peace itself. From innocence the Lord is called a Lamb, and from peace he saith, "_Peace I leave you; my peace I give you_," John xiv. 27; and he is also meant by the peace with which the disciples were to salute a city or house which they entered; and of which it is said, that if it was worthy, peace would come upon it, and if not worthy, peace would return, Matt. x. 11-15. Hence also the Lord is called the Prince of peace, Isaiah ix. 5, 6. A further reason why innocence and peace are the inmost principles of heaven, is, because innocence is the _esse_ of every good, and peace is the blessed principle of every delight which is of good. See the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, as to the state of innocence of the angels of heaven, n. 276-283; and as to peace in heaven, n. 284-290.


VIII. THE SPHERE OF INNOCENCE FLOWS INTO INFANTS, AND THROUGH THEM INTO THE PARENTS, AND AFFECTS THEM. It is well known that infants are innocences; but it is not known that their innocence flows in from the Lord. It flows in from the Lord, because, as was said just above, he is innocence itself; neither can any thing flow in, since it cannot exist except from its first principle, which is IT itself. But we will briefly describe the nature and quality of the innocence of infants, which affects parents: it shines forth from their face, from some of their gestures, and from their first speech, and affects them. They have innocence, because they do not think from any interior principle; for they do not as yet know what is good and evil, and what is true and false, as the ground of their thoughts; in consequence of which they have not a prudence originating in selfhood, nor any deliberate purpose; of course they do not regard any evil as an end. They are free from selfhood acquired from self-love and the love of the world; they do not attribute any thing to themselves; they refer to their parents whatever they receive; content with the trifles which are given them as presents, they have no care about food and raiment, or about the future; they do not look to the world, and immerse themselves thereby in the desire of many things; they love their parents, their nurses, and their infant companions, with whom they play in innocence; they suffer themselves to be guided, they harken and obey. This is the innocence of infancy, which is the cause of the love called _storge_.


IX. IT ALSO FLOWS IN TO THE SOULS OF THE PARENTS, AND UNITES WITH THE SAME SPHERE (AS OPERATIVE) WITH THE INFANTS, AND IT IS PRINCIPALLY INSINUATED BY MEANS OF THE TOUCH. The Lord's innocence flows into the angels of the third heaven, where all are in the innocence of wisdom, and passes through the inferior heavens, but only through the innocences of the angels therein, and thus immediately and mediately flows into infants. These differ but little from graven forms; but still they are receptible of life from the Lord through the heavens. Yet, unless the parents also received that influx in their souls, and in the inmost principles of their minds, they would in vain be affected by the innocence of the infants. There must be something adequate and similar in another, whereby communication may be effected, and which may cause reception, affection, and thence conjunction; otherwise it would be like soft seed falling upon a stone, or a lamb exposed to a wolf. From this ground then it is, that innocence flowing into the souls of the parents, unites with the innocence of the infants. Experience may shew that, with the parents, this conjunction is effected by the mediation of the bodily senses, but especially by the touch: as that the sight is intimately delighted by seeing them, the hearing by their speech, the smelling by their odor. That the communication and therefore the conjunction of innocence is principally effected by the touch, is evident from the satisfaction of carrying them in the arms, from fondling and kissing them, especially in the case of mothers, who are delighted in laying their mouth and face upon their bosoms, and at the same time in touching the same with the palms of their hands, in general, in giving them milk by suckling them at the breasts, moreover, in stroking their naked body, and the unwearied pains they take in washing and dressing them on their laps. That the communications of love and its delights between married partners are effected by the sense of the touch has been occasionally proved above. The reason why communications of the mind are also effected by the same sense is, because the hands are a man's ultimates, and his first principles are together in the ultimates, whereby also all things of the body and of the mind are kept together in an inseparable connection. Hence it is, that Jesus touched infants, Matt, xviii. 2-6; Mark x. 13-16; and that he healed the sick by the touch: and that those who touched him were healed: hence also it is, that inaugurations into the priesthood are at this day effected by the laying on of hands. From these considerations it is evident, that the innocence of parents and the innocence of infants meet each other by the touch, especially of the hands, and thereby join themselves together as by kisses.


That innocence produces similar effects with beasts and birds as with men, and that by contact, is well known: the reason of this is, because all that proceeds from the Lord, in an instant pervades the universe, as may be seen above, n. 388-390; and as it proceeds by degrees, and by continual mediations, therefore it passes not only to animals, but also to vegetables and minerals; see n. 389; it also passes into the earth itself, which is the mother of all vegetables and minerals; for the earth, in the spring, is in a prepared state for the reception of seeds, as it were in the womb; and when it receives them, it, as it were, conceives, cherishes them, bears, excludes, suckles, nourishes, clothes, educates, guards, and, as it were, loves the offspring derived from them, and so forth. Since the sphere of procreation proceeds thus far, how much more must it proceed to animals of every kind, even to worms! That as the earth is the common mother of vegetables, so there is also a common mother of bees in every hive, is a well known tact, confirmed by observation.


X. IN THE DEGREE IN WHICH INNOCENCE RETIRES FROM INFANTS, AFFECTION AND CONJUNCTION ALSO ABATE, AND THIS SUCCESSIVELY EVEN TO SEPARATION. It is well known that the love of infants, or _storge_, retires from parents according as innocence retires from them; and that, in the case of men, it retires even to the separation of children from home, and in the case of beasts and birds, to a rejection from their presence, and a total forgetfulness of relationship. From this circumstance, as an established fact, it may further appear, that innocence flowing in on each side produces the love called _storge_.


XI. A STATE OF RATIONAL INNOCENCE AND PEACE WITH PARENTS TOWARDS INFANTS, IS GROUNDED IN THE CIRCUMSTANCE, THAT THEY KNOW NOTHING AND CAN DO NOTHING FROM THEMSELVES, BUT FROM OTHERS, ESPECIALLY FROM THE FATHER AND MOTHER; AND THIS STATE SUCCESSIVELY RETIRES, IN PROPORTION AS THEY KNOW AND HAVE ABILITY FROM THEMSELVES, AND NOT FROM OTHERS. That the sphere of the love of infants is a sphere of protection and support of those who cannot protect and support themselves, was shewn above in its proper article, n. 391: that this is only a rational cause with men, but not the very essential cause of that love prevailing with them, was also mentioned in the same article. The real original cause of that love is innocence from the Lord, which flows in while the man is ignorant of it, and produces the above rational cause; therefore as the first cause produces a retiring from that love, so also does the second cause at the same time; or what is the same, as the communication of innocence retires, so also the persuading reason accompanies it; but this is the case only with man to the intent that he may do what he does from freedom according to reason, and from this, as from a rational and at the same time a moral law, may support his adult offspring according to the requirements of necessity and usefulness. This second cause does not influence animals who are without reason, they being affected only by the prior cause, which to them is instinct.


XII. THE SPHERE OF THE LOVE OF PROCREATING ADVANCES IN ORDER FROM THE END THROUGH CAUSES INTO EFFECTS, AND MAKES PERIODS; WHEREBY CREATION IS PRESERVED IN THE STATE FORESEEN AND PROVIDED FOR. All operations in the universe have a progression from ends through causes into effects. These three are in themselves indivisible, although in idea they appear divided; but still the end, unless the intended effect is seen together with it, is not any thing; nor does either become any thing, unless the cause supports, contrives, and conjoins it. Such a progression is inherent in every man in general, and in every particular, altogether as will, understanding, and action: every end in regard to man relates to the will, every cause to the understanding, and every effect to the action; in like manner, every end relates to love, every efficient cause to wisdom, and every effect thence derived to use. The reason of this is, because the receptacle of love is the will, the receptacle of wisdom is the understanding, and the receptacle of use is action: since therefore operations in general and in particular with man advance from the will through the understanding into act, so also do they advance from love through wisdom into use. By wisdom here we mean all that which belongs to judgement and thought. That these three are a one in the effect, is evident. That they also make a one in ideas before the effect, is perceived from the consideration, that determination only intervenes; for in the mind an end goes forth from the will and produces for itself a cause in the understanding, and presents to itself an intention; and intention is as an act before determination; hence it is, that by a wise man, and also by the Lord, intention is accepted as an act. What rational person cannot see, or, when he hears, acknowledge, that those three principles flow from some first cause, and that that cause is, that from the Lord, the Creator and Conservator of the universe, there continually proceed love, wisdom, and use, and these three are one? Tell, if you can, in what other source they originate.

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