Apocalypse Revealed, by Emanuel Swedenborg, , tr. by John Whitehead , at sacred-texts.com
Verse 8. And their bodies shall be upon the street of the great city, signifies that the two essentials of the New Church are totally rejected by those who are interiorly in the falsities of doctrine concerning justification by faith alone. By "the bodies of the two witnesses" are signified the two essentials of the New Church, which are the acknowledgment of the Lord as the only God of heaven and earth, and that conjunction with Him is by a life according to the precepts of the Decalogue (n. 490, etc.). By "the street of the great city," is signified the falsity of the doctrine concerning justification by faith alone; by "a street" is signified falsity, as will be seen presently; and by "a city" is signified doctrine (n. 194). It is called "a great city," because it is the doctrine which reigns in the whole Reformed Christian world among the clergy, though not in like manner among the laity. "By streets," in the Word, almost the same is signified as by "ways," because streets are ways in a city; but still by "streets" are signified the truths or falsities of doctrine, because "a city" signifies doctrine (n. 194); and by "ways" are signified the truths or falsities of the church, because "the earth" signifies the church (n. 285). That "streets" signify truths or falsities of doctrine, may be seen from the following passages: And judgment is rejected, and justice hath stood afar off: for truth is stricken in the street, and rectitude cannot come (Isa. 59:14). The chariots shall rage in the streets, they shall run to and fro in the broad ways (Nah. 2:4). In the days of Jael the ways ceased, the broad ways ceased in Israel (Judg. 5:6-7). How is the city of glory left? therefore her young men shall fall in the streets (Jer. 49:25-26; 50:30). They that did feed delicately are devastated in the streets. The form of the Nazarites is darker than blackness; they are not known in the streets. They wandered blind in the streets. They hunted our steps, that we cannot go in the streets (Lam. 4:5, 8, 14, 18). I will cut off the nations, their corners shall be laid waste, I will desolate their streets (Zeph. 3:6). Afterwards in sixty-two weeks the streets of Jerusalem shall be built again, but in troublous times (Dan. 9:25). The street of the city New Jerusalem was pure gold, as clear glass (Rev. 21:21). In the midst of the street of it, on this side and that, the tree bearing twelve fruits (Rev. 22:2; besides other places; as in Isa. 15:3; 24:10-11; 51:20; Jer. 5:1; 6:16; 7:17; 9:21; 11:13; Ezek. 16:24-25, 31; Jer. 44:9, 17; Lam. 2:11, 19; Ezek. 11:6; 26:11-12; Amos 5:16; Zech. 8:3-5; Ps. 144:13; Job 18:17). Since "streets" signify the truths of doctrine of the church, therefore: They taught in the streets (2 Sam. 1:20). And it was said: We have eaten before Thee and drunk before Thee, and Thou hast taught in our streets (Luke 13:26). And therefore: Hypocrites prayed in the corners of the streets (Matt. 6:2-5). And therefore: The householder commanded the servants to go into the streets and broad ways, and bring them in (Luke 14:21). For the same reason, also, what is false and falsified is called: Mire, dirt, and dung of the streets (Isa. 5:25; 10:6; Micah 7:10; Ps. 18:42). The prophets who prophesied what was false, should be cast out into the streets of Jerusalem, and there was none to bury them (Jer. 14:16).502.
Which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt signifies the two infernal loves, which are the love of dominating from self-love, and the love of ruling from the pride of one's own intelligence, which are in the church where one God is not acknowledged, and the Lord is not worshiped, and where they do not live according to the precepts of the Decalogue. By "Sodom," in the spiritual sense, is signified the love of dominating from self-love, as will be seen presently; and by "Egypt," in the spiritual sense, is signified the love of ruling from the pride of one's own intelligence, which also will be spoken of presently; and because these two loves are signified, therefore it is spiritually called "Sodom and Egypt." The reason why these loves prevail in the church where one God is not acknowledged, and the Lord is not worshiped, and where they do not live according to the precepts of the Decalogue, is, because man is born into those two loves, and comes into them as he grows up, and those loves cannot be removed but by God the Savior, and by a life according to His precepts; and they cannot be removed by God the Savior, unless He is approached; nor can a life according to His precepts be given, unless man is led by Him. It can indeed be given, but not a life in which there is anything of heaven and thence of the church. That life is given only by Him who is life. That the Lord is that life, may be seen (John 1:1, 4; 5:26; 6:33-35, and following verses; 11:25, 26; 14:6, 19; and in many other places).  That the love of dominating from self-love, and the love of ruling from the pride of one's own intelligence, are the heads of all the loves of hell, and thus the heads of all the evils and thence of the falsities in the church, is unknown at this day; the delights of those loves, which exceed the delights of all the pleasures of the mind, are the causes of its not being known, when yet, "spiritually, they are Sodom and Egypt." That "Sodom" is the love of dominating from self-love, may appear from the description of Sodom in Moses, that they wished to do violence to the angels who came into Lot's house; and that fire and brimstone rained upon them out of heaven (Genesis 19:1, and following verses). By "fire and brimstone," that love with its lusts is signified. I saw similar things happen when the cities and societies of such were overthrown in the day of the Last Judgment, and they were cast into hell. These loves and their evils are signified by "Sodom and Gomorrah" (in these places: Isaiah 1:10; 3:8-9; 13:19; Jeremiah 23:14; 49:18; 50:37, 40; Lamentations 4:6; Ezekiel 16:46-50; Amos 4:11; Zephaniah 2:9-10; Deuteronomy 29:23; 32:32; Matthew 10:14-15; 11:23; Mark 6:11; Luke 10:10-12; 17:28-29).  That this love is signified by "Sodom," is not known in the world; but keep this in mind and remember it when you come into the world of spirits, as is done after death, and you will be fully convinced. But it is to be known, that there is a love of dominating from self-love, and a love of dominion from the love of uses; the latter love is celestial, but the former infernal. Therefore when one makes the head, the other makes the feet, that is, when the love of dominating from self-love makes the head, then the love of dominion from the love of uses, which is also the love of serving the neighbor from the Lord, at first makes the feet, afterwards the soles of the feet, and, lastly is trodden under foot. But when the love of dominion from the love of uses, which, as was said, is celestial love, makes the head, then the love of dominating from self-love, which, as was observed, is an infernal love, at first makes the feet, afterwards the soles of the feet, and, finally, is trodden under foot. These two loves, however, are with difficulty distinguished by man in the world, because their external forms are similar; yet they may be distinguished by this, that the celestial love is with those who approach the Lord, and live according to the precepts of the Decalogue; and that the infernal love is with those who do not approach the Lord, and who do not live according to the precepts of the Decalogue.503.
It shall now be said what is signified by "Egypt" in the Word. "Egypt" signifies the natural man in conjunction with the spiritual, and thus the affection of truth and thence science and intelligence; but, in the opposite sense, it signifies the natural man separated from the spiritual, and then the pride of one's own intelligence, and thence insanity in spiritual things. "Egypt" signifies the natural man in conjunction with the spiritual, and then the affection of truth, and thence science and intelligence, in the following passages: In that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt swear to Jehovah of Hosts. In that day shall there be an altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt; then shall Jehovah be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know Jehovah in that day (Isa. 19:18-21). In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt into Assyria, that Assyria may come into Egypt, and Egypt into Assyria, and the Egyptians may serve with Assyria. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the land; whom Jehovah of Hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt My people, and Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel Mine inheritance (Isa. 19:23-25). Egypt there is the natural, Assyria is the rational, and Israel is the spiritual; these three make the man of the church. Hence the king of Egypt was called "the son of the wise," "the son of the kings of antiquity"; and Egypt was called "the cornerstone of the tribes" (Isaiah 19:11, 13); and it is said of Solomon that: His wisdom excelled the wisdom of the Egyptians (1 Kings 4:30). And that he took pharaoh's daughter to wife, and brought her into the city of David (1 Kings 3:1). And that he built Pharaoh's daughter a house near the porch (1 Kings 7:8).  For the same reason also: Joseph was carried into Egypt, and was there made the ruler over all the land (Gen. 41:37-57). Since "Egypt" signified the natural man as to the affection of truth and thence science and intelligence, therefore: Joseph, the husband of Mary, being warned of an angel, departed into Egypt with the infant Lord (Matt. 2:14, 15). According to the prediction: When Israel was a boy then I loved him, and called My son out of Egypt (Hos. 11:1). Thou hast caused a vine to come out of Egypt, Thou hast planted it, and didst cause it to take deep root (Ps. 80:8, 9). For man is born natural, becomes rational, and afterwards spiritual, thus the vine out of Egypt is planted and takes root. For the sake of this representation also: Abraham journeyed into Egypt (Gen. 12:10, and following verses). And Jacob was commanded to go with his sons into Egypt, and also abode there (Gen. 46 and following chapters). Thence, also, the land of Canaan, by which the church is signified, is described as to its extent: As far as the river of Egypt (Gen. 15:18; 1 Kings 4:21; Micah 7:12). And Egypt is compared: To the garden of Eden, the garden of God (Ezek. 31:2, 8; Gen. 13:10). And the sciences of the natural man are called: The desirable things of Egypt (Dan. 11:43). And fine linen in needlework from Egypt (Ezek. 27:7; besides other passages, where Egypt is favorably spoken of; as in Isa. 27:12-13; Ezek. 29:13-16; 31:1-18; Hos. 11:11; Zech. 10:10-11; 14:16-18; Ps. 68:31-32; Isa. 19:23-24).  But "Egypt" in the opposite sense signifies the natural man separated from the spiritual, and then the pride of his own intelligence, and thence insanity in spiritual things, in these passages: Because the heart of Pharaoh is lifted up in his height, and he hath put his top among the thick boughs, strangers shall cut him off, and cast him down. In the day that thou shalt go down into hell, I will cover the deep over him, and thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised (Ezek. 31:10, 18). The foundations of Egypt shall be overturned; the pride of his strength shall come down; and his cities shall be devastated in the midst of the desolate cities. I will give fire in Egypt, and I will disperse Egypt among the nations, and scatter them in the lands (Ezek. 30:1 to the end). Woe to them that go down into Egypt for help, and look not to the Holy One of Israel; for Egypt is man, and not God; and its horses are flesh and not spirit (Isa. 31:1, 3). Egypt ascendeth as a river; it saith, I will ascend, I will cover the earth, and I will destroy: come up, ye horses; rage, ye chariots; the sword shall devour you, and shall be made drunk with blood; there is no healing to thee (Jer. 46:2, 8-11). How say ye to Pharaoh, I am the son of the wise, and the son of the kings of antiquity? where now are thy wise men? let them know: the princes of Zoan have become foolish; they have seduced Egypt, the cornerstone of the tribes; there shall be no work for Egypt, that it may make the head and the tail (Isa. 19:1-17). Prophesy against Egypt: O great whale, that liest in the midst of thy rivers; because he hath said, The river is mine, and I have made it myself; therefore I will put hooks in thy jaws, and I will make the fish of thy rivers to stick to thy scales, and I will leave thee in the wilderness: and therefore shall the land of Egypt become a desert and a waste (Ezek. 29:1-12). Besides other places, as Isa. 30:2, 7; Jer. 2:17, 28, 36; 42:13-18; Ezek. 16:26, 28-29; 23:2-33; Hos. 7:11, 13, 16; 9:1, 3, 6; 11:5; 12:1; Joel 3:19; Lam. 5:2, 4, 6, 8; Deut. 17:16; 1 Kings 14:25, 26; 2 Kings 18:21.  Because the Egyptians had become such, therefore they were devastated as to all the goods and truths of the church. Their devastations are described by the miracles performed there, which were plagues, and signified so many lusts of the natural man separated from the spiritual, which acts solely from one's own intelligence and the pride thereof. The plagues significative of his lusts were that: The waters in the river were turned into blood, insomuch that the fish died, and the river stank (Exod. 7:17-18). That from the rivers and pools frogs were produced over the land of Egypt; that the dust of the earth was turned into lice; that swarms of noxious flies were sent (Exod. 8:3-4, 17-18). That boils breaking forth with pustules were brought upon man and beast; that it rained hail mingled with fire (Exod. 9:8-10). That locusts were sent; that there was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt (Exod. 10:4-6, 13-15). That all the first-born in the land of Egypt died (Rev. 11:4-6). And, finally, that the Egyptians were drowned in the Red Sea (Exod. 14:28). By these hell is signified. What these things specifically signify, may be seen in The Arcana Coelestia, where they are explained. Hence it is evident, what is meant by "the plagues and diseases of Egypt" (Deut. 7:15; 28:60); what by "being drowned by the river of Egypt" (Amos 8:8; 9:5); and whence it is that Egypt is called "the land of bondage" (Micah 6:4); "the land of Ham" (Ps. 106:22); also "the iron furnace" (Deut. 4:20; 1 Kings 8:51).  The reason why "Egypt" signifies not only intelligence but also insanity in spiritual things, is because the Ancient Church, which extended through many kingdoms of Asia, was also in Egypt, at which time the Egyptians excelled all others in cultivating the science of correspondences between spiritual things and natural, as appears from their hieroglyphics. But when that science was turned by them into magic, and became idolatrous, then their intelligence in things spiritual became insanity; for which reason, "Egypt," in the opposite sense, signifies such insanity. From what has been said, it may now be seen, what is meant by "the great city which is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt."504.
Where also our Lord was crucified, signifies non-acknowledgment of the Lord's Divine Human, and thus a state of rejection. It is said in the church, that they "crucify the Lord" who blaspheme Him; as do those also who, like the Jews, deny Him to be the Son of God. The reason why they who deny the Lord's Human to be Divine are like the Jews is because every man regards the Lord as a Man, and he who regards His Human as like the human of another man cannot then think of His Divine, howsoever he may call this the Son of God, born from eternity, and equal to the Divine of the Father. When it is spoken and read, it is heard indeed, but still it is not at the same time believed; when the Lord is thought of as a material man like any other man, and retaining the like properties of the flesh; and as His Divine is then removed and not regarded, therefore the same state is induced as if it were denied, for he denies that His Human is the Son of God, as did the Jews, for which reason they crucified Him. That the Lord's Human is nevertheless the Son of God, is openly said (in Luke 1:32, 35; Matt. 3:16-17; and in other places).  From these things it appears, why the men of the church approach God the Father immediately, and many also the Holy Spirit immediately, but scarcely anyone approaches the Lord immediately. Since the Jews, from the denial that the Lord was the Messiah, the Son of God, crucified Him, therefore their Jerusalem is also called Sodom (Isa. 3:9; Jer. 23:14; Ezek. 16:46, 48). And the Lord says: On the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all; even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed (Luke 17:29-30). What is meant by fire and brimstone may be seen above (n. 452, 494).505.
Verse 9. And they of the peoples, and tribes, and tongues, and nations, shall see their bodies three days and a half, signifies that when all they who, until the end of the present church and the beginning of the New Church, have been and will be in falsities of doctrine and thence in evils of life from faith alone, have heard and shall hear of these two essentials, which are the acknowledgment of the Lord and of works according to the Decalogue. By "peoples, and tribes, and tongues, and nations," are meant all of the Reformed who have been and will be in falsities of doctrine, and thence in evils of life from faith alone; by "peoples" are signified those who are in falsities of doctrine (n. 483); by "tribes" falsities and evils of the church (n. 349); by "tongues," confession and reception thereof (n. 483); and by "nations" those who are in evils of life (n. 483). Therefore, by these four are signified all and everyone who have been and who will be such, thus all they who have been "in that great city," and they that are like unto them; who will thenceforth come there out of the world. By "their bodies," or those "of the two witnesses," are signified the two essentials of the New Church above mentioned (n. 501); by "they shall see" is signified when they have heard and shall hear of them, because "to see" is said of their bodies, and "to hear," of these two essentials; by "three days and a half" is signified to the end and the beginning, that is, to the end of the present church and the beginning of the New. Now from these things collected into one sense, it is evident, that by these words, "They of the peoples, and tribes, and tongues, and nations, shall see their bodies three days and a half," the things above mentioned are signified in the spiritual sense. The reason why "three days and a half" signify to the end and the beginning is because "day" signifies state; the number "three," what is complete to the end; and "a half," the beginning; for the same is signified by "three days and a half" as by "a week," six days of which signify what is complete to the end, and the seventh day signifies what is holy; for the number "3 1/2" is half of the number "7," which makes a week, and a double number, and the divided number of which it consists, have a similar signification.  That "three" signifies what is complete, thus to the end, may be seen from these passages in the Word, that: Isaiah walked naked and barefoot three years (Isa. 20:3). Jehovah called Samuel three times, and Samuel ran three times to Eli, and the third time Eli understood (1 Sam. 3:1-8). Elijah stretched himself three times over the widow's son (1 Kings 17:21). Elijah commanded them to pour water upon the burnt-offering three times (1 Kings 18:34). Jesus said, The kingdom of the heavens is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures till the whole was leavened (Matt. 13:33). Jesus said unto Peter, that be would deny Him three times (Matt. 26:34). The Lord asked Peter three times, Lovest thou Me? (John 21:15-17). Jonah was in the belly of the whale three days and three nights (Jonah 1:17). Jesus said the temple would be destroyed, and He would build it up again in three days (Matt. 26:61). Jesus prayed three times in Gethsemane (Matt. 26:39-44). Jesus rose again on the third day (Matt. 28:1). Besides many others; as in Isa. 16:14; Hosea 6:2; Exod. 3:18; 10:22-23; 19:1, 11, 15-16, 18; Lev. 19:23-25; Num. 19:11, to the end; 31:19-25; Deut. 19:2-3; 26:12; Josh. 1:11; 3:2; 1 Sam. 20:5, 12, 19-20, 35-36, 41; 2 Sam. 24:11-13; Dan. 10:1-3; Mark 12:2, 4, 6; Luke 20:12-13:32-33. "Seven" as well as "three" signifies what is full and complete; but "seven" is said of things holy, and "three" of things not holy.506.
And shall not suffer their bodies to be put into monuments, signifies that they condemned and will condemn them. By "bodies" are here signified the two essentials of the New Church (of which, n. 505 and above); and by "not suffering them to be put into monuments," is signified to reject them as condemned. This is signified, because by "being put into monuments," or "buried," is signified resurrection and continuation of life, for then those things are committed to the earth which are from the earth, thus which are earthly and thence unclean; therefore by "not being put into monuments," or "not being buried," is signified to continue in things earthly and unclean, and for that reason to be rejected as condemned. It was on this account that in the church with the sons of Israel, which was a representative church, it was instituted, that they who were considered as condemned, should be cast forth and not buried, as is evident from these things: Thus saith Jehovah concerning them, they shall die of grievous deaths, they shall not be lamented, neither shall they be buried; they shall be as dung upon the face of the earth; and their carcass shall be for food to the birds of the heavens, and for the beasts of the earth (Jer. 16:3-4). The prophets that prophesy a lie shall be cast out in the streets of Jerusalem, none burying (Jer. 14:16). In that day they shall bring out the bones of the kings of Judah, the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets out of their sepulchers; they shall not be collected nor buried; they shall be for dung upon the face of the earth (Jer. 8:1-2). That the dogs devoured Jezebel in the field, none burying (2 Kings 9:10). Thou wast cast out of thy sepulchre like an abominable shoot; as a carcass trodden under feet (Isa. 14:19-20); besides other places; as in Jer. 25:32-33; 22:19; 7:32-33; 19:11-12; 2 Kings 23:16).507.
Verse 10. And they that dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them and be glad, signifies the delight of the affection of the heart and the soul in the church on that account among those who were in faith alone, as to doctrine and life. By "them that dwell on the earth" are meant they who are in the church, in the present case, they who are in the church where faith alone prevails; the earth signifies the church in which they are (n. 285); "to rejoice and be glad" signifies to have the delight of the affection of the heart and soul; the delight of the affection of the heart is of the will, and the delight of the affection of the soul is of the understanding; for, in the Word, by "heart and soul" are meant man's will and understanding; hence it is, that it is said "to rejoice and be glad," although joy and gladness seem to be one thing; yet in these two expressions there is the marriage of the will and the understanding, which also is the marriage of good and truth, which exists in the whole and in every particular of the Word, as is shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 80-90). This is the reason why both these expressions, "to rejoice and be glad" and "joy and gladness," frequently occur in other parts of the Word, as in these passages: Behold, joy and gladness, killing an ox (Isa. 22:13; 35:10; 51:11). Joy and gladness are cut off from the house of our God (Joel 1:16). The voice of joy and the voice of gladness shall cease (Jer. 7:34; 15:10). The fast of the tenth shall be for joy and gladness (Zech. 8:19). Rejoice ye in Jerusalem, be ye glad in her (Isa. 66:10). Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom (Lam. 4:21). Let the heavens rejoice, and the earth be glad (Ps. 96:11; 68:3). Make me to hear joy and gladness (Ps. 51:8). Joy and gladness shall be found in Zion (Isa. 51:3). Thou shalt have gladness, many shall rejoice at his birth (Luke 1:14). Then will I cause to cease the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride (Jer. 7:34; 16:9; 25:10; 33:10-11). Let all that seek thee rejoice and be glad (Ps. 40:16; 70:4). But let the just be glad and rejoice in gladness (Ps. 68:3). Be glad in Jerusalem, rejoice for joy with her (Isa. 66:10).508.
And shall send gifts one to another, signifies consociation through love and friendship. "To send gifts" signifies to be consociated by love and friendship, because a gift consociates, for it produces love, and causes friendship; "one to another" signifies mutually.509.
Because these two prophets tormented them that dwell upon the earth, signifies that these two essentials, one concerning the Lord and concerning the Divine Human; and the other concerning a life according to the commandments of the Decalogue, are contrary to the two essentials received in the church of the Reformed, one of which relates to a Trinity of Persons, and the other to faith alone being saving without the works of the law, and that by reason of this contrariety, those two essentials of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, are held in contempt, dislike, and aversion. That this is what is signified, when by "the two prophets" or "witnesses" are meant the two essentials of the New Church, and when by "them that dwell upon the earth" are meant they who are in the two essentials of the church of the Reformed, follows as a necessary consequence; by "tormenting" is signified to be held in contempt, dislike, and aversion.510.
Verse 11. And after three days and a half the spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood upon their feet, signifies that these two essentials of the New Church, at the end of the former, when the New Church is beginning and progressing, are vivified by the Lord with those who receive them. By "three days and a half" is signified to the end and the beginning (n. 505), thus from the end of the present church to the beginning of the New, in this case, with those among whom the New Church begins and progresses, because it is now said of "the witnesses," that "the spirit of life entered into them, and they stood upon their feet." By "the spirit of life from God" is signified spiritual life; and by "standing upon their feet" is signified natural life agreeing with spiritual life, and thus vivification from the Lord. The reason why this is signified, is, because by "the spirit of life" is meant the internal of man, which is called the internal man, which, considered in itself, is spiritual, for the spirit of man thinks and wills, and to think and will in itself is spiritual. By "standing upon their feet" is signified the external of man, which is called the external man, which is in itself natural; for the body speaks and acts what its spirit thinks and wills, and to speak and to act is natural; that feet signify things natural, may be seen (n. 49, 468).  What is specifically meant by this expression, shall be explained: Every man who is reformed, is first reformed as to the internal man, and afterwards as to the external. The internal man is not reformed by merely knowing and understanding the truths and goods by which man is saved, but by willing and loving them; but the external man, by speaking and doing the things which the internal man wills and loves, and, in proportion as this takes place, in the same proportion man is regenerated. The reason why he is not regenerated before, is, because his internal is not before in the effect, but only in the cause, and, unless the cause be in the effect, it is dissipated. It is like a house built upon ice, which sinks to the bottom when the ice is melted by the sun; in a word, it is like a man without feet to stand and walk upon. It is the same with the internal or spiritual man, if it is not founded on the external or natural man. Such then is the signification of "the two witnesses standing upon their feet after the spirit from God entered into them"; and also of similar expressions in Ezekiel: Jehovah said unto me, Prophesy unto the wind, and when I prophesied, the spirit entered into them, and they stood upon their feet (Ezek. 37:9-10). In the same: A voice speaking unto me, said, Son of man, stand upon thy feet; and the spirit entered into me and stood me upon my feet (Ezek. 2:1-2). And in the same: I fell on my face, then the spirit entered into me, and set me upon my feet (Ezek. 3:23-24). This is what is meant also by the Lord's words to Peter: Peter said, Thou shalt not wash my feet only, but also my hands and my head. Jesus said to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, and the whole is clean (John 13:9-10).511.
And great fear fell upon them that saw them, signifies commotion of mind and consternation at Divine truths. "Fear" has various significations according to the thing which causes it; here "great fear" signifies commotion of mind, and consternation at Divine truths; for Divine truths have these effects with the evil, for they terrify them when at the same time they hear of hell and eternal damnation; but that terror soon vanishes, together with the faith that there is any life after death.512.
Verse 12. And they heard a great voice out of heaven, saying unto them, Come up hither, signifies that these two essentials of the New Church were taken up by the Lord into heaven, whence they came, and where they are, and the protection of them. By "a great voice from heaven" is signified from the Lord, for a voice from heaven is from no other source; "come up hither," signifies their being taken up into heaven, whence they came, and where they are, and their protection.513.
And they went up into heaven in a cloud, signifies the taking them up into heaven, and conjunction there with the Lord by the Divine truth of the Word in its literal sense. By "ascending up to heaven" is signified their being taken up by the Lord into heaven, as above (n. 512); in the present case, also, conjunction with the Lord there, because they ascended "in a cloud," for by "a cloud" is signified the literal sense of the Word (n. 24), and by this there is conjunction with the Lord, and consociation with the angels, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 62-69).514.
And their enemies saw them, signifies that they who are in faith separated from charity heard them, but remained in their own falsities. By "seeing the two witnesses" is signified to hear these two essentials of the New Church, and also to see the confirming things from the Word; because they saw them "ascending in a cloud," and by "a cloud" is signified the sense of the letter of the Word (n. 24, 513); that, nevertheless, they did not receive them, but remained in their own falsities, is evident from this, that no more is said than that "they saw," and it follows that "there was a great earthquake," in which they perished. By "enemies" are meant "they who were in the great city, which is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt," who were those that are in faith separated from charity, as may be seen above (n. 501, 502, and following numbers).515.
Verse 13. And in that hour there was a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, signifies a remarkable change of state then took place with them, and they were torn away from heaven and sank down into hell. "In that hour" signifies at the time when they saw "the two witnesses" ascend into heaven, and nevertheless they remained in their falsities as above (n. 514); for "the two witnesses prophesied," that is, taught them (verse 3), and afterwards were killed, and revived; they also saw them ascend up to heaven, and still did not recede from their falsities, then there became a great earthquake. That a similar thing happened with the Two Doctrines of the New Jerusalem, one concerning the Lord, and the other concerning the Life according to the Commandments of the Decalogue, may in some measure be seen from the Relations after each chapter. Those two doctrines are the two witnesses here treated of. By "an earthquake" is signified a change of state (n. 331), here their destruction, because in it "a tenth part of the city fell"; by "a tenth part" is signified all there, for "ten" signifies much and all (n. 101); in like manner, "the tenth part," or "a tenth," as "the fourth part," or "a fourth," signifies the same as "four" (n. 322); and "the third part" or "a third" the same as "three" (n. 400). By "falling" is signified to sink down into hell, which takes place when they are torn away from heaven; for the cities in the world of spirits which are in evils and falsities, after they that dwell therein are visited, informed, and warned, and still remain in their evils and falsities, are shaken with an earthquake, by which a gulf is opened, into which they sink down, and then their inhabitants appear to themselves to be at the bottom, as it were, in a desert, whence they are severally removed to their places in hell. That it was so done to this city, will be seen below (n. 531).516.
And in the earthquake were killed the names of men seven thousand, signifies that in that state all they who were in the confession of faith alone, and therefore made no account of works of charity, perished. By "being killed" is signified here, as before, to be killed spiritually, which is to perish as to the soul; by an "earthquake" is signified a change of state among them, and their destruction, as above; by "names of men seven thousand" are signified all who were in the confession of faith alone, and for that reason made no account of the works of charity, and therefore condemned those two holy essentials of the New Church; by "names" are signified they who are such, for "a name" signifies the quality of a man (n. 81, 122, 165); and by "seven thousand" are signified all who were such, for the same is signified by "seven thousand" as by "seven," just as by "twelve thousand" is signified the same as by "twelve" (n. 348). That "seven" signifies all, and all things and is predicated of the holy things of heaven and the church, and, in the opposite sense, of the same when profaned may be seen (n. 10, 391).517.
And the rest were terrified, and gave glory to the God of heaven, signifies that they who had adjoined some goods of charity to faith, when they saw their destruction, acknowledged the Lord, and were separated. By "the rest" are here meant they who adjoined some goods of charity to faith; by "being terrified" is signified through fear, when they saw the destruction of the others; by "giving glory to the God of heaven" is signified to acknowledge the Lord as the God of heaven and earth; by "giving glory" is signified to acknowledge and worship; and by "the God of heaven and earth" is meant the Lord, because He is the God of heaven and earth (Matt. 28:18). These, because they acknowledged the Lord from fear, were separated, in order that they might be explored as to the origin from which they did good, whether from themselves or from the Lord. All they do good from themselves who do not shun evils as sins, that is, who do not live according to the commandments of the Decalogue; but they do good from the Lord, who so shun and live.518.
Verse 14. The second woe is past; behold, the third woe cometh quickly, signifies lamentation over the perverted state of the church, and then the last lamentation, to be treated of presently. That "woe" signifies lamentation over the perverted state of the church, may be seen above (n. 416); by "the third woe" is signified the last lamentation, when it is complete and there is an end; for "three" and "a third" have that signification (n. 505). "To come quickly" signifies hereafter, and "hereafter" means from chapter 12 to 17, and, lastly, chapter 20, where it treats of the Last Judgment upon them.519.
Verse 15. And the seventh angel sounded, signifies the exploration and manifestation of the state of the church after the consummation, when the coming of the Lord and of His kingdom takes place. By "sounding with a trumpet" is signified to explore and make manifest the state of the church after its consummation, when the coming of the Lord and of His kingdom takes place. The reason is, because this is signified by "the seventh angel sounding"; for by the six angels and their trumpets sounding, were signified explorations and manifestations of the state of the consummated church, as appears from the foregoing chapter, where its consummation only is treated of; but that now its state after consummation, which is the coming of the Lord and of His kingdom, is treated of, appears from what follows in this verse, and afterwards in this verse: And the seventh angel sounded, and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of the world are become our Lord's and His Christ's, and He shall reign for ages of ages (Rev. 11:15). The reason why this manifestation is effected by "the sounding of the seventh angel," is, because "seven" signifies the same as a week, and six days of the week are days of labor, and of what belongs to man, and the seventh is holy and the Lord's. That by consummation is meant the devastation of the church when there is no longer any truth of doctrine and good of life therein, thus when its end has come, may be seen (n. 658, 750); and because then is the coming of the Lord and of His kingdom, therefore both "the consummation of the age" and "the coming of the Lord" are spoken of in Matt. 24:3, and they are both also foretold in that chapter.520.
And there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of the world are become our Lord's and His Christ's and He shall reign for ages of ages, signifies celebrations by the angels, because heaven and the church are become the Lord's, as they were from the beginning; and that now they have also become the kingdom of His Divine Human, thus that the Lord as to both will now reign over heaven and the church to eternity. "There were great voices" signifies celebrations by the angels; saying, "The kingdoms of the world are become our Lord's and His Christ's" signifies that heaven and the church are become the Lord's, as they were from the beginning, and that now they are also the kingdom of His Divine Human; "and He shall reign for ages of ages" signifies that the Lord, both as to His Human and Divine, will reign over them. "Great voices in heaven" signify celebrations of the Lord, because He has now taken His great power, appears from verse 17 where "those great voices" are extant in a summary. By "the Lord" is here meant the Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah; and by "Christ" is meant His Divine Human, which is the Son of God (Luke 1:32, 35).  That the Lord as to His Divine Human also will reign, manifestly appears from these words: The Father hath given all things into the hand of the Son (John 3:35). The Father hath given the Son power over all flesh (John 17:2). Father, all Mine are Thine and Thine are Mine (John 17:10). All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth (Matt. 28:18). Of His Divine Human he also said that: The Father and He are one. And that He is in the Father and the Father in Him (John 10:30, 38; 14:5-12). To this may be added, that unless the Lord's Human is acknowledged to be Divine the church must perish, for in that case the Lord cannot be in man and man in the Lord, as He Himself teaches (John 14:20; 15:4-6; 17:23); and this conjunction makes the man of the church, and thus the church.  The reason why the Lord's Divine Human is meant by "Christ" is because Christ is the Messiah, and the Messiah is the Son of God, who was expected to come into the world. That Christ is the Messiah appears from this: We have found the Messiah, which is, being interpreted, the Christ (John 1:41). The woman said, I know that the Messiah cometh, which is called Christ (John 4:25). For "Messiah," in the Hebrew language, is the Anointed, as Christ is in the Greek language. That the Messiah is the son of God, appears from the following passages: The high priest asked Him, whether He was the Christ (Messiah) the Son of God (Matt. 26:63; Mark 14:61; Luke 22:67; John 20:31). Thou art the Christ the Son of God, which should come into the world (John 11:27). Peter said, We believe and acknowledge that Thou art the Christ the Son of the living God (John 6:69). That the Lord as to the Divine Human is the Son of God: The angel said to Mary, Thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a Son; He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest. The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore, that Holy One that shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God (Luke 1:31-32, 35; and many others). From these things it is plain what is signified by "their becoming the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ."521.
Verse 16. And the four-and-twenty elders, who sit before God on their thrones, fell upon their faces and adored God, signifies the acknowledgment by all the angels of heaven, that the Lord is the God of heaven and earth, and the highest adoration. By "the four-and-twenty elders who sit on thrones" are signified all in heaven, specifically in the spiritual heaven (n. 233, 251); and by "falling upon their faces and adoring God" is signified the highest adoration, and acknowledgment that the Lord is the God of heaven and earth.522.
Verse 17. Saying, We give Thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, who is, and who was, and who is to come, signifies the confession and glorification by the angels of heaven, that the Lord is He who is, who lives, and has power from Himself, and who rules all things, because He alone is eternal and infinite. By "giving thanks" is signified the acknowledgment and glorification of the Lord; that the Son of man, who is the Lord as to the Divine Human, is the Almighty, the Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last, also who is, and who was, and who is to come, may be seen above in Revelation (chap. 1:8, 11, 17; 2:8; 4:8); and that thereby is signified that it is He who is, lives, and has power from Himself, who rules all things, and is alone eternal and infinite, and God, may be seen above (n. 13, 29-31, 38, 57, 92).523.
Because Thou hast taken Thy great power, and hast entered into Thy kingdom, signifies the New Heaven and the New Church, where they acknowledge Him to be the only God, as He is and was. "Because Thou hast taken to Thee Thy great power" signifies the Divine omnipotence, which is His, and was His from eternity. "That Thou hast entered into Thy kingdom" signifies that heaven and the church are now His, as before; by His "kingdom" is here meant the New Heaven and New Church, treated of in Revelation (chaps. 21, 22). Revelation from beginning to end treats only of the state of the former heaven and church, and of their abolition, and afterwards of the New Heaven and New Church, and of their establishment, in which one God will be acknowledged in whom there is a Trinity, and that that God is the Lord. This Revelation teaches from beginning to end; for it teaches that the Son of man, who is the Lord as to the Divine Human, is the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last, He that is, was, and is to come, and the Almighty (n. 522); and, lastly, that the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, will be the church of the Lamb, that is, of His Divine Human, thus at the same time of the Divine, from whence all things are, as is plain from the following passages: Let us rejoice and exult, for the time of the marriage of the Lamb is come, and His wife hath made herself ready (Rev. 19:7). And there came one of the seven angels, and said unto me, Come, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb's wife; and he showed me the holy city Jerusalem (Rev. 21:9, 10). I Jesus am the Root and the Offspring of David, the bright and morning star; the Spirit and the Bride say, Come, and let him that heareth say, Come (Rev. 22:16, 17). There was given unto the Son of man, dominion and glory, and a kingdom; His dominion is the dominion of an age, and His kingdom shall not perish (Dan. 7:14).524.
Verse 18. And the nations were angry, signifies those who were in faith alone, and thence in evils of life, that they were enraged, and infested those who are against their faith. By "the nations" are meant those who are in evils of life, and abstractly, evils of life (n. 147, 483); but here they who are in faith alone, because these are here treated of, and these are in evils of life, because their religion is that the law does not condemn them, provided they have faith that Christ took away its condemnation. "Their being angry" signifies not only that they were enraged, but also that they infested those who are against that faith, as may appear from what follows concerning "the dragon" (chap. 12:17, and afterwards).525.
And Thy anger is come, and the time of judging the dead, signifies their destruction, and the Last Judgment upon those who have not any spiritual life. By "Thy anger" is signified the Last Judgment (n. 340), thus their destruction; the reason why this is signified by "the Lord's anger," is, because it seems to them as if the Lord cast them down into hell from anger, when nevertheless it is the wicked who cast themselves down. For it is like a malefactor who attributes his punishment to the law, or to the fire that burns, if he thrusts his hand in it, or like ascribing to a drawn sword in the hand of one defending himself, if he is thrust through, when he has run against its point. Thus it happens with everyone who is against the Lord, and, out of anger, rushes against those whom the Lord protects. By "the dead" who are to be judged, in the universal sense, are meant they who have died out of the world, but, in a proper sense, are meant they who have not any spiritual life; judgment being predicated of these (John 3:18; 5:24, 29). The reason is, because they are called "the living" who have spiritual life. Spiritual life is with those only who approach the Lord, and at the same time shun evils as sins.  They who have no spiritual life are meant in these passages: They joined themselves to Baalpeor and ate the sacrifices of the dead (Ps. 106:28). The enemy persecuteth my soul, he hath caused me to sit in darkness as the dead of the world (Ps. 143:3). To hear the groaning of the bound, and to open to the sons of death (Ps. 102:20). I know thy works, that thou hast a name, that thou livest, but art dead; be watchful and strengthen the remaining things which are ready to die (Rev. 3:1-2). The reason these are meant by "the dead," is because spiritual death is meant; therefore also by "the slain" they are signified who are destroyed by that death (n. 321, 325), and in other places. But they who have died out of the world are meant by the dead in these passages: And the dead were judged from those things which were written in the books (Rev. 20:12). The rest of the dead lived not again (Rev. 20:5). The reason is, because, by "the first death" there is meant natural death, which is from the world; and by "the second death" is meant spiritual death, which is damnation.526.
And of giving reward to Thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, signifies the happiness of eternal life to those who are in truths of doctrine from the Word, and in a life according to them. By "reward" is signified the happiness of eternal life, as will be seen presently; by "prophets" are signified they who are in truths of doctrine from the Word (n. 8, 133); and by "saints" they who are in a life according to them (n. 173). By "reward" is here meant the happiness of eternal life, arising from the delight and pleasantness of the love and affection of good and truth; for every affection of love has its accompanying delight and pleasantness, and the affection of the love of good and truth has a delight and pleasantness such as the angels of heaven have; and all affection continues with man after death. The reason is, because affection is of the love, and love is the life of man, therefore the life of everyone after death is such as his ruling love had been in the world; and the ruling love of truth and good is with those who have loved the truths of the Word, and have lived according to them. Nothing else but the delight of good and the pleasantness of truth is meant by "reward" in the following passages: Behold the Lord Jehovah will come in strength; behold, His reward is with him (Isa. 40:10; 62:11). Behold, I come quickly, and My reward is with Me (Rev. 22:12). My judgment is with Jehovah, and the reward of my work is with my God (Isa. 49:4). For I Jehovah love judgment, I will give the reward of their work (Isa. 61:8). Do good hoping for nothing again; and your reward shall be great; and ye shall be the sons of the Highest (Luke 6:35). And in other places; as in Jer. 31:15-17; Matt. 2:18; 5:3-12; 10:41-42; Mark 9:41; Luke 6:22-23; 14:12-14; John 4:35-36.527.
And to them that fear Thy name, the small and the great, signifies who love the things which are of the Lord in a lesser and in a greater degree. By "fearing the name of the Lord" is signified to love the things which are of the Lord; "to fear" signifies to love, and "the name of the Lord" signifies all things by which He is worshiped (n. 81); by "the small and the great" are signified they who fear the Lord in a lesser and a greater degree. The reason why "to fear" here signifies to love is because everyone who loves also fears to do evil to him whom he loves. Genuine love is not given without that fear. Therefore he who loves the Lord fears to do evils, because evils are contrary to Him, being contrary to His Divine laws in the Word, which are from Him and thus are Himself; yea, they are contrary to His Divine essence, which is that He wills to save all, for He is the Savior, and cannot save man unless man lives according to His laws and commandments. And, what is more, he who loves evils also loves to do evil to the Lord, yea to crucify Him. This lies inmostly hid in all evil, even among those who confess Him with their lips in the world. That it is so is unknown to men, but it is well known to the angels.  That "to fear God" signifies to love the things which are of God, by doing them, and by not willing to do those which are against Him, appears from these passages: What doth Jehovah God require of thee, but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him (Deut. 10:12, 20). Ye shall walk after Jehovah your God, and fear Him, and keep His commandments (Deut. 13:4). Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, Him shall thou serve, and to Him shalt thou cleave (Deut. 10:20; 6:2, 13, 24; 8:6; 17:19; 28:58; 31:12). Who shall grant that there may be a heart in them, to fear Me, and to keep My commandments (Deut. 5:29). Teach me Thy way, O Jehovah, unite my heart to the fear of Thy name (Ps. 86:11). Happy is he that feareth Jehovah; that walketh in His ways (Ps. 128:1; 112:1; Jer. 44:10). If I am the Father, where is My honor? and if I am the Lord, where is My fear? (Mal. 1:6; 2:5; Isa. 11:2-3.) I will give them one heart and one way to fear Me, and I will put My fear in their heart, that they depart not from Me (Jer. 32:39-40). The fear of Jehovah is the beginning of wisdom (Ps. 111:10). Besides other places; as in Isa. 8:13; 25:3; 29:13; 50:10; Jer. 33:9; Ps. 22:23; 33:8, 18; 34:7, 9; 55:19; 115:11, 13; 147:11; Rev. 14:7; Luke 1:50. But the fear of God with the evil is not love, but the fear of hell.528.
And to destroy them that destroy the earth, signifies the casting of those into hell who have destroyed the church. The reason why by "destroying them that destroy the earth," is signified the casting of those into hell who have destroyed the church, is, because by "the earth" the church is signified (n. 285), and because it follows after these things, "And the time of the dead is come that they should be judged," by which is signified the Last Judgment upon those who have no spiritual life (n. 525); thus here, by "the time is come of destroying them that destroy the earth," is signified the casting down into hell of those who have destroyed the church. The like is said of Lucifer, by whom Babylon is meant, in Isaiah: Because thou hast destroyed thy land and hast slain thy people (Isa. 14:20).529.
Verse 19. And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in His temple the ark of His covenant, signifies the New Heaven, in which the Lord in His Divine Human is worshiped, and they live according to the commandments of His Decalogue, which are the two essentials of the New Church, by which is conjunction. By "the temple of God" is signified the Lord's Divine Human, likewise heaven, where angels are, and also the church on earth; that these three are signified by "the temple of God," and that they cannot be separated, may be seen (n. 191); but here, by "the temple of God," is signified the Lord in His Divine Human in heaven where the angels are, because it is called "the temple of God in heaven." By "the ark in the temple" is meant the Decalogue, for in the ark there were only the two tables on which the Decalogue was written. By the temple being "open" is signified that these two, the Divine Human and the Decalogue, which are the two essentials of the New Church, are now seen, and were seen after the evil were cast into hell (n. 528). The reason why it is said "the ark of His covenant was in His temple," is, because a covenant signifies conjunction, as will be seen below.  But something shall first be said of the Decalogue. What nation is there in the whole world which does not know that it is evil to kill, to commit adultery, to steal, to testify falsely? If mankind did not know these things, and if laws were not made to guard against these crimes, they must perish; for a society, republic, and kingdom, would fall without such laws. Who can suppose that the Israelitish nation could have been so much more stupid than all others, as not to know that these things were evils? Therefore anyone may wonder why these laws, universally known throughout the whole world, should have been promulgated by Jehovah Himself from Mount Sinai with so great a miracle, and were written with His own finger. But hear: they were promulgated with so great a miracle by Jehovah Himself, and were written by His finger, to make known to them that those laws were not only civil and moral laws, but also spiritual laws, and that to act contrary to them, was not only to commit evil against a fellow citizen and against society, but that it was also to sin against God. Wherefore these laws, by being promulgated from Mount Sinai by Jehovah, were made laws of religion. For it is evident that whatsoever Jehovah God commands, He commands that it may be a thing of religion, and that it should be done for His sake, and for man's sake, that he may be saved.  These laws, because they were the first fruits of the church about to be established by the Lord among the Israelitish nation, and because they were in a short summary the complex of all things of religion, whereby a conjunction of the Lord with man and of man with the Lord was given, therefore they were so holy, that nothing could be more holy. That they were most holy may appear from this that: Jehovah Himself, that is the Lord, descended in fire, and the mountain then smoked and quaked, and there were thunders, and lightnings, and a thick cloud, and the voice of a trumpet (Exod. 19:16, 18; Deut. 5:22-26). The people before the descent of Jehovah prepared and sanctified themselves three days (Exod. 19:10-11, 15). The mountain was hedged about lest anyone come near to the lowest part, lest he die (Exod. 19:12-13, 20-23; 24:1-2). This law was written upon two tables of stone, and that it was written with the finger of God (Exod. 31:18; 32:15-16; Deut. 9:10). The face of Moses shone, when he brought those tables a second time down from the mount (Exod. 34:29-35). Those tables were deposited in the ark (Exod. 25:16; 40:20; Deut. 10:5; 1 Kings 8:9). The place in the tabernacle, where the ark was, was called the Holy of Holies (Exod. 26:33; and in other places). The ark, from the law in it, was called Jehovah there (Num. 10:35-36; 2 Sam. 6:2; Ps. 132:8). Jehovah spoke with Moses over the ark (Exod. 25:22; Num. 7:89). On account of the holiness of that law, it was not permitted Aaron to enter within the veil, where the ark was, except with sacrifices and incense, lest he die (Lev. 16:2-14 seq.). From the Lord's presence and power in the law which was in the ark, the waters of Jordan were divided, and so long as it rested in the midst, the people passed over on dry ground (Josh. 3:1-17; 4:5-20). By carrying the ark around Jericho, the walls fell down (Josh. 6:1-20). Dagon, the god of the Philistines, fell down to the earth before the ark, and afterwards lay upon the threshold of the temple with his head broken off (1 Sam. 5:3-4). The Ekronites and the Bethshemites were smitten on account of the ark to the number of several thousands (1 Sam. 5; 6). The ark was introduced by David into Zion with sacrifices and rejoicing (2 Sam. 6:1-19). Uzzah, because he then touched it, died (2 Sam. 6:6-7). The ark in the temple of Jerusalem was the inmost part (1 Kings 6:19 seq.; 8:3-9). The tables upon which the law was written, were called the tables of the covenant, and the ark, from them, was called the ark of the covenant, and the law itself the covenant (Num. 10:33; Deut. 4:13, 23; 5:2-3; 9:9; Josh. 3:11; 1 Kings 8:19, 21; and other places).  By that law called "a covenant," conjunction is signified; the reason is, because covenants were entered into for the sake of love, of friendship, of consociation, and thus of conjunction. Therefore it is said of the Lord, that: He shall be for a covenant to the people (Isa. 42:6; 49:8). And He is called: The angel of the covenant (Mal. 3:1). And His blood: The blood of the covenant (Matt. 26:28; Zech. 9:11; Exod. 24:4-10). And therefore the Word is called the Old and the New Testament or Covenant.530.
And there were lightnings, and voices, and thunders, and an earthquake, and great hail, signifies that then below there were reasonings, commotions, and falsifications of good and truth. By "lightnings, voices, and thunders," are signified reasonings (n. 396); by "earthquakes" are signified changes of the state of the church (n. 331), here commotions; by "great hail" are signified falsifications of truth and good (n. 399). These things took place in the parts below, where the evil still abode, before the Last Judgment was executed upon them; for it is said in the preceding verse (18), "And the time is come of judging the dead, and of destroying them which destroy the earth." Such things exist in the world of spirits, from the presence and influx of heaven which is above them.531.
To the above I will add this Relation. I was once seized suddenly with a disease almost deadly. My whole head was weighed down. A pestilential smoke ascended from that Jerusalem which is called "Sodom and Egypt." I was half dead with the severe pain. I expected the end. Thus I lay in my bed three days and a half. My spirit became such, and from it my body. And then I heard voices about me, saying, "Lo, he who preached repentance for the remission of sins, and the Man Christ alone, lies dead in the streets of our city." And they asked some of the clergy whether he was worthy of burial. They said, "No; let him lie to be looked at." And they passed to and fro, and mocked. All this befell me, of a truth, when I was explaining this chapter of Revelation. Then were heard harsh speeches of scoffers, especially these, "How can repentance be performed without faith? How can the man Christ be adored as God? Since we are saved of free grace without any merit of our own, what need we then but the faith alone, that God the Father sent the Son to take away the curse of the law, to impute His merit to us, and so to justify us in His sight, and absolve us from our sins by His herald the priest, and then give us the Holy Spirit to operate all good in us? Are not these things according to Scripture, and also according to reason?" These things the crowd standing by applauded.  I heard these things, nor could I reply, because I lay almost dead. But after three days and a half my spirit recovered, and, being in the spirit, I left the street and went into the city, and said again, "Do the work of repentance, and believe in Christ, and your sins will be remitted, and ye will be saved; but otherwise ye will perish. Did not the Lord Himself preach repentance for the remission of sins, and that they should believe in Him? Did not He command the disciples to preach the same? Does not a full security of life follow the dogma of your faith?" But they replied, "What idle talk! Has not the Son made satisfaction? And does not the Father impute it to us, and justify us who have believed in it? Thus are we led by the spirit of grace; what sin can then be with us? What power has death over us? Do you comprehend this Gospel, thou preacher of sin and repentance?" But then a voice came forth out of heaven, saying, "What is the faith of an impenitent man, but a dead faith? The end is come, the end is come upon you that are secure, blameless in your own eyes, justified in your own faith, devils." And suddenly a deep gulf was opened in the midst of that city, which spread itself far and wide; and the houses fell one upon another, and were swallowed up; and presently water began to bubble up from the wide whirlpool, and overflowed the waste.  When they were thus submerged, and they seemed inundated, I desired to know their lot in the deep. And it was said to me from heaven, "Thou shalt see and hear." And then the waters, in which they seemed to be inundated, disappeared before my eyes; for waters in the spiritual world are correspondences, and hence appear around those who are in falsities. Then they appeared to me in a sandy place, where heaps of stones were piled up; amongst which they were running, and lamenting that they were cast out of their great city. And they lifted up their voices, and cried, "Why has all this befallen us? Are we not, by our faith, clean, pure, just, and holy?" And others said, "Are we not, by our faith, cleansed, purified, justified, and sanctified?" And others said, "Are we not, by our faith, become such as to appear before God the Father, and to be seen and reputed clean, pure, just, and holy, and declared so before the angels? Are we not reconciled, propitiated, expiated, and thus absolved, washed, and cleansed from sins? And is not the condemnation of the law taken away by Christ? Why then are we cast down here as the condemned? We have heard from an audacious preacher of sin in our great city, 'Believe in Christ and repent.' But have we not believed in Christ whilst we believed in His merit? And have we not done the work of repentance while we confessed ourselves sinners? Why then has all this befallen us?"  But immediately a voice from one side said to them, "Do you know any sin in which you are? Have you ever examined yourselves? Have you, in consequence, shunned any evil as a sin against God? For he who does not shun sin, remains in it; and is not sin the devil? Ye are therefore of those of whom the Lord said: Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in Thy presence, and Thou hast taught in our streets; but He shall say, I say to you, I know you not, whence ye are; depart from Me all ye workers of iniquity (Luke 13:26-27); and of whom in Matt. 7:22, 23. Depart ye, therefore, everyone to his own place. You see the openings into those caverns, enter, and there work shall be given each of you to do, and afterwards food in proportion to your work; if not, still hunger will compel you to enter."  After this there came a voice from heaven to some on earth, who were without that great city, and who are described also (verse 13), crying aloud, "Take heed to yourselves, take heed how you associate with such persons; can you not understand that evils, which are called sins and iniquities, render man unclean and impure? How can man be cleansed and purified from them, but by actual repentance, and by faith in Jesus Christ? Actual repentance is to examine one's self to know and acknowledge his sins, to hold himself guilty, to confess them before the Lord, to implore help and the power to resist them, and thus to desist from them, and lead a new life, doing all these things as of yourselves. Do this once or twice a year, when you approach the Holy Communion, and afterwards when the sins, of which you have found yourselves guilty, recur; then say to yourselves, We will not consent to them because they are sins against God. This is actual repentance.  "Who cannot understand that he who does not search out and see his sins, remains in them? For all evil is delightful from birth; for it is delightful to revenge, to commit whoredom, to defraud, to blaspheme, and especially to rule over others from self-love; is it not the delight that causes them not to be seen, and if perchance it is said they are sins, do you not from that delight excuse them? Yea, you persuade yourselves by falsities and confirm that they are not sins, and thus continue in them, and practice them afterwards more than before, even till you no longer know what sin is, or whether there be sin. It is otherwise with everyone who actually repents. His evils which he knows and acknowledges, he calls sins, and on that account begins to shun and turn away from them, and to feel their delight as undelightful. And in proportion as this is the case, he sees and loves goods, and at length feels delight in them, which is the delight of heaven. In a word, so far as anyone rejects the devil, so far he is adopted by the Lord, and by Him is taught, led, withheld from evils, and is held in goods. This and no other is the way from hell to heaven."  It is wonderful, that the Reformed have a certain deep-rooted opposition and aversion to actual repentance, which is so great, that they cannot force themselves to examine themselves, neither can they see their sins, and confess them before God. It is as if a horror invades them when they think of it. I have inquired of many in the spiritual world concerning this, and they all said that it was beyond their power. When they heard that the Papists do it, that is, that they examine themselves and confess their sins openly before a monk, they have greatly wondered, more especially as the Reformed cannot do the same in private before God, although it is alike enjoined them before they approach the Holy Supper. Some have inquired into the cause of this, and it was discovered that faith alone induced such a state of impenitence, and such a heart. And then it was given them to see that those of the Papists who adore Christ, and do not invoke saints, nor adore His vicar, so-called, and any key-bearer of His, are saved.  After this, there was heard as it were thunder, and a voice speaking from heaven, saying, "We are astonished! say to the assembly of the Reformed, Believe in Christ, and do the work of repentance, and you will be saved." And I said further, "Is not Baptism a sacrament of repentance, and thence an introduction into the church? What else do the sponsors promise for the person to be baptized, but that he will renounce the devil and his works? Is not the Holy Supper a sacrament of repentance, and hence an introduction into heaven? Is it not declared to the communicants, that they should by all means do the work of repentance before they approach? Does not the Catechism, which is the universal doctrine of the Christian church, teach repentance? Is it not said in the six commandments of the second table, Thou shalt not do this and that evil, and not, Thou shalt do this and that good? Hence you may know, that as far as anyone shuns evil, so far he loves good, and that before this he does not know what good is, nor even what evil is."532.
Revelation 12 1. And a great sign was seen in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. 2. And being with child, she cried, travailing and pained to bring forth. 3. And another sign was seen in heaven; and behold, a great red dragon, having seven heads, and ten horns, and upon his heads seven diadems. 4. And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and cast them to the earth; and the dragon stood before the woman who was about to bring forth, that after she had brought forth, he might devour her offspring. 5. And she brought forth a son, a male, who was to tend all nations with a rod of iron; and her offspring was caught up unto God and His throne. 6. And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared by God, that they may nourish her there a thousand two hundred and sixty days. 7. And there was war in heaven, Michael and his angels fought with the dragon, and the dragon fought and his angels. 8. And they prevailed not, and their place was not found any more in heaven. 9. And that great dragon was cast out, that old serpent called the Devil and Satan, that seduceth the whole world; he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him. 10. And I heard a great voice in heaven saying, Now is come the salvation, and the power, and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of His Christ; for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, that accused them before our God day and night. 11. And they overcame him through the blood of the Lamb, and through the word of their testimony; and they loved not their soul even unto death. 12. For this rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to those that inhabit the earth and the sea, for the Devil is come down unto you, having great anger, knowing that he hath but a short time. 13. And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, he persecuted the woman that brought forth the son. 14. And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time [and times], 532-1 and half a time, from the face of the serpent. 15. And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a river after the woman, that he might cause her to be swallowed up by the river. 16. And the earth helped the woman; and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the river which the dragon cast out of his mouth. 17. And the dragon was angry with the woman, and went away to make war with the rest of her seed, that keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ. 18. 532-2 And I stood upon the sand of the sea. THE SPIRITUAL SENSE The contents of the whole chapter It treats here of the New Church and its doctrine: by "the woman" is here meant the New Church, and by "the offspring" which she brought forth, its doctrine: and it also treats of those in the present church, who from doctrine believe in a Trinity of Persons, and in the duality of the Person of Christ, likewise in justification by faith alone; these are meant by "the dragon." Then it treats of the persecution of the New Church by these, on account of its doctrine, and its protection by the Lord, until from a few it increases among many. The contents of each verse Verse 1. "And a great sign was seen in heaven," signifies revelation from the Lord concerning His New Church in the heavens and on earth, and concerning the difficult reception of and resistance to its doctrine (n. 532). "A woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet," signifies the Lord's New Church in the heavens, which is the New Heaven, and the Lord's New Church about to be upon earth, which is the New Jerusalem (n. 533). "And upon the head a crown of twelve stars," signifies its wisdom and intelligence from the knowledges of Divine good and Divine truth from the Word (n. 534). Verse 2. "And being with child, she cried travailing and pained to bring forth," signifies the doctrine of the New Church about to come forth, and its difficult reception on account of the resistance by those who are meant by the dragon (n. 535). Verse 3. "And another sign was seen in heaven," signifies revelation from the Lord concerning those who are against the New Church and its doctrine (n. 536). "And behold a great red dragon," signifies those in the Church of the Reformed who make God three and the Lord two, and who separate charity from faith, and make faith saving, and not charity at the same time (n. 537). "Having seven heads," signifies insanity from the truths of the Word falsified and profaned (n. 538). "And ten horns," signifies much power (n. 539). "And upon his heads seven diadems," signifies all the truths of the Word falsified and profaned (n. 540). Verse 4. "And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and cast them to the earth," signifies that by falsifications of the truths of the Word they have alienated all spiritual knowledges of good and truth from the church, and by applications to falsities have entirely destroyed them (n. 541). "And the dragon stood before the woman who was about to bring forth, that after she had brought forth, he might devour her offspring," signifies that they who are meant by "the dragon" will endeavor to extinguish the doctrine of the New Church at its first appearance (n. 542). Verse 5. "And she brought forth a son, a male," signifies the doctrine of the New Church (n. 543). "Who was to tend all nations with a rod of iron," signifies which, by truths from the literal sense of the Word, and, at the same time, by rational things from natural light will convince all who are in dead worship from faith separated from charity, that are willing to be convinced (n. 544). "And her offspring was caught up unto God and His throne," signifies the protection of the doctrine by the Lord, and its being guarded by the angels of heaven (n. 545). Verse 6. "And the woman fled into the wilderness," signifies the church at first among a few (n. 546). "Where she hath a place prepared by God, that they may nourish her there a thousand two hundred and sixty days," signifies the state of that church then, that meanwhile provision is making for its increase among many until it arrives at its full growth (n. 547). Verse 7. "And there was war in heaven, Michael and his angels fought with the dragon, and the dragon fought and his angels," signifies the falsities of the former church fighting against the truths of the New Church (n. 548). Verse 8. "And they prevailed not, and their place was not found any more in heaven;" signifies that they were convinced of being in falsities and evils, but still they remained in them, and that therefore they were torn away from conjunction with heaven and cast down (n. 549). Verse 9. "And that great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil and Satan," signifies this turning from the Lord to themselves, and from heaven to the world, and thence coming into the evils of their lusts and into falsities (n. 550). "That seduceth the whole world," signifies that they pervert all things of the church (n. 551). "He was cast out into the earth, and his angels 532-3 with him," signifies into the world of spirits, which is intermediate between heaven and hell, from whence there is immediate conjunction with men upon earth (n. 552). Verse 10. "And I heard a great voice in heaven saying, Now is come the salvation and the power, and the kingdom of our God and the authority of His Christ," signifies the joy of the angels of heaven, because the Lord alone now reigns in heaven and in the church, and that they are saved who believe in him (n. 553). "For the accuser of our brethren is cast down, that accused them before our God day and night," signifies that by the Last Judgment they are removed who opposed the doctrine of the New Church (n. 554). Verse 11. "And they overcame him through the blood of the Lamb, and through the word of their testimony," signifies victory by the Divine truth of the Word, and by the acknowledgment of the Lord (n. 555). "And they loved not their soul even unto death," signifies who did not love themselves more than the Lord (n. 556). Verse 12. "For this rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them," signifies a new state of heaven, that they are in the Lord and the Lord in them (n. 557). "Woe to those that inhabit the earth and the sea! for the Devil is come down unto you, having great anger," signifies lamentation over those in the church who are in the falsities of faith, and thence in evils of life, because they are in conjunction with the dragon (n. 558). "Knowing that he hath but a short time," signifies, because he knows that the New Heaven is formed, and that thus there is about to be the New Church upon earth, and that then he with his like will be cast into hell (n. 559). Verse 13. "And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, he persecuted the woman that brought forth the son," signifies that the dragonists in the world of spirits, immediately upon their being thrust down, began to infest the New Church on account of its doctrine (n. 560). Verse 14. "And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place," signifies the Divine circumspection over that church, and its protection, while as yet confined to a few (n. 561). "Where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent," signifies that by reason of the craftiness of seducers, provision is made with circumspection that its numbers may increase until it comes to its full growth (n. 562). Verse 15. "And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a river after the woman, that he might cause her to be swallowed up by the river," signifies reasonings from falsities in abundance to destroy the church (n. 563). Verse 16. "And the earth helped the woman; and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the river which the dragon cast out of his mouth," signifies that those reasonings in all their abundance fall to nothing before the spiritual truths rationally understood, which the Michaels, of whom the New Church consists, bring forward (n. 564). Verse 17. "And the dragon was angry with the woman, and went away to make war with the rest of her seed, that keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ," signifies hatred kindled in those who think themselves wise from their confirmations of the mystical union of the Divine and the Human in the Lord, and of justification by faith alone, against those who acknowledge the Lord alone as the God of heaven and earth, and that the Decalogue is the law of life; and their assaults on novitiates with intent to seduce them (n. 565a). Verse 18. [English Bible 13:1]. "And I stood upon the sand of the sea," signifies his state now spiritual-natural (n. 565). THE EXPLANATION. Verse 1. And a great sign was seen in heaven, signifies revelation from the Lord concerning His New Church in the heavens and on earth, and concerning the difficult reception and resistance to its doctrine. By "a sign from heaven" is here meant a revelation concerning things to come; and by "a great sign seen in heaven" is meant a revelation concerning the New Church, for "the woman clothed with the sun," which is the subject treated of in this chapter, signifies that church. "The male" which she brought forth signifies its doctrine; her being pained to bring forth signifies its difficult reception; "the dragon desiring to devour the male" and afterward "he persecuted the woman," signifies the resistance it meets with. These things are meant by "a great sign was seen in heaven." "A sign" is mentioned in the Word of things to come, and then it is revelation; it is also spoken of truth, and then it is testification; and it is also spoken of the quality of any state or thing, and then it is manifestation. "A sign" is spoken of things to come, and then it is revelation, in the following passages: They shall tell you what shall happen, that we may know their end, or make you hear things to come; show signs of the future (Isa. 41:22-23). The disciples said unto Jesus, What shall be the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation of the age? (Matt. 24:3; Mark 13:4; Luke 21:7). There shall be signs from heaven, and signs in the sun, the moon, and the stars (Luke 21:11, 25). And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man (Matt. 24:30). It was said unto king Hezekiah, This shall be a sign unto thee that Jehovah will do this thing, the shadow on the degrees of Ahaz shall be brought back. Afterwards Hezekiah said, What is the sign that I shall go up into the house of Jehovah? (Isa. 38:7-8, 22; and in other places). That "a sign" is said of truth, and then it is testification, and also it is said of the quality of any state, and then it is manifestation, is evident from other passages in the Word.533.
A woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, signifies the Lord's New Church in the heavens, which is the New Heaven, and the Lord's New Church about to be upon earth, which is the New Jerusalem. That the Lord's New Church is signified by this "woman," is evident from the particulars in this chapter understood in the spiritual sense; that by "a woman," in other parts of the Word also, the church is signified, may be seen (n. 434); and the church is signified, because the church is called the Bride and Wife of the Lord. The reason why she was seen "clothed with the sun," is because the church is in love to the Lord, for it acknowledges Him and does His commandments, and this is to love Him (John 14:21-24). That "the sun" signifies love (see n. 53). The reason why "the moon" was seen under the woman's feet is because the church on earth, which is not yet conjoined with the church in the heavens, is meant. By "the moon" is signified intelligence in the natural man, and faith (n. 423); and by being seen "under the feet," is signified that it is about to be upon earth; otherwise by "feet" is signified the church itself when it is conjoined.  It is to be known, that there is a church in the heavens as well as on earth, for there also is the Word; there are temples also, and preachings in them, and there are ministerial and priestly offices. For all angels there were men, and their departure out of the world was only a continuation of their life; therefore they are also perfected in love and wisdom, everyone according to the degree of the affection of truth and good which he took with him out of the world. The church among them is here meant by "the woman clothed with the sun," who had upon her head a crown of twelve stars;" but because the church in the heavens cannot subsist, except there be also a church on earth, which is in concordant love and wisdom, and as this was about to be, therefore "the moon was seen under the feet of the woman," which here specifically signifies faith, by which, such as it is at this day, there is no conjunction.  The reason why the church cannot subsist in the heavens unless there is a church on earth in conjunction with it, is because heaven where angels are, and the church where men are, act as one, like the internal and the external with man; and the internal with man cannot subsist with its state, unless an external be conjoined with it; for an internal without an external is like a house without a foundation, or like seed upon the ground and not in the ground, thus like anything without a root; in a word, like a cause without an effect in which it may exist. From these things, it may be seen how absolutely necessary it is that there should be a church somewhere in the world, where the Word is, and where by it the Lord is known.534.
And upon her head a crown of twelve stars, signifies its wisdom and intelligence from knowledges of Divine good and Divine truth from the Word. By "the crown upon the head" is signified wisdom and intelligence (n. 189, 235, 252); by "stars" are signified the knowledges of Divine good and Divine truth from the Word (n. 51, 420); and by "twelve" are signified all things of the church, which have relation to its good and truth (n. 348); consequently, by "a crown of twelve stars on the woman's head," is signified the wisdom and intelligence of the New Church from the knowledges of Divine good and Divine truth from the Word.535.
Verse 2. And being with child, she cried, travailing, and pained to bring forth, signifies the nascent doctrine of the New Church, and its difficult reception on account of the resistance by those who are meant by "the dragon." "To be with child" signifies the nascent doctrine, because by "the offspring which was in the womb" (whose birth is treated of in verse 5), is signified the doctrine of the New Church; for nothing else is signified by "being with child," "in travail," and "bringing forth," in the spiritual sense of the Word, than to conceive and bring forth those things which are of spiritual life, concerning which presently. By "she cried, travailing, and pained to bring forth," is signified the difficult reception of that doctrine, because of resistance by those who are meant by "the dragon." This is plain from what follows in this chapter, as "that the dragon stood before the woman about to bring forth, that he might devour her offspring," and afterwards he pursued her into the wilderness.  That by "being with child," "travailing," and "bringing forth," nothing else is signified in the Word, appears from the following passages: Jesus said, except one be born again, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God; that which is born of the flesh is flesh, but that which is born of the spirit is spirit (John 3:3-6). Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, shout, thou that didst not travail, for more are the sons of the desolate than the sons of the married (Isa. 54:1). They have ceased until the barren hath borne seven, and she that hath many children lacketh (1 Sam. 2:5). By "the barren" are signified the Gentiles, who had no genuine truths, because they had not the Word; by "the married" and "she that hath many children" are signified the Jews who had the Word. She that hath borne seven languisheth, she hath breathed out her soul (Jer. 15:9). Speaking also of the Jews: We have conceived, we have travailed, we have as it were brought forth wind, we have not wrought any deliverance in the earth (Isa. 26:18). Before she travailed, she brought forth, before her pain came she was delivered of a male; hath the earth travailed in one day, shall a nation be born at once? shall I break and not bring forth? and cause to be generated and shut (Isa. 66:7-9)? Thou travailest, O earth, before the Lord, before the God of Jacob (Ps. 114:7). Alas, this day, sons have come to the mouth of the matrix, and there is not strength to bring forth (Isa. 37:3). Sin shall travail, and No shall be for a breaking through (Ezek. 30:15-16). I have heard the voice of one sick, as of her that travaileth with her first born, the voice of the daughter of Zion, she sighs, she spreadeth her hands, Woe is me, my soul is wearied because of slayers (Jer. 4:31). Pangs and sorrows take hold, they travail like one bringing forth (Isa. 13:8). The iniquity of Ephraim is bound up, the pains of one in travail shall come upon him; he is a son not wise, for he stayeth not the time in the womb of sons (Hos. 13:12-13). Ephraim, thy glory shall fly away like a bird, from the birth, and from the belly, and from conception; give them, O Jehovah, a miscarrying womb, and dry breasts; even when they have begotten, I will slay the desires of their belly (Hos. 9:11, 14, 16). In these passages also is described the difficulty of receiving the truths of doctrine from the Word, by many things relating to "pain in bringing forth," and in like manner in many other places. Moreover, Jehovah, that is, the Lord, is called "the Former from the womb" (Isa. 44:2, 24; 49:1, 5); and by "Former from the womb" is meant the Reformer.536.
Verse 3. And another sign was seen in heaven, signifies revelation from the Lord concerning those who are against the New Church and its doctrine. By "a sign" is signified revelation from the Lord, as above (n. 532). It is called "another sign" because it is a revelation concerning those who will be against the New Church.537.
And behold, a great red dragon, signifies those in the church of the Reformed who make God three, and the Lord two, and separate charity from faith, and who make faith saving but not charity together with it. These are here meant, and in what follows, by "the dragon;" for they are against the two essentials of the New Church, which are, that God is one in Essence and in Person, in whom there is a Trinity, and that the Lord is that God; also that charity and faith are one like an essence and its form; and that no others have charity and faith, but they who live according to the commandments of the Decalogue, which are that evils are not be done; and so far as anyone does not do evils, shunning them as sins against God, in the same proportion he does the goods which are of charity, and believes the truths which are of faith.  That they who make God three, and the Lord two, and who separate charity from faith, and make faith saving, and not charity, are against those two essentials of the New Church, may be seen by anyone who considers the matter. It is said, they who make God three, and the Lord two, by whom are meant those who think of three Persons as three Gods, and separate the Lord's Human from His Divine. And who thinks otherwise, or can think otherwise, whilst, according to a formula of faith, he prays, "That God the Father for the sake of the Son would send the Holy Spirit?" Does he not pray to God the Father as to one God, and for the sake of the Son as another, and concerning the Holy Spirit as a third? From which it is evident that although in thought he makes three Persons one God, still he divides them, that is, divides his idea into three gods when he so prays. The same formula of faith also makes the Lord two, since he thinks only of the Lord's Human, and not at the same time of His Divine; "for the sake of the Son" means for the sake of His Human which suffered the cross. From what has now been said, it may appear who they are that are meant by the dragon, who would devour the woman's offspring, and afterwards "pursued the woman into the wilderness on account of her offspring."  The reason why the dragon is called "great," is because all the churches of the Reformed distinguish God into three Persons, and make faith alone saving, except some here and there, who do not think alike concerning the Trinity, and concerning faith. They who divide God into three Persons, and adhere to these words of the Athanasian doctrine, "There is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Spirit"; and also to these, "The Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God"; these, I say, cannot make one God out of three; they may indeed say that they are one God, but they cannot think so. In like manner they who think concerning the Lord's Divine from eternity as concerning the second Person of the Divinity, and concerning His Human in time as concerning the human of another man, cannot do otherwise than make the Lord two, although it is said in the Athanasian doctrine that His Divine and Human are one Person, united as the soul and the body.  The dragon is called "red" because "red" signifies falsity from the evils of lusts, which is infernal falsity. Now because these two essentials of the doctrine in the churches of Reformed are falsities, and as falsities devastate the church, since they take away its truths and goods, therefore they were represented by "a dragon." The reason is, because by "a dragon," in the Word, is signified the devastation of the church, as may appear from the following passages: I will make Jerusalem heaps, a habitation of dragons, and I will reduce the cities of Judah to a waste (Jer. 9:11). Behold, a great tumult out of the land of the north, to reduce the cities of Judah to a waste, a habitation of dragons (Jer. 10:22). Hazor shall become a habitation of dragons, a desolation forever (Jer. 49:33). That it may be a habitation of dragons, a court for the daughters of the owl (Isa. 34:13). In the habitation of dragons is his couch (Isa. 35:7). I will go despoiled and naked, I will make a wailing like the dragons, and mourning like the daughters of the owl (Micah 1:8). I cried, I am become a brother to dragons, and a companion to the daughters of the screech owl (Job 30:28-29). The ijim shall answer in his palaces, and dragons in temples (Isa. 13:22). Babylon shall become heaps, a habitation of dragons, a hissing and an astonishment (Jer. 51:37). Thou hast broken us in the place of dragons, and covered us with the shadow of death (Ps. 44:19). I have laid the mountains of Esau and his heritage a waste for the dragons of the wilderness (Mal. 1:3, besides other places; as in Isa. 43:20; Jer. 14:6; Ps. 91:13, 14; Deut. 32:33).  That by "the dragon" are here meant those who are in faith alone, and reject the works of the law as not saving, has sometimes been testified to me in the spiritual world by living experience. I have seen several thousands of them assembled together, when from a distance they have appeared like a dragon with a long tail, that seemed set with spines like thorns, which signified falsities. Once, also, there was seen a dragon still larger, which raising his back and lifting up his tail towards heaven, endeavored to draw down the stars from thence. Thus it was made manifest before my eyes that no others are meant by "the dragon."538.
Having seven heads, signifies insanity from the truths of the Word falsified and profaned. By "the head" is signified wisdom and intelligence, and, in the opposite sense, insanity; but by "seven heads" here, because they were the dragon's, is properly signified insanity from the truths of the Word falsified and profaned; for "seven" is predicated of things holy, and, in the opposite sense, of things profane (n. 10); therefore it follows that on his heads were seen "seven diadems," and by "diadems" are signified the truths of the Word, here falsified and profaned. That by "the head" is signified wisdom and intelligence, is plain from these passages: I will give you men wise, and intelligent, and make them your heads (Deut. 1:13). Jehovah hath closed your eyes, the prophets, and your heads, the seers, hath he covered (Isa. 29:10). By the head of Nebuchadnezzar's image of pure gold (Dan. 2:32), nothing else is signified but the wisdom of the first age, which was with the men of the Most Ancient Church. By "the head" in the opposite sense is signified insanity and folly; in David: God shall wound the head of the enemies, the hairy crown of him who goeth on in his guilt (Ps. 68:21). Nor is anything else signified by "the head of the serpent," which was to be trodden down (Gen. 3:15); and by "smiting the head over many countries" (Ps. 110:6, 7); also by "putting dust on the head;" and by "inducing baldness," and by "putting the hand on the head," when they were ashamed, or grieved at having acted insanely against wisdom (Isa. 7:20; 15:2; Ezek. 7:18; 27:30; Jer. 2:37; 14:3, 4; Lam. 2:10; 2 Sam. 13:19). But by "seven heads" is also signified insanity from truths falsified and profaned in what follows in Revelation (13:1, 3; 17:3, 7, 9).539.
And ten horns, signifies much power. "A horn" signifies power (n. 270), and "ten" signifies much (n. 101). The reason why it is said that the dragon has much power, is, because the salvation of man by faith alone, without the works of the law, which faith is meant by "the dragon," captivates minds, and then confirmations persuade. It captivates, because man, on hearing that the damnation of the law is taken away, and the Lord's merit is imputed to him through faith alone in this, he can indulge in the pleasures of his mind and body, without any fear of hell; hence comes the power which is signified by "the ten horns of the dragon." That such has been his power, evidently appears from the reception of that faith everywhere throughout the Reformed Christian world.540.
And upon his heads, seven diadems, signifies all the truths of the Word falsified and profaned. By "diadems" or precious stones, are signified the truths of the Word; specifically, the truths of the sense of the letter of the Word, but here, those truths falsified and profaned, from their being seen "upon the seven heads of the dragon," by which is signified insanity from truths falsified and profaned (n. 538).  That by "diadems," or precious stones, are signified the truths of the sense of the letter of the Word, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem Concerning the Sacred Scripture (n.43-45); where it is shown that Divine truths in ultimates, which are the truths of the sense of the letter of the Word, are signified by: The twelve precious stones in the breastplate of Aaron, which was the Urim and Thummim (Exod. 28:6, 15-21, 30). And by the precious stones in the garden of Eden, in which the king of Tyre is said to have been (Ezek. 28:12-13). Also by the twelve precious stones, of which the foundations of the wall of the New Jerusalem consisted (Rev. 21:17-20). The truths of the sense of the letter of the Word are signified by "diadems," or precious stones, because all things of the sense of the letter of the Word are transparent before angels, from its spiritual sense, thus from the light of heaven, in which the spiritual truths of the Word are; for "a stone," in the Word, signifies truth in ultimates; hence, "a precious stone" signifies that truth transparent.  The reason why the truths of the Word, when falsified and profaned, are also called "diadems," is because they shine from themselves, whether they be possessed by this person or that; in the same manner as diadems on earth, in whosesoever hand they are. It has sometimes been given me to see adulterous women, on their first coming from the earth into the world of spirits, decked with diadems; and Jews, likewise, selling diadems, which they had procured to themselves from heaven; from which it was plain, that evils and falsities, with such, do not change the light and splendor of the truths of the Word. Therefore the like is signified by: The ten diadems upon the horns of the beast which came up out of the sea (Rev. 13:1). And by the precious stones on the woman who sat on the scarlet beast (Rev. 17:3-5). That the truths of the Word are what are signified by "diadems," appears manifestly in Revelation, that: There were seen upon the head of Him who sat upon the white horse, and whose name was the Word of God, many diadems (Rev. 19:12-13).541.
Verse 4. And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and cast them to the earth, signifies that by falsifications of the truths of the Word they have alienated all spiritual knowledges of good and truth from the church, and, by applications to falsities, have entirely destroyed them. By "the tail," when the subject treated of relates to those who have confirmed heretical things from the Word, are signified the truths of the Word falsified (n. 438); by "stars" are signified spiritual knowledges of good and truth (n. 51, 420); by "the third part" is signified all (n. 400, 505); and by "drawing them from heaven, and casting them to the earth," is signified to alienate them from the church, and to destroy them utterly; for when they are drawn down from heaven, they are also drawn down from the church, because every truth of the Word is insinuated from the Lord through heaven into the man of the church; nor are truths drawn down by anything else than by falsifications of them in the Word, since there and thence are the truths of heaven and the church.  That all the truths of the Word have been destroyed by those who are meant by "the dragon" spoken of above (n. 537), cannot be believed by anyone in the world, and yet they have been so destroyed, so that not one doctrinal truth remains; this was examined into in the spiritual world, with the learned of the clergy, and was found to be so. The reasons I know, but I shall here mention only one of them. They assert, that whatsoever proceeds from man's will and judgment is not good; and that therefore the goods of charity, or good works, being done by man, contribute nothing to salvation, but faith only; when, nevertheless, that alone, by virtue of which man is man, and by which he is conjoined with the Lord, is that he can do good and believe truth, as from himself, that is, as from his own will according to his own judgment. If this faculty were taken away from him, all power of conjunction of man with the Lord, and of the Lord with man, would also be taken away at the same time; for this is the reciprocal of love, which the Lord gives to everyone who is born a man, and which He also preserves in him to the end of his life, and afterwards to eternity. If this were taken away from man, every truth and good of the Word would also be taken away, insomuch that the Word would be nothing but a dead letter and an empty volume; for the Word teaches nothing but the conjunction of man with the Lord by charity and faith, and both from man as from himself.  They who are meant by "the dragon" (spoken of above, n. 537), have broken this only bond of conjunction, by asserting that the goods of charity, or good works, which proceed from man, and his will and judgment, are only moral, civil, and political works, by which man has conjunction with the world, and none at all with God and with heaven; and when that bond is thus broken, there is then no doctrinal truth of the Word remaining; and if the truths of the Word are applied to confirm faith alone as saving without the works of the law, then they are all falsified; and if the falsification proceeds so far as to affirm, that the Lord has not commanded good works in the Word for the sake of man's conjunction with Himself, but only for the sake of his conjunction with the world, then the truths of the Word are profaned; for thus the Word becomes no longer a Holy Book, but a profane book; but see the experience on this subject at the end of the chapter. The like things are signified by these words in Daniel, concerning the he-goat: The he-goat with his horn cast down some of the host of heaven and of the stars to the earth, and trampled upon them; and he cast down truth to the earth (Dan. 8:10, 12).542.
And the dragon stood before the woman who was about to bring forth, that after she had brought forth, he might devour her offspring, signifies that they who are meant by "the dragon" will endeavor to extinguish the doctrine of the New Church in its first origin. Who they are that are meant by "the dragon" may be seen above (n. 537); that by "the woman" is signified the New Church (n. 533); that by "bringing forth" is signified to receive the goods and truths of doctrine from the Word (n. 535); that by "the offspring" which she brought forth is signified the doctrine of the New Church, will be seen in the next article. "To devour" signifies to extinguish, because by "the offspring" is signified doctrine; and when "to devour" is said in relation to the offspring, to extinguish is said in relation to doctrine. The reason why this was the case in its first origin, is because it is said, that "the dragon" stood before the woman, to devour her offspring after she had brought forth.543.
Verse 5. And she brought forth a son, a male, signifies the doctrine of the New Church. By "a son," in the Word, is signified the truth of doctrine, and also the understanding, and thence the thought, of truth and good; but by "a daughter" is signified the good of doctrine, as also the will, and thence the affection of truth and good; and by "a son, a male" is signified truth conceived in the spiritual man, and born in the natural man. The reason is, because by "generations and births," in the Word, are signified spiritual generations and births, all which in general relate to good and truth (n. 535); for nothing else is begotten and born of the Lord as Husband, and of the church as Wife. Now since by "the woman" who brought forth is signified the New Church (n. 533), it is plain that by "the son, a male" is signified the doctrine of that church. The doctrine here meant is The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, published in London, 1758; as also The Doctrines concerning the Lord, concerning The Sacred Scripture, and concerning Life according to the Commandments of the Decalogue, published in Amsterdam; for by doctrine all the truths of doctrine are meant, because doctrine is the complex of them. When these doctrines were written, the dragonists stood around me, and endeavored, with all their fury, to devour, that is, to extinguish them. This news it is permitted me to relate, because of a truth it so happened. The dragonists who stood around me were from all parts of the Reformed Christian world.  Since there is no other offspring born from the spiritual marriage, a male offspring is truth and good in the understanding and thence in the thought; and a female offspring is truth and good in the will, and thence in the affections; therefore by "a son" in the Word is signified truth. To confirm this some passages shall be adduced, from which this may in some measure be seen: Lo, sons are an heritage of Jehovah, and the fruit of the belly is His reward; as arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are the sons of youth (Ps. 127:3-5). Make thee bald, and poll thee for the sons of thy delights, for they have gone from thee (Micah 1:16). I saw two olive trees near the lampstand; and he said, These are the two sons of the olive tree that stand near the Lord of the whole earth (Zech. 4:11, 14). My tent is devastated, My sons have gone forth from Me, and they are not (Jer. 10:20). My sons are become devastated, because the enemy hath prevailed (Lam. 1:16). Thy sons, O Jerusalem, have fainted, they lie at the head of all the streets (Isa. 51:20). The fathers shall eat the sons in the midst of thee, and the sons shall eat their fathers, and the whole remnant of thee will I scatter to every wind (Ezek. 5:10). The son shall be divided against the father, and the father against the son (Matt. 10:21; Mark 13:12; Luke 12:53). Thou hast taken the vessels of thy ornament from My gold, and hast made to thyself images of a male, with which thou didst commit whoredom (Ezek. 16:17). Jesus said, The seed are the sons of the kingdom, and the tares are the sons of the evil one (Matt. 13:38).  That "the Son of man" is the Divine truth of the Word, thus the Lord, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 19-28). In the passages quoted above, by "sons" are meant they who are in truths of doctrine from the Word, and, abstractly, the truths themselves; in like manner in other places; as in Isa. 13:17, 18; 14:21, 22; 43:6; 49:17, 22; 51:17, 18; 60:9; Jer. 3:24, 25; 5:17; Ezek. 14:16-18, 20; 16:20, 36, 45; 20:26, 31; 23:37; Hos. 11:9-11; Zech. 9:13; Ps. 144:11, 12; Deut. 32:8. That by "a daughter" is signified the affection of the truth of the church, thus the church as to that affection, appears from so many passages in the Word, that to adduce them would fill many pages; nothing else is meant by "the daughter of Zion," "the daughter of Jerusalem," "the daughter of Judah," "the daughter of Israel." Some passages respecting "the daughter of Zion" may be seen adduced (n. 612). Who cannot see that not any "daughter of Zion," "Jerusalem," "Judah," and "Israel," so often mentioned in the Word, can be meant?544.
Who was to tend all nations with a rod of iron, signifies which, by truths from the sense of the letter of the Word, and, at the same time, by rational things from natural light, will convince all who are in dead worship from faith separated from charity, that are willing to be convinced. This is concerning the doctrine of the New Church, because it is spoken of "the son a male," by whom that doctrine is signified (n. 543); "to tend" signifies to teach and instruct (n. 383); here to convince those who are willing to be convinced; by "nations" are signified they who are in evils of life (n. 483); here, they who are in dead worship from faith separated from charity, because these are here treated of; and these are in evils of life, for when charity is separated, there is not any good of life, and where good is not, there evil is. That "to rule with a rod of iron" signifies by the truths of the literal sense of the Word, and, at the same time, by rational things from natural light, may be seen above (n. 148).545.
And her offspring was caught up unto God and His throne, signifies the protection of the doctrine by the Lord, because it is for the New Church, and its being guarded by the angels of heaven. By these words is signified the protection of the doctrine by the Lord, because it is said that "the dragon stood before the woman about to bring forth, to devour her offspring after it was brought forth;" and by "offspring" and "a son, a male" is signified the doctrine for the New Church (n. 542, 543). Being guarded by the angels is also signified, because it is said, that "it was caught up unto God and to His throne;" and by "a throne" is signified the angelic heaven (n. 14, 221, 222).546.
Verse 6. And the woman fled into the wilderness, signifies the church which is the New Jerusalem, at first among a few. By "the woman" is signified the New Church (n. 533); and by "a wilderness" is signified where there are no longer any truths. That its being at first among a few is signified, because it follows, "where she hath a place prepared by God, that they should nourish her there a thousand two hundred and sixty days," by which is signified its state at that time, that in the meanwhile it may be provided among many; even until it increases to its appointed state (n. 547). By "a wilderness," in the Word, is signified: (1) The church devastated, or in which all the truths of the Word are falsified, such as it was among the Jews at the time of the Lord's advent. (2) The church in which there are no truths, because they have not the Word, such as it was among the upright Gentiles in the Lord's time. (3) A state of temptation in which man is, as it were, without truths, because he is surrounded by evil spirits who induce temptations, and then as it were they deprive him of truths.  (1) That by "a wilderness" is signified the church devastated, or in which all the truths of the Word are falsified, such as it was among the Jews in the Lord's time, appears from these passages: Is this the man that made the earth to quake, that did shake kingdoms, that made the world a wilderness? (Isa. 14:16-17). This is concerning Babylon: Thorns and briers are come up on the land of My people; the palace shall be a wilderness (Isa. 32:13-14). I saw, and lo, Carmel was a wilderness, the whole land shall be waste (Jer. 4:26-27). "The earth" is the church (n. 285): The pastors have destroyed My vineyard, they have made My desirable places a wilderness of solitude; the wasters are come in the wilderness (Jer. 12:10, 12). A vine is planted in the wilderness, in a dry and thirsty land (Ezek. 19:13). The fire hath consumed the habitations of the wilderness (Joel 1:19, 20). The day of Jehovah cometh, the land is as the garden of Eden before Him, but behind Him a waste wilderness (Joel 2:1, 3). See ye the word of Jehovah; have I been a wilderness to Israel, or a land of darkness? (Jer. 2:31). The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, prepare ye the way of Jehovah; make straight in the desert a highway for our God (Isa. 40:3; besides other places; as in Isa. 33:9; Jer. 3:2; 23:10; Lam. 5:9; Hos. 2:2-3; 13:15; Joel 3:19; Mal. 1:3; Ps. 107:33-34; Matt. 24:26; Luke 13:35). That such also is the state of the church at this day, may be seen below (n. 566).  (2) That by "a wilderness" is signified the church in which there are no truths, because they have not the Word, as with the upright Gentiles in the Lord's time, appears from these passages: The spirit shall be poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness shall be a fruitful field, then judgment shall dwell in the wilderness (Isa. 32:15-16). I will place fountains in the midst of the valleys, and make the wilderness a pool of waters; I will give in the wilderness the cedar, shittim, and the olive tree (Isa. 41:18-19). He shall make the wilderness into a pool of waters and the dry land to springs of water (Ps. 107:35). I will make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to My people, My chosen (Isa. 43:19-20). Jehovah will make her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden of Jehovah; gladness and joy shall be found therein (Isa. 51:3). The habitations of the wilderness drop (Ps. 65:12). Let the wilderness lift up its voice, let the inhabitants of the rock sing (Isa. 42:11).  (3) That by "a wilderness" is signified a state of temptation, in which man is as it were without truths, because surrounded by evil spirits, who induce temptation, and then as it were deprive him of truths, appears from Matt. 4:1-3; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-3; Ezek. 20:34-37; Jer. 2:2, 6-7; Hos. 2:13-16; Ps. 107:4-7; Deut. 1:31, 33; 8:2-4, 15-16; 32:10.547.
Where she hath a place prepared by God, that they may nourish her there a thousand two hundred and sixty days, signifies the state of the church at that time, that in the meantime it may be provided among many, even until it increases to its appointed state. By "place" is signified state (n. 947); and by "to nourish," provision for its increase, for thus is the church nourished; hence by "having a place prepared by God that they may nourish her," is signified the state of the church that in the meantime it may be provided among many; by "a thousand two hundred and sixty days" is signified to the end and the beginning (n. 491), that is, to the end of the former church and the beginning of the New, the same as by a time, and times, and half a time, Verse 14 (n. 562); thus, also, to its appointed state, that is, until it exists as has been provided. It is of the Lord's Divine providence, that the church should at first be among a few, and that it should successively increase among many, because the falsities of the former church must first be removed; for before this, truths cannot be received, since truths, which are received and implanted before falsities are removed, do not remain, and they are also dissipated by the dragonists; the like happened with the Christian church, which increased successively from a few to many. Another reason is, that the New Heaven is first to be formed, which will act as one with the church that will be on earth; therefore we read that: He saw a New Heaven, and the Holy Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God (Rev. 21:1-2). It is certain that the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, will exist, because it is foretold in Revelation (chapters 21-22); and it is also certain that the falsities of the former church are first to be removed, because they are what it treats of in Revelation as far as chapter 20.548.
Verse 7. And there was war in heaven, Michael and his angels fought with the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, signifies the falsities of the former church fighting against the truths of the New Church. By "war" is signified spiritual war, which is of falsity against truth, and truth against falsity (n. 500), for no other war can take place in heaven, where this is said to have existed; neither can it take place in heaven, when once formed of angels; but it was done in "the former heaven which passed away" (spoken of in Rev. 21:1). Concerning which heaven, see the explanation there given; for that heaven passed away by the Last Judgment on the dragon and his angels, which is also signified by "the dragon was cast down, and his place was found no more in heaven," as appears from what follows. What the falsities are, which are meant by "the dragon," and which are about to fight against the truths of the New Church, may be seen above (n. 537). By "Michael" is not meant any archangel; neither by "Gabriel, and Raphael," but ministries in heaven are meant; the ministry signified by "Michael" is performed by those who confirm from the Word, that the Lord is the God of heaven and earth, and that God the Father and He are one, as the soul and body are one; also that men ought to live according to the commandments of the Decalogue, and that then men have charity and faith. "Michael" is also mentioned in Daniel (10:13, 21; 12:1); and by him a similar ministry is meant, as appears from chapters 9-11, and from the last verses of chapter 12. But by "Gabriel" is meant the ministry of those who teach from the Word, that Jehovah came into the world, and that the Human He there assumed is the Son of God, and Divine; for which reason, the angel who announced the same to Mary is called "Gabriel" (Luke 1:19, 26-35). They also, who are engaged in those ministries, are named "Michaels" and "Gabriels" in heaven. By "an angel," in the highest sense, is meant the Lord; and, in a relative sense, the heaven of angels, as also an angelic society as may be seen above (n. 5, 65, 258, 342, 344, 415, 465); but here, a ministry is signified, because they are mentioned by name; and, in Daniel, Michael is called "a prince"; and by "a prince" in the Word, is signified a principal truth, and by "a king," truth itself (n. 20).549.
Verse 8. And they prevailed not, and their place was not found any more in heaven, signifies that they were convicted of being in falsities and evils, but still they remained in them, and that therefore they were torn away from conjunction with heaven and cast down. That this may be understood, something must first be said concerning the state of those who come into the other life after death. All there are first instructed by angels, and led from one society to another, and explored whether they will receive the truths of heaven, and live according to them. But still, all those who have confirmed themselves in falsities in the world do not receive them; therefore they are sent into societies where they are who are in similar falsities, which societies have no conjunction with heaven, but with hell. Therefore after some time in the world of spirits they sink down into hell, and are sent away to their places, everyone according to his evil and falsity thence; this is what is meant by their being convicted of being in falsities and evils, and still they remain in them, and that therefore they are torn away from conjunction with heaven, and cast down. What their lot is there, may be seen above (n. 153, 531).550.
Verse 9. And that great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, signifies that they who are meant by "the dragon" turned from the Lord to themselves, and from heaven to the world, and thence became sensual from the corporeal, who could not but be in the evils of their lusts and thence in falsities, and by separation from the Lord and heaven became devils and satans. Who are meant by "the dragon," may be seen (n. 537); these, inasmuch as they make God three, and the Lord two, and because they place the commandments of the Decalogue among works by which there is not any salvation, are called "the old serpent, the Devil, and Satan;" and by "a serpent" is signified a man sensual from the corporeal (n. 424), who turns from the Lord to himself, and from heaven to the world; and by "the Devil" are signified they who are in the evils of lusts; and by "Satan," they who are thence in falsities (n. 97, 153 at the end, 856, 857). Such, also, was the serpent which seduced Eve and Adam, as appears from his description and the curse pronounced upon him (Gen. 3:1-5, 14-15). "The dragon" is here called "the Devil and Satan," but he is so called, because all in hell are devils and satans; and thence hell in the aggregate is so called.
532-1 The original Latin omits "and times," but it is in the explanation below.
532-2 [English Bible 13:1.]
532-3 The original Latin omits "were cast out."