Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
If afflicting thou shalt afflict him. That this signifies if they are defrauded, is evident from the signification of "to afflict," as being to defraud (as just above, n. 9200).9202.
So that crying he shall cry unto Me. That this signifies supplication to the Lord for aid, is evident without explication. Intense supplication is expressed in the Word by "a cry," because the supplication of those who supplicate from the heart, even if silent, is heard in heaven as a cry. Such is the case when men merely think, and still more when they groan, from a sincere heart. This was represented in the representative church by a cry; and hence the cry became a ceremonial observance among the Jews. The case is similar with those who teach; they are heard in heaven as crying aloud. In heaven, not only the thoughts, but especially the affections which are of good and truth, speak. That they speak, and if ardent cry out, has been given me to know from experience, concerning which, of the Lord's Divine mercy elsewhere. But affections of evil and falsity are not at all heard in heaven, even though the man who supplicates from them should cry out, and at the same time press his palms tightly together, and raise them together with his eyes to heaven. These latter affections are heard in hell, and if they are ardent, they are heard there also as cries.9203.
Hearing I will hear their cry. That this signifies that they are to be aided, is evident without explication.9204.
And Mine anger shall wax hot. That this signifies the state of those who do this, is evident from the signification of "anger," when attributed to Jehovah, that is, to the Lord, as being clemency and mercy (see n. 6997, 8875). But the reason why these words denote the state of those who do this, that is, who afflict and oppress the stranger, the widow, and the orphan, is that the "anger" is in them, and then appears as if it were in the Lord. (That anger is attributed to the Lord, when yet it is in the man, see n. 6997, 8284, 8483, 8875; and that in general the evil which is attributed to the Lord in the Word is in those who are in evil, n. 1861, 2447, 6071, 6832, 6991, 7533, 7632, 7643, 7679, 7710, 7926, 8197, 8227, 8228, 8282.)9205.
And I will kill you with the sword. That this signifies that they would deprive themselves of good and truth through falsities, is evident from the signification of "killing," when said of such as defraud those who are in good and truth, and who are signified by "widows, orphans, and sojourners," as being to deprive them of such things (that "to kill" denotes to deprive of spiritual life, see n. 3607, 6768, 8902); and from the signification of a "sword," as being truth fighting and destroying falsity; and in the opposite sense, as being falsity fighting and destroying truth (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294). Here therefore "to kill with the sword" denotes to deprive of goods and truths by means of falsities.9206.
And your women shall become widows. That this signifies that the goods with them will perish, is evident from the signification of "women," as being goods (see n. 6014, 8337); that "women" denote goods is because by the marriage of a man and a woman is represented the conjunction of truth and good (that by "a man" is signified truth, and by "a woman" good, see n. 4510, 4823); and from the signification of "widows," as being those who are in good and not in truths, but who nevertheless long for truths (n. 9198); but here those who do not long for truths, because the evil are spoken of who afflict widows, consequently those are meant with whom goods are perishing.  The case herein is this. Those who are in good, and do not long for truth, are not in good. The reason is that good becomes good by means of truths, for good receives its quality from truths (n. 9154). It is good conjoined with truth that is meant by "spiritual good;" and therefore when truth perishes with a man, good also perishes; and conversely, when good perishes, truth also perishes; for the conjunction is drawn asunder and dispersed (n. 3804, 4149, 4301, 4302, 5835, 6917, 7835, 8349, 8356). Thus good is known from the fact that it longs for truth and is affected with truth for the sake of a good use, thus for the sake of life. Regarded in itself the very longing, that is, the very affection of truth for the sake of life, is the affection of conjunction. This is like the longing of food or bread for water or wine, for the sake of conjunction; for when they are conjoined they nourish. It is also like light and heat, in that light conjoined with heat produces all things on the earth, and causes them to grow; but if the conjunction is severed, that which has been produced and has grown, perishes.  As it is with good, so it is with all delight, pleasantness, sweetness, consent, and harmony. These things are not such from themselves, but from the things which are in them, the conjunction causing them to be such, and they being such according to the conjunction. But what things therein bear relation to good, and what to truth, may be known to the intelligent if they consider. For all things whatsoever that are in the world and that are in heaven, thus that are in the universe, bear relation to good and truth; and everything produced by these bears relation to both together, and thus to their conjunction. For this reason the ancients likened all things to marriage (n. 54, 55, 1432, 5194, 7022); and in each particular of the Word there is the marriage of good and truth (n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712, 4138, 5138, 5502, 6343, 7945, 8339).9207.
And your sons shall be orphans. That this signifies that then at the same time truths will perish, is evident from the signification of "orphans," as being those who are in truth and not yet in good, and nevertheless long for good (see n. 9199), here those who are in truth but do not long for good, thus those with whom truths are perishing; for it is said of the evil, whose sons shall become orphans. That truths perish with those who do not long for good, is plain from what was said just above (n. 9206) about the conjunction of good and truth. With regard to this conjunction it is to be said further, that truths which are conjoined with good always have within them a longing to do what is good, and at the same time, to thereby conjoin themselves more closely with good; or, what is the same, those who are in truths always long to do what is good, and thus to conjoin good with their truths; and therefore those who believe themselves to be in truths and do not long to do what is good, are not in truths; that is, they are not in the faith of these truths, howsoever they may suppose themselves to be so.  This is described by the Lord by "salt," where He says in Matthew: Ye are the salt of the earth; but if the salt has lost its savor, wherewith shall it be salted? It is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out and trodden under foot of men (Matt. 5:13); these words the Lord says to the disciples and to the people. By "the salt of the earth" is meant the truth of the church which longs for good; by "the salt that has lost its savor" is meant truth without any longing for good; that such truth is profitable for nothing is described by "the salt that has lost its savor being thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out and trodden under foot." To long for good is to long to do what is good, and in this way to be conjoined with good.  So in Mark: Everyone shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. Salt is good; but if the salt have lost its saltiness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and cherish peace one with another (Mark 9:49-50); "to be salted with fire" denotes the longing of good for truth; and "to be salted with salt" denotes the longing of truth for good; "salt that has lost its saltiness" denotes truth without any longing for good; "to have salt in oneself" denotes to have this longing.  So in Luke: Every one of you who does not renounce all that he has cannot be My disciple. Salt is good; but if the salt have lost its savor, wherewith shall it be seasoned? It is fit neither for the land, nor for the dunghill: they cast it out (Luke 14:33-35); here in like manner "salt" denotes truth longing for good; and "salt that has lost its savor," truth which is without any longing for good; "it is fit neither for the land nor for the dunghill" denotes that it does not conduce to any use, either good or evil. Those who are in such truth are those who are called "lukewarm," as is plain from the words which precede, that "no one can be a disciple of the Lord who does not renounce all that he has," that is, who does not love the Lord above all things; for those who love the Lord, and likewise themselves, in an equal degree, are those who are called "lukewarm," and who are not fit for either a good use or an evil use.  In Moses: Every offering of thy meat-offering shall be salted with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to cease upon thy meat-offering; upon every offering thou shalt offer salt (Lev. 2:13); that "in every offering there should be salt" signified that the longing of truth for good, and of good for truth, should be in all worship. Consequently this "salt" is called "the salt of the covenant of God," for "a covenant" denotes conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 2037, 6804, 8767, 8778), and "salt" the longing for conjunction.  When the one longs to be reciprocally conjoined with the other, that is, good with truth and truth with good, they then mutually regard each other; but when truth sunders itself from good, then each turns away from the other, and looks backward, or behind itself. This is signified by Lot's wife becoming a pillar of salt, as in Luke: Whosoever shall be upon the house, and his vessels in the house, let him not go down to take them away; and whosoever is in the field, let him likewise not turn back to the things behind him. Remember Lot's wife (Luke 17:31-32). (That this is "to look behind" one's self, or "backward," see n. 3652, 5895, 5897, 7857, 7923, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8516).  That "salt" signifies the longing of truth, is because salt renders the earth fertile, and makes food palatable, and because there is in salt something both fiery and at the same time conjunctive; as there is in truth an ardent longing for good and at the same time for conjunction. A "pillar of salt" denotes disjunction from truth; for in the opposite sense "salt" signifies the destruction and vastation of truth (Zeph. 2:9; Ezek. 47:11; Jer. 17:6; Ps. 107:33, 34; Deut. 29:23; Judges 9:45; and 2 Kings 2:19-22). These things have been adduced in order that it may be known what is meant by the longing of truth for good, and the longing of good for truth, which are signified by "an orphan," and "a widow."9208.
Verses 24-26. If thou shalt lend silver to My people, the needy with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a usurer; ye shall not put usury upon him. If taking a pledge thou shalt take in pledge thy companion's garment, even at the going in of the sun thou shalt restore it to him; for it is his only covering; it is his garment for his skin, wherein he may sleep; and it shall be, when he shall cry unto Me, that I will hear; for I am merciful. "If thou shalt lend silver to My people, the needy with thee," signifies the instruction of those who are in ignorance of truth, and yet long to learn; "thou shalt not be to him as a usurer," signifies that this must be done from charity; "ye shall not put usury upon him," signifies not for the sake of the consequent profit; "if taking a pledge thou shalt take in pledge thy companion's garment," signifies if memory-truth be separated through fallacies derived from the things of sense; "even at the going in of the sun thou shalt restore it to him," signifies that it must be restored before there is a state of shade from the delights of external loves; "for it is his only covering," signifies because the things of sense underlie interior things; "it is his garment for his skin," signifies that they also clothe exterior things; "wherein he may sleep," signifies rest upon them; "and it shall be when he shall cry unto Me," signifies supplication to the Lord; "that I will hear," signifies aid; "for I am merciful," signifies that from Him is everything of aid, from mercy.9209.
If thou shalt lend silver to My people, the needy with thee. That this signifies the instruction of those who are in ignorance of truth, and yet long to learn, is evident from the signification of "silver," as being truth (see n. 1551, 2048, 2954, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917, 7999, 8932); from the signification of "lending," as being to communicate the goods of heaven from the affection of charity (n. 9174), thus to instruct; from the signification of "people," as being those who are in truths, here those in ignorance of truth, because it is said "needy people" (that those are called a "people" who are in truths, see n. 1259, 1260, 2928, 3295, 3581, 7207); and from the signification of "needy," as being those who are in ignorance of truth and yet long to learn, for these are in spiritual need, and are to be instructed.  In the Word it is frequently said that benefits are to be conferred on the poor and needy. Those who are in external truths, and who are not yet initiated into internal truths, believe that benefits are to be conferred on all who need any kind of help, and especially on beggars, who call themselves poorer than others. They who do this from obedience, because it has been so commanded, do well; for by this outward thing they are initiated into the internal of charity and mercy. The internal of charity and mercy consists in clearly discerning who and of what character are those upon whom benefits are to be conferred, and in what manner to each one. They who are at last initiated into the internal of charity and mercy know that this very internal consists in willing well and in doing well to the internal man, thus with such things as conduce to spiritual life; and that the external consists in doing well to the external man, thus with such things as conduce to the bodily life, but yet with such prudence, that while the external man is benefited the internal man may also be benefited at the same time. For he who does well to the external man and ill to the internal man, does not practice charity; and therefore when the one is done, the other must also be looked to.  It is the external of charity which is described in the external or literal sense of the Word by the injunction that benefits are to be conferred on the poor and needy; but it is the internal of charity which is described in the internal or spiritual sense of the Word; for in this sense is meant the internal man who is in poverty and need, and who is to be benefited. In this sense by "the poor and needy" are meant those who are in lack and ignorance of good and truth, and yet long for good and truth. The Word also teaches in the letter how these are to be aided, especially the Word which the Lord Himself taught when He was in the world; for the Lord then disclosed such things as belong to the internal man, as is plain in the Evangelists throughout. But still He spoke in such a manner that every word had an internal sense for the angels, and at the same time for the man of the internal church. For the internal sense contains such things as the genuine doctrine of the church teaches.  Take for example what the Lord said to the disciples sent by John the Baptist to inquire whether He was the Lord who should come; to whom He replied: Go ye and tell John what things ye have seen and heard: the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, to the poor the gospel is preached (Luke 7:20-22); these words were spoken for the external man, and at the same time for the internal man; for the external man that such miracles were wrought; for the internal, that the church is being set up among such as in the spiritual sense are blind, lame, leprous, deaf, and poor, thus among the Gentiles who are in ignorance of good and truth, and yet long for them. For those are called "blind" who are in ignorance of truth (n. 6990); "lame," those who are in good, but on account of their ignorance of truth, not in genuine good (n. 4302); "leprous," those who are unclean and yet long to be made clean; "deaf," those who are not in the faith of truth, because not in the perception of it; and "poor," those who have not the Word, and thus know nothing of the Lord, and yet long to be instructed. Consequently it is said that "to these the gospel shall be preached."  That by "the poor and needy" in the internal sense are meant those outside the church who are in ignorance of truth, because they have not the Word, and yet long to be instructed, and who by means of that which they know are nevertheless in a little good; and also those within the church who from various causes are ignorant of truth, but nevertheless by virtue of some good long for it, is evident from passages where "the poor and needy" are mentioned in the Word, as in David: I am needy and poor; make haste unto me, O God; my help and my deliverer, O Jehovah (Ps. 70:5); these words were spoken by David, who was not poor and needy, from which it is evident that spiritual poverty and need are meant. In like manner elsewhere: I am needy and poor; O Lord, remember me, my help and my deliverer (Ps. 40:17). God shall judge His people in righteousness, and His needy in judgment. The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the hills in righteousness. He shall judge the needy of the people. He shall save the sons of the poor, and shall break in pieces the oppressor (Ps. 72:2-4); "the needy" here denote those who are in spiritual need, and thus in the hunger, that is, in the longing to be willing to be instructed in truths.  In the same: All my bones shall say, O Jehovah, who is like unto Thee, who deliverest the needy from him that is stronger than he; yea, the needy and the poor from them that plunder him? (Ps. 35:10); the "bones" denote memory-truths (n. 8005); "the needy," those who are in but little truth; and "the poor" those who are in but little good, and are infested by evils and falsities. From these infestations the needy are also called in the original tongue "the afflicted," for "to be afflicted" denotes to be infested by falsities (n. 9196). Again in the following passages: The wicked lieth in wait in the tent to catch the needy; he doth catch the needy, and draweth him into his net (Ps. 10:9). Is not this the fast, to break bread to the hungry, and to bring into the house the needy that are cast out? (Isa. 58:6-7). Jehovah hath comforted His people, and will have mercy upon His needy ones (Isa. 49:13). I will leave in the midst of thee a people needy and feeble, who hope in the name of Jehovah (Zeph. 3:12). In these passages "the needy" denote those who are in ignorance of truth and long to be instructed.9210.
Thou shalt not be to him as a usurer. That this signifies that this must be done from charity, is evident from the signification of "a usurer," as being one who does what is good for the sake of self-advantage; for a usurer intrusts money to another for the sake of usury, and assists another for the sake of recompense. And because genuine charity does not regard profit or recompense as the end, but the good of the neighbor, therefore by "thou shalt not be as a usurer" is signified that it must be done from charity. He who does not know what Christian charity is, may believe that it consists not only in giving to the needy and the poor, but also in doing good to a fellow citizen, to our country, and to the church, for any cause what ever, or for any end whatever. But be it known that it is the end that determines the quality of all a man's deeds. If his end or intention is to do good for the sake of reputation, or to acquire honors or profit, then the good which he does is not good, because it is done for the sake of himself, and thus also from himself. But if his end is to do good for the sake of a fellow citizen, his country, or the church, thus for the sake of the neighbor, then the good which the man does is good, for it is done for the sake of good itself, which, in general, is the neighbor itself (n. 5025, 6706, 6711, 6712, 8123); thus also it is done for the sake of the Lord, for such good is not from man, but from the Lord, and that which is from the Lord is the Lord's. It is this good which is meant by the Lord in Matthew: As much as ye did to one of the least of these My brethren, ye did to Me (Matt. 25:40).  As it is with good, so also it is with truth. Those who do truth for the sake of truth, do it also for the sake of the Lord, because they do it from the Lord. To do truth for the sake of truth, is to do good; for truth becomes good when it passes from the understanding into the will, and from the will goes forth into act. To do good in this manner is Christian charity. Sometimes those who do good from Christian charity have regard to reputation from it, for the sake of honor, or for the sake of profit; yet they do so very differently from those who regard these things as the end; for they regard what is good and just as the essential and only thing, thus as being in the highest place; and thereafter they regard profit and honor, and reputation for the sake of these, as being relatively not essential, thus in the lowest place. When persons of such a character have in view what is just and good, they are like those who fight in battle for their country, and who then have no regard for their life, nor for their rank and possessions in the world, which are then relatively of no account. But those who have regard to themselves and the world in the first place, are of such a character that they do not even see what is just and good, because they have in view themselves and their own profit.  From all this it is evident what it is to do good for the sake of self or the world, and what it is to do good for the sake of the Lord or the neighbor, and what is the difference between them. The difference is as great as that between two opposites, thus as great as between heaven and hell. Moreover, those who do good for the sake of the neighbor or the Lord are in heaven; but those who do good for the sake of self and the world are in hell. For those who do good for the sake of the neighbor and the Lord, love the Lord above all things and the neighbor as themselves, in accordance with the chief of all the commandments (Mark 12:28-31). But those who do all things for the sake of themselves and the world, love themselves above all things, thus more than God, and not only do they despise the neighbor, but even hold him in hatred if he does not make one with themselves, and be theirs. This is meant by what the Lord teaches in Matthew: No man can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon (Matt. 6:24). There are those who serve both; but these are they who are called "lukewarm, neither cold nor hot," who are "spewed out" (Rev. 3:15-16). From all this it is now plain what was represented by usurers who took usury, namely, those who do good for the sake of profit.  From this it is clear why it is said that one "should not be as a usurer, and should not put usury upon a brother;" as also in other passages in Moses: Thou shalt not put on thy brother usury of silver, usury of food, usury of anything on which it is put. Upon a foreigner thou mayest put usury; but upon thy brother thou shalt not put usury; that Jehovah thy God may bless thee in all that thou puttest thine hand unto, in the land whither thou goest to possess it (Deut. 23:19, 20; Lev. 25:36-38); "to put on a brother the usury of silver" denotes to lend truths, or to instruct, for the sake of profit; "to put the usury of food on him" denotes to lend the goods of truth for the sake of profit; for "silver" denotes truth (n. 1551, 2954, 5658, 6914, 6917); and "food," the good of truth (n. 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5410, 5426, 5487, 5576, 5582, 5588, 5655, 5915, 8562). That "Jehovah will bless those who do not so, in all that they put their hand unto in the land" is because they are in the affection of good and truth, thus in the happiness the angels have in heaven, for a man has heaven in this affection, that is, in the good of this love (n. 6478, 9174). The reason why it was allowable to put usury on foreigners, was that by "foreigners" are signified those who do not acknowledge and receive anything of good and truth (n. 7996). Thus they who do good only for the sake of profit are to serve man, because they are relatively servants (n. 1097). In David: He that walketh perfect, and that doeth righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart; He that giveth not his silver to usury, and taketh not a gift against the innocent. He that doeth this shall never be moved (Ps. 15:2, 5); "to give one's silver into usury" denotes to teach merely for the sake of profit, thus to do good for the sake of the recompense. In like manner in Ezekiel: A righteous man who doeth judgment and righteousness, giveth not into usury, and taketh not interest (Ezek. 18:5, 8). He that withholdeth his hand from the needy, that taketh not usury or interest, that doeth My judgments, that walketh in My statutes, living he shall live (Ezek. 18:17). In thee have they taken a gift to shed blood; thou hast taken usury and interest, and thou hast taken gain of thy companions by violence (Ezek. 22:12). This is said of the "city of bloods," by which is signified the falsity that destroys truth and good (n. 9127); "taking usury and interest" denotes doing good for the sake of profit and recompense, thus not from charity. (That genuine charity is devoid of all claim to merit, see n. 2371, 2373, 2400, 4007, 4174, 4943, 6388-6390, 6392, 6478.)9211.
Ye shall not put usury upon him. That this signifies thus not for the sake of the consequent profit, is evident from the signification of "putting usury upon" anyone as being to do good for the sake of profit (of which just above, n. 9210), here not for the sake of profit, because it is said "ye shall not put usury upon him." From this law concerning interest and usury it can be seen how the case is with the laws called "judgments" among the Israelitish people, namely, that they ceased, together with the sacrifices and all other rituals, when the Lord came into the world and opened the interior things of worship, and in general the interior things of the Word. The interior things of this law are that good ought to be done to the neighbor from the heart, and that it ought to be believed that there is nothing of merit in deeds done from self, but only in those done from the Lord in self. For the Lord Himself alone has merited, and He alone is righteousness; and when a man believes this, he places nothing of merit and reward in what is done by himself, but ascribes all goods to the Lord; and as the Lord does it from Divine mercy, the man ascribes all things to mercy alone. From this also it is that he who is led by the Lord thinks absolutely nothing about reward, and yet does good to the neighbor from the heart.  These are the interior things from which descended the law of usuries among the Israelitish and Jewish nation, and therefore when a man is in the interior things, this law ceases, together with other similar laws, which were called "judgments." For the Israelitish and Jewish nation was solely in external things which were representative of internal things. Consequently this law was binding upon that nation at that time; but it is not binding upon Christians, to whom interior things have been revealed by the Lord. That this is so is known to the man of the church at this day, and therefore at this day the laws of usury are quite different. Nevertheless the sanctity of this law does not cease on this account, that is, this Word has not been abrogated, for its sanctity remains by virtue of the interior things which are in it. These holy interior things still affect the angels when this Word is read. Therefore beware of believing that the laws of life, such as are in the Decalogue, and everywhere in the Old Testament, have been abrogated, for these laws have been confirmed in the internal as well as in the external form, because the two cannot be separated.9212.
If taking a pledge thou shalt take in pledge thy companion's garment. That hereby is signified, if memory-truths be separated through fallacies derived from the things of sense, is evident from the signification of "taking a pledge," as being to receive a token for goods that have been communicated; for a pledge is a token for goods that are lent. When spiritual things are understood in the place of these, to communicate goods means to instruct in truths, and a token or pledge then means sensuous truth; for by the "garment" mentioned here as given in pledge, is signified the ultimate of the natural, which is the sensuous. As this abounds in fallacies, and fallacies extinguish truths, therefore by "taking thy companion's garment in pledge" is signified the separation of truths by fallacies derived from the things of sense. That these things are signified, is evident from the series of the things as they follow in the internal sense.  By a "garment" in general is signified all that which clothes something else, thus whatever is relatively exterior. Consequently the external or natural man is called a "garment" relatively to the internal or spiritual man. In like manner truth is called a "garment" relatively to good, because truth clothes good; so likewise is memory-truth relatively to the truth of faith, which is of the internal man. The sensuous, which is the ultimate of life with man, is a "garment" relatively to memory-truth. (That "garments" denote lower things which cover higher ones, or what is the same, exterior things which cover interior ones, see n. 2576, 5248; in general that they denote truths, n. 4545, 4763, 5319, 5954, 6914, 6917, 9093; that they denote memory-truths, n. 6918; also sensuous truths, n. 9158; and that the sensuous is the ultimate of life with man, n. 4009, 5077, 5125, 5128, 5767, 5774, 6201, 6313, 7442, 7693, and is in fallacies, n. 5084, 5089, 6201, 6948, 6949, 7442.)  That "garments" denote truths, originates from the representatives in the other life, where angels and spirits appear clothed in garments according to the states of faith or of truth in which they are; and their garments vary according to the changes of this state. Those who are in genuine truth appear clothed in white garments, and those who are in truths derived from good in shining garments; but those who are solely in good, as are the angels of the inmost heaven, who are called celestial, appear without clothing. From this then it is that garments denote truths, and that by "garments" in the Word are signified truths, as can be seen from the passages before quoted, to which may be added the following from the Evangelists.  In Matthew: When Jesus was transfigured, His face did shine as the sun, and His garments became as the light (Matt. 17:2); by "the face" in the Word are signified the interiors, especially the affections (n. 358, 1999, 2434, 3527, 3573, 4066, 4796, 4797, 5102, 5695, 6604, 6848, 6849); and by "the face of God," good itself (n. 222, 223, 5585); by "the sun" is signified the Divine love (n. 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643, 4060, 4321, 4696, 7083, 8644). From this it is evident what is signified by "the face of the Lord shining as the sun," namely, that His interiors were the good of the Divine love. That "His garments became as the light" signifies the Divine truth proceeding from Him, which in heaven also appears as light (n. 1521, 1619-1632, 3195, 3222, 3485, 3636, 3643, 4415, 5400, 8644).  Again: When Jesus drew nigh unto Jerusalem they brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their garments, and set Him thereon. And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way; but others cut branches from the trees, and strewed them in the way (Matt. 21:1, 7, 8); to ride on an ass and her colt was a representative of the highest judge and king (see n. 2781), as is also evident from what goes before in verse 5: Tell ye the daughter of Zion, Behold thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass and upon a colt, the son of a beast of burden (Matt. 21:5; see also Mark 11:1-11; Luke 19:28-40; John 12:12-15). In Zechariah 9:9 it is said of the Lord that He "was riding upon an ass, even upon a young ass, the son of she-asses," and He is there called a "King;" and it is added that "His dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth." That the highest judge rode upon a she-ass, and his sons upon young asses, maybe seen in Judges 5:9, 10; 10:3, 4; 12:14; and that the king rode upon a she-mule, and the sons of the king upon mules, in 1 Kings 1:33, 38, 44, 45, and in 2 Sam. 13:29.  By the disciples putting their garments on the ass and her colt, was represented that truths in the whole complex were submitted to the Lord as the Highest Judge and King; for the disciples represented the church of the Lord in respect to its truths and goods (n. 2129, 3488, 3858, 6397), and their garments represented the truths themselves (n. 4545, 4763, 5319, 5954, 6914, 6917, 9093) The like was represented by the multitude strewing their garments in the way, and also branches of trees. The reason why they strewed them in the way was that by "a way" is signified the truth whereby the man of the church is led (n. 627, 2333, 3477). The reason why they strewed branches of trees, was that trees signified the perceptions and also the knowledges of truth and good (n. 2682, 2722, 2972, 4552, 7692), consequently "the branches" denote the truths themselves. This was done also in conformity with a customary rite; for when the highest judges and kings rode in their solemn procession, the princes of the people then put their garments on the asses and mules, and the people themselves strewed their garments on the way, or in their place the branches of trees; for the judicial function in heaven is the Divine truth from the Divine good, and the regal one is the Divine truth (n. 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148).  In Luke: No man addeth a piece of a new garment to an old garment; for so he rendeth the new, and the piece from the new doth not agree with the old (Luke 5:36); the Lord used this similitude to describe the truth of the new church and the truth of the old church, for the "garment" denotes truth. To "sew" or "add" one to the other denotes to destroy both; for the truth of the new church is interior truth, thus is truth for the internal man; but the truth of the old church is exterior truth, thus is for the external man. In the latter truth was the Jewish Church, for by means of external things this church represented internal ones; whereas the church at this day is in the internal truths which had been represented; for the Lord revealed these truths. That these truths do not agree with external truths so as to be together with them, is signified by the above words of the Lord. From this also it is evident that a "garment" signifies the truth of the church.  In John: Jesus said unto Peter, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast a boy, thou girdedst thy loins, and walkedst whither thou wouldest; but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hand, and another shall gird thy loins, and lead thee whither thou wouldest not (John 21:18); he who does not know the internal sense of the Word, cannot know what these words involve. That they contain arcana is very evident. In the internal sense by "Peter" is signified the faith of the church (see the preface to Genesis 18 and 22, also n. 3750, 6000, 6073, 6344). Thus by "Peter when a boy" is signified the faith of the church such as it is in its beginning; and by "Peter when old," the faith of the church such as it is at its end. From this it is evident what is signified by the words, "when thou wast a boy, thou girdedst thy loins, and walkedst whither thou wouldest," namely, that the faith of the church in its beginning is the faith of truth from good, thus the faith of charity toward the neighbor and of love to the Lord, and that then the man of the church does good from freedom, because from the Lord; for "the loins" denote the goods of love (n. 3021, 3294, 4280, 4575, 5050-5062), consequently "to gird the loins" denotes to clothe good with truths; "walking" denotes living (n. 519, 1794, 8417, 8420); thus "walking whither one would" denotes living in freedom, for those live in freedom, or act from freedom, who are in faith from love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, because they are led by the Lord (n. 892, 905, 2870-2893, 6325, 9096). "When thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thy loins, and lead thee whither thou wouldest not," signifies that at the end of the church there will be no faith, and then falsities of evil from the loves of self and the world will take its place, and will reduce it to bondage. This is the secret which lies hidden in these words of the Lord, and which can be seen only from their internal sense. From this it is again evident in what manner the Lord spoke, namely, that in every detail there was an internal sense, to the intent that by means of the Word heaven might be conjoined with the world; for without the Word there is no conjunction, that is, without revealed Divine truth; and if there is no conjunction, the human race perishes.9213.
Even at the going in of the sun thou shalt restore it to him. That this signifies that it must be restored before there is a state of shade from the delights of external loves, is evident from the signification of the "going in," or setting, "of the sun," as being a state of shade from the delights of external loves. The case herein is this. In heaven there are alternations of heat in respect to those things which are of the good of love; and there are alternations of light in respect to those things which are of the truth of faith; thus there are alternations of love and of faith. In hell also there are alternations, but such as are opposite to those in heaven, because there they are alternations of the love of evil and of the faith of falsity. These alternations correspond to the changes of the seasons on the earth, which are spring, summer, autumn, and winter, and again spring; and so on. But in the spiritual world instead of times there are states; for there are no changes of heat and light there, but of love and faith. But be it known that these alternations are not the same with one as with another, but differ with each person according to the state of life acquired by him in the world. Sunset in heaven corresponds to a state of shade as to the truths of faith, and to a state of cold as to the good of love to the Lord and toward the neighbor; for those who are there then come into the delights of external loves, which are attended with shade as to faith. For when an angel or spirit is in external things, he is also in shade; but when he is in internal things, he is in the delights and blessednesses of heavenly loves, and at the same time is in the pleasant things of faith, that is, in the light of truth. These are the states to which correspond the spring and summer seasons on the earth. From all this then it can now be seen why the "going in," or setting, "of the sun," signifies a state of shade from the delights of external loves. (Concerning these alternations see what has been shown above, n. 5097, 5672, 5962, 6110, 7083, 8426, 8615, 8644, 8812.)  From what has been said above it can be seen what is meant by saying that the memory-truths which have been separated through fallacies derived from the things of sense must be restored before there is a state of shade from the delights of external loves, which is signified by the words, "if thou take thy companion's garment in pledge, even at the going in of the sun thou shalt restore it to him." For hereby is meant that truths taken away through fallacies must be restored while the man is still in the light of truth; for he is then able to recover them, and also to dispel the falsities induced by fallacies; but this he cannot do when he is in a state of shade arising from the delights of external loves, because these delights reject those truths; and the shade does not receive them; and thus the fallacies cling to the man, and are appropriated by him. The reason why external delights, that is, those of the external man, are of such a nature, is that they are closely connected with the world, and are also excited and as it were vivified by its heat. It is otherwise with internal delights and blessednesses, or those of the internal man. These are closely connected with heaven, and are also excited and vivified by its heat, which is love from the Lord.  This judgment, or law, is thus delivered in another passage in Moses: Thou shalt not take in pledge the mill or millstone; for he taketh the soul in pledge (Deut. 24:6); by "a mill" are signified such things as serve for procuring faith, and afterward charity (n. 7780); and by "the soul" is signified the life of faith from charity (n. 9050). From this it is evident what is meant by "not taking in pledge a mill, for he taketh the soul in pledge." Again: Thou shalt not turn back the right of the sojourner and the orphan; nor shalt thou take a widow's garment in pledge (Deut. 24:17); "to take a widow's garment in pledge" denotes to take away in any manner the truths that long for good; for a "garment" denotes truth (see n. 9212); and "a widow," one who is in good and longs for truths, or in the abstract sense, good longing for truths (n. 9198); for if truth is taken away, good perishes together with its longing.  And again: If thou lend thy companion anything, thou shalt not enter into his house to take a pledge. Thou shalt stand outside, and the man to whom thou hast lent shall bring forth the pledge outside. And if he be a needy man, thou shalt not lie down in his pledge; restoring thou shalt restore to him the pledge at the setting of the sun, that he may lie in his garment, and may bless thee; and it shall be righteousness before thy God (Deut. 24:10-13); that the creditor should "stand outside, and the pledge be brought forth to him," signifies how the communicated truths are to be responded to; for by "lending" is signified the communication of truth, and by "taking a pledge," the response. No one can know that these things are signified except from what happens in the other life; thus unless he knows what is meant by "entering into the house," and what by "standing outside," thus what is meant by "bringing forth outside."  In the other life those who enter the house of another, and converse together in one room, so communicate their thoughts with all who are there, that the latter absolutely know no otherwise than that they themselves are thinking these thoughts from themselves. But if they stand outside, the thoughts are indeed perceived, but as coming from another, and not from themselves. This happens every day in the other life; and therefore those who are of one opinion, or of one sentiment, appear together in one house; and this is still more the case if they appear in one room of the house; and when these same persons disagree, those who do so disappear. In the other life such appearances are everywhere, and are continually happening. The reason is that parity of thoughts conjoins and causes presence, for thought is internal sight, and distances of places there, are not as in the world.  From this it is plain what is meant by "not entering into the house, but standing outside and taking a pledge," namely, that one should not bind or incite another to confirm one's own truths, but should hear him and take his answers as they are in himself. For he who binds and incites another to confirm his own truths, causes the other not to think and speak from himself, but from him. And when anyone thinks and speaks from another, the truths he has are thrown into disorder, and yet he is not amended, except in the case of one who is as yet ignorant of these truths. From all this it is again clear that in every detail of the Word there are things which correspond to such as are in the spiritual world.9214.
For it is his only covering. That this signifies because the things of sense underlie interior things, is evident from the signification of a "covering" or garment, as being the sensuous (of which above, n. 9212), as also that the sensuous underlies interior things, because it is the ultimate of man's life.9215.
It is his garment for his skin. That this signifies that they also clothe exterior things, is evident from the signification of a "garment," as being the sensuous in general, or the things of sense, as above; and from the signification of the "skin," as being what is exterior, which also clothes interior things, but still within the sensuous. (The signification of "the skin," and who in the other life correspond to the skin, may be seen above, n. 3540, 5552-5559, 8977, 8980.) The natural of man is interior, exterior or middle, and outermost. The interior natural communicates with heaven; the middle or exterior natural communicates on the one side with the interior, and through it with heaven, and on the other with the outermost, and through it with the world (n. 4009, 4570, 5118, 5126, 5497, 5649, 5707). The outermost natural is the sensuous, which is here signified by the "garment." This receives the objects belonging to the world, and thus is of service to interior things. It is called the "only covering," because it is the ultimate, and thus is common to all. The exterior or middle natural is what is signified by the "skin." From this it is evident that by "it is his garment for his skin," is signified that the sensuous also clothes exterior things. (That the sensuous is the ultimate of man's life, and thus the general covering, see n. 4009, 5077, 5125, 5128, 5767, 5774, 6201, 6313, 7442, 7693.)9216.
Wherein he may sleep. That this signifies rest upon them, is evident from the signification of "sleeping," as being to rest, here upon the external sensuous which is signified by the "garment" (see n. 9212); for it is said, "the garment wherein he may sleep." How it is to be understood that interior things have rest upon the sensuous, shall be told. The sensuous is the ultimate of man's life, as was shown above. This contains all the interior things, and is common to them, for they terminate in it, and thus rest upon it; as for example the skin, which is the ultimate covering of the body; for in this the interior things of the body terminate, because it contains them, wherefore also they rest upon it. The case is the same with the peritoneum in the body; as this membrane contains the viscera of the abdomen, they rest upon it, and also have a general connection with it. It is the same with the pleura relatively to the viscera of the chest.  It is the same with all things that belong to man's very life, as with those which relate to his understanding, and those which relate to his will. These also follow in order from interior to exterior things. Exterior things are memory-knowledges with their pleasant feelings; and outermost things are those of the senses, which communicate with the world by the sight, the hearing, the taste, the smell, and the touch. Upon these the interior things rest, for in these they terminate. These are the things which are signified in the spiritual sense by the "covering" or "garment wherein he may sleep." That sensuous things are a "garment" or "covering," is from correspondences; for, as before said (n. 9212), spirits and angels appear clothed in garments according to their truths of faith; in shining garments those who are in truths from good, as were the angels at the Lord's sepulchre (Luke 24:4; Matt. 28:3); others in white garments of fine linen; as those spoken of in Rev. 19:14; and others in garments of various colors.  Be it known moreover, that each and all things advance from the first or inmost successively to their ultimates, and there rest; also that prior or interior things have a connection with ultimates in successive order. Wherefore if the ultimates are removed, the interior things also are dispersed. From this also there are three heavens; the inmost or third heaven flows into the middle or second heaven; the middle or second heaven flows into the first or ultimate heaven; and this again flows in with man. Consequently the human race is the last in order, in which heaven terminates, and upon which it rests. Wherefore the Lord always provides from His Divine that there shall be a church among the human race, in which there shall be revealed truth Divine, which on our earth is the Word. By means of this, there is a continuous connection of the human race with the heavens. Therefore it is that in every detail of the Word there is an internal sense which is for heaven, and which is of such a nature that it conjoins angelic minds with human minds by a bond so close that they act as a one. From this it is again evident how the case is with the resting of interior things upon ultimates.9217.
And it shall be, when he shall cry unto Me. That this signifies supplication to the Lord, is evident from the signification of "crying unto Jehovah," as being supplication to the Lord (as above, n. 9202).9218.
That I will hear. This signifies aid (as also above, n. 9203).9219.
For I am merciful. That this signifies that from Him is everything of aid, from mercy, is evident from the signification of "being merciful," when said of the Lord, as being that from Him is everything of aid. That it is said to be from mercy is because all things which are from the Lord are from mercy, for the very being of the Lord is Divine love, and love is called "mercy" when it is shown toward those who are in miseries, thus relatively to the whole human race, for this is set fast in miseries, because its own is nothing but evil (n. 210, 215, 874-876, 987, 1581, 5660, 5786, 8480).9220.
Verses 27-30. Thou shalt not curse God, and a prince in thy people thou shalt not execrate. The firstfruits of thy grain, and the firstfruits of thy wine, thou shalt not delay. The firstborn of thy sons thou shalt give to Me. So shalt thou do with thine ox, and with thy flock; seven days it shall be with its mother; on the eighth day thou shalt give it to Me. And ye shall be men of holiness to Me; and flesh that is torn in the field ye shall not eat; ye shall cast it to the dog. "Thou shalt not curse God," signifies that truths Divine must not be blasphemed; "and a prince in thy people thou shalt not execrate," signifies that neither are the doctrines of truth to be blasphemed; "the firstfruits of thy grain, and the firstfruits of thy wine, thou shalt not delay," signifies that as all the goods and truths of faith are from the Lord, they are to be ascribed to Him, and not to self; "the firstborn of thy sons thou shalt give to Me," signifies all the things of faith which are procured through these; "so shalt thou do with thine ox, and with thy flock," signifies even to exterior and interior good; " seven days it shall be with its mother," signifies their first state when they are in truths; "on the eighth day thou shalt give it to Me," signifies that at the beginning of the following state, when the man lives from good, he is with the Lord; "and ye shall be men of holiness to Me," signifies the state of life then from good; "and flesh that is torn in the field ye shall not eat," signifies that the falsified good of faith shall not be conjoined; "ye shall cast it to the dog," signifies that it is unclean.9221.
Thou shalt not curse God. That this signifies that truths Divine must not be blasphemed is evident from the signification of "cursing," as being to blaspheme, for those curse who blaspheme. That these words signify that truths Divine are not to be blasphemed, is because in the internal sense "God" denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord; and therefore when truth is treated of in the Word, the Lord is called "God," and when good is treated of, He is called "Jehovah" (see n. 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4287, 4402, 7010, 7268, 8988, 9160). Consequently "angels" denote truths, because they are receptions of truth Divine from the Lord (n. 4295, 4402, 7268, 7873, 8192, 8301, 8867); and so also do "judges" (n. 9160).9222.
And a prince in thy people thou shall not execrate. That this signifies that neither are the doctrines of truth to be blasphemed, is evident from the signification of "a prince," as being the primary truths of the church (see n. 5044); from the signification of "a people," as being those who are in truths of doctrine (n. 1259, 1260, 2928, 3295, 3581, 7207); and from the signification of "execrating," as being to blaspheme. How closely these things are connected, is evident from the internal sense; for by "not to curse God" is signified not to blaspheme truth Divine, and by "not to execrate a prince" is signified not to blaspheme the doctrine of truth. Truth Divine is the Word, and the doctrine of the church is the truth thence derived. A few words may be said about the blaspheming of truth Divine. Truth Divine is the Word, and is doctrine from the Word. Those blaspheme who at heart deny these, even though with the mouth they may praise the Word, and preach it. The blasphemy is hidden in the denial, and it emerges when they are left by themselves, especially in the other life; for there hearts speak, after outward things have been removed.  Those who blaspheme, that is, deny the Word, are unable to receive anything of the truth and good of faith; for the Word teaches the existence of the Lord, of heaven and hell, of the life after death, of faith and charity, and of many other things, which without the Word, that is, without revelation, would be quite unknown (n. 8944); and therefore those who deny the Word cannot receive anything of what the Word teaches; for when they either read or hear it, a negative attitude presents itself, which either extinguishes the truth, or turns it into falsity.  Wherefore the very first thing with the man of the church is to believe the Word; and this is the chief thing with him who is in the truth of faith and the good of charity. But with those who are in the evils of the love of self and of the world, the chief thing is not to believe the Word, for they reject it the moment they think about it, and likewise blaspheme it. If a man were to see the magnitude and the nature of the blasphemies against the Word that exist with those who are in the evils of these loves, he would be horrified. While the man himself is in the world he is not aware of this, because these blasphemies are hidden behind the ideas of that active thought which with men passes into speech. Nevertheless they are revealed in the other life, and appear horrible.  Blasphemies are of two kinds; there are those which come forth from the understanding and not at the same time from the will; and those which come forth from the will through the understanding. It is these latter blasphemies which are so horrible; but not the former. Those which come forth from the will through the understanding are from evil of life; but those which come forth from the understanding only, and not at the same time from the will, are from falsity of doctrine, or from the fallacies of the external senses, which deceive a man who is held fast in ignorance. These things have been said in order that it may be known how the case is with the blaspheming of truth Divine, that is, of the Word and its derivative doctrine, which is signified by "cursing God and execrating a prince of the people."9223.
The firstfruits of thy grain, and the firstfruits of thy wine, thou shalt not delay. That this signifies that as all the goods and truths of faith are from the Lord, they are to be ascribed to Him and not to self, is evident from the signification of "the firstfruits," as being those things which must be in the first place, thus those which are to be chief of all (of which below); from the signification of "grain," as being the good of the truth of faith (see n. 5295, 5410, 5959); from the signification of "wine," as being the truth of good, thus, the truth of the goad of faith (n. 1798, 6377); and from the signification of "not delaying," when said of the good and truth of faith, as being to ascribe from affection; for that which is not done tardily, but quickly, is done from the affection of love (n. 7695, 7866). That ascription to the Lord is meant, is because the firstfruits, as well as the firstborn, were given to Jehovah, and by Jehovah to Aaron and his seed; and by "Jehovah" in the Word is meant the Lord (n. 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5663, 6303, 6945, 6956, 8274, 8864). Wherefore, as "the first fruits of the grain and wine" denote the goods and truths of faith, it is meant that these are to be ascribed to the Lord, because they are from Him. (That everything of thought and of will with man flows in, and that all good and truth are from the Lord, see n. 2886- 2888, 3142, 3147, 4151, 4249, 5119, 5147, 5150, 5259, 5482, 5649, 5779, 5854, 5893, 6027, 6982, 6985, 6996, 7004, 7055, 7056, 7058, 7270, 7343, 8321, 8685, 8701, 8717, 8728, 8823, 8863, 9110; and the same from experience, n. 6053-6058, 6189- 6215, 6307-6327, 6466-6495, 6598-6626.)  The firstfruits which were to be offered to the Lord, were the firstfruits of the harvest and the firstfruits of the vintage, also the firstfruits of shearing, and likewise the firstfruits of fruit. The firstfruits of the harvest were ears of corn, parched and green, also the sheaf which was to be waved, and afterward the firstfruits from the threshing floor, which were cakes; but the firstfruits of the vintage were the firstfruits of wine, of must, and of oil; and besides these there were the firstfruits of the sheep-shearing and also the firstfruits of fruit, which were offered in a basket. Moreover, all the firstborn also were offered to the Lord, of which were redeemed the firstborn of men, and also the firstborn of those animals which were not offered in the sacrifices, as the firstborn of asses, of mules, of horses, and the like. The firstfruits and the firstborn were offered to Jehovah, and by Jehovah were given to Aaron and his seed, for the reason that Aaron and his sons, who administered the office of the high-priesthood, represented the Lord. By "the firstfruits of grain and wine" in this verse are meant all the firstfruits of the harvest and the vintage, just now spoken of; for the expressions used in the original tongue are "the fullness of the grain," and "the tear of the wine;" "fullness" denoting a harvest ripe and gathered in, and "tears" denoting what is made to drop.  What the firstfruits specifically represented (for all the statutes and rituals enjoined upon the sons of Israel by the Lord represented internal things of the church), can be seen from the several kinds of produce the firstfruits of which were given, when viewed in the internal sense. That "grain" denotes the good of faith, and "wine" the truth of faith, may be seen in the passages above cited. That the firstfruits were to be given to Jehovah, signified that it is the first of the church to ascribe all the goods and truths of faith to the Lord, and not to self. To ascribe to the Lord is to know, to acknowledge, and to believe that these things are from the Lord, and nothing of them from self; for as above shown, everything of faith is from the Lord. The "firstfruits" have this signification because they were offerings and gifts, which were thanksgivings for the produce of the earth, and an acknowledgment of blessings from Jehovah, that is, from the Lord; and consequently were an acknowledgment that all things are from Him; and in the internal sense, an acknowledgment of the goods and truths of faith, which are signified by "harvest," by "grain," "oil," "must," "wine," "wool," and "fruits," of which the firstfruits were given. (Concerning these firstfruits, see Exod. 23:19; 34:26; Lev. 23:10, 11, 20; Num. 15:19-21; 18:12, 13; Deut. 18:4; 26:1-11.) The like is signified by the "firstfruits" in Ezekiel 20:40, and in Micah 7:1, 2.9224.
The firstborn of thy sons thou shalt give to Me. That this signifies that also all the things of faith which are procured through these are to be ascribed to the Lord, and not to self, is evident from the signification of "the firstborn of the sons," as being all things of the faith of the church (see n. 2435, 6344, 7035, 7039, 7778, 8042); and from the signification of "giving unto Me" as being to ascribe to the Lord, for by "Jehovah" in the Word is meant the Lord. All the things of faith, which are signified by "the firstborn of the sons," are those which are from the good of charity, for faith comes forth from this good, because whether truths are taken from the Word or from the doctrine of the church, they cannot possibly become truths of faith unless there is good in which they may be implanted. The reason is that it is the understanding which first receives truths, because it sees them and introduces them to the will; and when they are in the will, then they are in the man, for the will is the man himself. Wherefore he who supposes that faith is faith with man before he wills these truths, and from willing does them, is very much mistaken. Previous to this the very truths of faith have no life. Everything that belongs to the will is called "good," because it is loved. Thus truth becomes good, or faith becomes charity, in the will.  There are two controversies which have infested the church from the earliest times; the one is whether faith or charity is the firstborn of the church; the other, whether faith separate from charity is saving. These controversies have arisen because, before a man has been regenerated, he perceives the truths which must be of faith; but not the good which is of charity. For the truths of faith enter by an external way, namely, by the hearing, and are stored up in the memory, and from this appear in the understanding. But the good of charity flows in by an internal way, namely, through the internal man out of heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord, and therefore does not become a matter of perception until the truths which are called the truths of faith begin to be loved for the sake of a good use, and for the sake of life; and this takes place when they become of the will. From this then it is that faith was said to be the firstborn of the church, and also had attributed to it the right of primogeniture, that is, the right of priority and superiority over the good of charity; when yet the good of charity is actually prior and superior, and the truth of faith only apparently so (n. 3325, 3494, 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701, 4925, 4926, 4928, 4930, 4977, 5351, 6256, 6269, 6272, 6273).  The reason why the man of the church has been in obscurity on these subjects, is that he did not perceive that all things in the universe bear relation to truth and to good, and that they must bear relation to both in order to be anything. Neither did he perceive that there are two faculties in man, called the understanding and the will, and that truth bears relation to the understanding, and good to the will; and that unless there is this relation to both, nothing is appropriated to the man. As these things have been in obscurity, and yet the ideas of man's thought are founded upon such things, the error could not be made plain to the natural man; although if it had once been made plain, the man of the church would have seen, as in clear light from the Word, that the Lord Himself has said countless things about the good of charity; and that this good is the chief thing of the church; and that faith is not anywhere except in this good. The good of charity is to do what is good from the will of what is good. He would also have seen the errors that have been brought in by the doctrine of faith separate from charity; as, that a man can will evil and believe truth, consequently that truth can agree with evil; also that faith can make the life of heaven with a man whose life is infernal, and consequently that the one life can be transferred into the other; thus that those who are in hell can be raised into heaven, and live among the angels a life contrary to their former life; not considering that to live a life contrary to that with which the man has imbued himself in the world, is to be deprived of life, and that those who attempt this are like men in the death agony, who end their life in dreadful suffering. Such errors, and very many others, are brought in by the doctrine of faith separate from charity.9225.
So shalt thou do with thine ox, and with thy flock. That this signifies [that the ascription to the Lord extends] even to exterior and interior good, is evident from the signification of an "ox," as being exterior good; and from the signification of a "flock," as being interior good (see n. 5913, 8937, 9135).9226.
Seven days it shall be with its mother. That this signifies their first state, when they are in truths, is evident from the signification of "seven days," as being the first state of those who are being regenerated, for "days" denote states (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 5672, 5962, 8426, 9213), and "seven" denotes from the beginning to the end, thus what is full (n. 728, 6508); and from the signification of "mother," as being the church as to truth, thus also the truth of the church (n. 289, 2691, 2717, 3703, 4257, 5581, 8897). From this it follows that by "seven days it shall be with its mother" is signified the first state to the full, that is, an entire state from beginning to end, while they are in truths. How the case herein is will be told in the following article.9227.
On the eighth day thou shalt give it to Me. That this signifies that at the beginning of the following state, when the man lives from good, he is with the Lord, is evident from the signification of "the eighth day," as being the beginning of the following state (see n. 2044, 8400); and from the signification of "giving to Jehovah," as being to the Lord, for by "Jehovah" in the Word is meant the Lord (n. 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5663, 6303, 6945, 6956, 8274, 8864). The reason why these words signify that when a man lives from good he is with the Lord, is that in the internal sense the subject treated of is the two states of the man who is being regenerated; and the first state is when he is being led through the truths of faith to the good of charity; and the second is when he is in this good. And as he is then with the Lord, this is signified by "thou shalt give it to Me." (That there are two states with man when being regenerated; the first when he is being led through the truths of faith to the good of charity, and the second when he is in the good of charity, see n. 7923, 7992, 8505-8506, 8510, 8512, 8516, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701; and that the man is in heaven, thus with the Lord, when he is in the good of charity, n. 8516, 8539, 8722, 8772, 9139.)  A few words more shall be said about these two states with the man who is being regenerated. It has been already shown (n. 9224) that the truths called the truths of faith enter into man by an external way, and that the good which is of charity and love enters by an internal way. The external way is through the hearing into the memory, and from the memory into the understanding; for the understanding is man's internal sight. The truths which must be of faith enter by this way, to the end that they may be brought into the will, and thus be appropriated to the man. The good which flows in from the Lord by the internal way, flows into the will, for the will is the internal of man. The good which is from the Lord meets there at the common boundary the truths which have entered by the external way, and through conjunction with them causes the truths to become good. Insofar as this is effected, so far the order is inverted, that is, so far the man is not led by truths, but by good; and consequently insofar he is led by the Lord.  From this it can be seen how during his regeneration a man is raised from the world into heaven. For all things that enter through the hearing, enter from the world; and those which are stored up in the memory, and appear there before the understanding, appear in the light of the world, which is called natural light. But those things which enter the will, or which become of the will, are in the light of heaven, which light is the truth of good from the Lord. When these things come forth from the will into act, they return into the light of the world; but they then appear in this light under a totally different form; for previously the world was within everything; whereas afterward heaven is so. What has here been said shows also why a man is not in heaven until he does truths from willing them, thus from the affection of charity.9228.
That "seven" signifies an entire period from beginning to end, thus what is full, is evident from many passages in the Word. In Isaiah: The light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day that Jehovah shall bind up the breach of His people (Isa. 30:26); the subject here treated of is the salvation of the faithful, and their intelligence and wisdom in the Lord's kingdom. The "moon" denotes faith from the Lord, thus faith in the Lord; and the "sun," love from the Lord, thus love to the Lord (see n. 30-38, 1521, 1529, 1531, 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643, 4060, 4321, 4696, 5377, 7078, 7083, 7171, 8644); "the light of the sun being sevenfold, as the light of seven days" denotes a full state of intelligence and wisdom from love and faith in the Lord.  In Ezekiel: They that dwell in the cities of Israel shall go forth, and shall set on fire and burn the weapons, both the shield and the buckler, with the bow and with the arrows, and with the handstaff and with the spear; they shall kindle fire with them seven years; so that they shall bring no wood out of the field, neither cut down any out of the forests; and they shall cleanse the land seven months (Ezek. 39:9, 12); the subject here treated of is the destruction of falsity. The "weapons" here enumerated denote the falsities by means of which the evil fight against the truths of the church; "to kindle fire with them seven years" signifies complete destruction through the cupidities of the loves of self and of the world; that "they shall bring no wood out of the field, neither cut down any out of the forests" signifies until nothing of good remains, either in the interior or in the exterior man; "to cleanse the land seven months" signifies the complete restoration of good and truth in the church. It has already been shown in many places that "weapons" denote truths fighting against falsities, and in the opposite sense falsities fighting against truths; that "bows with arrows" denote doctrinal things of truth, and in the opposite sense doctrinal things of falsity; that a "handstaff" denotes the power of truth, and in the opposite sense the power of falsity; that "to set on fire and burn" denotes to lay waste through the cupidities of the loves of self and of the world; that "wood out of the field" denotes the interior goods of the church, and "wood out of the forests" the memory-knowledges of good and truth; and that "the land" denotes the church. Everyone can see that other things are here signified than those which appear in the letter, as that they should burn the weapons and kindle a fire with them seven years, and that they should bring no wood out of the field, neither cut down any out of the forests. Yet we know that holy and Divine things must be signified, because the Word is holy and from the Divine; but what holy and Divine things are contained in these words cannot possibly be known, unless it is known what is signified by "weapons," what by "seven years" and by "seven months," and what by "wood out of the field and wood out of the forests." It is clear therefore that these prophetic words cannot in the least be apprehended without some acquaintance with the internal sense.  In David: Seven times a day do I praise Thee, because of the judgments of Thy righteousness (Ps. 119:164). Render unto our neighbors sevenfold into their bosom (Ps. 79:12). "Sevenfold" denotes to the full. In like manner in Moses, that they should be "punished sevenfold if they transgressed the commandments and the statutes" (Lev. 26:18, 21, 24, 28). He who does not know that "seven" signifies an entire period from beginning to end, consequently what is full, must believe that "seven weeks" signify seven periods of time in the following passage in Daniel: Know thou and perceive that from the going forth of the Word even unto the restoring and building of Jerusalem, even to Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks (Dan. 9:25); but the "seven weeks even to Messiah the Prince," signify that which is said of the Lord, that He will come "in the fullness of the times," thus they signify an entire period. From this it is evident that "the seven spirits before the throne of God" (Rev. 1:4); the "book sealed with seven seals" (Rev. 5:1); and the "seven angels having seven vials which are the seven last plagues" (Rev. 15:1, 6, 7; 21:9), do not mean seven spirits, nor seven seals, nor seven angels, nor seven vials, nor seven plagues; but all things in fullness. So by "the barren one bearing seven" (1 Sam. 2:5) is not meant seven, but much, even to fullness.  Because "seven" had such a signification, it was therefore ordained that a priest, at his initiation, should "put on the garments seven days" (Exod. 29:30); that "his hands should be filled seven days" (verses 24, 35); that "the altar should be sanctified seven days" (verse 37); and that "those who were initiated into the priesthood should not go out from the tent for seven days" (Lev. 8:33). In like manner, "when the unclean spirit goeth out of a man and returneth with seven others" (Matt. 12:43-45; Luke 11:24-26); "if a brother sin seven times in the day, and seven times turn again, he should be forgiven" (Luke 17:4); and that "the heart of Nebuchadnezzar should be changed from a man's, and a beast's heart be given to him, until seven times had passed over him" (Dan. 4:16, 23, 25). From this also it was that Job's friends "sat down with him upon the earth seven days and seven nights, and spoke nothing unto him" (Job 2:13). (That "seventy" in like manner signifies what is full, see n. 6508; and also a "week," that is, seven days, n. 2044, 3845.) From all this it can now be seen that by "the eighth day" is signified the beginning of the following state.9229.
And ye shall be men of holiness to Me. That this signifies the state of life then from good, is evident from the signification of "men of holiness," as being those who are led by the Lord; for the Divine which proceeds from the Lord is holiness itself (see n. 6788, 7499, 8127, 8302, 8806), consequently those who receive it in faith and also in love are called "holy." He who believes that a man is holy from any other source, and that anything else with him is holy than that which is from the Lord and is received, is very much mistaken. For that which is of man and is called his own, is evil. (That man's own is nothing but evil, see n. 210, 215, 694, 874-876, 987, 1047, 4328, 5660, 5786, 8480, 8944; and that insofar as a man can be withheld from his own, so far the Lord can he present, thus that so far the man has holiness, n. 1023, 1044, 1581, 2256, 2388, 2406, 2411, 8206, 8393, 8988, 9014.)  That the Lord alone is holy, and that that alone is holy which proceeds from the Lord, thus that which man receives from the Lord, is plain from the Word throughout; as in John: I sanctify Myself that they also may be sanctified in the truth (John 17:19); "to sanctify Himself" denotes to make Himself Divine by His own power; and those are said to be "sanctified in the truth" who in faith and life receive the Divine truth proceeding from Him.  Therefore also the Lord after His resurrection, speaking with the disciples, "breathed on them" and said unto them, "Receive ye the Holy Spirit" (John 20:22); the breathing upon them was representative of making them alive by faith and love, as also in the second chapter of Genesis: "Jehovah breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives, and man became a living soul" (verse 7); in like manner in other passages (Ps. 33:6; 104:29, 30; Job 32:8; 33:4; John 3:8). From this also the Word is said to be inspired, because it is from the Lord, and they who wrote the Word are said to have been inspired. (That breathing, and thus inspiration, corresponds to the life of faith, see n. 97, 1119, 1120, 3883-3896.) From this it is that in the Word "spirit" is so called from "wind" or "breath," and that what is holy from the Lord is called "the wind or breath of Jehovah" (n. 8286); also that the Holy Spirit is the holy proceeding from the Lord (n. 3704, 4673, 5307, 6788, 6982, 6993, 8127, 8302, 9199).  So also it is said in John that the Lord "baptizeth with the Holy Spirit" (John 1:33); and in Luke that "He baptizeth with the Holy Spirit and with fire" (John 3:16). In the internal sense "to baptize" signifies to regenerate (n. 4255, 5120, 9088); "to baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire" signifies to regenerate by the good of love. (That "fire" denotes the good of love, see n. 934, 4906, 5215, 6314, 6832, 6834, 6849, 7324.) In John: Who shall not fear Thee, O Lord, and glorify Thy name? For Thou only art holy (Rev. 15:4). In Luke it is said by the angel concerning the Lord: "The holy thing that shall be born of thee" (Luke 1:35); and in Daniel, "I saw in the visions of my head upon my bed, and, behold a watcher and a holy one came down from heaven" (Dan. 4:13). In these passages "the holy thing" and "the holy one" denote the Lord.  As the Lord alone is holy, He is called in the Old Testament the "Holy One of Israel," the "Redeemer," the "Preserver," the "Regenerator" (Isa. 1:4; 5:19, 24; 10:20; 12:6; 17:7; 29:19; 30:11, 12, 15; 31:1; 37:23; 41:14, 16, 20; 43:3, 14; 45:11; 47:4; 48:17; 49:7; 54:5; 55:5; 60:9, 14; Jer. 50:29; 51:5; Ezek. 39:7; Ps. 71:22; 88:41; 89:18). And therefore the Lord in heaven, and consequently heaven itself, is called "the habitation of holiness" (Jer. 31:23; Isa. 63:15; Jer. 25:30); also a "sanctuary" (Ezek. 11:16; 24:21); and "the mountain of holiness" (Ps. 48:1). For the same reason the middle of the tent, where was the ark containing the Law, was called the "Holy of Holies (Exod. 26:33-34); for by the Law in the ark in the middle of the tent was represented the Lord as to the Word, because "the Law" denotes the Word (n. 6752, 7463).  All this shows why the angels are called "holy" (Matt. 25:31; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; Ps. 149:1; Dan. 8:13); also the prophets (Luke 1:70); and likewise the apostles (Rev. 18:20); not that they are holy from themselves, but from the Lord, who alone is holy, and from whom alone proceeds what is holy; for by "angels" are signified truths, because they are receptions of truth from the Lord (n. 1925, 4085, 4295, 4402, 7268, 7873, 8192, 8301); by "prophets" is signified the doctrine of truth which comes through the Word from the Lord (n. 2534, 7269); and by "apostles" are signified in their complex all the truths and goods of faith which are from the Lord (n. 3488, 3858, 6397).  The sanctifications among the Israelitish and Jewish people were for the purpose of representing the Lord who alone is holy, and the holiness which is from Him alone. This was the purpose of the sanctification of Aaron and his sons (Exod. 29:1, etc.; Lev. 8:10, 11, 13, 30); of the sanctification of their garments (Exod. 29:21, etc.); of the sanctification of the altar, that it might be a holy of holies (Exod. 29:37, etc.); of the sanctification of the tent of the assembly, of the ark of the testimony, of the table, of all the vessels, of the altar of incense, of the altar of burnt-offering, and of the vessels thereof, and of the laver and the base thereof (Exod. 30:26, etc.).  That the Lord is the holiness itself that was represented, is also plain from His words in Matthew, as viewed in the internal sense: Ye fools and blind! Whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? And whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? (Matt. 23:17, 19); by the temple was represented the Lord Himself, and also by the altar; and by the "gold" was signified the good which is from the Lord; and by the "gift" or sacrifice, were signified the things that belong to faith and charity from the Lord. (That the Lord was represented by the temple, see n. 2777, 3720; also that He was represented by the altar, n. 2777, 2811, 4489, 8935, 8940; and that by "gold" was signified good from the Lord, n. 1551, 1552, 5658; and by a "sacrifice" worship from the faith and charity which are from the Lord, n. 922, 923, 2805, 2807, 2830, 6905, 8680, 8682, 8936.)  In view of all this it is evident why the sons of Israel were called a "holy people" (Deut. 26:19, and elsewhere); and in the words before us "men of holiness;" namely, from the fact that in every detail of their worship were represented the Divine things of the Lord, and the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom and church. They were therefore called "holy" in a representative sense. They themselves were not holy on this account, because the representatives had regard to the holy things that were represented, and not to the person who represented them (n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4292, 4307, 4444, 4500, 6304, 7048, 7439, 8588, 8788, 8806).  Hence also it is that Jerusalem was called "holy;" and Zion, "the mountain of holiness" (Zech. 8:3, and elsewhere). Also in Matthew: And the tombs were opened; and many bodies of the saints that were dead were raised; and coming forth out of their tombs after the Lord's resurrection, they entered into the holy city, and appeared unto many (Matt. 27:52, 53); Jerusalem is here called "the holy city," although it was rather profane than holy, for the Lord had then been crucified in it, and it is therefore called "Sodom and Egypt" in John: Their bodies shall lie on the street of the great city which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified (Rev. 11:8). But it is called "holy" from the fact that it signifies the Lord's kingdom and church (n. 402, 2117, 3654). The "saints that were dead" appearing there, which happened to some in vision, signified the salvation of those who were of the spiritual church, and the elevation into the Holy Jerusalem, which is heaven, of those who until that time had been detained in the lower earth (of which above, n. 6854, 6914, 7090, 7828, 7932, 8049, 8054, 8159, 8321).9230.
And flesh that is torn in the field ye shall not eat. That this signifies that the falsified good of faith shall not be conjoined is evident from the signification of "flesh," as being good (see n. 7850, 9127); from the signification of a "field," as being the church in respect to good, thus the good of the church (n. 2971, 3766, 7502, 7571, 9139, 9141); from the signification of "what is torn," as being that which is destroyed through falsities, thus also what is falsified (n. 5828); and from the signification of "eating," as being to appropriate and conjoin (n. 2187, 3168, 3513, 3596, 4745, 5643, 8001). From this it is evident that by "flesh that is torn in the field ye shall not eat" is signified that the good of the church, or the falsified good of faith, is not to be appropriated or conjoined.  A few words shall be said about what the good of faith is, and what the truth of faith. Everything of the church is called the "good of faith," that has to do with life and use from what the doctrine of faith of the church teaches; in a word everything that has to do with willing it and doing it from obedience; for the truths of faith of the church become goods by willing and doing them. But everything is called the "truth of faith," which as yet has not any use as its end, or which as yet is not for the sake of life, consequently which is merely known and kept in the memory, and from this is laid hold of by the understanding, and is taught from it. For so long as the truths of the church go no further, they are merely knowledges, and relatively to goods are outside the man himself; for man's memory and understanding are like entries, and his will is like an inner chamber, because the will is the man himself. This shows what the truth of faith is, and what the good of faith. But the good which a man does in his first state during his regeneration is called the "good of faith," whereas the good which he does in the second state, namely, after he has been regenerated, is called the "good of charity." And therefore when a man does good from the good of faith, he does good from obedience; but when he does good from the good of charity, he does good from affection. (Concerning these two states with a man who is being regenerated, see n. 7923, 7992, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8512, 8516, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701, 9224, 9227.)9231.
Ye shall cast it to the dog. That this signifies that it is unclean, is evident from the signification of "dogs," as being those who render the good of faith unclean through falsifications. For in the Word all beasts signify affections and inclinations such as are in man, the gentle and useful beasts signify good affections and inclinations, but the fierce and useless ones signify evil affections and inclinations. The reason why such things are signified by beasts is that the external or natural man takes pleasure in affections and inclinations, and also appetites and senses, similar to those of beasts. But the difference is that man has an internal, called the internal man, which is so distinct from the external that it can see the things that exist in it, and can direct and restrain them, and can also be raised into heaven even to the Lord, and thus be conjoined with Him in thought and affection, and consequently in faith and love. This internal is also so distinct from the external that after death it can be separated from it, and can then live to eternity. By these things man is distinguished from the beasts. But those who are merely natural and sensuous men do not see these things, because their internal man is closed toward heaven; and therefore they do not know how to make any distinction between a man and a beast other than that a man is able to speak, which merely sensuous men make but little account of.  The reason why "dogs" signify those who render the good of faith unclean through falsifications, is that dogs eat unclean things, and also bark at men and bite them. From this also it was that the nations outside the church who were in falsities from evil, were called "dogs" by the Jews, and were accounted most vile. That they were called "dogs" is manifest from the Lord's words to the Greek woman, the Syrophenician, whose daughter was grievously troubled with a demon: It is not good to take the children's bread, and cast it to the dogs. But she said, Certainly, Lord; but even the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their master's table (Matt. 15:26, 27; Mark 7:27, 28); that "dogs" here signify those who were outside the church, and "children" those who were within the church, is plain.  In like manner in Luke: There was a certain rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen, and lived in good cheer and splendor every day. But there was a poor man named Lazarus, who was cast at his door, full of sores, and desiring to be filled with the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table; yet even the dogs came, and licked his sores (Luke 16:19-21); by "the rich man clothed in purple and fine linen," is signified those who are within the church; "the purple and fine linen" with which he was clothed denoting the knowledges of good and truth from the Word; by "the poor man" is signified those within the church who are in but little good by reason of their ignorance of truth, and yet long to be instructed (n. 9209); that he was called "Lazarus" was from the Lazarus who was raised by the Lord, of whom it is said that the Lord "loved him" (John 11:1-3, 5, 36), that he was the Lord's "friend" (John 11:11), and that he "reclined at table with the Lord" (John 12:2); his "desiring to be filled with the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table" signified his longing to learn a few truths from those within the church who had abundance of them; "the dogs which licked his sores" denote those outside the church who are in good, although not in the genuine good of faith; "licking sores" denotes healing them by such means as are within their power.  In John: Without are dogs, sorcerers, and whoremongers (Rev. 22:15); "dogs, sorcerers, and whoremongers" denote those who falsify the good and truth of faith, and who are said to be "without," because they are outside heaven, or the church. That good falsified, and thus made unclean, is signified by "dogs," is also evident in Matthew: Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast your pearls before swine (Matt. 7:6). In Moses: Thou shalt not bring the hire of a harlot, or the price of a dog, into the house of Jehovah, for any vow; for both these are an abomination unto thy God (Deut. 23:18); "the hire of a harlot" denotes falsified truths of faith (that "whoredom" denotes the falsification of the truth of faith, see n. 2466, 2729, 4865, 8904).  In David: Dogs have compassed me; the assemblages of evildoers have surrounded me, piercing my hands and my feet. Deliver my soul from the sword; and mine only one from the hand of the dog (Ps. 22:16, 20); "dogs" here denote those who destroy the goods of faith, and who are therefore called "the assemblages of evil-doers;" "to deliver the soul from the sword" denotes from the falsity that lays waste the truth of faith (that a "sword" denotes falsity laying waste the truth of faith, see n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294; and "the soul," the life of faith, n. 9050). From this also it is evident that "delivering the only one from the hand of the dog" denotes to deliver from the falsity that lays waste the good of faith. That some were to be carried off and "eaten by dogs" (1 Kings 14:11; 16:4; 21:23, 24; 2 Kings 9:10, 36; Jer. 15:3) signified that they would perish by unclean things. That some compared themselves to "dead dogs" (1 Sam. 24:14; 2 Sam. 3:8; 9:8; 16:9) signified that they were to be accounted as utterly worthless, and as such were to be cast out. What is further signified by "dogs" may be seen above (n. 7784).9232.
ON THE SPIRITS OF THE MOON Certain spirits appeared overhead, and voices were heard thence like thunders; for their voices made a loud thundering noise just like thundering from the clouds after flashes of lightning. I supposed that it was a vast multitude of spirits who had learned to utter their voice with such a sound. The more simple spirits who were with me laughed at them, at which I was much surprised. The reason why they laughed at them was soon disclosed, and it was that the spirits who thundered were not many, but few; and also were little men, like children; and moreover, had previously excited terror by such sounds, and yet could not do any harm.9233.
That I might know their character, some were sent down from on high where they were thundering, and strange to say, one carried another on his back, and two of them approached me in this attitude. In their faces they appeared not unbeautiful, but their faces were longer than those of other spirits. In stature they were like boys of seven years of age, but they had stouter bodies. Thus they were dwarfs. I was told by the angels that they were from the Moon.9234.
The one who was borne by the other, upon being set down, came to me, applying himself to my left side below my elbow. From that position he spoke, saying that when they utter their voice, they thunder in this manner, and thereby terrify those spirits who wish to do them harm; and some they put to flight; thus being able to go in safety wherever they wish. That I might know of a certainty that they made such a sound, he went away from me to some others, but not quite out of sight, and thundered in the same way. And they further showed to me how their voice, sent forth from the abdomen like a belching forth, made this loud thundering noise.9235.
It was perceived that this arose from the fact that the inhabitants of the Moon do not speak from the lungs, like the inhabitants of other earths, but from the abdomen, thus from some air that has collected there; for the reason that the Moon is not encompassed with an atmosphere like that of other earths.9236.
I have been instructed that the inhabitants of the Moon bear relation in the Grand Man to the ensiform or xiphoid cartilage, to which the ribs are joined in front, and from which descends the fascia alba, which is the point of attachment for the muscles of the abdomen.9237.
That there are inhabitants in the Moon also, is known to spirits and angels, for they often speak with them; and in like manner that there are inhabitants in the moons or satellites which revolve about the planet Jupiter and the planet Saturn. Those who have not seen and spoken with them nevertheless have no doubt that there are men in them, for they too are earths; and where there is an earth, there is man; for man is the end for the sake of which every earth was created; and nothing has been made by the Supreme Creator without a purpose. That the end of creation is the human race, that there may be a heaven from it, can be seen by everyone one who thinks from reason. The angels also say that an earth cannot subsist apart from the human race, because the Divine provides all things on an earth for the sake of man.9238.
At the end of the following chapter it shall be told why the Lord willed to be born on our earth, and not on another.9239.
CHAPTER THE TWENTY-THIRD THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY AND FAITH Men speak of believing in God, and of believing those things which are from God. Believing in God is the Faith that saves; but believing the things which are from God, is a Faith which without the former does not save. For believing in God is knowing and doing; whereas believing the things which are from God is knowing and not as yet doing. Those who are truly Christians both know and do, thus they believe in God; but those who are not truly Christians know, and do not. These are called by the Lord "foolish," but the former are called "prudent" (Matt. 7:24, 26).9240.
The learned within the church call the Faith which saves, "trust" and "confidence," namely, that God the Father sent His Son in order to reconcile mankind to Himself, and thus to save those who have this Faith.9241.
But in regard to the trust and confidence which is called Faith itself, the case is this. Those who are in the love of self and of the world, that is, those who are in evils and the consequent falsities, cannot have this Faith, for their heart is not toward God, but toward themselves and the world. Whereas those who are in charity toward the neighbor and in love to the Lord can have such Faith, for their heart is toward the Lord. This the Lord also teaches in John: As many as received Him, to them gave He the power to be the sons of God, even to those who believe in His name; who were born, not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God (John 1:12-13); those who are "born of bloods, of the will of the flesh, and of the will of man," are those who are in what is evil and false from the loves of self and of the world. And those who are "born of God" are those who are in the good of charity and of faith from the Lord (see n. 5826).9242.
The confidence which in an eminent sense is called Faith, appears like spiritual confidence even with the evil, when their life is in danger, and when they are sick. But as they then think about the state of their life after death, either from the fear of hell, or from the love of self of heaven, they have not the confidence of Faith; for what is from fear is not from the heart, and what is from the love of self is from an evil heart; and therefore when such persons come back out of mortal danger, or when they recover from disease, they return into their former life, which was a life of no confidence, that is, a life of no Faith. From this it is evident that the Faith which is called "confidence," is possible only with those who are in charity toward the neighbor, and in love to the Lord.9243.
Nor is the Faith which is meant by believing the things which are from God, that is, the truths which are from the Word, possible with those who are in evils from the love of self or the love of the world; for the love of self and of the world either rejects the truths of faith, or extinguishes, or perverts them (see n. 7491, 7492). From this it is again evident that neither can such persons have the confidence of Faith; for he who does not believe the truths which are from God, cannot believe in God; because to believe in God is to believe from the truths which are from God.9244.
All who are in heavenly love, have confidence that they will be saved by the Lord; for they believe that the Lord came into the world in order to give eternal life to those who believe and live according to the commandments which He taught; and that He regenerates these, and so makes them fit for heaven; and that He does this Himself alone, from pure mercy, without the aid of man. This is meant by "believing in the Lord."9245.
That those alone are in Faith who live according to the precepts of Faith, the Lord teaches in John: The light is come into the world, but men loved the darkness rather than the light, because their works were evil. Everyone that doeth evils hateth the light, and cometh not to the light, lest his works should be reproved. But he that doeth the truth cometh to the light, that his works may be made manifest, because they have been wrought in God (John 3:19-21); to "come to the light" denotes to come to faith in the Lord, thus to faith from the Lord. In like manner in Luke: Why call ye Me, Lord, Lord, and do not the thing which I say? Everyone that cometh unto Me, and heareth My saying, and doeth them, is like a man that built a house, and laid a foundation upon the rock. But he that heareth, and doeth not, is like a man that built a house upon the earth without a foundation (Luke 6:46-49); those who "do the Lord's sayings" or "words" are those who love the neighbor and love the Lord; for he who loves, does (John 14:20, 21, 23, 24; 15:9-17). EXODUS 23 1. Thou shalt not take up a report of emptiness. Put not thy hand with the wicked to be a witness of violence. 2. Thou shalt not be after many to do evils; and thou shalt not answer upon a cause to turn aside after many to pervert it. 3. And thou shalt not reverence a poor man in his cause. 4. When thou shalt meet thine enemy's ox, or his ass, going astray, bringing back thou shalt bring it back to him. 5. When thou shalt see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to remove it for him, removing thou shalt remove it with him. 6. Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy needy in his cause. 7. Keep thee far from the word of a lie; and the innocent and the righteous slay thou not; for I will not justify the wicked. 8. And thou shalt not take a present, because a present blindeth those who have their eyes open, and perverteth the words of the righteous. 9. And a sojourner shalt thou not oppress; for ye know the soul of a sojourner, seeing that ye were sojourners in the land of Egypt. 10. And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather the produce thereof. 11. And in the seventh thou shalt let it lie fallow, and shalt release it; and the needy of thy people shall eat; and what they leave the wild animal of the field shall eat. So shalt thou do to thy vineyard, and to thine oliveyard. 12. Six days thou shalt do thy works, and on the seventh day thou shalt cease; that thine ox and thine ass may rest; and the son of thy handmaid, and the sojourner, may take breath. 13. And all that I have said unto you ye shall keep; and ye shall not mention the name of other gods; it shall not be heard upon thy mouth. 14. Three times thou shalt keep a feast unto Me in the year. 15. The feast of unleavened things shalt thou keep; seven days thou shalt eat unleavened things, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed of the month Abib; because in it thou camest forth out of Egypt; and My faces shall not be seen empty. 16. And the feast of the harvest, of the firstfruits of thy works, which thou sowedst in the field; and the feast of ingathering, in the going out of the year, when thou gatherest in thy works out of the field. 17. Three times in the year shall every male of thine appear before the faces of the Lord Jehovih. 18. Thou shalt not sacrifice the blood of My sacrifice upon what is fermented; and the fat of My feast shall not remain overnight until the morning. 19. The first of the firstfruits of thy ground thou shalt bring into the house of Jehovah thy God. Thou shalt not boil a kid in its mother's milk. 20. Behold I send an angel before thee, to guard thee in the way, and to bring thee to the place which I have prepared. 21. Take heed of his face, and hear his voice, lest thou provoke him; for he will not endure your transgression; because My name is in the midst of him. 22. For if hearing thou shalt hear his voice, and do all that I speak, I will act as an enemy against thine enemies, and I will act as an adversary against thine adversaries. 23. When Mine angel shall go before thee, and shall bring thee unto the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Canaanite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite; and I shall cut him off. 24. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to their gods, and shalt not serve them, and shalt not do after their works; for destroying thou shalt destroy them, and breaking shalt break in pieces their statues. 25. And ye shall serve Jehovah your God, and He shall bless thy bread, and thy waters; and I will take away disease from the midst of thee. 26. There shall not be one miscarrying, or barren, in thy land; the number of thy days I will fulfil. 27. I will send My terror before thee, and I will trouble all the people to whom thou shalt come, and I will give to thee the neck of all thine enemies. 28. And I will send the hornet before thee, and it shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee. 29. I will not drive him out from before thee in one year; lest perchance the land be desolate, and the wild beast of the field be multiplied upon thee. 30. By little and little I will drive him out from before thee, until thou be fruitful, and inherit the land. 31. And I will set thy border from the sea Suph, and even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness even unto the river; for I will give into your hand the inhabitants of the land; and I will drive them out from before thee. 32. Thou shalt not make a covenant with them, and with their gods. 33. They shall not dwell in thy land, lest perchance they make thee sin against Me when thou shalt serve their gods; because it will be a snare to thee.9246.
THE CONTENTS. In this chapter the subject treated of in the internal sense is the shunning of the falsities of doctrine and of the evils of life; and that when this is done, truths of doctrine and goods of life are implanted, and through these the man of the church is regenerated by the Lord.9247.
THE INTERNAL SENSE. Verses 1-3. Thou shalt not take up a report of emptiness. 9247-1 Put not thy hand with the wicked to be a witness of violence. Thou shalt not be after many to do evils; and thou shalt not answer upon a cause to turn aside after many to pervert it; and thou shalt not reverence a poor man in his cause. "Thou shalt not take up a report of emptiness," signifies no listening to falsities; "put not thy hand with the wicked," signifies no obedience to malignities; "to be a witness of violence," signifies no affirmation of such things as are contrary to the good of charity; "thou shalt not be after many to do evils," signifies no association with such things; "and thou shalt not answer upon a cause to turn aside after many to pervert it," signifies no association with those who turn goods and truths into evils and falsities, and conversely; "and thou shalt not reverence a poor man in his cause," signifies that no favor is to be shown to the falsities in which are those who are in ignorance of truth.9248.
Thou shalt not take up a report of emptiness. That this signifies no listening to falsities, is evident from the signification of "taking up a report," as being to hear and do, thus to listen, for in the original tongue "a report" is expressed by a term which means "hearing;" and from the signification of "emptiness," as being falsity, and indeed the falsity of doctrine and of religion, as can be seen from the following passages. In Ezekiel: There shall be no more any vision of emptiness and flattering divination, in the midst of the house of Israel (Ezek. 12:24); "vision of emptiness" denotes false revelation. In the same: They have seen emptiness and the divination of a lie. Because ye speak emptiness, and see a lie, therefore behold I am against you, that Mine hand may be against the prophets that see emptiness, and that divine a lie (Ezek. 13:6-9); "the prophets," of whom it is here said that they "see emptiness and divine a lie," signify those who teach, and in the abstract sense the teaching or doctrine (n. 2534, 7269); and "seeing" is predicated of "the prophets," who therefore were in ancient times called "seers" (1 Sam. 9:9); and "divining" also is predicated of them.  By "seeing," or by "vision," when predicated of the prophets, is signified in the internal sense the revelation which has regard to doctrine; and by "divining," or by "divination," is signified the revelation which has regard to life; and as "emptiness" signifies the falsity of doctrine, and "a lie" the falsity of life, it is said, "they have seen emptiness and the divination of a lie." Again: In seeing thou hast emptiness, in divining thou hast a lie (Ezek. 21:29). The teraphim speak iniquity, and the diviners see a lie, and they speak dreams of emptiness (Zech. 10:2). The prophets have seen vanity (Lam. 2:14). That "emptiness" denotes the falsity of doctrine and of religion, is also plain in these passages: They are become emptiness; in Gilgal they sacrifice bullocks (Hos. 12:11). My people have forgotten Me, they have burned incense to emptiness (Jer. 18:15). In like manner in Isa. 5:18; 30:28; 59:4; Ps. 12:2; 119:37; 144:8, 11.9249.
Put not thy hand with the wicked. That this signifies no obedience to malignities, is evident from the signification of "putting the hand," as being obedience, for by "the hand" is signified power (see n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 6292, 7188, 7189, 7518, 7673, 8153, 8281), and also what belongs to anyone, thus oneself insofar as one has the power, (n. 9133), consequently "to put the hand with" anyone denotes to make common cause with him, and when this is done from malignity, which is signified by "the wicked," it denotes to obey, because the malignity persuades and leads; and from the signification of "the wicked," as being one who is malignant, and in the abstract sense, malignity. It is said "in the abstract sense," because the angels, who are in the internal sense of the Word, that is, who perceive the Word spiritually, think and speak abstractedly from person (n. 4380, 8343, 8985, 9007). (That the idea of person with them is turned into the idea of the thing, see n. 5225, 5287, 5434.)9250.
To be a witness of violence. That this signifies no affirmation of such things as are contrary to the good of charity, is evident from the signification of "a witness," as being confirmation (see n. 4197, 8908); and from the signification of "violence," as being the destruction of the good of charity (n. 6353); thus "a witness of violence" denotes affirmation contrary to the good of charity.
9247-1 That is, an empty or false report. [Reviser.]