Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
He shall do to her according to the judgment of daughters. That this signifies that it shall be as is the genuine affection of truth, is evident from the signification of "according to the judgment," as being with the same right; for by the "judgment" is signified external truth or right such as is in the civil state in which is the representative church (n. 8972); and from the signification of "daughter," as being the affection of truth (n. 2362, 3024, 3963), here the genuine affection of truth, because by "the maidservant" is signified the affection of truth from natural delight (n. 8993), thus not genuine until she has been betrothed either to her master, or to his son. But when she has been betrothed, that is, when this affection has been conjoined with the spiritual truth which is signified by "master," and by "son," then it becomes as it were genuine, for then the natural has been subordinated to spiritual truth, and when it has been subordinated it is no longer in its own right, but in that of the spiritual truth under which it has been subordinated; consequently the natural becomes as the spiritual, because it acts as a one with it. And then also the life of spiritual truth is transferred into the natural, and vivifies it. But betrothal, or conjunction, with a maidservant, differs from conjunction with a daughter in the fact that the latter conjunction is effected in the interior man, but the former in the external man.9002.
If he shall take him another. That this signifies conjunction with the affection of truth from another stock, is evident from the signification of "taking" or "betrothing" another, as being to be conjoined (see n. 8996); for in the spiritual sense, matrimony, which is here meant by "betrothing," denotes the conjunction of the life of the one with that of the other. According to Divine order there is a conjunction of the life from the truths of faith with the life from the good of charity. From this comes all spiritual conjunction, from which as from its origin comes forth natural conjunction. By "taking another" is signified conjunction with the affection of truth from another stock, for the "maidservant" before spoken of denotes the affection of truth from natural delight (n. 8993); consequently "another" denotes the affection of truth from another stock.  What is meant by "affection from another stock" may be known from the fact that all affection which is of love is of the widest extension, so wide indeed as to surpass all human understanding. The human understanding does not even go so far as to know the genera of the varieties of this affection, still less the species of these genera, and less still the particulars, and singulars of the particulars. For whatsoever is in man, especially that which is of affection or love, is of infinite variety, as can plainly be seen from the fact that the affection of good and truth, which is of love to the Lord and of love toward the neighbor, constitutes the universal heaven, and that nevertheless all who are in the heavens, where there are myriads, differ from one another as to good, and will differ even if they should be multiplied to countless myriads of myriads. For there cannot be in the universe one thing that is exactly like another, and that subsists in a distinct way; it must be various, that is, different from all others, in order that it may be anything by itself (see n. 684, 690, 3241, 3744, 3745, 3986, 4005, 4149, 5598, 7236, 7833, 7836, 8003). From all this it can in some measure be known what is meant by "an affection from another stock," namely, an affection which differs from the other, but which can nevertheless be conjoined with the same spiritual truth. Such affections as are represented by maidservants betrothed to other man, are of one genus; but there is a difference among them as to species, which is called a "specific" difference. These things might be illustrated by various examples; but the general idea derived from what has been already said will suffice.  In order that there might be represented the conjunctions and subordinations of such affections under one spiritual truth, it was permitted the Israelitish and Jewish nation to have a number of concubines-as to Abraham (Gen. 25:6), also to David, Solomon, and others. For whatever was permitted that nation was for the sake of the representation; namely, that by things external they might represent the internal things of the church (n. 3246). But when the internal things of the church had been opened by the Lord, the representations of internal things by external ceased, because it was then internal things, which are those of faith and love, with which the man of the church was to be imbued, and by means of which he was to worship the Lord; and therefore it was then no longer permissible to have more wives than one, nor to have concubines for wives (n. 865, 2727-2759, 3246, 4837).9003.
Her food, her raiment, and her conjugial due, he shall not diminish. That this signifies no deprivation of the interior life which is "food," nor of the exterior life which is "clothing," thus no deprivation of conjunction which is the "conjugial due," is evident from the signification of "food," as being the sustenance of the interior life, for in the spiritual sense "food," or meat and drink, denote the knowledges of good and truth, "meat," the knowledges of good (n. 5147), and "drink," the knowledges of truth (n. 3168, 3772); and therefore "food" denotes the things which nourish the spiritual life of man (n. 5293, 5576, 5579, 5915, 8562); from the signification of "covering," or "clothing," as being the sustenance of the exterior life, for in the spiritual sense "covering," or "clothing," denotes lower memory-knowledges, because these are what sustain the external life of man (n. 5248, 6918); from the signification of the "conjugial due," as being conjunction; and from the signification of "not to diminish," as being not to deprive of.  The case herein is that natural affection conjoined with spiritual truth, which is signified by "a maidservant betrothed to a son," requires continual sustenance of life from the spiritual truth with which it has been conjoined; for affection without sustenance therefrom perishes. It is with the affection of man as it is with man himself-unless it is sustained with food it dies. Moreover in respect to his interiors man is nothing but affection; a good man the affection of good and the truth thence derived; but an evil man the affection of evil and the falsity thence derived. This is especially evident from a man when he becomes a spirit, for the sphere of life which then flows forth from him is a sphere either of the affection of good, or of the affection of evil. His nourishment or sustenance then is not from natural food and drink, but from spiritual food and drink, which are falsity from evil to an evil spirit, and truth from good to a good spirit. The nourishments of human minds during their life in the body in the world, are no other, and from this it is that all things which relate to food, such as bread, flesh, wine, water, and many other things, in the spiritual sense in the Word signify such things as belong to spiritual nourishment.  From this it is also plain what is meant by these words of the Lord: Man doth not live by bread alone, but by every word that goeth forth out of the mouth of God (Matt. 4:4). Ye shall eat and drink upon My table in My kingdom (Luke 22:30). I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this product of the vine, until that day when I shall drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom (Matt. 26:29); saying these words after He had instituted the Holy Supper, in which "the bread and the wine" denote those things which are of love and faith; in like manner also "the flesh and the blood." From this it may be clearly known what is meant by "the flesh and blood" of the Lord in John 6:49-58; and also by these words in the same chapter: My flesh is food indeed, and My blood is drink indeed (John 6:55). (That "flesh" in the Word denotes the good of love, see n. 3813, 7850; also that "blood" denotes the good of faith, n. 4735, 6978, 7317, 7326, 7846, 7850, 7877; in like manner "bread and wine," n. 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, 4976, 5915, 6118, 6377.)9004.
If he shall not do these three to her. That this signifies the deprivation of these things, is evident without explication.9005.
Then she shall go out free with no silver. That this signifies alienation therefrom without truth conjoined with it, is evident from the signification of "going out," here from service and from coupling, as being abandonment by her master-husband [dominus vir], thus alienation; and from the signification of "free with no silver," as being without truth conjoined therewith (that "silver" denotes truth, see n. 1551, 2954, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917, 8932). How the case herein is, is evident from what was shown just above (n. 9003), namely, that natural affection conjoined with spiritual truth, which is signified by "a maidservant betrothed to a son," cannot possibly subsist without sustenance from spiritual truth; and therefore if it is not sustained, the conjunction is dissolved, consequently there is alienation. The reason why this takes place without this truth being conjoined with it, is that it is then associated with another truth, which cannot be effected with the life derived from truth from another source. Such is the signification of the above words, because such is the case with consociations in the spiritual world.9006.
Verses 12-15. He that smiteth a man, and he die, dying he shall die. And he that hath not lain in wait, and God caused it to happen to his hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee. And when a man shall act of set purpose against his companion, to kill him with deceit; thou shalt take him from Mine altar, that he may die. And he that smiteth his father and his mother, dying he shall die. "He that smiteth a man, and he die," signifies the injuring of the truth of faith and the consequent loss of spiritual life; "dying he shall die," signifies damnation; "and he that hath not lain in wait," signifies when it was not of foresight from the will; "but God caused it to happen to his hand," signifies appearing as of chance; "then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee," signifies a state of blamelessness, and thus exempt from punishment; "and when a man shall act of set purpose against his companion," signifies premeditation from a depraved will; "to kill him with deceit," signifies the consequent malice and ardor of depriving the neighbor of eternal life; "thou shalt take him from Mine altar, that he may die," signifies damnation even although he flees to the worship of the Lord, and supplicates for forgiveness, and promises repentance; "and he that smiteth his father and his mother," signifies the blaspheming of the Lord and of His kingdom; "dying he shall die," signifies damnation.9007.
He that smiteth a man, and he die. That this signifies the injuring of the truth of faith and the consequent loss of spiritual life, is evident from the signification of "smiting," as being to injure by falsity (see n. 7136, 7146); from the signification of "a man" [vir] as being the truth of faith (of which below); and from the signification of "dying," as being the loss of spiritual life (n. 5407, 6119, 7494); for in the internal sense no other life is meant, but in the external sense natural life is meant. The reason why spiritual life perishes by the injuring of the truth of faith, is that good united to truth constitutes that life; and therefore when truth is stolen away, good, and thus spiritual life, falls to the ground. That "a man" denotes the truth of faith, is because in heaven no attention is paid to person, or to anything of person; but to things abstracted from person (n. 4380, 8343, 8985); consequently where "a man" is mentioned in the Word, they do not perceive a man, because a man is a person; but instead they perceive that faculty of his by virtue of which he is a man, namely, the intellectual faculty; and when they perceive this faculty, they perceive the truth of faith, because the truth of faith belongs to it, and not only enlightens it, but also forms it. And as by "a man" [vir] there is perceived in heaven the intellectual of man, so by "a man" [homo] there is perceived his will; because man is man [homo] from the will; but is man [vir] from the understanding. And as the will is the man himself, therefore the good of love is the man, for this belongs to the will, and perfects, and makes it. (That "man" [vir] denotes the intellectual, and therefore the truth of faith, see n. 158, 265, 749, 1007, 2517, 3134, 3309, 3459, 4823, 7716; and that "man" [homo] denotes the good of love, n. 768, 4287, 7523, 8547, 8988.)9008.
Dying he shall die. That this signifies damnation, is evident from the signification of "dying to die," as being damnation (see n. 5407, 6119, 7494). That "death" denotes damnation, is because with those who are damned the truths of faith and the goods of love have been extinguished, for these are what constitute the veriest life of man, because they are from the Lord who is the only source of life. When these have been extinguished, falsities and evils succeed in their place, which being opposite to the truths and goods that are of life, are therefore of death, but of spiritual death, which is damnation, hell, eternal unhappiness. That nevertheless those are alive who are in evils and falsities, or who are in hell, is because they have been born men, and therefore into the capacity of receiving life from the Lord; and also do receive so much of life from the Lord as to be able to think, reason, and speak, and thereby to cause the evil in themselves to appear as good, and the falsity as truth; and thus to live as semblances of life.9009.
And he that hath not lain in wait. That this signifies when it was not of foresight from the will, is evident from the signification of "lying in wait," as being to act with deliberation, thus with foresight, for the evil which one who lies in wait is about to do he foresees in his mind; and because he does such evil with foresight, he therefore does it also from the will, for it proceeds therefrom. There are evils which proceed from the will of man, but are not of foresight; and there are evils which proceed from the will, and are of foresight. Those which proceed from the will, and from foresight, are much worse than those which are not from foresight; because the man sees that they are evils, and can therefore desist from them, but is not willing, and he thereby confirms them in himself, and evils confirmed put on nature, so that afterward they can scarcely be extirpated; for in such case he summons spirits from hell who afterward do not easily retire.  Evils which proceed from one part of the mind and not at the same time from the other, such as those which come from the intellectual part, and not at the same time from the will part, are not rooted in and appropriated to the man. That alone is rooted in and appropriated to him which passes from the intellectual part into the will part; or what is the same, which passes from the thought which is of the understanding into the affection which is of the will, and thence into act. Those things which enter into the will are those which are said to enter into the heart.  But evils which proceed solely from the will, thus not with premeditation, are such as the man inclines to hereditarily, or from some previous consequent actual doing of evil. These are not imputed to the man unless he has confirmed them in his intellectual part (see n. 966, 2308, 8806); but when they have been confirmed in this part, they have then been inscribed on the man, and become his own, and are imputed to him. But these evils cannot be confirmed with a man in his intellectual part except in his adult age, namely, when he begins to think, and understand things, for himself; for before this he had no faith from himself, but only from his teachers and parents. From all this it is evident what is signified by, "if he has not lain in wait," namely, when it was not of foresight from the will.9010.
But God caused it to happen to his hand. That this signifies appearing as of chance, is evident from the idea concerning chance among the ancients, which was that it happened from God; and therefore they expressed the idea of chance by the phrase, "God caused it to happen to the hand." For they who were of the ancient churches knew that the Providence of the Lord is in each and all things, and that things which happen, that is, which appear as of chance, were of Providence. Wherefore the simple, who could not distinguish between the things which were of permission, and those which were of good pleasure, attributed to the Lord both good and evil; good because they knew that all good is from Him; and evil by reason of the appearance. For when a man does evils, and thereby turns himself away from the Lord, it appears as if the Lord turns Himself away; for the Lord then appears to him behind, and not in front. From this then it is that if anyone smote another by chance, thus without will from foresight, it was expressed by the words, "God caused it to happen to the hand." (That the Providence of the Lord is in each and all things, has been already shown, see n. 1919, 4329, 5122, 5155, 5195, 5894, 6058, 6481-6487, 6489, 6491, 7004, 7007, 8478, 8717; also that things which happen, or are of chance, are of Providence, n. 5508, 6493, 6494; and that evil is attributed to the Lord, when yet it is from man, n. 2447, 5798, 6071, 6832, 6991, 6997, 7533, 7877, 7926, 8197, 8227, 8228, 8282, 8284, 8483, 8632.)9011.
Then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee. That this signifies a state of blamelessness, and that is exempt from punishment, is evident from the signification of "place," as being state (see n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 3404, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381); and from the signification of "an asylum," or place whither he should flee who unexpectedly, or by chance, had killed anyone, as being a state of blamelessness, and thus exempt from punishment; for they who had smitten anyone by chance, that is, without intent, thus not with premeditation, nor from an evil affection which is of the will, were not in any fault of their own; and therefore when such came to a place of asylum they were exempt from punishment. By these persons were represented those who not of set purpose injure anyone in respect to the truths and goods of faith, and consequently extinguish his spiritual life; for such are in a blameless state and one exempt from punishment; as for instance are those who have complete faith in their religiosity, which is also in what is false, and who from this reason against the truth and good of faith, and thus persuade, as heretics will sometimes do who are conscientious, and consequently are zealots.  That such persons were represented by those who were to flee to asylums is evident in Moses: Ye shall select suitable cities, which shall be cities of refuge for you; that the manslayer may flee thither that smiteth a soul through error; as if he hath struck him unexpectedly, without enmity, or hath cast upon him any instrument without set purpose, or with any stone wherewith he may die, seeing him not, so that he make it fall upon him, and he die, when yet he was not his enemy, neither sought his evil (Num. 35:11, 22, 23). This is the word of the manslayer, who shall flee thither that he may live; when he hath smitten his companion unawares, when he was not his hater yesterday and the day before, when he come into the forest with his companion to hew wood, but when his hand hath struck with the axe, to cut the wood, and the iron hath been shaken off from the wood, and hath found his companion that he die; he shall flee unto one of these cities, that he may live (Deut. 19:4-5).  Here is described the state of one who is blameless and exempt from punishment, and who has injured someone by the falsities of faith which he had believed to be truths, or by means of memory-knowledges derived from the fallacies of the senses, and thus has done injury to the internal or spiritual life of the other. In order that this might be signified, such error or chance is described by an instrument of some kind, and by a stone which he cast upon his companion, so that he died, and likewise by an axe, or the iron thereof, falling from its wood while they were both hewing wood in the forest. The reason why this is described by such things, is that "an instrument" signifies memory-knowledge; "a stone" the truth of faith, and in the opposite sense falsity; in like manner "the iron of an axe;" and "to hew wood" signifies disputation concerning good from one's religiosity.  Everyone can see that homicide committed through error would not have been described without a secret reason by the iron of an axe falling from its wood in a forest, because such a mischance can rarely happen, in fact scarcely once in the course of many years. But such a mischance is so described on account of the internal sense, in which is described the injury to a soul by another through the falsities of faith which from his religiosity he had believed to be truths; for he who does an injury by means of falsities which he believes to be truths, does it not of set purpose, or from a better conscience, because he does it from the faith and consequent zeal of his religiosity. That these things might be signified in the internal sense, they are described, as before said, by those who kill their companions by mistake, with a stone, by hewing wood in a forest and the iron of the axe then falling from the wood upon a companion; for "a stone" denotes the truth of faith in the natural man, and in the opposite sense falsity (see n. 643, 1298, 3720, 6426, 8609, 8941), in like manner "iron" (n. 425, 426); "the iron of an axe falling from its wood" denotes truth separated from good, for "wood" denotes good (n. 643, 2812, 3720, 8354), "hewing wood," the placing of merit in works (n. 1110, 4943, 8740); but "hewing wood in a forest" denotes discussing these and the like things, and also bringing them into question; for "a forest" denotes a religiosity.  Such things are signified by "hewing wood in a forest with axes" in Jeremiah: The hirelings of Egypt will go in strength, and will come against her with axes, as hewers of wood, they shall cut down her forest, said Jehovah (Jer. 66:22, 23). Here "to cut down wood in a forest" denotes to act from a false, religiosity, and to destroy such things as are of the church; for the church is called a "forest," a "garden," and a "paradise;" a "forest" from knowledge, a "garden" from intelligence, and a "paradise" from wisdom (n. 3220), because "trees" denote the perceptions of good and of truth, and also the knowledges thereof (n. 103, 2163, 2722, 2972, 4552, 7690, 7692); and as a "forest" denotes the church as to knowledge, thus as to external things, it also denotes a religiosity.  The church as to knowledge, or as to external things, is signified by a "forest" in David: The field shall exalt, and all that is therein; then shall all the trees of the forest sing (Ps. 96:12). Lo we heard of Him in Ephratah, we found Him in the fields of the forest (Ps. 132:6); speaking of the Lord. In Isaiah: The light of Israel shall be for a fire, and his Holy One for flame. And it shall burn the glory of his forest, and his Carmel; it shall consume from the soul even to the flesh; whence the rest of the trees of his forest shall be a number that a child may describe them. He shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and Lebanon shall fall by a magnificent one (Isa. 10:17-19, 34). "The forest" denotes the church as to the knowledges of truth; "Carmel," the church as to the knowledges of good; in like manner "Lebanon" and "Hermon;" the "trees of the forest" denote knowledges, as above; to be "a number that a child may describe" means few; "the thickets of the forest" denote memory-knowledges (n. 2831).  In the same: Thou hast said, By the multitude of my chariots I will go up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon, and I will cut down the tall cedars thereof, the choice of the fir-trees thereof; then will I come unto the height of his border, the forest of his Carmel (Isa. 37:24). I will visit upon you according to the fruit of your works, and I will kindle a fire in her forest (Jer. 21:14). Prophesy against the forest of the field unto the south; and say to the forest of the south, Behold I will kindle a fire in thee, and it shall devour every tree (Ezek. 20:46, 47). Feed Thy people with Thy rod, the flock of Thine heritage who dwell alone in the forest in the midst of Carmel (Mic. 7:14). Who does not see that in these passages by "a forest" is not meant a forest, and that by "Lebanon" and "Carmel" which are "forests" are not meant Lebanon and Carmel, but something of the church? yet what of the church is meant has been hitherto hidden, because the internal sense lies hidden. And it is wonderful that in so learned a world as is Europe above all the rest, where they have the Word, in every particular of which there is an internal sense, the very knowledge of this sense is wanting; when yet this knowledge existed among the ancients in Chaldea, in Assyria, in Egypt, in Arabia, and thence in Greece, in whose books, emblems, and hieroglyphics such things are still to be met with. But the reason why such knowledge has perished, is that there is no faith that the spiritual is anything.9012.
And when a man shall act of set purpose against his companion. That this signifies premeditation from a depraved will, is evident from the signification of "to act of set purpose," as being to act with premeditation, for he who proposes to himself evil, does it with premeditation; and as it is evil, and he does it, it is from the will; for the doing of evil is originally from this source. But the falsity by which evil is affirmed, defended, and thus promoted, is of the thought; thus comes from a depraved or inverted understanding. (That man is guilty when he does evil from both, namely, from the understanding and from the will, may be seen above, n. 9009.)9013.
To kill him with deceit. That this signifies the consequent malice of depriving the neighbor of eternal life, is evident from the signification of "to kill," as being to take away faith and charity from the neighbor, and thus to deprive him of spiritual life, which is eternal life (see n. 6767, 8902); and from the signification of "deceit," as being malice from the will with forethought or premeditation, thus from set purpose. Evils are done either from enmity, or from hatred, or from revenge, and either with deceit or without it. But evils done with deceit are the worst, because deceit is like a poison which infects and destroys with infernal venom, for it goes through the whole mind even to its interiors. The reason is that he who is in deceit meditates evil, and feeds his understanding with it, and takes delight in it, and thus destroys everything therein that belongs to man, that is, which belongs to life from the good of faith and of charity.  They who in the world have ensnared the neighbor with deceit in respect to worldly and earthly things, in the other life ensnare the neighbor with deceit in respect to spiritual and heavenly things; and because they do this in secret, they are dispatched to the hells behind the back, deep down according to the malignity and hurtfulness of the deceit, and in this way are separated from those who are in front; the latter being called "spirits," but the former, "genii" (n. 5035, 5977, 8593, 8622, 8625). Genii are not admitted to men as spirits are, because they flow into the affections of the will, by acting against the good of love and charity so secretly that it cannot possibly be perceived; and in this way they destroy the truth of faith. In their own hell they render themselves invisible before their companions; for they who have acted secretly in the world can render themselves invisible in the other life; but when they appear, they appear among themselves like men; whereas when they are looked at by the angels they appear like serpents, for they have the nature of serpents, and that which goes forth from them is like poison, and indeed is spiritual poison.  Wherefore in the Word "poison" signifies deceit, and poisonous serpents, such as "asps," "cockatrices," and "vipers," signify the deceitful; as in the following passages: In heart ye work perversities, their poison is like the poison of a serpent; like that of the deaf asp (Ps. 58:2, 4). They cogitate evils in the heart, they sharpen their tongue like a serpent; the poison of the asp is under their lips (Ps. 140:2, 3). They lay eggs of the asp, and weave the spider's webs, he that eateth of their eggs dieth (Isa. 59:5). He shall suck the poison of asps; the viper's tongue shall slay him (Job 20:16). Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel gall of asps (Deut. 32:33). Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Ye serpents, ye offspring of vipers, how shall ye escape the judgment of Gehenna (Matt. 22:29, 33).  Deceit is called "hypocrisy" when there is piety in the mouth, and impiety in the heart; or when there is charity in the mouth, but hatred in the heart; or when there is innocence in the face and gesture, but cruelty in the soul and breast; consequently when they deceive by a show of innocence, charity, and piety. Such are "serpents" and "vipers" in the internal sense, because, as before said, when such are looked at by the angels in the light of heaven, they appear like serpents and like vipers, who hide evils under truths; that is, who deceitfully bend truths to the doing of evils; for such hide poison as it were under the teeth, and thus kill.  But they who are in the faith of truth and in the life of good from the Lord, cannot be injured by the poisons of such, for they are in light from the Lord, in which the deceitful appear like serpents, and their deceits like poisons. That these are kept in safety by the Lord is meant by His words to the disciples: Behold I give unto you power to tread upon serpents and scorpions (Luke 10:19). These signs shall follow them that believe; they shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not harm them (Mark 16:17, 18). The suckling shall play on the hole of the viper (Isa. 11:8).  Those who have been interiorly infected with spiritual deceit, that is, with hypocrisy, are they who are meant by those who speak against the Holy Spirit, for whom there is no forgiveness, in Matthew: I say unto you, All sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men; but the blasphemy of the spirit shall not be forgiven unto men. Nay, if anyone shall say a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever shall speak against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this age, nor in that which is to come. Either make the tree good, and its fruit good; or make the tree bad and its fruit bad. O offspring of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak what is good (Matt. 12:31-34). By "saying a word against the Holy Spirit" is meant to speak well and think evil, and to do well and will evil, respecting those things which are of the Lord, of His kingdom, and of His church, also which are of the Word; for thus falsity lies inwardly hidden in the truths which they speak; and evil, which is hidden poison, in the goods which they do; consequently they are called "an offspring of vipers."  In the other life an evil person is allowed to speak evil and also falsity; but not good and truth, because there all are compelled to speak from the heart, and are not allowed to be of a divided mind. They who do otherwise are separated from the rest, and are hidden in hells from which they cannot possibly go forth. That such are they who are meant by "those who say a word against the Holy Spirit" is evident from the above words of the Lord, "Either make the tree good and its fruit good, or make the tree bad, and its fruit bad; how can ye, being evil, speak what is good?" The "Holy Spirit" denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, thus the Holy Divine Itself, which is thereby interiorly blasphemed and profaned.  That it will not be forgiven them is because hypocrisy or deceit in connection with Holy Divine things infects the interiors of man, and destroys everything of spiritual life in him, as was said above, insomuch that at last there is nothing sound in any part of him. For the forgiveness of sins is the separation of evil from good, and the rejection of evil to the sides (n. 8393), which cannot be done with him in whom all good has been destroyed. Therefore it is said "It shall not be forgiven him, neither in this age nor in that which is to come." Of this character also are those who are meant by "him that had not on a wedding garment," who was bound hand and foot and cast out into outer darkness (Matt. 22:11-13, see n. 2132).  That "deceit" in the Word denotes hypocrisy is evident from the following passages: Beware ye every man of his companion, and put ye not your trust upon any brother; for every brother supplanteth. They mock, a man with his companion, and speak not the truth; they have taught their tongue to speak a lie. Thy dwelling is in the midst of deceit; through deceit they have refused to know Me, said Jehovah (Jer. 9:4-6). Thou shalt destroy them that speak a lie; Jehovah abhorreth the man of bloods and deceit (Ps. 5:6). Blessed is the man unto whom Jehovah imputeth not iniquity, provided in his spirit there is no deceit (Ps. 32:2). Deliver my soul from the lip of a lie, from a tongue of deceit (Ps. 120:2). In like manner Ps. 52:4; 109:2.9014.
Thou shalt take him from Mine altar, that he may die. That this signifies damnation even although he flees to the worship of the Lord, and supplicates for forgiveness, and promises repentance, is evident from the signification of "the altar of Jehovah," as being the chief representative of the worship of the Lord (n. 921, 2777, 2811, 4541, 8935, 8940), and because it was a representative of worship, therefore "to flee to the altar" denotes to flee to the Lord, and to supplicate for forgiveness, and also to promise repentance, for the one follows the other; and from the signification of "dying," as being damnation (n. 5407, 6119, 9008).  How it is in regard to this can be seen from what was shown in the paragraph above (n. 9013), namely, that in spiritual things, deceit, that is, hypocrisy, cannot be forgiven. The reason is that deceit is like poison, for it penetrates even to the interiors, and kills everything of faith and charity, and destroys the remains, which are the truths and goods of faith and charity stored up by the Lord in the interiors of man, which being destroyed nothing of spiritual life any longer survives. (With respect to remains, see n. 468, 530, 560-563, 660, 661, 798, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284, 5135, 5342, 5344, 5897, 5898, 6156, 7560, 7564.) Wherefore when such persons supplicate the Lord for forgiveness, and promise repentance, which is signified by "fleeing to the altar," they supplicate and promise nothing whatever from the heart, but only from the mouth. Therefore they are not heard, for the Lord looks at the heart, and not to words abstracted and estranged from the heart. Consequently for such there is no forgiveness, because no repentance is possible with them.  It is believed by many within the church that the forgiveness of sins is the wiping out and washing away thereof, as of filth by water; and that after forgiveness they go on their way clean and pure. Such an opinion prevails especially with those who ascribe everything of salvation to faith alone. But be it known that the case with the forgiveness of sins is quite different. The Lord forgives everyone his sins, because He is mercy itself. Nevertheless they are not thereby forgiven unless the man performs serious repentance, and desists from evils, and afterward lives a life of faith and charity, and this even to the end of his life. When this is done, the man receives from the Lord spiritual life, which is called new life. When from this new life the man views the evils of his former life, and turns away from them, and regards them with horror, then for the first time are the evils forgiven, for then the man is held in truths and goods by the Lord, and is withheld from evils. From this it is plain what is the forgiveness of sins, and that it cannot be granted within an hour, nor within a year. That this is so the church knows, for it is said to those who come to the Holy Supper that their sins are forgiven if they begin a new life by abstaining from evils and abhorring them.  From all this then it is evident how the case is with hypocrites, who through deceit are filled with evils as to the interiors, namely, that they cannot do the work of repentance; for the very remains of good and of truth in them have been consumed and destroyed, and therewith everything of spiritual life; and because they cannot do the work of repentance, they cannot be forgiven. This is signified by the statute that those who kill the neighbor with deceit should be taken from the altar that they may die.  The damnation of such is described by the prophetic words of David with respect to Joab, when he had slain Abner with deceit: There shall not fail from the house of Joab one that hath an issue, or that is a leper, or that leaneth on a staff, or that falleth by the sword, or that lacketh bread (2 Sam. 3:27, 29). "One that hath an issue" signifies the profanation of the good of love; "one that is a leper" signifies the profanation of the truth of faith (n. 6963); "one that leaneth on a staff," or that is lame, signifies those in whom all good has been destroyed (n. 4302, 4314); "one that falleth by the sword" signifies those who are continually dying through falsities (n. 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294); "one that lacketh bread" signifies those who are destitute of all spiritual life, for "bread" denotes the sustenance of spiritual life by good (n. 6118, 8410). As such were signified by "Joab," therefore by the command of Solomon Joab was slain at the altar whither he had fled (1 Kings 2:28-32).9015.
And he that smiteth his father and his mother. That this signifies the blaspheming of the Lord and of His kingdom, is evident from the signification of "smiting," as being to injure by means of falsities (see n. 7136, 7146, 9007), and when predicated of the Lord and of His kingdom, as being to blaspheme; and from the signification of "father," as being the Lord; and of "mother," as being His kingdom. See n. 8897, where the fourth commandment of the Decalogue was unfolded, and it was shown what is meant in the internal sense by "honoring father and mother," namely, to love the Lord and His Kingdom, and therefore in the relative sense, to love good and truth. So also "to smite father and mother," in the relative sense denotes to blaspheme the good and truth of the church.9016.
Dying he shall die. That this signifies damnation, is evident from the signification of "dying" as being damnation (see n. 9008).9017.
Verses 16, 17. And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, and if he shall be found in his hand, dying he shall die. And he that curseth his father and his mother, dying he shall die. "And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him," signifies the application of the truth of faith to evil, and alienation; "and he shall be found in his hand," signifies nevertheless the acknowledgment of it; "dying he shall die," signifies damnation; "and he that curseth his father and his mother," signifies the denial in every possible way of the Lord and of His kingdom by those who are of the church, and thus profanation of the good and truth of the church; "dying he shall die," signifies damnation.9018.
And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him. That this signifies the application of the truth of faith to evil, and alienation, is evident from the signification of "stealing a man," as being the application of the truth of faith to evil (that "a man," here a man of the sons of Israel, denotes the truth of faith, see n. 5414, 5879, 5951, 7957, 9007); and that "stealing" denotes its application to evil (n. 5135); and from the signification of "selling," as being alienation (n. 4098, 4752, 4758, 5886).9019.
And if he shall be found in his hand. That this signifies nevertheless the acknowledgment of it, namely, of the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of "to be found in the hand," when said of the truth of faith, as being acknowledgment; for when truth is acknowledged with some faith, it is found with that person; "in his hand" denotes with him.9020.
Dying he shall die. That this signifies damnation, see above (n. 9008). That they are damned who apply the truths of faith to evils, and thus alienate them from themselves, is because they had before acknowledged them. For when the truth of faith which has once been acknowledged is afterward applied to evil, it is commingled with falsity from evil, consequently there is profanation (that this is profanation may be seen from the passages cited below, n. 9021). In order that this may be better understood, let it be illustrated by an example. When those who, in order to rule over all and to gain the world, wish to dispense at their own good will and pleasure the things that belong to the Lord, especially those which belong to the heavenly life with a man, draw confirmations from the Lord's words, they are "thieves" in the spiritual sense, for they steal truths from the Word and apply them to evils. That they are evils is because they have as their end dominion and gain, and not the salvation of souls. If without any regard to dominion and gain these same persons have previously acknowledged the truths from the Word which they now apply to evils, they profane them, for by so doing they commingle falsities from evils with the truths. Such persons cannot possibly escape damnation, for by so doing they deprive themselves of all spiritual life. That they deprive themselves of spiritual life is plain from the fact that when they are by themselves, and think from themselves, and talk among themselves, they have no faith in truths, and do not believe in the Lord, in heaven, or in hell. Nevertheless above all others they have these things in their mouths, because the ardor for rule and gain incites them thereto, as means to their ends. This reigns especially in Christian paganism, where the images of sanctified men are exhibited for adoration, before which they bend their knees and fall prostrate. Even they themselves do this, from deceit, in order to mislead and persuade.9021.
And he that curseth his father and his mother. That this signifies the denial in every possible way of the Lord and of His kingdom by those who are of the church, and thus the profanation of the good and the truth of the church, is evident from the signification of "cursing," as being aversion and disjunction (see n. 245, 379, 1423, 3530, 3584, 5071), consequently also denial in every possible way, for he who turns himself away and disjoins himself from the Lord, at heart denies Him; and from the signification of "father and mother," as being the Lord and His kingdom, and in the relative sense the good and truth which are from the Lord (n. 8897, 9015). The reason why it signifies "by those who are within the church" is that the commandments, judgments, and statutes which were promulgated by the Lord from Mount Sinai, were specifically for the sons of Israel, among whom the representative of a church was at that time being instituted, and by whom therefore the church was signified (n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223, 7957, 8234, 8805). Therefore also by "cursing father and mother" is signified profanation, for those within the church who wholly deny the Lord and the things which are of His kingdom and church, profane them. (That those who are within the church can profane holy things, but not those who are outside of the church, see n. 1008, 1010, 1059, 2051, 3398, 3399, 3898, 4289, 4601, 6348, 6959, 6963, 6971, 8882.) For this reason denial of the Lord is not profanation with those who are outside of the church, as for instance with the Gentiles, Mohammedans, and Jews.9022.
Dying he shall die, signifies damnation (as above, n. 9008, 9016, 9020). How the particulars in the internal sense cohere together, is evident from what has been said and shown. For the internal sense treats in a series of the denial, blaspheming, and profanation of the truth and good which are from the Lord. But in the external sense no such series appears, for in this sense various things are treated of; as those who smite a man so that he dies; those who kill a companion with deceit; those who smite father and mother; those who steal a man and sell him; and those who curse father and mother. Such is the Word in its particulars, namely, that in the internal sense things follow in order and as it were in a chain; although in the external sense, that is, in the sense of the letter, they are scattered, and in many places disconnected.9023.
Verses 18-21. And when men shall dispute, and a man shall smite his companion with a stone or with his fist, and he dieth not, and lieth down in bed; if he rise and walk abroad upon his staff, the smiter shall be guiltless; only he shall give his cessation, and healing he shall heal him. And when a man shall smite his manservant, or his maidservant, with a rod, and he die under his hand; in being avenged he shall be avenged. Nevertheless if he shall stand for a day or two, he shall not be avenged, because he is his silver. "And when men shall dispute," signifies contention among themselves about truths; "and a man shall smite his companion with a stone, or with his fist," signifies the invalidating of some one [truth of the church] by reason of some memory or general truth; "and he dieth not," signifies and it is not extinguished; "and he lieth down in bed," signifies what is separate in the natural; "if he rise and walk abroad upon his staff," signifies the strength of life therein; "the smiter shall be guiltless," signifies not to be guilty of evil; "only he shall give his cessation," signifies indemnification; and "healing he shall heal him," signifies restoration; "and when a man shall smite his manservant, or his maidservant, with a rod," signifies if anyone within the church ill-treats the truth of memory or its affection from his own power; "and he die under his hand," signifies so that it is extinguished under his view; "in being avenged he shall be avenged," signifies the punishment of death; "nevertheless if he shall stand for a day or two," signifies a state of life abiding even to fullness; "he shall not be avenged," signifies no punishment of death; "because he is his silver," signifies what is acquired from one's own.9024.
And when men shall dispute. That this signifies contention among themselves about truths, is evident from the signification of "disputing," as being to contend (of which below) and from the signification of "men" [viri], as being those who are intelligent and who are in truths, and in the abstract sense things intellectual and truths (see n. 3134, 9007); consequently "the disputing of men" signifies contention about truths among those who are of the church, and in the abstract sense about truths among themselves. For in the spiritual sense "to dispute" denotes to contend about such things as are of the church, consequently such as are of faith. Nothing else is meant in the Word by "disputing," for the Word is spiritual and treats of spiritual things, that is, of those things which belong to the Lord, His kingdom in heaven, and His kingdom on the earth, that is, the church. That in the Word "to dispute" signifies contention about truths, and in general in favor of truths against falsities, likewise also defense and liberation from falsities, is plain from the following passages.  In Jeremiah: A tumult is come even to the end of the earth; for Jehovah hath a dispute against the nations, He will enter into judgment with all flesh; He will deliver the wicked to the sword. Behold evil shall go forth from nation to nation, and a great tempest shall be raised up from the sides of the earth (Jer. 25:31, 32). Thus is prophetically described the perverted state of the church; "a tumult" denotes contention in favor of falsities against truths, and in favor of evils against goods; "the earth" denotes the church; "the dispute of Jehovah against the nations" denotes the contention of the Lord in favor of truths against falsities, and in favor of goods against evils, thus also defense; "the nations" denote falsities and evils; "a sword" denotes falsity fighting and conquering; "a great tempest" denotes falsity ruling; "the sides of the earth" denotes where falsities burst forth from evil.  In the same: Jehovah shall dispute their dispute; that He may give rest to the earth (Jer. 50:34) "To dispute the dispute" denotes to defend truths against falsities and to liberate; "the earth" denotes the church, which has "rest" when it is in good, and consequently in truths. In the same: O Lord, Thou hast disputed the disputes of my soul; Thou hast liberated my life (Lam. 3:58). "To dispute the disputes of the soul" denotes to defend and liberate from falsities. In David: Dispute Thou my dispute, and redeem me; vivify me according to Thy word (Ps. 119:154). "To dispute the dispute" here also denotes to liberate from falsities. In Micah: Dispute Thou with the mountains, and let the hills hear Thy voice (Mic. 6:1). "To dispute with the mountains" denotes to contend and defend against the exalted ones, and also against the evils of the love of self; "the hills which are to hear His voice" denote the humble, and those who are in charity. In Isaiah: I will not eternally dispute, and I will not be wroth forever (Isa. 57:16). "To dispute" denotes to contend against falsities. In Hosea: Jehovah hath a dispute with Judah (Hos. 12:2); where the meaning is similar. Besides other passages.9025.
And a man shall smite his companion with a stone, or with his fist. That this signifies the invalidating of some one [truth of the church] by reason of some memory or general truth, is evident from the signification of "smiting," as being to injure (see n. 7136, 7146, 9007), here to invalidate, because it is said of truths from memory-knowledges; from the signification of "a stone," as being truth (n. 643, 1298, 3720, 3769, 3771, 3773, 3789, 3798, 6426, 8940), namely, truth in the ultimate of order, that is, in the natural, thus memory-knowledge (n. 8609); and from the signification of "a fist," as being general truth; for by "the hand" is signified the power which belongs to truth (n. 3091, 4931, 7188, 7189), consequently by "the fist" is signified full power from general truth. That is called general truth which has been received, and everywhere prevails; consequently "to smite with the fist" denotes with full force and power; in the spiritual sense, by means of truths which are from good; and in the opposite sense, by means of falsities which are from evil. In the latter sense it is used in Isaiah: Behold ye fast for dispute and contention, to smite with the fist of wickedness (Isa. 58:4). "To smite with the fist of wickedness" denotes with full force by means of falsities from evil.  What is meant by invalidating any truth of the church by means of memory or general truth, shall be explained. By memory-truths are meant truths which are from the literal sense of the Word. General truths therefrom are such as are received among people generally, and consequently are in general discourse. There are very many such truths, and they prevail with much force. But the literal sense of the Word is for the simple, for those who are being initiated into the interior truths of faith, and for those who do not apprehend interior things; for this sense is according to the appearance before the sensuous man, thus is according to his apprehension. Hence it is that in this sense things frequently appear dissimilar, and as it were contradictory, to each other-as for example, that the Lord leads into temptation, and elsewhere that He does not lead into temptation; that the Lord repents, and elsewhere that He does not repent; that the Lord acts from anger and wrath, and elsewhere that He acts from pure clemency and mercy; that souls come to judgment immediately after death, and elsewhere that this is at the time of the Last Judgment; and so on. As such truths are from the literal sense of the Word, they are called memory-truths, and differ from the truths of faith which are of the doctrine of the church. For the latter arise from the former by an unfolding; for when they are unfolded, the man of the church is instructed that such things have been said in the Word for the sake of apprehension, and according to the appearance. Hence also it is that in very many cases the doctrines of the church depart from the literal sense of the Word. Be it known that the true doctrine of the church is that which is here called "the internal sense;" for in the internal sense are truths such as the angels have in heaven.  Among priests, and among the men of the church, there are those who teach and who learn the truths of the church from the literal sense of the Word; and there are those who teach and those who learn from doctrine drawn from the Word, which is called the doctrine of faith of the church. The latter differ very much from the former in perception, but they cannot be distinguished by the common people, because they both speak from the Word nearly alike. But those who teach and who learn only the literal sense of the Word without the doctrine of the church as a guide, apprehend only those things which belong to the natural or external man; whereas those who teach and who learn from true doctrine drawn from the Word, understand also things which are of the spiritual or internal man. The reason is that the Word in the external or literal sense is natural, but in the internal sense it is spiritual. The former sense is called in the Word a "cloud," but the latter sense is called the "glory" in the cloud (n. 5922, 6343, 6752, 8106, 8781).  From all this it can now be seen what is meant by "contention among themselves about truths," and by the "invalidating of some one [truth of the church] by means of some memory or general truth." As before said, memory or general truth is truth from the literal sense of the Word. And as this varies, and as it were contradicts itself, according to the appearance, it must needs sometimes invalidate the spiritual truths which are of the doctrine of the church. These are invalidated when the thought comes into doubt from passages in the Word which are in conflict with each other. This state in connection with the truths of faith with man is here treated of in the internal sense.9026.
And he dieth not. That this signifies "and it is not extinguished" is evident from the signification of "dying," as being to cease to be such as before (see n. 494, 6587, 6593), consequently to be extinguished, here not to be extinguished. As the internal sense here treats of the agreement of the truths of faith with the truths of the literal sense of the Word, and as the truths of the literal sense of the Word cannot be extinguished, because they are truths in the ultimate of order, therefore the smiting of a man from which he dies is not here treated of, but only the smiting of a man from which he does not die; for the truths of the literal sense of the Word can indeed be invalidated, but cannot be extinguished. Moreover after they have been invalidated, they can be set aside, but again by an unfolding of their meaning they can be restored. These things are signified by what was decreed about a man smitten by his companion, but rising again and walking upon his staff.  He who investigates the interior things of the Word can see that for some secret reason which does not fall under the understanding unless this is enlightened by the light of heaven, it was decreed by the Lord that the smiter should be guiltless, if the person smitten rose again from his bed and walked abroad upon his staff; and especially that it was decreed by the Lord that he who smiteth his servant, and the servant die not for a day or two, should not be punished, because he is his silver; when yet this is the taking away of a man's life, for the servant is a man, although a servant. But the secret reason why it was so decreed by the Lord does not appear except by means of the internal sense, in which the subject treated of is the truths of the church derived from the Word, the case with which is similar, when by "a man disputing and smiting his neighbor," and also by "a man smiting his manservant and his maidservant," are meant such things as in the spiritual sense correspond, and which are now unfolded. With the Israelitish nation there was instituted a representative church, that is, a church in which the internal things which are of heaven and the church were represented by external things. Therefore such things were decreed, and indeed commanded, as have no validity as laws since the internal things of the church were opened and revealed by the Lord; for since that time man is to live an internal life, which is a life of faith and charity, and such an external life as internal things make it.9027.
And he lieth down in bed. That this signifies what is separate in the natural, is evident from the signification of "lying down," as being to be separated; and from the signification of "a bed," as being the natural (see n. 6188, 6226, 6463). How the case herein is will appear from what follows.9028.
If he rise and walk abroad upon his staff. That this signifies the strength of life therein, is evident from the signification of "rising," which involves something of elevation, here of spiritual truth to agreement with memory-truth; from the signification of "walking," as being to live (see n. 519, 1794, 8417, 8420); and from the signification of "a staff," as being strength, for "a rod" signifies the power which belongs to truth, thus strength (n. 4876, 4936, 6947, 7011, 7026), and in like manner "a staff," but as applied to those who are not in good health. In this sense it is used also in David: They preceded me in the day of my calamity; but Jehovah was my staff, and He brought me forth into breadth (Ps. 18:18, 19). "The day of calamity" denotes a weak state in respect to the faith of truth; "Jehovah being a staff" denotes power then; "to bring forth into breadth" denotes into the truths which are of faith. (That this is meant by "bringing forth into breadth," see n. 4482.) So also in Isaiah: The Lord Jehovah Zebaoth doth take away from Jerusalem and from Judah the rod and the staff, the whole rod of bread, and the whole rod of water (Isa. 3:1). "To take away the rod and the staff" denotes to take away the power and strength of life derived from truth and good; "the rod of bread" denotes power from good; and "the rod of water," power from truth. In the original tongue "staff" is a term implying to lean upon and be supported, which in the spiritual world is effected by means of truth and good.9029.
The smiter shall be guiltless. That this signifies not to be guilty of evil, is evident from the signification of "to be guiltless," as being not to be guilty of evil; for those are treated of who from some spiritual truth, which is the truth of the doctrine of faith of the church from the Word, look at some memory-truth, which is truth from the sense of the letter of the Word; and because there appears to be no agreement, the spiritual truth is invalidated and for some time set aside, but is not denied, or exterminated. Of these persons it is said that they "are not guilty of evil." And from the signification of "to smite," as being to invalidate (see above, n. 9025).9030.
Only he shall give his cessation. 9030-1 That this signifies indemnification, is evident from the signification of the "cessation," as being indemnification, here that of spiritual truth, which was invalidated through memory-truth. That is called "spiritual truth" which together with good makes the life of the internal man, but that is called "memory-truth" which makes the life of the external man. This truth is from the literal sense of the Word, but spiritual truth is from the internal sense of the Word, thus also from the genuine doctrine of faith of the church, for this doctrine is the doctrine of the internal sense.9031.
And healing he shall heal him. That this signifies restoration, namely, by means of interpretation, is evident. For if the things which are in the literal sense of the Word are looked at interiorly, they all agree together. This is circumstanced like that which is said in the Word about the sun, that it rises and sets, when yet it does not rise or set; but such an appearance is presented to the inhabitants of the earth, because the earth rotates every day around its axis. This natural truth lies hidden in the former, which is according to the appearance to the external sight. If it had been said in the Word contrary to this appearance, the common people would not apprehend it, and what the common people do not apprehend they do not believe. The case is similar with the Sun of heaven, which is the Lord, concerning which it is also said that it "rises," but in hearts, when man is being regenerated; and also when he is in the good of love and faith; and that it "sets" when man is in evil and in the consequent falsity. And yet the Lord is continually in His rising, from which also He is called the "Sunrise," or "East," and He is never in any setting; nor does He turn Himself away from man, but man turns himself away from Him. From this arises the appearance that the Lord turns away His face and also brings evil; and therefore it is also so said in the Word. This likewise is the truth, but apparent truth, thus it is not in conflict with the former. From all this it can now be seen what is meant in the internal sense by "healing he shall heal," namely, the restoration of spiritual truth, which is effected by means of a right interpretation of the memory-truth, or that of the literal sense of the Word.  The case is similar with every truth of the literal sense, for in the natural light, which is that of the sensuous man, this appears just as it is expressed in the Word, because the literal sense is natural, and is for the sensuous man. But when the same is presented in the light of heaven, it then appears according to the internal sense; for this sense is spiritual, and is for the heavenly man, because those things which are of natural light vanish away in the light of heaven; for natural light is like shade or cloud, and heavenly light is like the glory and the brightness when the cloud is taken away. And therefore also the literal sense of the Word is called "a cloud," and the internal sense "glory" (see the preface to Genesis 18, and n. 4391, 5922, 6343, 8106, 8443, 8781).  By "healing he shall heal" is signified in the spiritual sense to restore, because disease and sickness signify the infirmity of the internal man, which infirmity exists when he is sick in respect to his life, which is the spiritual life; thus when he turns aside from truth to falsity, and from good to evil. When this is the case, the spiritual life sickens; and when he wholly turns himself away from truth and good, it dies; but this death is called "spiritual death," which is damnation. As this is the case with the life of the internal man, therefore such things as relate to diseases and death in the natural world are said in the Word of the diseases of the spiritual life, and of its death. So also the cures of diseases, or healings, as in Isaiah: Jehovah smiteth Egypt, smiting and healing; whence he turneth himself unto Jehovah, and He shall be entreated for them, and shall heal them (Isa. 19:22). Surely He was pierced for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon Him, and in His wound we are healed (Isa. 53:5); speaking of the Lord.  In Jeremiah: Return, ye perverse sons, I will heal your backslidings (Jer. 3:22). Behold, I will cause to come up to it cure and healing, and I will heal them; and I will reveal to them abundance of peace and truth (Jer. 33:6). Go up to Gilead, and take balm, O virgin daughter of Egypt; in vain hast thou multiplied medicines; there is no healing for thee (Jer. 46:11). And in Ezekiel: By the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that, cometh up the tree for food, whose leaf falleth not, neither is the fruit consumed; it springeth up again in its months, because the waters thereof go forth out of the sanctuary; therefore the fruit thereof shall be for food, and the leaf thereof for medicines (Ezek. 47:12). "The fruit which shall be for food" denotes the good of love and charity which is for the nourishment of the spiritual life; "the leaf which shall be for medicine" denotes the truths of faith which are for the refreshment and restoration of that life. (That "fruit" denotes the good of love and of charity, see n. 3146, 7690; and that "leaf" denotes the truth of faith, n. 885.)  As diseases and sicknesses, and also healings and medicines, are not said in the Word of the natural life, but of another life which is distinct from the natural life; it is therefore plain to him who gives some consideration to the matter, that man has another life, which is that of his internal man. They who have gross thoughts with respect to the life of man, believe that he has no other life than that of the body, which is the life of the external or natural man. They wonder what the life of the internal man may be, and even what the internal man is. If they are told that that life is the life of faith and charity, and that the internal man is man's spirit, which lives after death, and which is essentially the man himself, they wonder still more. And such of them as live only for the body, and not for the soul, thus who are merely natural men, have no apprehension whatever of what is said about the life of faith and charity, and about the internal man, because their thought is merely from natural light, and not at all from spiritual light. Wherefore also after death they remain gross in respect to thought, and live in the shadow of death, that is, in falsities from evil; and they are wholly in thick darkness, and blind to the light of heaven.9032.
In the last two verses the subject treated of is spiritual truth, which is the truth of the doctrine of faith from the Word, invalidated by means of memory-truth, which is the truth of the literal sense of the Word. But as it is commonly believed that the truth of the doctrine of faith of the church is one and the same thing with the truth of the literal sense of the Word, the subject may be illustrated by an example. The genuine truth of the doctrine of the church is that charity toward the neighbor and love to the Lord make the church with man, and that these loves are insinuated by the Lord through faith, that is, by means of the truths of faith which are from the Word, consequently that faith alone does not make the church with man. He who is in this truth, and consults the Word, is everywhere confirmed therein. But when he meets with words about faith, and no mention is made at the same time of love, he hesitates, and begins to revolve doubts with respect to the truth of the doctrine of his faith. Consequently this truth is for the time invalidated, and is separated from the other truths which are of undoubted faith.  Let the words of the Lord in Mark about faith serve for illustration: He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be condemned (Mark 16:16). As faith is here treated of, and not love at the same time, the mind may halt in doubt concerning the truth of its doctrine-that heavenly love insinuated by means of the truths of faith makes the church. But when this memory-truth, that is, truth of the literal sense of the Word, is viewed interiorly, it is plain that it nevertheless does agree with the truth of doctrine; for in the internal sense by "being baptized" is signified to be regenerated (see n. 4255, 5120), and to be regenerated is to be led into the good of love and charity by means of the truths of faith (n. 8548-8553, 8635-8640, 8742-8747). From this it is evident that the truth which is the truth of the literal sense of the Word agrees with the truth of doctrine, provided it is understood what is signified by "being baptized." And the reason why it is said that "he that believeth not shall be condemned," is that such a one cannot be "baptized," that is, regenerated, thus cannot be introduced into the church, still less become a church; for baptism is a symbol of regeneration, and thus of introduction into the church, which is effected by introduction into good by means of truths from the Word.  From all this it is now plain how it is to be understood what is signified in the internal sense by "a man smiting his companion with a stone or with his fist, and that if the man did not die, but lay down in bed, and then rose and walked with his staff, the smiter should be guiltless," but that "he should give his cessation, and should heal him;" in the internal sense, that if the truth of the doctrine of faith of the church be invalidated by means of memory-truth from the literal sense of the Word, and yet is not extinguished, it shall be made good and restored, which is effected by a right interpretation.9033.
The invalidation of spiritual truth, that is, of the truth of the doctrine of faith of the church, has been treated of in the two preceding verses; and in the two verses which follow, the subject treated of is the invalidation of memory-truth, which is the truth of the literal sense of the Word. This truth indeed appears like the former, but still it is not like it; and therefore here for the sake of elucidation take this example. It is a spiritual truth, or a genuine truth of the doctrine of faith of the church, that the Lord punishes no one, because He is mercy itself; and therefore whatsoever He does, He does from mercy, and by no means from anger and revenge; and yet the Lord says in Matthew: Be ye not afraid of those who are able to kill the body, but rather fear Him who is able to destroy both body and soul in Gehenna (Matt. 10:28). Here it is said of God that He is "to be feared," because He "is able to destroy body and soul in Gehenna," when yet He destroys no one. Nevertheless this is a truth; and therefore it is not to be extinguished, that is, denied; for if it is denied, faith in the Word perishes; and if this perishes, man cannot spiritually live, for man has spiritual life through faith from the Word.  The case herein is this. It is a law of Divine order that good should have its recompense-thus heaven-within itself; and it is from this that evil has in itself its punishment, thus hell. The former law is from the Lord, because the Lord wills good to all; but the latter law not so, because the Lord wills evil to no one. Nevertheless so it is done; not from the Lord, but from the man who is in evil, consequently from evil. Yet this is attributed to the Lord in the sense of the letter of the Word, because it so appears. Therefore, because it is an apparent truth, it must not be denied, that is, extinguished; for thus faith in the Word would be extinguished, which faith is for the simple (see n. 2447, 6071, 6991, 6997, 7533, 7632, 7643, 7679, 7710, 7877, 7926, 8197, 8227, 8228, 8282, 8483, 8631, 8632, 9010).9034.
And when a man shall smite his manservant, or his maidservant, with a rod. That this signifies if anyone within the church ill-treats the truth of memory, or its affection, from his own power, is evident from the signification of "smiting," as being to ill-treat, for "smiting" is predicated of any injury whatsoever; from the signification of "a man" [vir], here a man of the sons of Israel, as being one who is of the church, and who consequently is in spiritual truth, which is the truth of the doctrine of faith of the church from the Word (see n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223, 7957, 8234, 8805); from the signification of a "manservant," as being memory-truth, which is the truth of the Word, but of its literal sense (of which below); from the signification of a "maidservant," as being natural affection, thus the affection of memory knowledges, because these are in the natural (n. 1895, 2567, 3835, 3849, 8993, 8994); and from the signification of a "rod," as being natural power (n. 4876, 4936, 6947, 7011, 7026), here, one's own power, because the manservant of whom it is said, was bought. From this it is plain that by the words, "if a man shall smite his manservant, or his maidservant," is signified if anyone within the church ill-treats the memory-truth of the Word, or its affection.  The reason why a "manservant" denotes the truth of the literal sense of the Word, is that by a "servant" in general are signified lower or exterior things, because these serve higher or interior things (n. 2541, 5161, 5164, 5936, 7143); consequently by a "servant" is signified the natural, because this serves the spiritual (n. 3019, 3020, 5305, 7998), consequently memory-truth, which belongs to the literal sense of the Word, for this serves spiritual truth, which belongs to the internal sense. The truth of the internal sense of the Word is the same as the genuine truth of the doctrine of faith of the church.  How the truth of the literal sense of the Word serves spiritual truth, shall be briefly told. The man of the church first learns truth from the literal sense of the Word, which is general truth accommodated to the apprehension of the external man, who is in natural light. This truth is received by an external way, that is, by hearing, and is stored up in the memory of the external man, where are also various memory-knowledges derived from the world (n. 2469-2494). Afterward the things stored up in this memory are subjected to the sight or view of the internal man, who sees from the light of heaven. The internal man calls forth therefrom by selection the truths which agree with the good which flows in from the Lord by the way of the soul, and which the man had received. There the Lord conjoins these truths with good. The truths which are thus conjoined in the internal man are called "spiritual truths," and the good with which the truths are conjoined is called "spiritual good." This good, formed by means of truths, is what makes the spiritual life of man. The truths themselves there are called "the truths of faith," and the good is called "the good of charity." The good in which truths have thus been implanted is the church with man.  From this it is plain in what manner the truths of the literal sense of the Word serve for the formation of spiritual truths, in general for the formation of faith and of charity, which make the spiritual life; which life consists in being affected with truths for the sake of good, and in being affected with good from truths, and finally in being affected with truths from good.9035.
And he die under his hand. That this signifies so that it be extinguished under his view, is evident from the signification of "dying," as being to be extinguished (see above, n. 9026); and from the signification of "under his hand," as being under his view, for by "hand" is signified the power which belongs to spiritual truth (n. 5327, 5328, 7011), thus which is of the view, for this is effected by virtue of this truth, and is a noticing. For the truths of the literal sense of the Word, stored up in the natural memory of man, form there as it were a field for the view of the internal man, into which light from heaven flows. From this field, as before said, the internal man selects such things as agree with the good in him, comparatively as the eye selects from the field of a garden such things as conduce to the uses of its life.9036.
In being avenged he shall be avenged. That this signifies the punishment of death, is evident from the signification of "avenging," or "taking vengeance," as being the punishment of death, here of spiritual death, which is damnation; for the truth of the literal sense of the Word is being extinguished, and with it faith in the Word. (How the case herein is, see above, n. 9033; and also below, n. 9039.)9037.
Nevertheless if he shall stand for a day or two. That this signifies a state of life abiding even to fullness, is evident from the signification of "a day," as being a state of life (see n. 893, 2788, 3785, 4850); and from the signification of "two days," as being a succeeding state (n. 1335), thus a full state, namely, of view; for when mention is made in the Word of "one day," or "one week," or "one month," or "one year," an entire period of time, or state, is signified (n. 2906); and when it is added, "or two days," the signification is, even to fullness.9038.
He shall not be avenged. That this signifies no punishment of death, is evident from the signification of "vengeance being taken," as being the punishment of death (see above, n. 9036).9039.
Because he is his silver. That this signifies what is acquired from one's own, is evident from the signification of "silver," as being truth (see n. 1551, 2954, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917), here, as a bought slave is treated of, it denotes truth acquired by one's own. That is called "truth acquired by one's own" which by induction from principles conceived from one's own is believed to be truth, and yet is not truth. Such is the truth with those who explain the Word without being enlightened by the light of heaven; that is, who read it not with any affection of truth for the sake of the good of life; for these are not enlightened. If after a full view this truth is extinguished, there is no punishment of death, that is, damnation, because it is not Divine spiritual truth; but if it is extinguished before a full view, there is damnation, because there is a rejection of the truth of faith itself. For that which has been made of anyone's faith, even if it is not true, ought not to be rejected, except after taking a full view; if it is rejected sooner, the first beginning of the man's spiritual life is plucked up by the roots; and therefore the Lord never breaks such truth with a man, but as far as possible bends it. Let an example serve for illustration.  He who believes that the glory and therefore the joy of heaven consist in ruling over many, and from this conceived principle explains the Lord's words concerning the servants who gained ten pounds and five pounds, that they should have power over ten cities and over five cities (Luke 19:11); and also the Lord's words to the disciples, that they should sit upon thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Luke 22:30); if before taking a full view he extinguishes his faith, which is a faith of truth from the literal sense of the Word, he occasions the loss of his spiritual life. But if after taking a full view, he interprets these words of the Lord from His other words that "whosoever will be greatest must be the least," and "whosoever would be the first must be the servant of all" (Matt. 20:26-28; Mark 10:42-45; Luke 22:24-27), if he then extinguishes his faith as regards heavenly glory and joy from rule over many, he does not occasion the loss of his spiritual life; for by the "cities" over which those were to have power who gained the pounds are signified the truths of faith (n. 2268, 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216), and the derivative intelligence and wisdom; in like manner by the "thrones" upon which the disciples were to sit (n. 2129, 6937).  Those in heaven who are preeminently in intelligence and wisdom from the truths of faith, are in such humiliation that they attribute everything of power to the Lord, and nothing to themselves; and therefore they do not make anything of glory and joy to consist in ruling, but in serving; and when they are in this state, they are in rule, and also in glory and joy, above others; yet not as before said from the love of rule, but from the affection of love and charity, which is that of serving others. For the Lord flows with power into those who are humble; but not into those who are puffed up, because the former receive influx, but the latter reject it (n. 7489-7492).9040.
Verses 22-27. And when men shall quarrel, and shall strike a pregnant woman, and her births go forth, and harm is not done, with fining he shall be fined, as the woman's master shall lay upon him; and he shall give according to the judges. And if harm is done, then thou shalt give soul for soul, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burning for burning, wound for wound, blow for blow. And when a man shall smite the eye of his manservant, or the eye of his maidservant, and shall destroy it; he shall let him go free for his eye. And if he shall knock out his manservant's tooth, or his maidservant's tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth. "And when men shall quarrel," signifies grievous contention among truths; "and shall strike a pregnant woman," signifies the injuring of the good which is from truth; "and her births go forth," signifies if nevertheless it is confirmed in the natural; "and harm is not done," signifies thus no injury there; "with fining he shall be fined," signifies amendment; "as the woman's master shall lay upon him," signifies until it agrees with the truth of good; "and he shall give according to the judges," signifies according to what is equitable; "and if harm is done," signifies injury; "then thou shalt give soul for soul," signifies the law of order that thou shalt do to thy neighbor as thou wouldest that he should do to thee, consequently that what thou doest to another shall be done to thyself, "the soul," denotes the spiritual life; "eye for eye," signifies if anything in the interior intellectual; "tooth for tooth," signifies if anything in the exterior intellectual; "hand for hand," signifies if anything of the power of spiritual truth; "foot for foot," signifies if anything of the power of natural truth; "burning for burning," signifies if anything of the affection of love which is interiorly in the will; "wound for wound," signifies if anything of the affection of love which is exteriorly in the will; "blow for blow," signifies if anything of affection in the intellectual-that is to say, if anything of all these be extinguished or injured; "and when a man shall smite the eye of his manservant," signifies if the internal man shall injure the truth of faith in the external or natural man; "or the eye of his maidservant," signifies or the affection of truth therein; "and shall destroy it," signifies if he shall extinguish it; "he shall let him go free for his eye," signifies that it can longer serve the internal man; "and if he shall knock out his manservant's tooth, or his maidservant's tooth," signifies if he shall destroy truth or the affection of it in the sensuous part; "he shall let him go free for his tooth," signifies that it can no longer serve the internal man.9041.
And when men shall quarrel. That this signifies grievous contention among truths, is evident from the signification of "quarreling," as being grievous contention; and from the signification of "men" [viri], here men of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the church and in its truths; in the abstract sense, the truths of the church (see above, n. 9034).9042.
And shall strike a pregnant woman. That this signifies the injuring of the good which is from truth, is evident from the signification of "to strike," as being to injure; and from the signification of "a pregnant woman," as being the formation of good from truth. That this is signified by "a pregnant woman," is because the regeneration of man, which is the generation of the spiritual life in him, is meant in the internal sense of the Word by the generation of his natural life which is from his parents. For when a man is born anew, he is then first conceived, afterward carried as in the womb, and finally is born. And because regeneration, or the generation of spiritual life, is the conjunction of truth and of good, that is, of faith and of charity, therefore by "carrying in the womb" is signified the initiation of truth into good. From this it is plain what is signified by "a pregnant woman," namely, the state of the formation of good from truths. (That "the womb" denotes where truth and good lie conceived, see n. 4918, 6433; and that "to be in the womb," and "to come forth from the womb" denote to be regenerated, n. 4904, 8043; also that "generations" and "births" denote those of faith and charity, n. 613, 1145, 1255, 2020, 2584, 6239.)  The state of the formation of good from truths is also signified by "a pregnant woman" in Jeremiah: Behold I bring them from the land of the north, and I will gather them from the sides of the earth; among them the blind and the lame, she that is pregnant, and she that bringeth forth together (Jer. 31:8). In the internal sense this treats of a new church from the Lord, in which sense by "bringing them from the land of the north" is signified from an obscure state of faith (see n. 3708); by "the sides of the earth from which they shall be gathered" is signified where the truth and good of the church begin, for "the earth" denotes the church (n. 566, 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577, 8011, 8732), and its "sides" denote where its first and its last are; by "the blind" are signified those who are in ignorance of truth, and yet receive truth when instructed (n. 2383, 6990); by "the lame," those who are in good, but not genuine good because of their ignorance of truth (n. 4302); by "she that is pregnant," those in whom good is being formed by means of truths; and by "she that bringeth forth," those who are in the life of faith in act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919). That such things are here signified can be seen from the fact that otherwise it would have been superfluous and worthless to make mention of "the blind and lame," or of "she that is pregnant, and she that bringeth forth together."9043.
And her births go forth. That this signifies if nevertheless it is confirmed in the natural, is evident from the signification of "going forth," when said of the formation of good from truths, as being to go from the internal or spiritual man into the external or natural (of which below); and from the signification of "births," as being goods from truths acknowledged in memory and perception, and thus confirmed; for in the spiritual sense by "bringing forth" is meant to acknowledge in faith and act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919, 6585). The case herein is that the man who is conceived anew, carried as it were in the womb, and born, that is, who is being regenerated, first learns from the doctrine of the church, or from the Word, the things which are of faith and charity, which he then stores up among the memory-knowledges that are in the memory which belongs to the external or natural man. From this they are called forth into the internal man, and are stored up in its memory (that man has two memories see n. 2469-2494). This is the beginning of spiritual life with the man, but he is not yet regenerated. In order to be regenerated, the external or natural man must be in compliance, and consequently in agreement, with his internal man. (That a man has not been regenerated until his external or natural man has also been regenerated, see n. 8742-8747; and that the external man is regenerated through the internal by the Lord, n. 3286, 3321, 3493, 4588, 5651, 6299, 8746; and also that the whole man has been regenerated when his natural has been regenerated, n. 7442, 7443.) Seeing then that the things which belong to regeneration are expressed in the Word by the things which belong to the generation or birth of man from his parents in the world, it can be seen from the process of regeneration above described what is meant or signified in the spiritual sense by "conception," by "gestation in the womb," and what by "going forth from the womb," and by "birth;" namely, that "going forth from the womb" denotes to go from the internal man into the external or natural, and that "birth" denotes spiritual good, that is, the good of charity formed from the truths of faith, going forth from the internal man into the external or natural man. When good is in the natural man, the man is a new man; his life is then from good, and his form is from truths derived from good; and he is like an angel, for the angels have their life from good, and their form from truths, which form is the human form. But to the natural man this is a paradox.9044.
And harm is not done. That this signifies thus no injury there, namely, in the natural, is evident without explication.9045.
With fining he shall be fined. That this signifies amendment, is evident from the signification of "to be fined," as being amendment, for a fine is for the sake of amendment.9046.
As the woman's master shall lay upon him. That this signifies until it agrees with the truth of good, is evident from the signification of "as he shall lay upon him," when spoken of a fine, as being amendment even to satisfaction, thus until there is agreement (of which below); from the signification of "the master," that is, of the woman, as being truth; and from the signification of "the woman," as being good. For in the spiritual sense of the Word "the master" or "man" [vir] signifies truth, and "the woman" good, because by the marriage of a man with a woman is represented the marriage of truth and good (see n. 915, 2517, 4510, 4823). By "amendment until there is agreement," is meant restoration for the injury occasioned by the untimely birth; in the spiritual sense, that is occasioned by the bringing forth or thrusting out, not in right order, of good derived from truths, by the internal man into the external or natural man. Restoration is made when they afterward come into agreement, and they do this when the external or natural man does not act from itself, but from the internal man; or when the spiritual acts in the natural, as the soul in its body. When this comes to pass, the external or natural lives from the life of the internal, and this is the new life, or life of the regenerated man.9047.
And he shall give according to the judges. That this signifies according to what is equitable, is evident from the signification of "the judges," as being those who decide and decree from what is just and fair; consequently "to give according to the judges," or before the judges, denotes according to what is equitable, thus neither more nor less; if more, they shall make it equal, also if less.9048.
And if harm is done. That this signifies injury, is evident without explication.9049.
Then thou shalt give soul for soul. That this signifies the law of order that thou shalt do to thy neighbor as thou wouldest have another do to thee, consequently that what thou doest to another shall be done to thee, is evident from the fact that "to give soul for soul, eye for eye, tooth for tooth," and so forth, denotes that as thou hast done to another so shall it be done to thee. The reason why this law was given to the sons of Israel, is that such is the law in the spiritual world. He who there does good to another from the heart, receives the like good. Consequently he who does evil to another from the heart, receives the like evil. For good that is from the heart is conjoined with its reward, and evil that is from the heart is conjoined with its punishment; consequently there is heaven for the good, and hell for the evil. That this is so, it has been given me to know from much experience. The case herein is this. With him who does good from the heart, there inflows from heaven on every side, good into the heart and soul of him who does it, and by inspiring inspires it; and then at the same time the affection of love for the neighbor to whom he does good is increased, and with this affection a delight which is heavenly and unutterable. The cause of this is that in heaven the good of love from the Lord reigns universally, and constantly flows in according to the degree in which it is practiced toward another. The case is similar in respect to evil. With him who from the heart does evil to another, there inflows from hell on every side evil into the heart of him who does it, and by exciting excites it; and then at the same time the affection of the love of self is increased, and with it the delight of hatred and revenge against those who do not submit themselves. The cause of this is that in hell the evil of the love of self reigns universally, and constantly flows in according to the degree in which it is practiced toward another. When this occurs, the punishers are at once present, who ill-treat the offender; and thereby the evil with its delight is restrained.  These things are so for the reason that the laws of order in the other life are not learned from books, and stored up therefrom in the memory, as with men in the world, but are written on hearts, the laws of evil on the heart of the evil, and the laws of good on the heart of the good. For every man carries with him into the other life that which by his life in the world he had set in his heart; namely, evil with the evil; and good with the good.  The law of order from which these things flow is that which the Lord taught in Matthew: All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them; this is the law and the prophets (Matt. 7:12; Luke 6:31). Order is from the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord. The laws of order in heaven are truths from good, and in hell are truths separated from good. They are said to be separated, not by reason of the Lord, but by reason of man. Good is separated by the nonreception of it.  The law which is called "the law of retaliation," is thus described in Leviticus: He that smiteth the soul of a beast shall restore it, soul for soul; if a man shall cause a blemish in his neighbor; as he hath done, so shall it be done to him; breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; as he shall cause a blemish in a man, so shall it be rendered unto him. He that smiteth a beast shall restore it; and he that smiteth a man shall be killed (Lev. 24:18-21). As evil carries with it its penalty, it is therefore said by the Lord that "evil must not be resisted," and at the same time in the following words in Matthew it is explained how the case is with this law in the spiritual world, with those who are in good, relatively to those who are in evil: Ye have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth; but I say unto you, Resist not evil; but whosoever shall strike thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if any man would drag thee to law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. And whosoever shall compel thee to go one mile, go with him twain. Give to everyone that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away (Matt. 5:38-42).  Who cannot see that these words are not to be understood according to the sense of the letter? For who will turn the left cheek to him who deals a blow on the right cheek? And who will give his cloak to him who would take away his coat? And who will give his property to all who ask? And who will not resist evil? But no one can understand these words who does not know what is signified by "the right cheek" and "the left cheek," what by "a coat" and "a cloak," also what by "a mile," and likewise by "borrowing," and so on. The subject there treated of is spiritual life, or the life of faith; not natural life, which is the life of the world. The Lord there opens, and also in this chapter, and the following, the interior things that belong to heaven, but by means of such things as are in the world. The reason why He did so by such things, was that not worldly men, but only heavenly men, should understand. The reason why worldly men were not to understand, was lest they should profane the interior things of the Word, for by so doing they would cast themselves into the most frightful hell of all, which is the hell of the profaners of the Word. Therefore it is said by the Lord in Luke: Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God; but to the rest in parables; that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not hear (Luke 8:10). And in John: Isaiah said, He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they may not see with their eyes, and understand with their heart, and should convert themselves, and I should heal them (John 12:39, 40). It is said "lest I should heal them," because they who are healed and return again to falsities and evils, commit profanation. These are they who are meant in Matthew 12:43-45.  But it shall now be told what is meant in the internal sense by the words of the Lord above quoted. In this sense it there treats of those who wish to destroy by means of falsities the truths of faith, thus the spiritual life with a man when he is in temptations, and in persecutions; and in good spirits when they are in infestations by evil spirits. By "the cheek" is signified the affection of interior truth, by "the right cheek" the affection of truth from good; by "dealing a blow" is signified the act of injuring this affection; by "coat" and "cloak" is signified truth in the external form (n. 4677, 4741, 4742); by "dragging to law" is signified the endeavor to destroy; by "a mile" is signified that which leads to truth, for the like is signified by "a mile" as by "a way" (that "a way" denotes that which leads to truth, see n. 627, 2333, 3477); by "lending" is signified to instruct. From this it is plain what is signified by "giving to all who ask," namely, to confess all things of one's faith in the Lord. The reason therefore why evil ought not to be resisted, is that evil does no harm to those who are in truth and good, for they are protected by the Lord.  These are the things which have been hidden under the above words of the Lord; and this being the case, the Lord only says, "Ye have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth," but says no more; because by "an eye" is signified the interior truth of faith; and by "a tooth," the exterior truth of faith, as will be seen in what follows. From all this it is evident in what manner the Lord spoke when He was in the world, namely, that He spoke, as everywhere in the Word of the Old Testament, at the same time for the angels in heaven, and for men in the world; for His speech was in itself Divine and heavenly, because it was from the Divine, and through heaven. But the things which He spoke were presented by means of such things as corresponded in the world. What they correspond to, the internal sense teaches.  That "to deal a blow" or "to smite the cheek" denotes to destroy truths, is plain from passages in the Word where mention is made of "smiting the cheek." And because in the genuine sense this signifies the destruction of truth, therefore in the opposite sense it signifies the destruction of falsity, in which sense it occurs in these passages: Thou wilt smite all mine enemies on the cheek; Thou wilt break the teeth of the wicked (Ps. 3:7). They shall smite the judge of Israel with a rod upon the cheek (Mic. 5:1). The bridle of him that leadeth astray shall be on the cheeks of the peoples (Isa. 30:28). For "the face" signifies the affections (n. 4796, 4797, 4799, 5102, 5695, 6604), consequently those things which belong to the face signify such things as belong to the affections, and correspond to their functions and uses; as the "eye" signifies the understanding of truth, the "nostrils" the perception of truth, those things which belong to the mouth, as the "jaws," the "lips," the "tongue," signify such things as relate to the utterance of truth (n. 4796-4805).9050.
That "soul" signifies the spiritual life, is evident from the signification of "soul," as being the life of man, but the life of his faith, which is spiritual life. In the Word throughout mention is made of "the heart" and of "the soul," and by "the heart" is signified the life of love, and by "the soul" the life of faith. Man has two faculties receptive of life from the Lord, the one called the will, and the other the understanding. To the faculty which is called the will belongs love, for the goods of love make its life. But to the faculty which is called the understanding belongs faith, for the truths of faith make its life. But these two lives with man are nevertheless one, and when they are one, then the things which are of faith are also of love, for they are loved; and on the other hand the things which are of love are also of faith, because they are believed. Such is the life of all in heaven.  The reason why the life of love, or what is the same thing, the will, is called in the Word "the heart;" and why the life of faith, or what is the same thing, the understanding, is called "the soul;" is that they who are in love to the Lord and are called celestial, constitute in the Grand Man or heaven the province of the heart; and they who are in faith in the Lord and thereby in charity toward the neighbor constitute the province of the lungs (see n. 3635, 3883-3896). From this it is that by "heart" in the Word is signified love, which is the life of the will, and by "soul" is signified faith, which is the life of the understanding (n. 2930, 7542, 8910); for in the original tongue "soul" is named from breathing, which is of the lungs.  That faith pertains to the intellectual faculty, is because this faculty is enlightened by the Lord when man receives faith. From this he has light, or a perception of truth, in such things as are of faith, when he reads the Word. And that love pertains to the will faculty, is because this faculty is kindled by the Lord when the man receives love. From this he has the fire of life, and a sensitive perception of good.  From all this it can be seen what is properly meant in the Word by "the heart," and what by "the soul;" as in the following passages: Thou shalt love Jehovah thy God from all thy heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy strength (Deut. 6:5). Thou shalt love Jehovah thy God, and shalt serve Him, from all thy heart and from all thy soul (Deut. 10:12; 11:13). These statutes and judgments thou shalt keep, and shalt do them, in all thy heart, and in all thy soul (Deut. 26:16). Jesus said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God from all thy heart, and in all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with thy thought (Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, 32; Luke 10:27). "The heart" denotes the life of love; and "the soul," the life of faith; "the strength," those things which proceed from the life of love, thus which are from the heart or the will; and "the thought," those things which proceed from the life of faith, thus which are from the soul, or an enlightened understanding.  In like manner in Isaiah: A deluded heart maketh him go astray, that he rescue not his soul, and say, Is there not a lie in my right hand? (Isa. 44:20). In Jeremiah: I will rejoice over them to do them good, and I will plant them in the land, in truth, with all My heart and with all My soul (Jer. 32:41); speaking of Jehovah, that is, of the Lord; "the heart" is predicated of the Divine good, which is of love of mercy; and "the soul" is predicated of the Divine truth, which is of faith with man.  That these things are signified by "heart" and "soul" in the Word, is at this day known to few within the church, for the reason that it has not been considered that man has two faculties distinct from each other, namely, the will and the understanding, and that these two faculties constitute one mind, in order that man may be truly man. Neither has it been considered that all things in the universe, both in heaven and in the world, bear relation to good and truth, and that they must be conjoined together in order that they may be anything, and produce anything. From ignorance of these things it has resulted that they have separated faith from love; for he who is ignorant of these universal laws cannot know that faith bears relation to truth, and love to good, and that unless these are conjoined together they are not anything; for faith without love is not faith, and love without faith is not love, because love has its quality from faith, and faith has its life from love; consequently faith without love is dead, and faith with love is alive. That this is so, can be seen from everything in the Word; for where faith is treated of, there also love is treated of, in order that in this way the marriage of good and truth, that is, that heaven, and in the supreme sense the Lord, may be in each and all things of the Word. (That there is such a marriage, see n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712, 4138, 5138, 5502, 6343, 7945, 8339.) From all this it is now evident why the man of the church has not hitherto known what is meant in the Word by "heart," and what by "soul."  That" soul" in the Word denotes the life of faith, can be plainly seen from the passages where "the soul" is mentioned, as in the following. In Moses: Thou shalt not take the mill or the upper millstone to pledge; for he taketh the soul to pledge (Deut. 24:6). It is said that "he who taketh a mill taketh the soul to pledge" because in the internal sense by "a mill" are signified those things which are of faith (n. 7780). In Isaiah: It shall be as when a hungry man dreameth, as if he were eating; but when he awaketh, his soul is fasting; or as when a thirsty man dreameth, as if he were drinking; but when he awaketh, behold he is weary, and his soul hath appetite (Isa. 29:8). "A fasting soul," and "a soul that hath appetite," denote the desire of learning the goods and truths of faith. In the same: If thou draw out thy soul to the hungry, and sate the afflicted soul (Isa. 58:10). "To draw out thy soul to the hungry" denotes to be desirous to instruct in the truths of faith; and "to sate the afflicted soul" denotes to instruct in the good of faith.  In Jeremiah: Though thou clothest thyself with double-dyed, though thou deckest thee with ornament of gold, though thou rendest thine eyes with antimony, in vain shalt thou make thyself beauteous; thy lovers will abhor thee, they will seek thy soul (Jer. 4:30). Here "soul" denotes the life of faith, consequently faith itself in man, because this makes his spiritual life. That faith is meant by "soul," is plain from the particulars in this verse. In the same: They shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow together unto the good of Jehovah, to the wheat, and to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the sons of the flock and of the herd; and their soul shall become as a watered garden; I will water the weary soul, and every sorrowful soul (Jer. 31:12, 25). "The soul" denotes the life of faith in the man of the church, who is said "to become as a garden," because by "a garden" is signified the intelligence which is from the truths of faith (n. 100, 108, 2702); and the soul is said to be "watered," because by "being watered" is signified to be instructed.  In the same: We bring our bread with the peril of our souls, because of the sword of the wilderness (Lam. 5:9). "The peril of souls" denotes the danger of the loss of faith and consequently of spiritual life; for "the sword of the wilderness" denotes falsity fighting against the truths of faith (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294). In Ezekiel: Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, these were thy traders, with the soul of man, and with vessels of brass, they furnished thy trading (Ezek. 27:13). "The soul of man" denotes the interior truth of faith from good; "vessels of brass," exterior truths of faith from good; "vessels" denoting exterior truths or memory-truths (see n. 3068, 3079), and "brass," the good of the natural (n. 425, 1551). Unless it were known that "the soul of man" denotes faith, it could not be understood what is signified by "trading with the soul of man, and with vessels of brass."  In the same: Every living soul that creepeth, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live; whence is exceeding much fish; because these waters are come hither, and are healed (Ezek. 47:9); speaking of the new temple, that is, of a new spiritual church from the Lord; "the living soul that creepeth" denotes memory-truths which are of faith; "much fish from thence" denotes memory-knowledges (n. 40, 991); "rivers" denote the things that are of intelligence, which are from the truths of faith (n. 2702, 3051). Neither in this passage would it be known without the internal sense what is meant by "much fish" in consequence of the rivers coming thither. Again: Save me, O God, for the waters are come even unto my soul (Ps. 69:1). The waters compassed me about, even to my soul (Jon. 2:5). In these passages "waters" denote falsities, and also temptations which are caused by injected falsities (n. 705, 739, 756, 790, 8137, 8138, 8368).  In Jeremiah: Jehovah said, Shall not My soul be avenged on such a nation as this? (Jer. 5:9, 29). Admit chastisement, O Jerusalem, lest My soul be turned away from thee, and I make thee a waste (Jer. 6:8). "The soul," when predicated of the Lord, denotes Divine truth. In John: The second angel poured out his vial into the sea, and it became blood as of a dead man, whence every living soul died in the sea (Rev. 16:3). "The sea" denotes memory-knowledges in the complex (n. 28); "blood," the truths of faith from good, and in the opposite sense, the truths of faith falsified and profaned (n. 4735, 6978, 7317, 7326); consequently "living soul" denotes life derived from faith.  In Matthew: Be not anxious for your soul, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink (Matt. 6:25). "Soul" denotes the truths of faith; "eating" and "drinking" denote to be instructed in the good and truth of faith, for here in the internal sense the subject treated of is spiritual life and its nourishment. Again: Whoever will find his soul shall lose it, and whoever shall lose his soul for My sake shall find it (Matt. 10:39). "The soul" denotes the life of faith such as it is with those who believe, and in the opposite sense the life not of faith such as it is with those who do not believe. In Luke: In your patience possess ye your souls (Luke 21:19). "To possess the souls" denotes those things which are of faith and consequently of spiritual life. The signification is similar in very many other passages.
9030-1 That is, compensate him for the loss of his time. [REVISER.]