Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
Verse 13. Thou shalt not kill, signifies not to take away spiritual life from anyone, also not to extinguish faith and charity, as also not to hold the neighbor in hatred.8902.
Thou shalt not kill. That this signifies not to take away spiritual life from anyone, also not to extinguish faith and charity, as also not to hold the neighbor in hatred, is evident from the signification of "killing," as being to deprive of spiritual life. That "killing" means this in the internal sense, is because in this sense spiritual life, or the life of heaven with man, is treated of; and spiritual life, or the life of heaven with man, is the life of faith and of charity; therefore by "not to kill" is signified also not to extinguish faith and charity in anyone. The reason why "not to kill" is also in the internal sense not to hold the neighbor in hatred, is that he who holds in hatred continually wishes to kill, and also would kill in act unless prevented by the fear of the penalty, of the loss of life, of reputation, and the like. For hatred is of evil, is contrary to charity, and breathes nothing but the murder of him whom it hates: in the world the murder of his body; in the other life the murder of his soul. This is meant by the words of the Lord in Matthew: Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment; but I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his brother rashly shall be in danger of the judgment; and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council; and whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of the Gehenna of fire (Matt. 5:21, 22). Hatred against the neighbor is meant by being "angry with the brother rashly," and the degrees of its increase are described by saying to him "Raca," and by calling him "a fool" (that anger is a turning away from charity, and is from evil, thus that it is hatred, see n. 357, 4164, 5034, 5798, 5887, 5888).  That in the internal sense "to kill" denotes to take away spiritual life from anyone, consequently to extinguish faith and charity, is evident from almost all the passages in the Word where a "killing," or "to kill," is mentioned, as in Isaiah: Behold the day of Jehovah cometh, cruel, and of indignation, and of wrath, and of anger; to make the land a waste, and He shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it. Then the stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shall not shine with their light, the sun shall be darkened in his rising, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine. I will visit the wickedness upon the world, and their iniquity upon the wicked. I will make a man more rare than pure gold, and the son of man than the gold of Ophir. Everyone that is found shall be thrust through, and everyone that is gathered shall fall by the sword. Their infants shall be dashed in pieces before their eyes; their houses shall be spoiled, and their wives ravished. Their bows shall dash the young men in pieces, their eye shall not spare sons (Isa. 13:9-12, 15, 16, 18). The subject treated of in this passage is the last time of the church, when there is no longer any faith and charity, which time is "the day of Jehovah cruel, full of indignation, of wrath, and of anger." Everyone can see that something else is here meant than that which the words nakedly declare; but what is meant cannot be known except from the significations of the words in their spiritual sense. In this sense "the land" denotes the church (n. 566, 662, 1067, 1262, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577, 8011, 8732); therefore "to make the land a waste, and to destroy the sinners out of it" signifies that the man of the church is then without faith and charity.  "Stars" and "constellations" denote the knowledges of truth and good (see n. 2120, 2495, 2849, 4697), and these are said "not to shine with their light," when they are no longer illuminated by the light of heaven which flows in through the faith of charity. That "the sun" denotes love to the Lord, and "the moon" faith in Him, see n. 2120, 2441, 2494, 3636, 3643, 4060, 4321, 4696, 5097, 5377, 7078, 7083, 7171, 7173, 8644, 8812; therefore "the sun being darkened in his rising," signifies that love to the Lord cannot arise with man; and "the moon not causing her light to shine," signifies that neither can charity and faith arise, thus that man cannot any longer be regenerated.  "To make a man more rare than pure gold, and the son of man than the gold of Ophir," signifies that good is no longer seen, nor truth; for by "man" is signified the good of the church (n. 4287, 8547), and by "the son of man" truth from good, in the supreme sense the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord (n. 1729, 1733, 2813, 3704). That "everyone found shall be thrust through" signifies that all will perish by reason of the evil of falsity; and that "everyone that is gathered shall fall by the sword" signifies that they will perish by reason of falsity (that "to be thrust through" denotes to perish by reason of the evil of falsity, see n. 4503; also that "to fall by the sword" denotes to perish by reason of falsity, n. 2799, 4499, 7102, 8294).  The "infants being dashed in pieces" signifies that they will utterly extinguish innocence, for "infants" denote innocence (n. 430, 2126, 3183, 3494, 5608). The "wives being ravished" signifies that the goods of truth will be perverted by the evils of falsity, for "wives" denote the goods of truth (n. 2517, 4510, 4823, 7022), and "to be ravished" denotes to be perverted (see n. 2466, 4865). That "their bows shall dash the young men in pieces" signifies that the truths of good will perish through the doctrines of falsity from evil; for a "bow" denotes the doctrine of truth, and in the opposite sense the doctrine of falsity (n. 2686, 6422, 8800); "young men" denote truths confirmed (n. 7668). "And their eye shall not spare sons" signifies that he who understands truths will nevertheless extinguish them, for "sons" denote truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2803, 2813, 3373, 4257, 5542); and "the eye" denotes the understanding of truth (n. 2701, 4403-4421, 4523-4534). From all this it is now clear what is meant by the above prophetic words, namely, that when the church arrives at its end, all truth and all good will perish. It is also evident from what has been said, that "to be thrust through," "to be dashed in pieces," in a word "to be killed," denotes the extinction of faith and charity.  In Jeremiah: Drag them away like a sheep for the slaughter, and destine them for the day of killing. How long shall the land mourn, and the herb of every field wither? For the wickedness of them that dwell therein, the beasts shall be consumed and the bird (Jer. 12:3, 4). "The day of killing" here denotes the time of the vastated church, which is its last time, when there is no longer faith because there is no charity; "the land shall mourn" denotes the church; "the herb of every field shall wither" denotes that every truth of the church will do so; "the beasts and the bird shall be consumed" denotes that goods and truths will be so. (That "the land" denotes the church, see just above; that "the herb of the field" denotes the truth of the church, see n. 7571; that "the field" denotes the church, n. 2971, 3310, 3766; that "beasts" denote goods and the affections of good, n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 719, 1823, 2179, 2180, 3218, 3519, 5198; that "birds" denote truths and the affections of truth, n. 5149, 7441.) From all this it can be seen what is the internal sense of these words, and also that what is spiritual and holy of the church and of heaven is in all the particulars; and that without the internal sense it would not in any wise be understood what is meant by "the day of killing," by that "the earth shall mourn," that "every herb of the field shall wither," and that "the beasts and the bird shall then be consumed."  In Zechariah: Thus said Jehovah thy God, Feed the sheep of the killing, whose possessors kill them, and do not own themselves guilty (Zech. 11:4, 5); where "the sheep of the killing" denote those who are in simple good, in whom the truths of faith are extinguished, not by their own fault, but by the fault of those who teach.  In Isaiah: In those that are to come shall Jacob take root; Israel shall blossom and flower; so that the faces of the world shall be filled with produce. Hath he smitten him according to the stroke of him that smote? is he killed according to the slaughter of his killed? (Isa. 27:6, 7). Behold, Jehovah cometh forth out of His place to visit the iniquity of the land; then shall the land uncover its bloods, and shall not hide its killed (Isa. 26:21). Here also in the internal sense the subject treated of is the last time of the church, when a new church shall be resuscitated, the old perishing. "Jacob" denotes those who are in the external of the church; "Israel" those who are in the internal; "the faces of the world" denote the church in general; "the land" denotes the old church; "the killed" those in whom there is no faith because no charity.  In the same: Thou art cast forth out of thy sepulcher like an abominable shoot, a vestment of the killed, thrust through with the sword. Thou shalt not be united with them in the grave, because thou hast destroyed thy land, thou hast killed thy people (Isa. 14:19, 20). "The killed" denote those who have been deprived of spiritual life; "thou hast killed thy people" denotes the destruction of the truths and goods of faith. Babel is here treated of, by which is signified the profanation of good (n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326), and also its vastation (n. 1327).  In Jeremiah: I have heard the voice of the daughter of Zion, she sigheth, she spreadeth out her hands, saying, Woe is me now, for my soul is wearied because of killers. Run ye to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see I pray, and know, and seek in the avenues thereof, if ye can find a man, if there be any that doeth judgment, that seeketh truth (Jer. 4:31; 5:1). "The daughter of Zion" denotes the celestial church; "killers," those who destroy goods and truths; "a man who doeth judgment," denotes those who are in truths from good.  In Ezekiel: Ye have profaned Me among My people for handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread, to kill the souls that should not die, and to keep the souls alive that should not live (Ezek. 13:19). "To kill souls" here plainly denotes to take away spiritual life. As "killing" had also this signification, therefore it was one of the curses upon Mount Ebal, "to slay one's companion in secret, and to take a gift to kill the soul innocent of blood" (Deut. 27:24, 25).  Again: In the consummation of the age they shall deliver you into tribulation, and shall kill you; and ye shall be hated of all the nations for My name's sake (Matt. 24:9). Jesus said to His disciples, The hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you shall think that he offereth holy worship to God; and these things will they do, because they know not the Father, nor Me (John 16:2, 3). In these passages also by "killing" is signified to deprive of spiritual life, that is, of faith and charity; for by "the disciples" are signified all things of the truth and good of faith and charity (n. 3488, 3858, 6397). That the disciples to whom the Lord spoke are not here meant, is evident from the fact that the subject treated of is the consummation of the age, when the Lord is to come in the clouds of heaven, concerning which the disciples had asked, and by which is meant the last time of the church, when the disciples would not be alive (see n. 3488).  In like manner in Mark: Brother shall deliver up brother to death, and the father his children; children shall rise up against parents, and shall kill them (Mark 13:12). Here also the last times are treated of, and by "killing" here also is signified to deprive of the truths and goods which are of faith and charity, thus of spiritual life.  In Luke: I will send unto them prophets and apostles; but some of them they shall kill and persecute; from the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zachariah the prophet it shall be required of this generation (Luke 11:49, 51). "Prophets and apostles" denote in the spiritual sense the truths and goods of the church; "to kill" denotes to extinguish them; "the blood of Abel" denotes the extinction of charity. (That "prophets" denote the truths of doctrine from the Word, see n. 2534, 7269; and that "the blood of Abel" denotes the extinction of charity, n. 374.)  In like manner in John: The blood of saints, and of prophets, and of the killed, was found in Babylon (Rev. 18:24); where also "the blood of saints and of prophets" denotes the extinction of the good and truth of faith and charity, and "the killed" denote those who have perished as to spiritual life. (That "blood" denotes violence done to charity, as well as all evil in general, n. 374, 1005; as also, specifically, the profanation of truth, n. 4735, 6978, 7317, 7326.)  As by one "killed," or "thrust through," is signified the extinction of good and truth, and as all things which were instituted in the Jewish Church were representative of the spiritual and celestial things in the Lord's kingdom, and in the supreme sense, of the Divine things in the Lord, therefore when one was found lying in the field thrust through, the following procedure of expiation for the people was commanded, namely: They were to measure toward the cities from him that was lying in the field thrust through, and the elders of the nearest city were to take a she-calf of an ox, by which no labor had yet been done, and upon which there had not yet been a yoke, and were to bring her down to a rapid stream, and the priests, the sons of Levi, were to behead her there, and then the elders of the city were to wash their hands over the calf, and were to say that their hands had not shed that blood, neither had their eyes seen it, and that thus the blood would be expiated (Deut. 21:1-8). Who would ever know why such a procedure was instituted on account of one lying in the field thrust through, unless it were known from the internal sense what is signified by "one in a field thrust through," by "the nearest city," by "a calf," by "a rapid stream," by "the washing of hands," and by the other things there mentioned? By "one in the field thrust through" is signified truth and good extinguished (n. 4503); by "field," the church (n. 2971, 3310, 3766); by "city," the doctrine of truth (n. 402, 2449, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493); by "the elders of the city," truths agreeing with good (n. 6524, 6525, 8578, 8585); by "a calf upon which there had not yet been a yoke," truth not as yet confirmed (what "a calf" signifies, see n. 1824, 1825); by "washing the hands over the calf at a rapid stream" is signified purification from that evil, because done from the immoderate zeal of one ignorant of what truth is.  From the above, as from the other passages, it can be seen what and how great arcana are contained in the particulars of the Word, which will not appear even as arcana if it is believed that the sense of the letter is the whole of the Word; and thus it will not be believed that anything more holy and heavenly lies inwardly hidden therein; when yet the sense of the letter is for man in the world, that is, for the natural man; while the internal sense is for man in heaven, that is, for the spiritual man. Hence it is plain what is involved in the commandment "not to kill," namely, that not only is man not to be killed as to the body, but also that he is not to be killed as to the soul; thus that he is not only not to be deprived of life in the world, but especially that he is not to be deprived of life in heaven. If this commandment had not involved within it at the same time this meaning, it would not have been pronounced by Jehovah Himself, that is, the Lord, in a living voice upon Mount Sinai with so great a miracle; for all peoples and nations know without immediate revelation, and moreover their laws decree, that man is not to be killed, as also that adultery, theft, and false witness are not to be committed. Neither is it to be believed that the Israelitish nation was so stupid as alone to be ignorant of what all other nations on the globe know. But the revealed Word, being from the Divine Itself, over and above this stores up in its bosom higher and more universal things, namely, such things as are of heaven, thus which not only concern the life of the body, but which also concern the life of the soul, or eternal life. Herein the Word differs from, is separated from, and is preeminent over, all other writing.8903.
Verse 13. Thou shalt not commit adultery, signifies that those things which are of the doctrine of faith and of charity are not to be perverted; thus that the Word is not to be applied to confirm evils and falsities; also that the laws of order are not to be upset.8904.
Thou shalt not commit adultery. That this signifies that those things which are of the doctrine of faith and of charity are not to be perverted, thus that the Word is not to be applied to confirm falsities and evils, also that the laws of order are not to be upset, is evident from the signification of "committing adultery," "debauching," and "whoredom," as being in the spiritual or internal sense, to pervert the goods, and falsify the truths, which are of the doctrine of faith and of charity. And as these things are signified by "committing adultery," there is also signified to apply the Word to confirm evils and falsities; for the Word is the very doctrine itself of faith and charity, and the perversion of the truth and good of the Word is its application to falsities and evils. That these things are signified by "committing adultery" and "debauching" in the spiritual sense, is known to scarcely anyone at this day, for the reason that within the church few now know what the spiritual is, and in what respect it differs from the natural. And scarcely anyone knows that there is a correspondence between the two, and indeed of such a nature that the image of the one is presented in the other, that is, the spiritual is represented in the natural, consequently that the spiritual is like a soul, and the natural is like its body; and thus that through influx and the consequent conjunction they constitute a one; as in the regenerate man do his internal man which is also called spiritual, and his external man which is also called natural.  Such things being at this day unknown, it therefore cannot be known what is signified by "committing adultery," further than being unlawfully conjoined as to the body. These things, as has been said, being at this day unknown, the reason may be told why "committing adultery" in the spiritual sense signifies to pervert those things which are of the doctrine of faith and charity, thus to adulterate goods and falsify truths. The reason, which at this day is a secret one, is that conjugial love descends from the marriage of good and truth, which is called "the heavenly marriage." The love which flows in from the Lord and which exists between good and truth in heaven, is turned into conjugial love on the earth, and this by correspondence. Hence it is that the falsification of truth is "whoredom," and the perversion of good is "adulteration," in the internal sense. Hence also it is that they who are not in the good and truth of faith cannot be in genuine conjugial love; and also that those who find the delight of life in adulteries can no longer receive anything of faith. I have heard it said by the angels that as soon as anyone commits adultery on the earth and takes delight in it, heaven is closed to him, that is, he refuses any longer to receive from heaven anything of faith and charity. That at this day in the kingdoms where the church is, adulteries are made light of by very many persons, is because the church is at its end, and thus there is no longer any faith, because there is no charity; for the one corresponds to the other. Where there is no faith, falsity is in the place of truth, and evil is in the place of good, and from this there flows the result that adulteries are no longer accounted as criminal; for when heaven is closed with a man, such things flow in from hell. (See what has been said and shown before on this subject, n. 2727-2759, 4434, 4835, 4837.)  That "to debauch," and "to commit adultery," in the internal or spiritual sense denote to falsify and to pervert the truths and goods of faith and charity, consequently also to confirm falsity and evil by wrong applications from the Word, can be seen from the several passages in the Word where mention is made of "committing adultery," of "debauching," and of "committing whoredom;" as will plainly appear from the following passages; as in Ezekiel: Son of man, cause Jerusalem to know her abominations. Thou didst commit whoredom because of thy name, and didst pour out thy whoredoms on everyone that passed by. Thou didst take of thy garments, and didst make for thee high places of various colors, and didst commit whoredom upon them. Thou didst take the vessels of thine adornment of My gold and of My silver, which I had given thee, and madest for thee images of a male; thou didst commit whoredom with them. Thou hast taken thy sons and thy daughters, whom thou hast borne unto Me, and these hast thou sacrificed. Was there little of thy whoredoms? Thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Egypt, thy neighbors, great of flesh; and hast multiplied thy whoredom to provoke Me. And thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Asshur, when thou wast insatiable; yea, thou hast committed whoredom with them, and yet thou wast not sated. And thou hast multiplied thy whoredom, even unto the land of traffic, unto Chaldea; and yet in this thou wast not sated. A woman, an adulteress under her man, taketh strangers. They give hire to all harlots; but thou hast given hirings to all thy lovers, and hast recompensed them, that they may come unto thee from every side for thy whoredoms. Wherefore, O harlot, hear the word of Jehovah. I will judge thee with the judgments of adulteresses, and of the shedders of blood (Ezek. 16:2, and following verses).  Who cannot see that by "whoredoms" here are signified falsifications of truth and adulterations of good? And who can understand a syllable of the passage unless he knows that "whoredom" has such a signification; also unless he knows what is meant by "the sons of Egypt," by "the sons of Asshur," and by "Chaldea," with whom Jerusalem is said to have "committed whoredom?" That she did not do this with those peoples themselves is manifest. It must therefore be told what these things signify in the internal sense. By "Jerusalem" is meant the church perverted; her "garments" here denote truths which are perverted; consequently the falsities which are acknowledged are "the high places of various colors;" "the sons of Egypt" denote memory-knowledges; "the sons of Asshur," reasonings; "Chaldea," the profanation of truth (that "garments" denote truths, see n. 1073, 2576, 4545, 4763, 5248, 5319, 5954, 6914, 6918; that "high places" denote worship, and "the high places of various colors," here, the worship of falsity, n. 796); "vessels of adornment of gold and of silver" denote the knowledges of good and truth (that "vessels" denote knowledges, see n. 3068, 3079; that "gold" denotes good, n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917; and "silver," the truth of good, n. 1551, 2048, 2954, 5658); "images of a male" signify appearances and likenesses of truth (n. 2046); "the sons and daughters whom they bare" denote the truths and goods which they have perverted. (That "sons" denote truths, see n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373; and that "daughters" denote goods, see n. 489, 2362, 3024; that "the sons of Egypt" denote the memory-knowledges through which is perversion, see n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 2588, 4749, 4964, 4966, 5700, 5702, 6004, 6015, 6125, 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692, 6750, 7296, 7779, 7926; that "Asshur" denotes the reasoning through which by means of memory-knowledges the truths of faith are perverted, and the goods thereof adulterated, see n. 119, 1186; and that "multiplying whoredom even unto the land of Chaldea" denotes even to the profanation of truth; also that "Chaldea" denotes the profanation of truth, n. 1368); from this it is plain why she is called "a woman an adulteress," and also "a harlot."  In like manner we read of Babylon in Revelation: There came one of the seven angels that had the seven vials, and spake with me, saying to me, Come, I will show thee the judgment of the great harlot that sitteth upon many waters; with whom the kings of the earth have committed whoredom, and the inhabitants of the earth were made drunken with the wine of her whoredom. It was Babylon the great, the mother of the harlots and of the abominations of the earth (Rev. 17:1, 2, 5; 14:8; 18:3). That "Babylon" denotes those who pervert the truths and goods of the church for the sake of self-dominion and of self-gain, and this even to profanation, is evident from the signification of "Babel" (n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326, 1327). Hence it is that Babylon is called "a harlot" and "the mother of harlots." They who know nothing of the internal sense will believe that the kings of the earth who committed whoredom with her signified kings upon the earth, or kingdoms. Yet they do not signify kings, or kingdoms, but the truths of faith of the church, to "commit whoredom" with which denotes to pervert them. (That "kings" denote the truths of faith, see n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 6148; and that "the earth" denotes the church, n. 566, 662, 1067, 1262, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577, 8011, 8732.) "The inhabitants of the earth made drunk with the wine of whoredom" denotes that they who were within the church were brought into errors and ravings through the falsities of evil; for to be "made drunken" denotes to be led into errors through false reasonings and wrong interpretations of the Word (n. 1072). "Wine" denotes falsity from evil (n. 6377); consequently "the wine of whoredom" denotes falsity from the perversion of truth. That "earth" denotes the church has just been shown; she is said to "sit upon many waters," because upon falsities, for in the genuine sense "waters" denote truths, and in the opposite sense, falsities (n. 729, 790, 8137, 8138, 8568).  That "to commit adultery and whoredom" denotes to pervert the goods and the truths of the church, is plainly evident also from another passage in Ezekiel: Two women, the daughters of one mother, committed whoredom in Egypt; they committed whoredom in their youth. Oholah is Samaria, and Oholibah is Jerusalem. Oholah committed whoredom under Me; and she doted on her lovers, on the Assyrians her neighbors, clothed in blue, governors and leaders, all of them desirable young men, horsemen riding on horses. She bestowed her whoredoms upon them, the choice of all the sons of Asshur. Yet she forsook not her whoredoms from Egypt; for they lay with her in her youth. Oholibah was more corrupt in her love than she, and in her whoredoms above the whoredoms of her sister. She doted on the sons of Asshur. She added to her whoredoms, when she saw men portrayed upon the wall, the images of the Chaldeans portrayed with vermilion, and she loved them at the look of her eyes. The sons of Babel also came to her unto the copulation of loves; they defiled her with their whoredom. Yet she multiplied her whoredoms, while she remembered the days of her youth, wherein she had committed whoredom in the land of Egypt. She doted on them more than their courtesans (Ezek. 23:2 and following verses). In this passage also no one can fail to see that by "whoredoms" are meant spiritual whoredoms, that is, perversions of the good, and falsifications of the truth, which are of the church; also that the things here contained in the internal sense are not manifest unless it is known what is signified by "the sons of Egypt," by "the Assyrians" or "the sons of Asshur," by "Chaldea," and by "Babel;" for it is clear that these nations are not meant, but such things as are of falsity; because the inhabitants of Samaria and Jerusalem did not commit whoredom with them. But what is signified by "Egypt," "Asshur," "Chaldea," and "Babylon" can be seen shown just above.  From the following passages also it is evident that "whoredoms" and "adulteries" in the internal sense denote falsifications and perversions of good and truth, thus adulterations of these; as in Hosea: Strive ye with your mother, strive ye, because she is not My wife, and I am not her husband; that she may remove her whoredoms from her faces, and her adulteries from between her breasts. I will not have mercy on her sons; because they are sons of whoredoms. For their mother hath committed whoredom, saying, I will go after my lovers, that give me my bread and my water, my wool and my flax, mine oil and my drinks. But I will lay waste her vine and her fig-tree, whereof she hath said, These are my harlot-hire that my lovers have given me (Hos. 2:2, 4, 5, 12). By "mother" in the internal sense is here meant the church (n. 289, 2691, 2717, 4257, 5581, 8897); in like manner by "wife" (n. 252, 253, 409, 749, 770), who is said "not to be a wife," because in truths perverted, that is, in falsities; by "sons" are meant the truths of the church, here falsities, because they are called "sons of whoredoms" (n. 489, 491, 533, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704, 4257). What is meant by "bread," what by "water," what by "wool and flax," also by "oil and drink," and likewise by "vine and fig-tree," has been shown in their places; namely, that they are the goods of love and of charity, also the goods and truths of faith interior and exterior; but in the opposite sense evils and falsities; for goods become evils, and truths become falsities, when they are perverted. (What is meant by "bread," see n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4217, 4735, 4976, 5915, 6118, 6409; also what by "waters," n. 739, 790, 8137, 8138, 8568; what by "flax," n. 7601; and what by "oil," n. 886, 3728, 4582; what by "drink," n. 3069, 3168, 3772, 8562; what by "vine," n. 1069, 5113, 6376; and what by "fig-tree," n. 4231, 5113.) "Harlot-hire" denotes the falsity of doctrine which they vaunt as truth.  In the same: My people asketh wood, and their staff answereth to it, because the spirit of whoredom hath led them astray, and they have committed whoredom from under their god. They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, therefore your daughters commit whoredom, and your daughters-in-law commit adultery. If thou, Israel, committest whoredom, let not Judah become guilty. Shall I not visit upon your daughters, because they commit whoredom, and upon your daughters-in-law, because they commit adultery? for they divide with whores, and they sacrifice with prostitutes (Hos. 4:12-16). "To commit whoredom from under their god" denotes to pervert truth, for by "god" in the internal sense is signified truth, and in the opposite sense, falsity (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 4295, 4402, 4544, 7010, 7268, 7873, 8301, 8867); "mountains and hills" denotes loves, here the loves of self and of the world (n. 795, 796, 1691, 2722, 6435); "the wood of which counsel is asked" denotes the good of the delight of some cupidity (n. 643); "the staff which answereth" denotes imaginary power from one's own intellectual (n. 4013, 4015, 4876, 4936, 7011, 7026). As "gods" in the genuine sense signify truths, and in the opposite sense falsities, therefore falsifying truths and adulterating goods is signified by: They have gone a whoring after strange gods, as after Baal, after Molech, after idols (Ezek. 6:9; Lev. 20:5; and elsewhere).  From all this it can now he seen what is meant by "adulteries" and "whoredoms" in the following passages: Come hither, ye sons of the sorceress, the seed of the adulterer, and she hath committed whoredom; against whom do ye delight yourselves? against whom make ye wide the mouth, and thrust out the tongue? are ye not born of transgression, a seed of a lie, who have been hated among gods under every green tree? (Isa. 57:3-5). It shall come to pass at the end of seventy years, Jehovah will visit Tyre, that it may return to its harlot-hire, and commit whoredom with all the kingdoms of the earth upon the faces of the world (Isa. 23:17). And a man put away his wife, and she went from him, and was another man's; she committed whoredom with many companions. Thou hast profaned the land with thy whoredoms and with thy wickedness. Hast thou seen what backsliding Israel hath done? She goeth away upon every high mountain, and under every green tree, and thou committest whoredom there. Moreover her treacherous sister Judah went away, and she also committed whoredom, insomuch that she hath profaned the land by the voice of her whoredom; she hath committed debauchery with stone and with wood (Jer. 3:1, 2, 6, 8, 9). This is thy lot, because thou hast forgotten Me, and trusted in a lie; thine adulteries, and thy neighings, the wickedness of thy whoredom, on the hills in the field I have seen thine abominations. Woe to thee, O Jerusalem (Jer. 13:25, 27). Against the prophets: The land is full of adulterers; for because of the curse the land mourneth; the pastures of the wilderness have dried up, because both prophet and priest practice hypocrisy. In the prophets of Jerusalem also I have seen a horrible stubbornness, in committing adultery and walking in a lie; they have strengthened the hands of the evil; they speak a vision of their heart, not out of the mouth of Jehovah (Jer. 23:9-11, 14, 16). They have wrought folly in Israel, and have committed debauchery with the wives of their companions, and have spoken a word in My name falsely, which I commanded them not (Jer. 29:23).  From these passages it is very manifest that "to commit adultery," and "to debauch," denote to explain and pervert the truths of the Word from one's own heart, that is, from one's own, in such a manner as the loves of self and of the world persuade one to do; consequently it is to speak lies, that is, falsities, as is openly said. Again: Be not glad, O Israel, because thou hast committed whoredom from under thy God, thou hast loved harlot-hire upon all the cornfloors (Hos. 9:1). Jehovah spake unto Hosea, Go, take unto thee a woman of whoredoms and children of whoredoms; because in whoring the land doth commit whoredom from behind Jehovah (Hos. 1:2). Woe to the city of bloods! Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the well-favored harlot, the mistress of sorceries, that selleth nations through her whoredoms, and families through her sorceries (Nah. 3:1, 4). Your sons shall be feeders in the wilderness forty years, and they shall bear your whoredoms forty years; according to the number of the days in which ye spied out the land, for every day a year, shall ye bear your iniquities (Num. 14:33, 34).  Inasmuch as falsifications of truth and adulterations of good corresponded to whoredoms on the earth, therefore the penalty of death was for adulterers (Lev. 20:10); and the daughter of a man who was a priest, if she profaned herself by committing whoredom, was to be burnt with fire (Lev. 21:9); also no daughter in Israel was to be exposed to whoredom (Lev. 19:19). In like manner a bastard was not to come into the congregation of Jehovah, not even his tenth generation (Deut. 23:2); and the hire of a harlot was not to be brought into the house of Jehovah, because it is an abomination (Deut. 23:18).  From these passages it can now be fully seen what is signified by "committing adultery," namely, that in the external sense it is to commit adulteries; in the internal representative sense it is to worship idols and other gods by means of such things as are of the church, consequently idolatry external and internal; but in the internal spiritual sense are signified adulterations of good and perversions of truth. From all this it is plainly evident whence it is that adulteries are in themselves so wicked, and are called "abominations," namely, from the fact that they correspond to the marriage of falsity and evil, which is the infernal marriage; and on the other hand, why genuine marriages are holy, namely, from the fact that they correspond to the marriage of good and truth, which is the heavenly marriage. Nay, genuine conjugial love descends from the marriage of good and truth, thus out of heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord; whereas the love of adultery is from the marriage of falsity and evil, thus from hell, that is, from the devil.8905.
Verse 13. Thou shalt not steal, signifies that no one's spiritual goods must be taken away from him, and that those things which belong to the Lord are not to be attributed to self.8906.
Thou shalt not steal. That this signifies that no one's spiritual goods must be taken away from him, and that those things which belong to the Lord are not to be attributed to self, is evident from the signification of "stealing," as being to take away spiritual goods from anyone. That this is signified by "stealing," is because riches and wealth in the spiritual sense are the knowledges of good and truth, in general all those things which are of faith and charity, that is, which are of spiritual life in man. Wherefore to take these things away from anyone is "to steal" in the spiritual sense. And because all spiritual goods, that is, all things of faith and charity, are from the Lord alone, and absolutely nothing from man, therefore by "stealing" is also signified to attribute to oneself what belongs to the Lord. They who do this are also called "thieves and robbers" in John: Verily I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber; but he that entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. I am the door; by Me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and go out, and find pasture. The thief cometh not but that he may steal, and slay, and destroy; I came that they may have life, and may have abundance (John 10:1, 2, 9, 10). "To enter by the door into the sheepfold" denotes to enter by the Lord, for the Lord is the "door," as He Himself says; "the sheep" are they who are in charity and thence in faith. These enter by the Lord when they acknowledge that from Him is everything of faith and charity, for then these flow in from Him. But to attribute them to others, especially to themselves, is to take them away, thus "to slay and to destroy." They who attribute to themselves what is the Lord's, also place merit in works, and make themselves righteousness (see n. 1110, 1877, 2027, 2273, 2340, 2373, 2400, 3816, 4007, 4174, 4943, 6388-6390, 6392, 6393, 6478). This then is "stealing" in the spiritual sense, and this comes to the angels in heaven when man reads in the Word about "stealing," for the angels understand the Word only spiritually.  The like is signified by "stealing" in Hosea: When I healed Israel, then the iniquity of Ephraim was revealed, and the evils of Samaria; because they wrought a lie; and the thief cometh, the troop spreadeth itself abroad; now do their works encompass them before My faces; they make the king glad by their wickedness, and the princes by their lies (Hos. 7:1-3). And in Joel: The day of Jehovah cometh. A fire devoureth before it, and after it a flame burneth; the land is as the garden of Eden before it, but after it a waste wilderness. The appearance thereof is as the appearance of horses; and as horsemen, so do they run, as the sound of chariots on the tops of the mountains; they run to and fro in the city, they run on the wall, they climb up into the houses, they enter in through the windows like a thief. The earth quaked before Him, the heavens trembled, the sun and the moon were made black, and the stars withdrew their shining (Joel 2:1-10). The subject here treated of is the desolation of the church, when falsities break in and destroy truths; these falsities are the "thieves who climb up into houses and enter in through the windows." Who can help wondering why it is said that "the day of Jehovah will be as the appearance of horses," and that then "they shall run like horsemen, they shall run to and fro in the city, they shall run on the wall, shall climb up into the houses, shall enter in through the windows, the earth shall quake, the heavens shall tremble, the sun and the moon shall be made black, and the stars shall withdraw their shining?" He who knows nothing of the internal sense, and who in his heart calls the holiness of the Word into doubt, will say that these are mere words devoid of anything Divine stored up within them, and perhaps will call them worthless sayings. But he who believes that the Word is most holy, because it is Divine, and who moreover knows that there is an internal sense which treats of the church, of heaven, and of the Lord Himself, will confess that every word herein has its own weighty import. It shall therefore be briefly unfolded what the words and sayings in this passage signify.  "The day of Jehovah" denotes the last state, or last time, of the church, when there is no longer any truth, but falsity in the place of truth; "the fire which devours before it" denotes the desire of evil; "the flame which burns after it" denotes the consequent desire of falsity; "the appearance of horses" denotes the intellectual reasoning from falsity as if from truth; "the horsemen who run" denote reasoners; "the chariots" denote doctrinal things of falsity; "a city" denotes the doctrine itself; "the wall upon which they run" denotes essential falsity; "the houses into which they climb" denotes the will of man; "the windows through which they enter in" denote intellectual things; "the thief" denotes the falsity which takes away truth; "the earth which will quake before Him" denotes the church, so also do "the heavens which will tremble;" "the sun" denotes love to the Lord; "the moon," faith in Him, these are said to be "made black" when they no longer appear; "the stars" denote the knowledges of good and truth which will no longer have light from faith and love, thus from heaven, and this is meant by "withdrawing their shining." From all this it can be seen what these words involve in general, and also in what sense "that day," or the last state of the church, is called "a thief who will climb up into the houses, and enter in through the windows," namely, that it is falsity, which will then take possession of the whole man, both of his will and of his understanding, and thus will take away all truth and good. The like is signified by a "thief" in Obadiah: The Lord Jehovih said to Edom, If thieves came to thee, if destroyers by night (how art thou cut off!), will they not steal till they have enough? (Obad. 1, 5). In like manner by a "thief," or "one who steals," in Zech. 5:1-4; Ps. 50:18-20; Matt. 6:19, 20.  As all the statutes commanded the sons of Israel by the Lord were founded on the laws of order which are in heaven, that is, derived their existence and essence from the spiritual world, so for the same reason were the statutes which were enacted concerning theft; as that he who stole an ox and sold it should restore five, if a sheep four (Exod. 22:1); also that if a thief be smitten in breaking in, there shall be no blood; but if the sun be risen, there shall be blood; the thief shall repay or shall be sold; if the theft be found in his hand, he shall restore double (Exod. 22:2-4). He that stealeth a man, and selleth him, but if he be found in his hand, dying he shall die (Exod. 21:16). If a man be found who hath stolen a soul of his brethren, of the sons of Israel, and hath made gain in him, while he sold him, that thief shall be killed; that thou mayest put away the evil from the midst of thee (Deut. 24:7). in the internal sense "the men of the sons of Israel" denote those who are in the truths and goods of faith, thus in the abstract sense they denote the truths and goods of faith (n. 5414, 5879, 5951); and therefore "to steal a man of the sons of Israel" denotes to take these away, and "to sell him" denotes to cast them off, and also to make them serve. For the truths and goods of faith, being from the Lord, are in a free state, and serve the Lord alone; but when they are cast off, they then come into a servile state, for they serve any evil of the love of self or of the love of the world, thus any bodily cupidity; whence come the derivation and correspondence of the above law. And as then from being free the truth and good of the church become servile, thus from being alive become dead, therefore the penalty which is the effect, is "death."8907.
Verse 13. Thou shalt not answer against thy neighbor the witness of a lie, signifies that good is not to be called evil, nor truth falsity; thus conversely, neither is evil to be called good, nor falsity truth.8908.
Thou shalt not answer against thy neighbor the witness of a lie. That this signifies that good is not to be called evil, nor truth falsity; thus conversely, neither is evil to be called good, nor falsity truth, is evident from the signification of "the witness of a lie," as being the confirmation of falsity. (That "witness" denotes confirmation, see n. 4197; and that "a lie" denotes the falsity of faith will be plain from what follows.) "To answer against a neighbor" denotes to speak in such manner against anyone; for by "neighbor" is signified every man, and specifically everyone who is in good, and in the abstract sense, good itself (n. 3419, 5025, 6704, 6706-6711, 6818, 8123). Consequently "thou shalt not answer against thy neighbor the witness of a lie," in the internal sense denotes not to say to anyone what is false, that is, to say that what is good is evil, and what is true is false, or the converse.  How the case herein is shall be briefly explained. All with whom there reigns the love of self or the love of the world, that is, who have as their end eminence, or honors, or wealth, or gain, do not hesitate to say and persuade others that what is just is unjust, and that what is unjust is just, and thus to act the part of witnesses of a lie. The reason why they are of such a character is that their will is wholly subject to these loves and their cupidities, and is wholly occupied and possessed by them; and then the understanding, which is the other part of the mind, is indeed able to see what is just and what is unjust; but is not willing to see, because the will prevails over the understanding, and by means of influx persuades it, and at last also blinds it. These same persons neither have conscience, nor do they know that it belongs to conscience to call that just which is just, for no other reason than because it is just, that is, from the love of what is just. They who are of this character in the world are also of the same character in the other life, but with the difference that they do not then call what is just unjust, but the good which is of faith they call evil, and truth they call falsity; for what is just in the civil world corresponds to what is good and true in the spiritual world. And they do this without conscience and also without shame, because they have been inured and habituated to it in the life of the body.  Frequent mention is made in the Word of "a lie," and by this in the internal sense is everywhere signified the falsity and evil of faith, and by "the witness of a lie," which is also called "the witness of violence," is signified the confirmation of falsity, whether it be before a judge, or before anyone else, or before oneself within the thought by self-persuasion (as in Exod. 23:1, and following verses; Lev. 19:11, 12; Deut. 19:16-20). That in the spiritual sense "a lie" denotes the evil and falsity of faith, is evident from the following passages. In John: Ye are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father ye will to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh from his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it (John 8:44). "A lie" here denotes the falsity of faith; for the subject treated of is the Jews, that they were not willing to acknowledge the Lord. In the spiritual sense "the devil" here denotes falsity, and "the father of it" denotes evil; for falsity is from evil as a son is from his father. The falsity which is of the devil is the falsity of faith, and the evil is the evil of the love of self and the love of the world.  In Isaiah: Moab is exceeding haughty, his pride, and his haughtiness, and his anger, his lies are not firm (Isa. 16:6). "Lies" denote the falsities of faith, because "Moab" denotes those who are in the evil of the love of self, and therefore falsify truths (see n. 2468, 8315). Again: We have made a covenant with death, and with hell have we made a vision; we have made a lie our trust, and have lurked in falsehood (Isa. 28:15). This is a rebellious people, lying sons, sons that are not willing to hear the law of Jehovah (Isa. 30:9). They mock every man his companion, and speak not the truth; they have taught their tongue to speak a lie (Jer. 9:5). I am against them that prophesy dreams of a lie, and tell them, that they may seduce My people by their lies (Jer. 23:32). O sword against the liars, that they may be foolish (Jer. 50:36). They have seen vanity and divination of a lie, saying, Jehovah hath said, when Jehovah hath not sent them. Therefore thus said the Lord Jehovih, Because ye speak vanity, and see a lie, therefore behold I am against you (Ezek. 13:6-9). Woe to the city of bloods! it is all full of lying and rapine (Nah. 3:1). The remains of Israel do no perversity, nor will they speak a lie, neither shall a tongue of fraud be found in their mouth; they shall feed and be at rest (Zeph. 3:13). Without are dogs, and enchanters, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and everyone that loveth and maketh a lie (Rev. 22:15). In these as in many other passages "a lie" denotes the falsity and evil of faith.8909.
Verse 14. Thou shalt not covet 8909-1 thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbors wife, and his manservant, and his maidservant, and his ox, and his ass, and anything that is thy neighbor's, signifies that one must beware of the love of self and of the world; and thus lest the evils which are contained in the preceding commandments become of the will, and so come forth.8910.
Thou shall not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, and his manservant, and his maidservant, and his ox, and his ass, and anything that is thy neighbor's. That this signifies that one must beware of the love of self and of the world, and thus lest the evils which are contained in the preceding commandments become of the will and so come forth, is evident from the signification of "coveting" [concupiscere], as being to will from an evil love. That "coveting" has this signification, is because all concupiscence is of some love; for nothing is coveted [concupiscitur] unless it is loved, and therefore concupiscence [or "coveting"] is the continuous of love, in this case of the love of self or of the world, and is as it were the life of its breath. For that which an evil love breathes is called "concupiscence," but that which a good love breathes is called "desire." Love itself belongs to the other part of the mind, which is called the will, for whatever a man loves he wills; but concupiscence belongs to both the will and the understanding, though it is properly of the will in the understanding. From all this it is evident whence it is that by the words, "thou shalt not covet the things that are thy neighbor's," is signified that one must beware lest they become of the will; for the things which become of the will are appropriated to the man, because the will is the man himself.  It is believed in the world that the thought is the man; but there are two things which constitute the life of man, the understanding and the will. To the understanding belongs thought, and to the will the affection which is of love. Thought without the affection which is of love does not make anything of life with man; but thought from affection which is of love, thus understanding from will. That these two are distinct from each other is plain to everyone who reflects, from the fact that a man can understand and perceive that to be evil which he wills, and that to be good which he either wills or does not will; from which it is clear that the will is the man himself, but not the thought, except insofar as there passes into it something from the will. Hence it is that the things which enter into the thought of man, and not through the thought into the will, do not defile him; but the things which enter through the thought into the will. These things defile him because they are then appropriated to him, and become his; for the will, as already said, is the man himself. The things which become of the will are said to enter into his heart and to come forth therefrom; whereas the things which are only of the thought are said to enter into the mouth, but to go out through the belly into the draughts-according to the Lord's words in Matthew: Not that which entereth into the mouth defileth the man; but that which cometh forth out of the mouth, this defileth the man. Whatsoever entereth into the mouth goeth into the belly, and is cast out into the draught. But the things which come forth out of the mouth come forth out of the heart; and these defile the man. For out of the heart come forth evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies (Matt. 15:11, 7-19).  From these words, as from all His other words, it can be seen of what nature was the Lord's speech, namely, that internal and spiritual things were meant, but that they were expressed by external or natural things, and this according to correspondences; for the mouth corresponds to the thought, as also all things that belong to the mouth, as the lips, the tongue, the throat; and the heart corresponds to the affection which is of love, thus to the will (that there is a correspondence of the heart with these, see n. 2930, 3313, 3883-3896, 7542). Consequently "to enter into the mouth" denotes to enter into the thought, and "to come forth out of the heart" denotes out of the will; "to go into the belly and to be cast out into the draught," or privy, is to be cast into hell, for the belly corresponds to the way toward hell, and the draught or privy corresponds to hell; hell is also so called in the Word. From this it is plain what is signified by, "whatsoever entereth into the mouth goeth into the belly and is cast out into the draught," namely, that evil and falsity are injected into the thought of man from hell, and are rent back again thither. These things cannot defile the man, because they are sent back; for a man cannot stand apart from thinking evil, but from doing it. But so soon as he receives evil from the thought into the will, it then does not go out of him, but enters into him, and this is called "coming forth out of the heart." The things which come forth thence defile him, because what a man wills goes forth into speech and into act, in so far as external bonds, which are fear of the law, of the loss of reputation, of honor, of gain, and of life, do not forbid. From all this it is now evident that by "thou shalt not covet" is signified that one must beware lest evils become of the will, and so come forth.  That concupiscence (or "coveting") is of the will, this of the heart, is also evident from these words of the Lord in Matthew: Ye have heard that it was said to them of old, Thou shalt not commit adultery; but I say unto you, that if anyone looketh on a strange woman so that he lusteth after [concupiscat] her, he hath committed adultery with her already in his heart (Matt. 5:27, 28); by "lusting after" is here meant to will, and unless fears (which are external bonds) restrained, to do; hence it is said that "he who looketh on a woman so that he lusteth after her hath committed adultery with her in his heart."  The concupiscence of evil is also meant by "the right eye giving offence," and the concupiscence of falsity by "the right hand giving offence," in the Lord's words also in Matthew: If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee; for it will be better for thee that one of thy members perish, and not thy whole body be cast into Gehenna. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee; for it will be better for thee that one of thy members perish, and not thy whole body be cast into Gehenna (Matt. 5:29, 30); from these words it is again evident in what manner the Lord spake, namely, from the Divine, as everywhere else in the Word; thus that He expressed internal and heavenly things by external or natural things according to correspondences; here the affection of evil or the concupiscence thereof by "the right eye offending;" and the affection of falsity or the concupiscence thereof by the "right hand offending;" for the eye corresponds to faith, the left eye to the truth of faith, and the right eye to the good of faith, and in the opposite sense to the evil which is of faith; thus "the right eye offending" corresponds to the concupiscence thereof (n. 4403-4421, 4523-4534). But the hand corresponds to the power which is of truth, the right hand to the power of truth from good, and in the opposite sense to the power of falsity from evil, thus "the right hand offending" corresponds to the concupiscence thereof (n. 3091, 3563, 4931-4937, 8281). "Gehenna" denotes the hell of concupiscences. Everyone can see that in this passage by "the right eye" is not meant the right eye, nor is it meant that the eye should be plucked out; also that by "the right hand" is not meant the right hand, and that it is to be cut off; but that something else is meant, which cannot be known unless it is known what is signified by "the eye," specifically by "the right eye," also what by "the hand" and specifically by "the right hand," and likewise what by "to give offence;" nor can it be known what is signified by these expressions except from the internal sense.  As concupiscences are things that come from an evil will, thus from an evil heart, and out of the heart or the will come forth murders, adulteries, fornication, thefts, false witness, according to the words of the Lord in Matthew 15:19, thus such things as are contained in the preceding commandments of the Decalogue, therefore it is said that by "not coveting those things which are the neighbor's," is signified that one must beware lest the evils which are contained in the preceding commandments become of the will, and so come forth. That by "not coveting those things which are the neighbor's" is signified that one must beware of the love of self and of the world, is because all the evils of concupiscence spring from these loves as from their fountains (see n. 2045, 7178, 7255, 7366-7377, 7488, 8318, 8678).8911.
From what has been thus far said it can be seen how the case is with man and his life, namely, that man is such as his will is, and that he remains such after death, because death is not the end of life, but its continuation. As therefore man is such as his will is, because, as before said, the will is the man himself, therefore "to be judged according to his deeds" signifies to be judged according to his will, for will and deed are not at variance, the deed being in the will and the will in the deed, provided external bonds do not hinder, such as fears of the law, of the loss of honor, of gain, of reputation, and of life. This is circumstanced like endeavor and motion. Motion is nothing else than continuous endeavor; for when endeavor ceases, motion ceases, and therefore there is nothing essential in motion except endeavor. The learned know this, for it is an acknowledged and confirmed theorem. Endeavor in man is will, and motion in him is action; they are so called in man because in him endeavor and motion are living. To be judged according to the will is the same thing as to be judged according to the love, and also the same as to be judged according to the ends of life, likewise to be judged according to the life, for the will of man is his love, and is his end of life, and is his very life itself. That this is the case is evident from the words of the Lord quoted above, that "whoever looketh on a strange woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart" (Matt. 5:27, 28); also that "to kill" a man is not only to do so in act, but also to will to do it, which is signified by "being angry" with him and treating him with insult (Matt. 5:21). Moreover man is judged according to his deeds, but no further than insofar and in such a manner as his deeds have proceeded from his will.8912.
It must also be explained briefly what is meant in the internal sense by the things here mentioned, namely, "house," "wife," "manservant," "maidservant," "ox," and "ass," which are not to be coveted. They are all the goods and truths of faith in one complex, which are not to be taken away from anyone, and to which no injury is to be done; and they are the same things which in the internal sense are signified by "keeping the Sabbath day holy," "honoring father and mother," "not killing," "not committing adultery," "not stealing," "not bearing false witness," all which things have been shown above to be in the internal sense such as are of love and faith. By "house" is meant all good in general; by "wife," all truth in general; by "manservant," the affection of spiritual truth; by "maidservant," the affection of spiritual good; by "ox," the affection of natural good; and by "ass," the affection of natural truth. These are the things which are "not to be coveted," that is, which are not to be taken away from anyone, or to which harm must not be done. That these things are meant in the internal sense, is because the Word in this sense is for those who are in heaven, for those who are there do not perceive the Word naturally, but spiritually, thus not house, nor wife, nor manservant, nor maidservant, nor ox, nor ass, but the spiritual things that correspond to them, which are the goods of love and the truths of faith. In a word, the external sense or the sense of the letter is for those who are in the world, but the internal sense is for those who are in heaven, and also for those who are in the world, yet insofar as they are at the same time in heaven, that is, so far as they are in charity and faith.8913.
Verses 15-17. And all the people saw the voices, and the torches, and the voice of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking; and the people saw, and they quaked, and stood afar off. And they said unto Moses, speak thou with us, and we will hear; and let not God speak with us, lest perchance we die. And Moses said unto the people, Fear not; because God is come to tempt you, and that the fear of Him may be before your faces, that ye sin not. "And all the people saw the voices, and the torches," signifies the perception of truths Divine from good; "and the voice of the trumpet," signifies the same things through heaven; "and the mountain smoking," signifies the good itself of truth not perceptible except in the external form; "and the people saw, and they quaked," signifies the tremor which there is when they are received; "and they stood afar off," signifies remoteness from internal things; "and they said unto Moses," signifies complaint; "Speak thou with us," signifies the reception of truth in an accommodated form, which in this manner they would obey; "and let not God speak with us," signifies truth in a form not accommodated; "lest perchance we die," signifies that thus the life of heaven with them would perish; "and Moses said unto the people," signifies information; "Fear not, because God has come to tempt you," signifies that the life of heaven will not perish; this is merely that it may be known that it exists, and what is its quality; "and that the fear of Him may be before your faces, that ye sin not," signifies holy fear therefrom of the Divine, and the consequent preservation of spiritual life.8914.
And all the people saw the voices, and the torches. That this signifies the perception of truths Divine from good, is evident from the signification of "seeing," as being to understand and perceive (see n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863, 3869, 4403-4421, 4567, 4723, 5400); from the signification of "voices" or thunderings, as being truths Divine (n. 7573, 8813); and from the signification of "torches" or lightnings, as being the brightnesses which truths have from the good of love, and which strike through and penetrate (see n. 8813).  By truths Divine from good are here meant all the commandments of the Decalogue, which were pronounced from Mount Sinai out of the midst of thunderings and lightnings; these being then displayed because the thunderings signified truths Divine, which are also for this reason called "voices;" and the lightnings signified the brightnesses which truths have from good, which are also for this reason called "torches" or flames. (That "flames" denote Divine truths proceeding from the Lord's Divine good, see n. 6832.)8915.
And the voice of the trumpet. That this signifies the same things through heaven, namely, Divine truths from good, is evident from the signification of "the voice of the trumpet," as being the state of the angelic heaven encompassing the Divine, and as being truth Divine therefrom (see n. 8815, 8823); from which it can be seen what is signified by the words of the Lord where He foretells concerning the consummation of the age, or the last time of the church, that then the Lord shall send His angels with a great voice of a trumpet, who shall gather together His elect from the four winds (Matt. 24:31). He who does not know that all the words of the Lord have stored up within them also heavenly and Divine things, that is, that there is in them an internal sense, will believe that when the Last Judgment is at hand, angels will appear, and will announce it, and will also gather together the elect with the voice of a trumpet. But that by "the voice of a trumpet" is not there meant the voice of a trumpet, but truth Divine in the internal form through heaven, and the evangelization thereof, see n. 4060, 8815, 8823.8916.
And the mountain smoking. That this signifies the good itself of truth not perceptible except in the external form, is evident from the signification of a "mountain," here Mount Sinai, as being the Divine good united to the Divine truth in heaven (see n. 8805); and from the signification of "smoking," as being in the external form. That this is meant by "smoking," is because Divine truth, or the Word in the internal form, is like light and like flame, but in the external form it is like a cloud and like smoke. The reason is that truth Divine, or the Word in the internal form, is such as it is in heaven, thus such as it is in the light there; but in the external form it is such as it is in the world, thus such as it is in the light there; and relatively to the light of heaven, the light of the world is like a cloud, or like smoke relatively to flame. Truth Divine, or the Word in the internal form, is the internal sense of the Word, and in the external form it is its external or literal sense; that this literal sense is called a "cloud," see the preface to Genesis 18, and elsewhere (n. 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8106, 8781); and that it is called "smoke" is because by "smoke" is signified what is obscure of truth (n. 8819). That the mountain appeared smoking before the sons of Israel, was not because the Divine there was of such a quality, but because the Divine appears to everyone according to the quality of him who sees it; and the quality of those who then saw was that they made everything of worship to consist in externals, and nothing in internals; and that consequently they understood the Word only according to the sense of the letter. Therefore in respect to the truth which was being promulgated, the Divine must needs appear to them as smoke, that is, as obscure; whence it is also said that they "stood afar off," by which is signified that they were remote from internal things. But on this more below.8917.
And when the people saw, they quaked. That this signifies the tremor which there is when Divine truths are received, is evident from the signification of "to quake," as being a tremor, here a tremor such as there is when Divine truths are received (concerning which tremor, see n. 5459, 8816).8918.
And they stood afar off. That this signifies remoteness from internal things, is evident from the signification of "standing afar off," as being remotely, here, from internal things, because from Mount Sinai, by which is signified heaven and the Divine there (see n. 8805). Whether you say "remotely from the Divine," or "from heaven," or "from internal things," it is the same, because heaven is in internal things. For the internal of man is in the light of heaven, and his external is in the light of the world; or what is the same, the soul or spirit of man is in heaven, but his body in the world. Heaven is nearer to the Divine than the world, because in heaven the Divine of the Lord reigns, and is the all in all. As further regards the signification of "afar off," be it known that in the spiritual sense "afar off" has no reference to space, but to the Divine, thus to good and truth. Distance from the very good itself which proceeds from the Divine, causes the appearance of distance in heaven. The angelic societies there appear distinct and even remote from one another; but as already said this idea of space comes from distance from the good and truth which are from the Divine of the Lord. This must needs appear a paradox, nay, absurd, to many in the world. The reason is that the thoughts and their ideas with man are founded upon spaces and times, insomuch that man cannot think without them. Consequently if you abstract times and spaces from a man's thought, he scarcely perceives anything. Nevertheless the angels in heaven think absolutely without any idea of time and space, and with such fullness that in intelligence and wisdom their thoughts surpass the thoughts of man thousands, nay, myriads of times; and, wonderful to say, if there occurs to them an idea derived from time and space, shade and thick darkness at once come to their minds, because they then fall from the light of heaven into the light of nature, which to them is thick darkness.  (That there are no spaces and times in the other life, but states; or that the appearances of spaces and times arise from the variations of state in respect to good and truth, see n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 3404, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381.) From this then it is evident what "standing afar off" signifies in the spiritual sense, namely, remoteness from heaven where the Divine is; here, remoteness from internal things, because, as said above, that nation which then stood afar off from Mount Sinai was very remote from internal things, for it was in external things only, and it made everything of Divine worship to consist in these. Moreover to do so was permitted that nation, because thus it could represent heavenly and Divine things; for in order to be representative an external is required, and is also possible without an internal (n. 3147, 3670, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4307, 8588).  "Afar off" signifies remoteness from good and truth, which are from the Divine, thus remoteness from internal things, also in the following passages. In Luke: In hell the rich man lifting up his eyes saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. Abraham said to him, Between us and you there is a great gulf fixed; that those who would pass over from hence to you cannot; neither can those who are there pass over to us (Luke 16:23, 26). By "Abraham" is not meant Abraham, for he is not known in heaven; but in the supreme sense the Lord, and in the relative sense those in heaven who are in the good of love and faith in the Lord (n. 1834, 1876, 1965, 1989, 2011, 3245, 3305, 6098, 6185, 6276, 6894). They who are in hell are said to "see those who are in heaven afar off," because they are in a state most remote from good and truth. The "great gulf" between them denotes the remoteness itself from good, which also gives the appearance of an intervening gulf.  They who think from an idea of space, as do all men in the world, perceive no otherwise than that hell is far distant from man, and that heaven is so too. But the case is otherwise. Hell and heaven are near to man, yea, in man; hell in an evil man, and heaven in a good man. Moreover everyone comes after death into that hell or into that heaven in which he has been while in the world. But the state is then changed; the hell which was not perceived in the world becomes perceptible, and the heaven which was not perceived in the world becomes perceptible; the heaven full of all happiness, and the hell of all unhappiness. That heaven is within us, the Lord teaches in Luke: The kingdom of God is within you (Luke 17:21). See "afar off" also in the following: They come from a land afar off, from the extremity of the heavens (Isa. 13:5; also Jer. 5:15). Hear, ye that are far off, what I have done; and ye that are near, acknowledge My might (Isa. 33:13). I will say to the north, Give; and to the south, Keep not back; bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the extremity of the earth. Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears (Isa. 43:6, 8; also 49:12). Attend, O isles, unto Me; hearken, ye peoples, from far (Isa. 49:1; also Jer. 31:10). The voice of the cry of the daughter of My people from a land afar off: Is not Jehovah in Zion? Is not her King in her? (Jer. 8:19). Jehovah, Thou hast planted them, and they have also taken root. But Thou art near in their mouth, but far off from their reins (Jer. 12:2). Am I a God near, and not a God afar off? (Jer. 23:23). In all these passages "afar off" signifies remoteness from good.8919.
And they said unto Moses. That this signifies complaint, is evident from what follows in this verse; for what they said are complaints.8920.
Speak thou with us, and we will hear. That this signifies the reception of truth in an accommodated form which so they would obey, is evident from the signification of "speaking," as being influx and communication (n. 2951, 3060, 4131, 5481, 5797, 6228, 7270, 8128), therefore also reception, for that which flows in and is communicated is received; and from the representation of Moses, who was to speak, as being truth from the Divine beneath heaven conjoined with truth Divine in heaven, thus mediating between the Lord and the people (n. 8760, 8787, 8805); hence it is that "Moses" here denotes truth in an accommodated form.  As regards truth in an accommodated form, be it known that when truth Divine descends through the heavens to men, as the Word has descended, it is on the way accommodated to all, both to those who are in the heavens, and to those who are on the earth. But truth Divine is in quite a different form in the heavens from what it is in the world. In the heavens it is such as is the internal sense of the Word; in the world it is such as is its sense in the letter. Nay, in the heavens themselves it is in diverse forms, in one form in the inmost or third heaven, in another form in the middle or second heaven, and in still another in the first or ultimate heaven. The form of truth Divine, that is, the perception, thought, and utterance of it, in the inmost or third heaven, so transcends that in the middle or second heaven, that in this heaven it cannot be apprehended, it is so Divine and exalted; for it contains innumerable things that cannot be uttered in the second heaven; it consists of mere changes of state in respect to the affections of love. But the form of truth Divine in the middle or second heaven transcends in like manner that in the first or ultimate heaven, and still more the form of truth Divine in the world. Hence it is that the things which are uttered in those heavens are such as no human mind has ever perceived, nor any ear heard, as those know from experience who have been raised into heaven.  They who do not know this believe that in the heavens they think no otherwise and speak no otherwise than on the earth; but this they believe because they do not know that the interiors of man are in a more exalted state than his exteriors, and that the thought and speech of those who are in the heavens is celestial and spiritual, but of those who are on the earth it is natural, the difference between which is so great that it cannot be described in words (but concerning these kinds of speech, see n. 1634-1650, 1757-1759, 1876, 2157, 2472, 2476, 3342-3345, 4104, 4609, 5225, 5287, 6040, 6982, 7002, 7089, 7131, 7191, 7381, 8343, 8733, 8734).  From all this it is also evident that unless truth Divine or the Word were presented in an accommodated form, it could not be apprehended; for if it were in a more exalted form than the state of perception, it would not fall into the understanding, thus not into the faith. Hence it is that truth Divine was given to man such as is the Word in the letter; for if it were to appear such as it is in heaven, no man would apprehend it, and on the first view and notice would reject it, because it would not fall into such things as are of natural light; and moreover it would be full of arcana such as could in no wise enter into any idea of man, because they are altogether repugnant to the appearances and fallacies which are derived from the world through the external senses; to say nothing of the deeper arcana which lie hidden within these arcana in manifold series, and that cannot possibly be expressed except by means of variations and changes of state of heavenly light and flame, by which angelic speech and thought are carried on.8921.
And let not God speak with us. That this signifies truth in a form not accommodated, is evident from what precedes; for by "Moses" is signified truth Divine beneath heaven conjoined with truth Divine in heaven, thus mediating between the Lord and the people, consequently truth Divine in an accommodated form (as just shown above, n. 8920). Consequently by "let not God speak with us," is signified truth Divine in a form not accommodated; for by "God" is here meant the Lord as to Divine truth in heaven (n. 8805), consequently the Divine truth itself; which is also the reason why it is said "God," and not "Jehovah;" for in the Word where "God" is named, the Lord as to Divine truth is meant; but where "Jehovah" is named the Lord as to Divine good is meant (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4295, 4402, 7091, 7268, 7873, 8301, 8867).8922.
Lest perchance we die. That this signifies that thus the life of heaven with them would perish, is evident from the signification of "dying," as being to die spiritually (see n. 6119), thus to perish in respect to the life of heaven. That truth Divine in a form not accommodated has this effect, is evident from what was shown just above (n. 8920). For truth in a form not accommodated, such as it is in heaven, transcends the apprehension, and that which transcends the apprehension is not received, and that which is not received does not flow into any faith, thus neither into the life of faith, which is the life of heaven. For man is regenerated, that is, receives the life of heaven, by means of the truth Divine which is of faith (n. 2046, 2063, 2189, 2979, 3155, 3876, 3877, 5893, 5912, 6247, 8635-8640, 8772).8923.
And Moses said unto the people. That this signifies information, is evident from the signification of "saying," here by Moses unto the people, as being information; for the things which he said are matters of information about that of which they complained. In like manner in other places by "saying" is signified information, when information is given about the subject of inquiry (see n. 7769, 7793, 7825, 8041).8924.
Fear not, because God is come to tempt you. That this signifies that the life of heaven will not perish; this is merely that it may be known that it exists, and what is its quality; this is evident from the signification of "not fearing," namely, that they will die, as being that they will perish in respect to the life of heaven (see n. 8922); and from the signification of "to tempt you," as being to teach that there is a life of heaven and what its quality is. That this is signified by "tempting," is because all spiritual temptation teaches and confirms such things with man. For temptations are to the intent that the faith of truth, and the affection of truth, and afterward the affection of good, may be implanted and inrooted, and that thus the man may receive new life, which is the life of heaven.  For temptations are combats with evils and falsities, and when the man conquers these, he is confirmed, for he fights from truths and for truths against falsity and evil. That he fights from truths and for truths, the man is not sensible of at the time, because truths are in the interiors; and therefore they do not come manifestly to sense, which is of the exteriors; but that it is from them and for them is evident from the fact that there is combat and afterward victory, which is not possible except by collisions of things opposite to each other: the opposites are evil and good, and falsity and truth.  But be it known that the man does not fight, but the Lord for the man, and indeed against the hells, which then attempt to attack and subdue the man (see n. 840, 1661, 1692, 8159, 8168, 8172, 8175, 8176). From all this it is evident that by the words "Fear not, for God is come to tempt you," is signified that they ought not to fear that the life of heaven will perish, for this comes to pass that they may be taught and know that there is a life of heaven, and also what its quality is. (But concerning temptations, see what has been already said and shown, n. 2272, 2768, 3318, 3927, 3928, 4249, 4299, 4341, 4572, 5036, 5246, 5356, 6144, 6574, 6611, 6657, 6663, 6666, 6829, 8131, 8273, 8351, 8367, 8370, 8403, 8567.)8925.
And that the fear of Him may be before your faces, that ye sin not. That this signifies holy fear therefrom of the Divine, and the consequent preservation of spiritual life, is evident from the signification of "the fear of God," as being a holy fear of the Divine (of which below); from the signification of "faces," as being the interiors (n. 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796, 4797, 5102, 5585, 5592); consequently "the fear of God before their faces" denotes a holy fear of the Divine in their interiors; and from the signification of "that ye sin not," as being the preservation of spiritual life, for spiritual life is preserved by not sinning. To sin is to do and think what is evil and false intentionally and from the will, for the things which are done intentionally and from the will are such as come forth out of the heart and defile the man (Matt. 15:11, 17-19), consequently which destroy spiritual life with him (n. 8910). As regards the holy fear which is signified in the Word by "the fear of God," be it known that this fear is love, but love such as is the love of little children toward their parents, of parents toward their children, of consorts toward each other, who fear to do anything which displeases, thus which in any way does injury to love. Such fear is insinuated into love during man's regeneration. As this fear is in agreement with love, and can be within and actually is within or united to love, it is for this reason called holy fear, and is the fear of sinning or doing contrary to the commandments, thus contrary to the Lord. But this fear differs with everyone according to the quality and amount of the love (see what has been shown about it in n. 2826, 3718, 3719, 5459, 7280, 7788).8926.
Verses 18-20. 8926-1 And the people stood afar off, and Moses came near unto the thick darkness where God was. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel, Ye have seen that I have spoken with you from heaven. Ye shall not make with Me gods of silver and gods of gold, ye shall not make unto you. "And the people stood afar off," signifies remoteness from internal truths; "and Moses came near unto the thick darkness where God was," signifies conjunction still of the truth of spiritual good with truth Divine; "and Jehovah said unto Moses," signifies instruction further; "Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel," signifies those who are of the spiritual church; "Ye have seen that I have spoken with you from heaven," signifies all things of the Word by means of influx from the Divine through heaven; "ye shall not make with Me gods of silver and gods of gold," signifies that they should wholly abstain from such things as in the external form appear as true and good, but in the internal form are false and evil; "ye shall not make unto you," signifies that they must carefully beware.8927.
And the people stood afar off. That this signifies remoteness from internal truths, is evident from the signification of "standing afar off," as being remoteness from internal things (of which above, n. 8918).8928.
And Moses came near unto the thick darkness where God was. That this signifies the conjunction still of the truth of spiritual good with truth Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine beneath heaven conjoined with truth Divine in heaven, consequently mediating (see n. 8760, 8787, 8805), thus the truth of spiritual good, for this is truth Divine beneath heaven, in which truth is the spiritual church that is represented by the sons of Israel-this truth is represented by Moses as the head of that church (n. 7041); from the signification of "coming near," as being conjunction, for to come near unto the Divine is to be conjoined therewith; and from the signification of "thick darkness," as being truth Divine relatively to those who are of the spiritual church, also relatively to that people which Moses was in charge of as their leader. That truth Divine is thick darkness to that church and that people, is because they are not in any light in respect to truths Divine.  In the first place, those who are of the spiritual church believe that they are in light; but that they are in obscurity, nay, in thick darkness, in respect to truth Divine, is evident from the fact that they do not know from any internal perception that what the church says is true, but merely from the fact that the church says so; and this they confirm with themselves whether it be false or true; and he who is not in any internal perception concerning truth Divine is in thick darkness, or what is the same thing, to him Divine truth is thick darkness. For example, they who are of the spiritual church do not know, nor desire to know, that there is any internal sense of the Word; and if perchance they were to believe it, it would not be from any internal perception that it is so, but from persuasion from some other source.  To take another example: they who are of the spiritual church say that faith is the only means of salvation, even without charity and its goods. This they believe because the church says so, nor do they come to such a light of perception as to perceive that there is no faith except where there is charity, and that the one belongs to the other as consort to consort; consequently that charity is an essential of the church, because it is of good. From this also it is plain in what obscurity, or in what thick darkness, the spiritual church is. And because they are in this thick darkness they divide the church into as many churches as there are diverse doctrines concerning the truths of faith; which they would not do if they were in light. For he who is in light never doubts, still less denies, that love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor are essentials of the church, and that upon them are based all the truths of the Word, consequently all the truths of faith. The case is similar with all the other truths which hang upon this and are called truths of faith. (But these things have been more plainly shown above, n. 2708, 2715, 2831, 2849, 2935, 2937, 3241, 3246, 6289, 6427, 6865, 6945, 7233. That they who are of the spiritual church do not attain unto the first threshold of the wisdom, or unto the first ray of light, in which they are who are of the celestial church, see n. 2718, 3833, 6500.)  Another reason why Moses is said to have entered into thick darkness when he came near unto God, is that Moses as a leader represented the Israelitish and Jewish people, which was in such thick darkness concerning internal truths as to be wholly ignorant of them, for they made everything of worship and everything Divine to consist in external things. This is the reason why to them the Divine was thick darkness; for it is known to everyone that the Divine is never in darkness, but in light, for the Divine is light itself; and therefore when it is called "thick darkness" it is relatively to those who are in no light, for unto such the Divine truths make the light of heaven appear no otherwise; because they are not believed, and are even denied. And the Divine appears unto everyone according to the quality of his life and faith, consequently as light to those who are in light, and as thick darkness to those who are in thick darkness. (That the Israelitish and Jewish people was of such a quality, see n. 3479, 3769, 4281, 4293, 4307, 4314, 4316, 4433, 4680, 4825, 4832, 4844, 4847, 4865, 4903, 6304; also that the Lord appeared unto them upon Mount Sinai in smoke, in a cloud, and in thick darkness, in accordance with their quality, n. 1891, 6832, 8814, 8819.)8929.
And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies instruction further, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being instruction, for "saying" involves what follows, here instruction (as also elsewhere, n. 6879, 6881, 6883, 6891, 7186, 7267, 7304, 7380, 8127).8930.
Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel. That this signifies those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (see n. 6426, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223, 7957, 8234, 8805).8931.
Ye have seen that I have spoken with you from heaven. That this signifies all things of the Word by means of influx from the Divine through heaven, is evident from the signification of "speaking from heaven," when by Jehovah to those who are of the church, who are represented by the sons of Israel (n. 8930), as being truth Divine, or the Word from the Divine through heaven; for that which Jehovah speaks is truth Divine, thus the Word which is in the church; and that which He speaks passes through heaven.  Be it known that heaven is not in any certain and determinate place, thus not, according to the common opinion, on high; but heaven is where the Divine is, thus with everyone and in everyone who is in charity and faith; for charity and faith are heaven, because they are from the Divine, and there also the angels dwell. That heaven is where the Divine is, that is, where the Lord is, is evident from the fact that Mount Sinai, from which the Lord spoke, is here called "heaven;" and this is also the reason why by "Mount Sinai" is signified heaven, from which is Divine truth (n. 8805).  That all things of the Word are signified, is because Jehovah or the Lord then began to reveal the Word which should serve the human race for doctrine and life, first by Moses, and afterward by the prophets. In order therefore that they might know that the Word was from the Divine through heaven, the Lord Himself willed to come down, and with a living voice proclaim the ten commandments, and thus show that all that follows of the law, that is, of the Word, was in like manner by means of influx from the Divine through heaven.8932.
Ye shall not make with Me gods of silver and gods of gold. That this signifies that they should wholly abstain from such things as in the external form appear as true and good, but in the internal form are false and evil, is evident from the signification of "making gods," as being to worship, for he who makes unto himself gods does it for the sake of worship; from the signification of "silver," as being truth, consequently in the opposite sense, falsity; and from the signification of "gold," as being good, and consequently in the opposite sense, evil (see n. 113, 1551, 1552, 2954, 5658, 6914, 6917, 7999). That those things are meant which appear true and good in the external form, but in the internal are false and evil, is because it is said, "Ye shall not make them with Me," that is, with Jehovah God; for Divine truth itself and Divine good itself are in internals and are likewise in externals; but in externals Divine truth and good are in representative types; for external things in a type have reference to and represent internal things. External things are false and evil whenever, being separate from internal things, they are accounted holy or are worshiped; and yet they still appear as true and good, because they represent what is true and good. These things are signified by "making with Jehovah God gods of silver and gods of gold."  This commandment follows immediately after the ten commandments, for the reason that the Israelitish and Jewish people was such that it accounted holy, and worshiped altogether as Divine, external things separated from internal (n. 3479, 3769, 4281, 4293, 4307, 4314, 4316, 4433, 4680, 4825, 4832, 4844, 4847, 4865, 4903, 6304, 6832, 8814, 8819). That it may be further known what and of what quality are those things which in the external form appear as true and good, but in the internal are false and evil, let us take as an example all the rites of the Jewish Church; as the sacrifices, incenses, washings, and many others. In the external form these were true and good, not of themselves, but because in a type they had reference to or represented internal truths and goods, which are of love and faith in the Lord. When such things were accounted holy in the external form, and especially when they were worshiped, as by the Jews and Israelites when becoming idolaters they applied them to the worship of strange gods, they then retained nothing of the truths and goods which in a type they had reference to or represented, except the appearance, because in the internal form they were falsities and evils.  The case was similar with all the other things which with that people were types representative of heavenly and Divine things. For as soon as the external things which represented internal things were applied to the worship of other gods, they became idols which they worshiped, or gods of silver and of gold which they made with Jehovah God; for then in external form they appeared as true and good, but in the internal they were false and evil.  In general "gods of silver and of gold" denote all the falsities and derivative evils of worship, which are rendered like truth and good by wrong applications and interpretations of the Word, and at the same time by reasonings from self-intelligence. Such things are signified by "the gods of silver and of gold" in the following passages. In Isaiah: In that day a man shall cast forth his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they made for themselves to bow down to, to the moles and to the bats; to enter into the clefts of the rocks, and into the clefts of the crags (Isa. 2:20, 21). "Moles and bats" denote those who are in darkness, that is, in falsities and in the derivative evils.  Again in Isaiah: In that day they shall cast away every man his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which your hands have made for you, a sin (Isa. 31:7). "Which the hands have made" denotes those things which are from self-intelligence. Again: The craftsman casteth a graven image, and the caster overlayeth it with gold, and casteth silver chains (Isa. 40:19). "Graven images" denote those things which are from one's own (see n. 8869); "to overlay with gold" denotes to make them appear good in the external form; "casting silver chains," denotes to make them cohere together as if connected with truths. (That "gold" denotes good, and "silver" truth, may be seen in the passages cited above.)  In like manner in Jeremiah: The statutes of the nations are vanity: surely he cutteth out wood from the forest, the work of the hands of the workman. He decketh it with gold and with silver; they fasten them with nails and with hammers, that it sway not to and fro (Jer. 10:3, 4). In Hosea: The Ephraimites sin more and more, and make them a molten image of silver, idols in their intelligence, all the work of the craftsmen (Hos. 13:2). "Ephraim" denotes the intellectual of the church (n. 5354, 6222, 6234, 6238, 6267); "a molten image of silver" denotes falsity appearing as truth, wherefore it is said "in their intelligence"; "all the work of the craftsmen" denotes that all was through reasonings from their own.  In Habakkuk: Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, This shall teach. Behold this is fixed with gold and silver, but there is no breath in the midst of it (Hab. 2:19). "Wood" denotes evil; "stone" falsity; "fixed with gold and silver" denotes the appearance of good and truth by means of applications. In Daniel: Belshazzar said while he well tasted the wine, that they should bring the vessels of gold and of silver which his father Nebuchadnezzar had brought out of the temple that was in Jerusalem; that the king and his great ones, his wives and his concubines, might drink therefrom. And they drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, of stone (Dan. 5:2-4, 23). "The vessels of gold and of silver, which were from the temple of Jerusalem," represented the goods and truths of the church and kingdom of the Lord; "to drink wine out of them" signified to profane by means of evils and falsities, which are "the gods of gold and of silver."  In David: Their idols are silver and gold, the work of a man's hands. They have a mouth, but they speak not; eyes have they, but they see not (Ps. 115:4, 5; 135:15-16). "The silver and gold which are idols" denote falsities and evils; "the work of a man's hands" denote that they are from self-intelligence. In Moses: The graven images of the gods of the nations shall ye burn with fire; thou shalt not covet the silver and the gold that is on them, to take it unto thee, for that is an abomination to Jehovah thy God; therefore thou shalt not bring an abomination into thy house, that there become what is accursed, like unto it, thou shalt utterly abhor it (Deut. 7:25-26). "The silver and gold upon graven images" denote the falsities and evils which are worshiped as truths and goods by reason of the appearance that is induced on them.8933.
Ye shall not make unto you. That this signifies that they must carefully beware, is evident from the fact that it is again said that it was not to be done. The iteration or repetition involves that it was not to be done at all, or that they must carefully beware.8934.
Verses 21-23. 8934-1 An altar of ground thou shalt make to Me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy thank-offerings, thy flocks, and thy herds; in every place where I shall put the memory of My name, I will come unto thee and I will bless thee. And if thou make Me an altar of stones, thou shalt not build it of hewn stones; for if thou move thy tool upon it, thou wilt profane it. And thou shalt not go up on steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it. "An altar of ground thou shalt make unto Me," signifies a representative of worship in general from good; "and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy thank-offerings," signifies worship specifically according to the state of the spiritual life of each one; "thy flocks, and thy herds," signifies goods internal and external; "in every place where I shall put the memory of My name," signifies a state of faith in the Lord with everyone; "I will come unto thee and I will bless thee," signifies the presence of the Divine then, and influx; "and if thou wake Me an altar of stones," signifies a representative of worship in general from truths; "thou shalt not build it of hewn stones," signifies that it must not be from self-intelligence; "for if thou move thy tool upon it," signifies if it is from one's own; "thou wilt profane it," signifies that then there will be no worship; "and thou shalt not go up on steps unto Mine altar," signifies no elevation to interior things which are celestial; "that thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it," signifies the idea of thought concerning them thus full of falsities, which idea will then be made manifest.8935.
An altar of ground thou shalt make unto Me. That this signifies a representative of worship in general from good, is evident from the signification of "an altar," as being the principal representative of the Lord, and consequently of the worship of Him (see n. 921, 2777, 2811, 4489, 4541); and from the signification of "ground," as being good. That "ground" denotes good is because by "ground" is signified the church which is in good (n. 566). Hence Adam was said to be "from the ground" (Gen. 2:7; 3:19), for by him was signified the man of the celestial church, or the church which is in good (n. 478, 479). There are two things from which the worship of the Lord is effected; good and truth. Worship from good was represented by an altar of ground, but worship from truth was represented by an altar of stones; both kinds of altars are here treated of. These two things from which worship is effected are called faith and charity; worship from truth bears relation to faith, and worship from good to charity. As regards worship from faith and worship from charity, or from truth and from good, the case is this. Before a man is regenerated he is in worship from truth, but when he has been regenerated, he is in worship from good. For before a man has been regenerated he is led by means of truth to good, that is, by means of faith to charity; but when he has been regenerated he is in good and thence in truth; that is, he is in charity and thence in faith (n. 8516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658). These two kinds of worship are what are represented by altars of ground and of stone. (That an altar is the chief representative of the worship of the Lord, because thereon were made burnt-offerings and sacrifices, and these were the things in which the Divine worship of the Hebrew nation, and thus of the Israelitish and Jewish nation, chiefly consisted, see n. 923, 1343, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830, 3519, 6905.)8936.
And shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy thank-offerings. That this signifies worship specifically according to the state of the spiritual life of each one, is evident from the signification of "burnt-offerings and sacrifices," as being all internal worship in general, with variety according to the various kinds of celestial and spiritual things, that is, of good which is of love to the Lord, and of truth which is of faith in the Lord (see n. 922, 923, 2165, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830, 3519, 6905), thus according to every state of spiritual life specifically. From this it was that sacrifices were instituted of kinds so various, as, besides the daily sacrifices, those of the Sabbaths, of the feasts, of the new moons, of inaugurations, of sanctifications, also for every guilt, for sin, for cleansing, for healing, and for birth. From this also it was that according to the state [to be represented] various kinds of animals were employed, as oxen, bullocks, lambs, rams, she-goats, and he-goats, by which were specifically signified the various goods of spiritual life.8937.
Thy flocks, and thy herds. That this signifies goods internal and external, is evident from the signification of "flocks," as being internal goods, and from the signification of "herds," as being external goods (see n. 2566, 5913). That by "flocks" are signified internal goods; is because to flocks belong lambs, sheep, kids, she-goats, rams, and he-goats, by which are signified such things as are of innocence, and of celestial and spiritual love in the internal man; and that by "herds" are signified external goods, is because to herds belong oxen, bullocks, calves, by which are signified such things as are of good and truth in the external man. (What is signified by "oxen," see n. 2180, 2566, 2781; what by "bullocks," and by "calves," n. 1824, 2830; what by "lambs," n. 3519, 3994, 7840; what by "sheep," n. 4169; what by "kids," and by "she-goats," n. 3519, 4005, 4006, 4871; what by "rams," n. 2830, 4170; and what by "he-goats," n. 4169, 4769.)8938.
In every place where I shall put the memory of My name. That this signifies a state of faith in the Lord with everyone, is evident from the signification of "place," as being state (see n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 3404, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381); thus "every place" denotes the state of everyone, or with everyone. That a state of faith is signified, is because the "name of Jehovah" signifies everything in one complex by which the Lord is worshiped, thus all things of faith and charity (n. 2724, 3006, 6674); consequently "to put the memory of the name of Jehovah God" denotes with whom, or in whose heart, are charity and faith from the Lord. It is according to the sense of the letter that they were to sacrifice burnt-offerings and thank-offerings, thus their flocks and their herds, in Jerusalem, which was the place chosen by the Lord for the worship of Himself, thus in which He put the memory of His name. According to the internal sense, however, place is not meant, but every man in whom are faith and charity; for in the internal sense by "place" is not signified place, but state; neither by "name" is there signified name, but faith and worship; thus there is meant the man who is in a state of reception of faith from the Lord. Moreover in Jerusalem, which was the place where the Lord was worshiped by burnt-offerings and thank-offerings, were represented all things that belong to the church. Consequently by "Jerusalem" in the Word, and by the "New Jerusalem" in Revelation, is signified the church of the Lord; and the church of the Lord is with everyone who is in a state of reception of charity and faith from the Lord; for a man is himself a church, and a number in whom is the church make the church in general. Hence it is also evident that by "in every place in which I put the memory of My name" is signified a state of faith with everyone.8939.
I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. That this signifies the presence of the Divine then, and influx, is evident from the signification of "coming unto" anyone, when it is said by Jehovah, as being presence (see also n. 5934, 6063, 6089); and from the signification of "to be blessed," when by Jehovah, as being to be gifted with faith and charity (n. 2846, 3406, 4981, 6091, 6099, 8674), thus also their flowing in, for faith and charity flow in from the Lord with man. These things are "a blessing" in the internal sense, for they are what render man blessed and happy to eternity. During man's life in the world, the things which he calls blessings are those which render him blessed and happy in time, such as riches and honors. But the things which are meant in the internal sense of the Word are not temporal things, but eternal things, compared with which temporal things are of no account. For there is no ratio between what is temporal and what is eternal, not even if the time be extended to thousands or myriads of years, for these have an end, but that which is eternal has no end. Wherefore that which is eternal is, for that which is without end is, because it has being from the Divine, which is infinite, and the infinite as to time is the eternal. But that which is temporal relatively is not, because when it is ended it is no more. Hence also it is plain that "blessing" in the spiritual sense is that which has within it being from the Divine, thus the things of eternal life, consequently those which are of charity and faith.  That worldly blessing is nothing in comparison with heavenly blessing, which is eternal, the Lord thus teaches in Matthew: What is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his soul? (Matt. 16:26). But the man who is in worldly and earthly things does not apprehend this saying, for worldly and earthly things suffocate it, and cause him not even to believe that there is an eternal life. And yet I can asseverate that as soon as a man dies he is in the other life, and lives as a spirit among spirits, and that he then appears to himself and to others in that life in all respects like a man in the world, endowed with every sense internal and external (n. 1881); consequently that the death of the body is only the casting off of such things as had served for use and service in the world; and moreover that death itself is a continuation of life, but in another world, which is invisible to the eyes of the earthly body, yet is there seen in a light exceeding a thousand times the midday light of the world.  As I know this from the living experience of so many years, which is still continued, I solemnly declare it. I still speak, and I have spoken, with almost all whom I had known in the world and who are dead, with some after two or three days from their decease. Very many of them were exceedingly indignant that they had not believed at all in a life which was to continue after death. I have spoken with them not merely for a day, but for months and years; and it has also been given me to see their states of life in succession, or in progress, either to hell or to heaven. Wherefore let him who wishes to be eternally happy know and believe that he will live after death. Let him think of this and keep it in mind, for it is the truth. Let him also know and believe that the Word is the only doctrine which teaches how a man must live in the world in order to be happy to eternity.8940.
And if thou make Me an altar of stones. That this signifies a representative of worship in general from truths, is evident from the signification of "an altar," as being a representative of Divine worship in general (see n. 921, 2777, 2811, 4489); and from the signification of "stones," as being truths (n. 643, 1298, 3720, 3769, 3771, 3773, 3789, 3798, 6426, 8609). There is worship of the Lord from good, and there is worship of Him from truth. The worship of the Lord from good was represented by an altar of ground, and the worship from truth by an altar of stone (as to both kinds of worship, see above, n. 8935). As an "altar of stone" signified worship from truth, it was therefore commanded that such an altar should be erected as soon as they passed over the Jordan and came into the land of Canaan, and upon it were to be written the commandments of the law, that is, truths Divine from heaven; for by the "ten commandments" are signified all truths Divine in sum total. Concerning this altar it is thus written in Moses: When ye shall pass over Jordan, thou shalt set thee up great stones, and plaster them with plaster; and then thou shalt write upon them all the words of this law. After, thou shalt build there an altar unto Jehovah thy God, an altar of stones, upon which thou shalt not strike iron. Thou shalt build the altar of Jehovah thy God of whole stones, and thou shalt cause to go up upon it burnt-offerings, and thank-offerings. And thou shalt write upon the stones of the altar the words of the law very plainly (Deut. 27:1-8; Josh. 8:30-32).  The reason why the words of the law were to be written upon the stones of the altar, was that by "stones" were signified truths, and by "an altar of stones," worship from truths. This also was the reason why the ten commandments, which signified Divine truths in the complex, were written on tables of stone. That this was to be done as soon as they had passed over the Jordan, was because the Jordan, which was the first and the last boundary of the land of Canaan on the side of the wilderness, signified introduction into the church or heaven, which is effected by means of the knowledges of truth and good, thus by means of truths from the Word (n. 4255); for all the rivers which were boundaries of that land signified the first and the last things of the Lord's kingdom (n. 4116, 4240). By the "stones of the altar" are signified the truths of faith also in Isaiah: He shall take away sin when He maketh all the stones of the altar as chalkstones that are scattered (Isa. 27:9); speaking of the vastation of the church; "the stones of the altar as chalkstones that are scattered" denotes that so it shall be with the truths of faith which are of worship. As regards altars in general, they were of ground, of stones, of brass, of wood, and also of gold-of brass, wood, and gold, because these signified good. (Concerning an altar of brass, see Ezekiel 9:2; concerning an altar of wood, 41:22; and concerning an altar of gold, which was the altar of incense, see 1 Kings 6:22; 7:48; Rev. 8:3.) (That "brass" signifies good, see n. 425, 1551; that "wood" does so, n. 643, 2784, 2812, 3720, 8354; and likewise "gold," see n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658.)8941.
Thou shalt not build it of hewn stones. That this signifies that it must not be from self-intelligence, is evident from the signification of "hewn stones," as being such things as are from self-intelligence; for "stones" denote truths (see n. 8940); and to "hew," or fit, them denotes to hatch or devise truths, or such things as resemble truths, from one's own, or from self-intelligence. For things which are hatched or devised from one's own, or from self-intelligence, have their life from man, which life is no life, because man's own is nothing but evil (n. 210, 215, 694, 874-876,874-876, 987, 1047, 5660, 5786, 8480); whereas that which is not from man's own, but from the Divine, has life in itself, because all life is from the Divine. The worship of the Lord from truth is here treated of, for this worship is signified by "an altar of stones" (n. 8940).  The truths from which the Lord is to be worshiped are to be taken solely from the Word, for in every detail of the Word there is life from the Divine. When truths are taken from one's own, they regard and have as their end dignity and eminence over all in the world, and likewise earthly possessions and wealth above all men, and therefore they have in them the love of self and of the world, thus all evils in the complex (n. 7488, 8318). But truths which are from the Word regard and have as their end eternal life, and have in them love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor, thus all goods in the complex. When truths are hatched from one's own, or from self-intelligence, they rule over the truths which are from the Divine, because these are applied to confirm them; when yet the contrary should be the case, namely, that truths from the Divine should rule, and those which are from self-intelligence should serve. Those which are from one's own, or from self-intelligence, are called truths, but they are not truths; they only appear as truths in the external form, for they are rendered like truths by means of applications from the literal sense of the Word, and by reasonings, while in the internal form they are falsities (what and of what quality they are, see above, n. 8932).  There are in the world two religiosities which are from self-intelligence-one in which the love of self and of the world is everything, which religion is that which is called in the Word "Babel;" it is inwardly profane from the love of self and of the world, and outwardly holy from the Word which has been applied to confirm. The other religiosity is that in which the light of nature is everything; they who are in this acknowledge nothing as truth which they do not apprehend. Some from this religiosity acknowledge the Word, but they apply it for confirmation, thus to serve. Some however do not acknowledge the Word; but these make the Divine to consist in nature, for their light, being of nature, falls into nature, and cannot be enlightened by the light of heaven, because they reject the Word from which is all enlightenment. Those who are from these two religiosities are in hell, because they are void of heavenly life, which they cannot receive because they have rejected the Word. And those of them who have applied the Word for confirmation, have made the Word of none effect in their hearts; but because of its great authority with the common people, they have used it for this service, in order to give weight to the devices of their own intelligence. From all this it can be seen what is signified in the spiritual sense by the altar not being to be built of hewn stones.  By "hewn stone" is signified that which is from self-intelligence in the following passages also: That the people may know, Ephraim and the inhabitant of Samaria, that say in haughtiness and pride of heart, The bricks are fallen, and we will build with hewn stone (Isa. 9:9, 10). Although I cry and shout, He hath shut out my prayers, He hath fenced about my ways with hewn stone, He hath overturned my paths (Lam. 3:8, 9). Forasmuch as ye trample upon the worn one, and seize from him the burden of wheat; ye have built houses of hewn stone, but ye shall not dwell in them (Amos 5:11). In these passages "hewn stone" denotes such things in matters of faith as are from self-intelligence.  Such being the signification of "hewn stone," therefore the altar first built in the land of Canaan by the sons of Israel after they had passed over the Jordan, was built of unhewn stones; for by the passage over the Jordan was represented introduction into the kingdom of the Lord, which is effected by means of the truths of faith. Of this altar it is thus written in Joshua: Joshua built an altar unto Jehovah the God of Israel in Mount Ebal, as Moses the servant of Jehovah commanded the sons of Israel, an altar of whole stones, upon which no man had moved iron (Josh. 8:30, 31; also Deut. 27:1-8).  In like manner the temple of Jerusalem was built of whole stones unhewn, of which it is thus written in the first book of the Kings: As to the house itself, when it was in building, it was built of whole stone, as it was brought; for there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tools of iron heard in the house, while it was in building (1 Kings 6:7). For by the temple of the Lord was represented the Lord as to Divine truth. That the Lord was represented by the temple, He Himself teaches in John 2:19, 21, 22; and that He was represented as to the Divine truth, was because this truth was there taught; for which reason also it was built of stones, because by "stones" was signified Divine truth (n. 8940); and hence also the Lord Himself was called the "Stone of Israel" (n. 6426).  From all this it is now evident what was signified by the stone of the altar, and what also by the stone of the temple, likewise what by the stones being whole and unhewn, namely, that religion was to be formed by truths from the Lord, thus from the Word, and not from self-intelligence. Truths which are from self-intelligence are thus described also in Isaiah: The workman casteth a graven image, and the founder overlayeth it with gold, and casteth silver chains. He seeketh an intelligent workman to prepare a graven image (Isa. 40:19, 20). "A graven image" denotes a religiosity that is from one's own, which is set up to be worshiped as Divine (see n. 8869); "the workman" denotes those who hatch and devise from one's own; that they may appear like truths is described by his "overlaying it with gold," "casting silver chains," and "seeking an intelligent workman."  Again: They that form a graven image are all of them vanity. All his fellows shall be ashamed, and the workmen themselves. He fashioneth the iron with the tongs, and worketh with coal, and formeth it with sharp hammers; thus he worketh it with the arm of his strength; he fashioneth pieces of wood, he stretcheth out a thread, and marketh it off with a rule; he maketh it into its angles, and defineth it with a compass, that he may make it in the form of a man, according to the beauty of a man, to dwell in the house (Isa. 44:9, 11-13). in this passage also is described a religiosity which is from self-intelligence. In like manner in Jeremiah: The statutes of the nations are vanity; surely he cutteth out wood from the forest, the work of the hands of the workman with an axe. He decketh it with silver and with gold; he fasteneth it with nails and with hammers (Jer. 10:3, 4). And also in Hosea: Nevertheless now they sin more and more, and make them a molten image of silver, idols in their intelligence, all the work of the craftsmen (Hos. 13:2). A religiosity that is hatched from self-intelligence, and not derived from the Word, is meant in the internal sense by "idols" and "strange gods," by "molten images" and "graven images," for the things which are from one's own are nothing else, because in themselves they are dead, and yet are adored as living.8942.
For if thou move thy tool upon it. That this signifies if it is from one's own, is evident from the signification of a "tool," as being truth devised, thus from one's own; for the tool is of iron, by which stones are cut and fashioned into form. Here therefore it is man's own, for this fashions the things which are to be of religion, in order that they may appear in the form of truth. Instead of "tool," the term "iron" is sometimes used, and sometimes "axe" (see Deut. 27:5; Josh. 8:30, 31; 1 Kings 6:7; Isa. 44:11, 12; Jer. 10:3), and by these instruments are signified such things as are of self-intelligence, and which devise.8943.
Thou wilt profane it. That this signifies that then there will be no worship, is evident from the signification of "profaning," as being to cause that there is not any worship. For that which is from self-intelligence is in itself void of life, nay, is spiritually dead, for man's own is nothing but evil; and therefore if Divine worship is performed from it, this worship is nothing else than the worship of an idol, graven or molten, wherein there is no spirit, that is, no life. But that which is from the Word is alone serviceable for Divine worship, because it is in itself alive. For within everything of the Word there is a spiritual sense, which treats of the Lord's kingdom; and within this sense is the Divine, because the Word in its inmost sense treats of the Lord alone; from this is the sanctity and the life of the Word, and not from any other source. The Word is like a Divine man; the literal sense is as it were his body, but the internal sense is as it were his soul; which shows that the literal sense has life through the internal sense. It appears as if the literal sense vanishes or dies through the internal sense; but on the contrary it does not vanish, still less dies; but through the internal sense it lives. From all this it is now evident that worship truly Divine has its existence from those things which are of the Word, and in no case from those things which are of self-intelligence. Hence it is that by "if thou move a tool upon the altar thou wilt profane it," is signified, if thou devise not from the Word, but from self-intelligence such things as must be of Divine worship, there is no worship.8944.
It is believed in the world that a man is able to know from the light of nature, thus without revelation, many things that belong to religion; as that there is a God, that He is to be worshipped, and also that He is to be loved, likewise that man will live after death, and many other things that depend upon these; and yet these things being such as are from self-intelligence. But I have been instructed by much experience that of himself, and without revelation, man knows nothing whatever about Divine things, and about the things that belong to heavenly and spiritual life. For man is born into the evils of the love of self and of the world, which are of such a nature that they shut out the influx from the heavens, and open influx from the hells; thus such as make man blind, and incline him to deny that there is a Divine, that there is a heaven and a hell, and that there is a life after death. This is very manifest from the learned in the world, who by means of knowledges have carried the light of their nature above the light of others; for it is known that these deny the Divine, and acknowledge nature in place of the Divine, more than others; and also that when they speak from the heart, and not from doctrine, they deny the life after death, likewise heaven and hell, consequently all things of faith, which they call bonds for the common people. From this it is plain what is the quality of the light of nature without revelation. It has also been shown that many who have written upon natural theology, and from the light of their nature have skillfully confirmed those things which belonged to the doctrine of their church, in the other life at heart deny these same things more than others do; and also deny the Word itself, which they attempt utterly to destroy; for in the other life hearts speak. It has also been shown that the same can receive nothing of influx out of heaven, but only from the hells. Hence it was plain what is the quality of the light of nature without revelation; consequently what is the quality of that which comes from man's own intelligence.  But two considerations have arisen which bring the mind into doubt upon this subject: first, that the ancients who were Gentiles nevertheless knew that there is a Divine, that this is to be worshiped, and that man as to the soul is immortal; second, that these things are known also to many nations at this day, with whom there is no revelation. But as regards the ancients, they did not know these things from the light of their own nature, but from revelation, which had spread from the church even unto them; for the Lord's church had been in the land of Canaan from the most ancient times (see n. 3686, 4447, 4454, 4516, 4517, 5136, 6516). From this source such things as pertained to Divine worship spread to the nations round about, and likewise to the neighboring Greeks, and from these to the Italians or Romans. From this source both Greeks and Romans had knowledges about the Supreme Deity, and the immortality of the soul, of which their learned men wrote.  As regards the nations at this day who also know that there is a Divine, and that there is a life after death, these have not had this knowledge from the light of their own nature, but from a religiosity derived by them from ancient times, which had been founded on such things as had spread in various ways from the church, which had revelation. This was of the Lord's Divine Providence. Moreover, those of them who from their religiosity acknowledge a Divine over all things, and from their religiosity perform the duties of charity to their neighbor, when instructed in the other life receive the truths of faith, and are saved (see n. 2589-2604).8945.
And thou shalt not go up on steps unto the altar. That this signifies no elevation to interior things which are celestial, is evident from the signification of "going up by steps," as being to raise oneself to higher or interior things (whether we say "interior things," or "higher things," it is the same, for interior things appear as higher, see n. 2148, 3084, 4210, 4599); and from the signification of "an altar," as being the chief representative of the Lord (n. 921, 2777, 2811); thus by "going up on steps unto Mine altar" is signified to raise oneself to the Lord, consequently to interior things which are celestial; for the Lord is more present in interior things. Those things are called celestial which are in the inmost heaven, and those spiritual which are in the middle heaven. For heaven is distinguished into two kingdoms, namely, the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom. They who are in the celestial kingdom are in the inmost or third heaven, thus nearest to the Lord; for they who are there are in love to the Lord and in innocence, consequently in wisdom above all the other angels. But they who are in the spiritual kingdom are in the middle or second heaven, thus more remote from the Lord; they who are there are in charity toward the neighbor, and through charity are with the Lord. (Concerning these two kingdoms and the difference between them, see n. 2048, 2088, 2227, 2507, 2669, 2708, 2715, 2718, 3235, 3246, 3374, 3887, 4448, 4585, 4938, 4939, 5113, 5922, 6367, 6435, 7877.)  It is to be explained in a few words how the case is with respect to the elevation toward interior things, thus toward celestial things, which is signified by "going up on steps unto the altar." It is not granted anyone in the other life to be raised higher into heaven than to the degree of good in which he is; for if he is raised higher, his defilements, that is, the evils of his loves and the falsities therefrom, are made manifest. For the more interior, the more pure and holy, it is in heaven. They who are in a more impure state are kept in a lower sphere, where their impurities are not perceived and do not appear, because they are in a grosser good, and a more obscure truth.  It sometimes happens that they who come into heaven desire to come into a more interior heaven, believing that so they will enjoy greater joy. In order that this desire which clings to them may be removed, they are indeed raised into a more interior heaven; but when they come thither, they begin to be distressed by reason of the evils of their loves, which evils then come to their perception, and they also become ugly by reason of the falsities from the evils with them. On perceiving these things, they cast themselves down from the more interior heaven, and do not return into a tranquil and peaceful state until they come into their former station. These are the things which are signified by the statute, "Thou shalt not go up on steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it."  The case is similar with those who are beneath heaven. If these desire to ascend into heaven before they have been prepared, when they are raised there they feel torment almost infernal, and appear to themselves like carcasses. Even the very life with them labors, like the life of those who are in the death agony; and therefore they cast themselves down headlong, and afterward no more desire to ascend above the state of life in which they are.  Be it known that in the other life heaven is denied by the Lord to no one, and that as many as desire can be admitted. (Heaven consists of societies of angels who are in the good of love toward the neighbor and of love to the Lord; and when any are admitted into heaven, they are let into such societies.) But when the sphere of their life, that is, when the life of their love, is not in agreement, then conflict arises, from which they have anguish and downcasting. In this way they are instructed about the life of heaven, and the state of their own life in comparison, also about the fact that no one has heaven merely by being received or admitted (as is the common opinion in the world), and that by his life in the world a man may become of such a character that he can be with those who are in heaven (see what has been already said and shown on this subject from experience, n. 3938, 4225, 4226, 4299, 4674, 5057, 5058, 7186, 7519, 8794, 8797). These are the things which are signified by the statute, "Thou shalt not go up on steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it;" and also by a similar statute in Exod. 28:42, 43.  It is said "go up on steps," for the reason that elevation to interior things appears in the world of spirits, where celestial and spiritual things are presented in forms like those of the world, as an ascent by steps. This representative it has often been given me to see. For this reason also it was that the angels were seen by Jacob in his dream going up to the Lord by the steps of a ladder (Gen. 28:12). Therefore also by "steps" in the Word is signified ascent to higher things, that is, to interior things, as in Ezekiel 40:6, 22, 26, 31, 34; and in Amos: The Lord Jehovih Zebaoth buildeth His steps in the heavens (Amos 9:6).8946.
That thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it. That this signifies the idea of thought concerning them thus full of falsities, which idea will then be made manifest, is evident from the signification of "nakedness," as being that which is destitute of truths (see n. 5433), thus an idea of thought full of falsities; and from the signification of being "uncovered," as being to be made manifest. How the case herein is, has been explained just above (n. 8945), namely, that a man, a spirit, or an angel, when raised more interiorly into heaven, appears such as he is as to both his lives; as to the life of his thought with respect to truths, and as to the life of his will with respect to goods; for the more interior the advance into the heavens, the purer is the good, and the purer the truth. In order therefore that the falsities which are of the thought, and the evils which are of the will, should not appear, but be hidden, they are kept in lower parts, where they are in a comparatively obscure light. From all this also it can be seen what was meant by the saying that "no one can see Jehovah and live;" for Jehovah is pure love, and from Him is pure light, and to be seen in these is to perish. Therefore also the angels themselves in heaven are covered with a cloud (n. 6849); and all who are in hell are veiled in thick clouds (n. 3340, 8137, 8138, 8814, 8819); for clouds there are falsities.8947.
ON THE SPIRITS AND INHABITANTS OF THE PLANET SATURN The spirits from that earth, and likewise the earth itself, appear in front at a considerable distance, in the plane at the lower part of the knees; and when the eye is opened thither, a multitude of spirits from that earth come into view. They are seen on this side of that earth, and to the right.8948.
It has also been given me to speak with them, and thereby to know their quality as compared with others. They are upright, and they are modest. And as they esteem themselves small as compared with others, therefore also in the other life they appear small; for the appearance of everyone in the other life is according to his mind, and according to his life.8949.
In worship they are very humble; for therein they account themselves as nothing. They worship our Lord, and acknowledge Him as the One Only God. For the Lord sometimes appears to those who are on that earth in an angelic form, and thus as a man; and then the Divine beams forth from the face and affects their mind. Moreover when the inhabitants become of age, they speak with spirits, by whom they are instructed concerning the Lord, and how He is to be worshiped; also how they ought to live.8950.
When any wish to lead astray the spirits of that earth, and draw them away from faith in the Lord, or from humility toward Him, and from uprightness of life, they say that they wish to die. Then little knives are seen in their hands, by which they seem to wish to pierce their breasts. When they are asked why they do so, they say that they would rather die than be led away from the Lord. Sometimes the spirits of our earth laugh at these things, and infest them with questionings why they do so. But they answer that they know very well that they are not going to kill themselves, and that this is only an appearance proceeding from the will of their mind, showing that they would rather die than be drawn away from the worship of the Lord.
8909-1 Latin, concupisces
8926-1 Verses 21-23 in the English Bible.
8934-1 Verses 24-26 in the English Bible.