Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
The age to which the inhabitants live is for the most part thirty years, according to the years of our earth. They who live beyond this age are said to be unteachable, and therefore the chastising and instructing spirits do not come to them. The reason why they die within so brief a space of time is of the providence of the Lord, lest their numbers should increase beyond what that earth is capable of supporting. They also come to maturity more quickly there than on this earth. They marry in the first flower of youth, and their delights then are to love their consort and take care of their children. Other delights they indeed call delights, but relatively external.8852.
At the end of the following chapter an account will be given of the spirits and inhabitants of the planet Saturn.8853.
CHAPTER 20. THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY. Every man has something of his own which he loves above all things. This is called that which rules, or if you will, that which reigns universally with him. This is constantly present in his thought, and also in his will, and makes his veriest life.8854.
As for example, he who loves wealth above all things, whether money or possessions, is continually revolving in his mind how he may procure it; he inmostly rejoices when he acquires it; he inmostly grieves when he loses it; his heart is in it. He who loves himself above all things is mindful of himself in everything, thinks of himself, speaks of himself, acts for the sake of himself; for his life is a life of self.8855.
A man has as the end that which he loves above all things; in each and all things he has regard to this; it is in his will like the hidden current of a river which draws and bears him away, even when he is doing something else, for it is what animates him. It is this which one man searches out in another, and also sees, and according to it either leads him, or acts with him.8856.
When a man is being regenerated, charity is implanted by means of faith, even until it becomes that which rules; and when charity has become this, he has a new life, for it is then continually present in his thought, and continually in his will, nay, in every single thing of them, even when he is meditating about other things, and when he is engaged in business.8857.
The case is the same with love to the Lord. When this love is that which rules, it is present in every single thing of the man's life; as for instance with him who loves his king, or his parent, his love toward them shines forth in their presence from every feature of his face, it is heard in every expression of his speech, and is seen in his every gesture. This is meant by having God continually before the eyes, and by loving Him above all things, with all the soul and with all the heart.8858.
A man is wholly such as is the ruling principle of his life; by this he is distinguished from others; according to this is formed his heaven if he is good, and his hell if he is evil; for it is his veriest will, and thus the very being of his life, which cannot be changed after death. From all this it is evident what is the nature of the life of one who is regenerate, and what is the nature of the life of one who is not regenerate. EXODUS 20 1. And God spake all these words, saying, 2. I am Jehovah thy God, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants. 3. Thou shalt have no other gods before My faces. 4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any likeness, of that which is in the heavens above, or that which is in the earth beneath, or that which is in the waters under the earth: 5. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them; for I Jehovah thy God am a zealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the thirds and upon the fourths of them that hate Me: 6. And doing mercy to thousands of them that love Me and keep My commandments. 7. Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain; for Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain. 8. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. 9. Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work: 10. And the seventh day is the Sabbath to Jehovah thy God; thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy manservant, and thy maidservant, and thy beast, and thy sojourner who is in thy gates: 11. For in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested in the seventh day; wherefore Jehovah blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it. 12. Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be prolonged upon the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee. 13. 8858-1 Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not answer against thy neighbor the witness of a lie. 14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, and his manservant, and his maidservant, and his ox, and his ass, and anything that is thy neighbor's. 15. And all the people saw the voices, and the torches, and the voice of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking; and the people saw, and they quaked, and stood afar off. 16. And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear; and let not God speak with us, lest perchance we die. 17. And Moses said unto the people, Fear not; because God is come to tempt you, and that the fear of Him may be before your faces, that ye sin not. 18. And the people stood afar off, and Moses came near unto the thick darkness where God was. 19. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel, Ye have seen that I have spoken with you from heaven. 20. Ye shall not make with Me gods of silver and gods of gold, ye shall not make unto you. 21. An altar of ground thou shalt make to Me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy thank-offerings, thy flocks, and thy herds; in every place where I shall put the memory of My name, I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. 22. And if thou make Me an altar of stones, thou shalt not build it of hewn stones; for if thou move thy tool upon it, thou wilt profane it. 23. And thou shalt not go up on steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it.8859.
THE CONTENTS. In this chapter the subject treated of in the internal sense is the truths Divine which are to be implanted in the good with those who are of the Lord's spiritual church. The ten commandments of the Decalogue denote these truths. The commandments concerning sacrifices, and concerning the altar, which follow in this chapter, denote the external truths which are of worship.8860.
THE INTERNAL SENSE Verse 1. And God spake all these words, saying, signifies truths Divine for those in the heavens, and for those on earth.8861.
And God spake all these words, saying. That this signifies truths Divine for those in the heavens and for those on earth, is evident from the signification of "the words which God spake," as being truths Divine, for the things which God speaks are nothing else than truths. From this also truth Divine is called "the Word," and "the Word" is the Lord, according to John 1:1, for the reason that when the Lord was in the world He was the Divine truth itself, and afterward when He was glorified He became the Divine good, and thenceforth all Divine truth proceeds from Him. This Divine truth is light to the angels, which light is also that which illuminates our internal sight, which is that of the understanding.  As this sight does not see natural, but spiritual things, it has for its objects in the spiritual understanding the truths which are called the truths of faith; but in the natural understanding it has for its objects truths of the civil state which relate to what is just, and also truths of the moral state which relate to what is reputable, and lastly natural truths which are conclusions from the objects of the external senses, especially of the sight. From all this it can be seen in what order truths follow, and that all and each have their origin from truths Divine, which are the internal beginnings of all things. Moreover the forms in which they are have had their origin from the same source, for these were created to receive and contain. This shows what is meant in John by all things having been created through the Word (John 1:1-3); for truth Divine is the veriest essential, and is the only substantial through which all things are.8862.
That by "the words which God spake" are meant truths Divine for those in the heavens and those on the earth, is because the ten commandments, which are called the Decalogue, and the subsequent statutes promulgated and commanded from Mount Sinai, are such truths as are not only for those who are on the earth, but also for those who are in the heavens; for all the words, that is, all the truths which are from the Lord, are not only for men, but are also at the same time for the angels, since they come through heaven and thus pass over to earth. But in the heavens they do not sound as they do on the earth, for in the heavens they are in a spiritual form, but on the earth in a natural form. What is the nature of those things which are in a spiritual form as compared with those which are in a natural form, is evident from all the particulars of the Word in the internal sense and in the external sense. Those in the internal sense are spiritual, but those in the external sense, which is the sense of the letter, are natural. The latter have been accommodated to men on the earth, but the former to angels in the heavens.  That such is the case can be seen from the fact that the Word has been sent, and thus has passed, from the Divine Itself through heaven to earth; and that when it comes to the earth it is truth accommodated to the human race, which is in earthly and bodily things; whereas in the heavens it is accommodated to angels, who are in spiritual and heavenly things. Such being the nature of the Word, it is holy in itself; for it contains in itself what is heavenly and Divine. This can be plainly seen from the ten commandments of the Decalogue. Everyone can see that these commandments are such things as have been known everywhere on the earth; as that parents are to be honored, that murder, adultery, and theft are not to be committed, and that no one should bear false witness; consequently that the Israelitish nation might have known these laws from natural light alone; for what nation is there which does not know them? And yet for their promulgation Jehovah Himself came down and promulgated them out of fire which burned even to the heart of heaven. From this it can be seen that these commandments contain in their bosom more things than appear in the letter, namely, such things as are at the same time for the heavens and that fill the heavens. All things of the Word are of this nature, because they are from the Divine. From this it is plain whence it is that the Word is holy, and what is meant by the Word's being inspired as to every jot and tittle, and as to every little horn (Matt. 5:18; Luke 16:17). The nature of the commandments of the Decalogue in the spiritual sense, that is, their nature in the heavens, shall accordingly be seen in what follows.8863.
Verses 2-7. I am Jehovah thy God, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants. Thou shalt have no other gods before My faces. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any likeness of that which is in the heavens above, or that which is in the earth beneath, or that which is in the waters under the earth; thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them; for I Jehovah thy God am a zealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the thirds and upon the fourths of them that hate Me; and doing mercy to thousands of them that love Me and keep My commandments. Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain; for Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. "I am Jehovah thy God," signifies the Lord as to the Divine Human universally reigning in each and all things of good and truth; "who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants," signifies liberation by Him from hell; "Thou shalt have no other gods before My faces," signifies that truths must not be thought of from any other source than the Lord; "Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image," signifies not from self-intelligence; "nor any likeness," signifies a semblance of those things which are from the Divine; "of that which is in the heavens above, or that which is in the earth beneath," signifies of those things which are in spiritual light, or of those which are in natural light; "or that which is in the waters under the earth," signifies of those which are in the sensuous corporeal; "thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them," signifies no Divine worship is to be paid them; "for I Jehovah thy God," signifies the Divine from the Lord in each and all things; "am a zealous God," signifies that falsity and evil are therefrom; "visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons," signifies the consequent prolification of falsity derived from evil; "upon the thirds and upon the fourths," signifies in a long series, and the conjunction of them; "of them that hate Me," signifies who absolutely reject the Divine of the Lord; "and doing mercy unto thousands," signifies good and truth unto them forever; "of them that love Me," signifies who receive the good of love; "and keep My commandments," signifies who receive the truths of faith; "Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain," signifies profanings and blasphemings of the truth and good of faith; "for Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain," signifies that these things cannot be forgiven.8864.
I am Jehovah thy God. That this signifies the Lord as to the Divine Human universally reigning in each and all things of good and truth, is evident from the fact that in the Word no other than the Lord is meant by "Jehovah" (see n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 3448, 5663, 6280, 6281, 6303, 8274), in like manner by "Jehovah Zebaoth," by "the Lord Jehovih," by "Jehovah God" (n. 2921, 3023, 3448, 6303); and that the Lord is called "Jehovah" from the Divine good, which is the Divine Being, but "God" from the Divine truth, which is the Divine Coming-forth (n. 6905, also n. 709, 732, 1096, 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4402). That it is the Divine Human of the Lord which is here meant by "Jehovah God," is because the Lord as to this is meant in the Word both by "Jehovah" and by "God"-the Divine good, which He is even as to the Human, by "Jehovah;" and the Divine truth, which He is because it proceeds from Him, by "God."  That the Divine Human of the Lord is meant by "Jehovah God," is because the Divine Itself which is in the Lord cannot be seen in heaven, and not even perceived, thus cannot be received in faith and love, but the Divine Human only. That the Divine Itself cannot be communicated to the angels in heaven, and still less to men on earth, except through the Divine Human, is known in the churches from the words of the Lord in the Evangelists, where He says that He is the "door," that He is the "mediator," that "no one can come to the Father but through Him," that "no one knoweth the Father but He," and that "no one hath seen the Father," not even any "shape" of Him. From this it is plain that it is the Lord who is here meant by "Jehovah God." That it is He also who redeemed the human race and liberated it from hell is likewise known. This is signified by the words which follow: "who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants." From all this it is now plain that Jehovah God who spoke from Mount Sinai denotes the Lord as to the Divine Human.  That this is the first thing which is said by the Lord from Mount Sinai, is because this ought to reign universally in each and all things that follow; for what is said first must be kept in the memory in the things that follow, and must be regarded as the universal thing that is in them. What is meant by "universally reigning" shall be seen in what follows. The things said by the Lord are all of this nature, namely, that the things said first are to reign in the things which follow, and are to involve them, and so successively the things that follow in the series. The things which follow in this chapter are the commandments of the Decalogue, which are internal truths, and then the statutes, which are external truths. In both of these the Lord must reign as to the Divine Human, for they are from Him, and are Himself, because all truths that are truths proceed from Him, and the things which proceed from Him are Himself. That the Lord as to the Divine Human must reign in each and all things of faith, is also known in the churches, for it is there taught that without the Lord there is no salvation, and that all the truth and good of faith are from Him. Thus as He is the source of faith, He is the faith with man, and if the faith, He is also every truth that is contained in the doctrine of faith, which is from the Word. From this also it is that the Lord is called "the Word."  That the things which precede must reign in the things which follow, and thus in the series, as said above, is evident from everything which the Lord spoke, especially from His prayer, which is called "the Lord's Prayer." In this prayer all things follow on in such a series that they constitute as it were a column that grows larger from top to bottom, in the interiors of which are the things which precede in the series. What is first therein is inmost, and what succeeds in order adds itself to the inmost successively and thus grows. That which is inmost reigns universally in those things which are round about; that is, in each and all things; for from this is that which is essential to the existence of all things.8865.
What is meant by "universally reigning" can be seen from what has been said and shown above (see n. 8853-8858), namely, that that is universally regnant with man which is in each and all things of his thought, and in each and all things of his will, consequently which constitutes his very mind, or life. Such a regnant must the Lord be with man, for such a regnant is the Lord with the angels in heaven, of whom therefore it is said that they are "in the Lord." The Lord becomes regnant when it is not only believed that all good and all truth are from Him, but also when it is loved to be so. The angels are not only in the faith, but also in the perception, that it is so. Hence it is that their life is the Lord's life in them; the life of their will is the life of love from the Lord, and the life of their understanding is the life of faith from the Lord. From all this it is evident how it is that the Lord is the all in all of heaven, and that He Himself is heaven. When the Lord universally reigns with a man of the church, as with the angels of heaven, then the Lord is in all the truths and goods of faith with him, as the heart is in all the blood-vessels, because these derive from it their origin, and the blood which is their life.  Be it further known that such spirits and such angels are with a man as is his universal regnant. The reason is that that which reigns universally is the being of the life of everyone (n. 8853-8858). All the cheerfulness and all the content a man has, even when he is thinking about other things, are therefrom; for therein the angels and spirits who are with him dwell and as it were have their abode, and their gladness flows into the man, and causes his cheerfulness and content. That such is its source does not come to the perception of the man, because he does not know that his life flows in, nor that the universal regnant makes his life, nor that when this regnant of his life is touched, it is as if the pupil of the eye is touched; with delight when by beautiful objects; and with pain when by ugly ones. It is called universal from the fact that it is the whole singular in the complex, and thus the universal regnant is that which is in each and all things (see n. 1919e, 5949, 6159, 6338, 6482, 6483, 6571, 7648, 8067).8866.
Who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants. That this signifies liberation by Him from hell, is evident from the signification of "bringing forth," as being liberation; from the signification of "the land of Egypt," as being infestations by the infernals (see n. 7240, 7278); and from the signification of "the house of servants," as being spiritual captivity (n. 8049). That "the house of servants" denotes spiritual captivity and also hell, is because it is servitude to be held captive and to be led by those who are in hell, and it is freedom to be led by the Lord (n. 892, 905, 2870-2875, 2882, 2884, 2892, 2893, 6205, 8209). (That they who are of the spiritual church and are represented by the sons of Israel were liberated from hell by the Lord, by His coming into the world and making the Human in Himself Divine, see n. 6854, 6914, 7035, 7828, 7932, 8018, 8321.)8867.
Thou shalt have no other gods before My faces. That this signifies that truths must not be thought of from any other source than the Lord, is evident from the signification of "gods," as being truths, and in the opposite sense as being falsities (see n. 4402, 4544, 7268, 7873, 8301); and from the signification of "faces," when predicated of God, as being love, mercy, peace, good (n. 222, 223, 2434, 5585), thus the Lord Himself, for it is the Lord from whom these are. That "no other gods before My faces" signifies that truths must not be thought of from any other source than the Lord, is also because the Divine Human of the Lord, which is signified by "I am Jehovah thy God," is first spoken of, and consequently holds the first place in order, and must universally reign in each of the truths that follow (n. 8864, 8865); and therefore there are now perceived such things as must be avoided, because they would destroy and prevent the universal reign of the Lord in all and each of the truths contained in the commandments and statutes that were dictated and commanded from Mount Sinai. The first thing which would destroy is the thinking of truths from some other source than the Lord, which is signified by the command to have no other gods before the Lord's faces. The rest of the things that would destroy this universal regnant are contained in the things which follow in order, namely, that they should not make to themselves a graven image, nor the likeness of anything that is in the heavens, in the earth, or in the waters, and that they should not bow down themselves to them nor serve them. After this therefore it again follows "for I am Jehovah thy God," by which is signified that the Lord must be in each and all things.8868.
It must also be briefly told what is meant by truths which are from some other source than the Lord. They are in general those truths in which the Lord is not. The Lord is not in the truths with a man when the man denies Him and His Divine, and also when he acknowledges Him and still believes that good and truth are not from Him, but from himself, and who consequently claims righteousness for himself. Truths also in which the Lord is not are those which are taken from the Word, especially from the sense of its letter, and are explained in favor of self-rule and self-gain. In themselves these are truths, because they are from the Word; but in this case they are not truths, because they are wrongly explained and thus perverted. They are such as are meant by the Lord by these words in Matthew: If anyone shall say, Lo, here is the Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall give great signs and wonders; so as to lead into error, if possible, even the elect (Matt. 24:23-26; see n. 3900). And in Luke: See that ye be not led astray; for many shall come in My name, saying, I am; and, The time is at hand; go ye not therefore after them (Luke 21:8).  The truths which are from the Lord are always truths from the Lord in the internal form; and the truths which are not from the Lord appear as truths in the external form only, but not in the internal form; for within they are either empty, or false, or evil. In order for truth to be truth there must be life in it; for truth without life is not the truth of faith with man; and life is from no other source than good, that is, through good from the Lord. If therefore the Lord is not in truth, it is truth without life, thus is not truth; but if falsity is in it, or evil, the truth itself in man is falsity or evil; for that which is within makes the essence, and also in the other life shines through the outside. From all this it can now be seen how it is to be understood that truths must not be thought of from any other source than the Lord.  As few know how the case is with truths which in the internal form are truths, thus which live from the Lord, something shall be said about these from experience. In the other life it is openly perceived from everyone who speaks there what lies hidden within the words of his speech, as whether it is closed within, or whether it is open, also what kind of affection there is therein. If the affection of good is within, it is inwardly soft; if the affection of evil, it is inwardly hard; and so on. With the angels of heaven all things of their speech are open even to the Lord, and this is both clearly perceived and also heard from the softness and the quality of this. From this also it is known what lies hidden within truths, whether the Lord or not. Truths in which the Lord is are truths which are alive, but truths in which the Lord is not are truths which are not alive. Those which are alive are truths of faith from love to the Lord and from charity toward the neighbor. Those which are not alive are not truths, because within them there are the love of self and the love of the world. In the other life spirits and angels can be discriminated by this, for everyone has truths according to his life, that is, according to that which universally reigns with him.8869.
Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image. That this signifies not from self-intelligence, is evident from the signification of "a graven image," as being that which is not from the Lord, but from what is man's own. That which is man's own of his intellect is signified by "a graven image," and that which is man's own of his will is signified by "a molten image." To have either the one or the other for a god, or to adore it, is to love above all things all that which proceeds from self. They who do this entirely disbelieve that anything of intelligence and wisdom flows in from the Divine, for they attribute all things to themselves; everything else that happens to them they ascribe either to fortune or to chance. They totally deny the Divine Providence in such things. They suppose that if there is anything of Deity present, it is in the order of nature, to which they ascribe all things. They do indeed say with their lips that some Creator God has impressed such things upon nature; but still in their heart they deny any God above nature. Much are they who from the heart attribute everything to themselves and to their own sagacity and intelligence, and nothing to the Divine; and those of them who love themselves, adore what belongs to themselves and also desire to be worshiped by others, even as gods, and would do so openly if the church did not forbid. These are the formers of graven images, and the graven images themselves are what they hatch from their own, and wish to be adored as things divine.  That these things are signified in the Word by "graven images," is evident from the passages where they are mentioned, as in Jeremiah: Every man is become a fool from knowledge; every founder is put to shame by his graven image; for his molten image is a lie, and there is no breath in them (Jer. 10:14; 51:17); as by "a graven image" is signified that which does not proceed from the Lord, but from self-intelligence, therefore it is said, "Every man is become a fool from knowledge, and every founder is put to shame by his graven image;" and as in those things which are hatched from self-intelligence there is nothing of spiritual life, which is solely from the Lord, therefore it is also said, "and there is no breath in them."  In Habakkuk: What profiteth the graven image that the maker thereof hath graven it, the molten image, and the teacher of a lie, because the maker of his invention trusteth upon this, when he maketh dumb gods? there is no breath in the midst of it (Hab. 2:18, 19); here the "graven image" denotes those things which are hatched from self-intelligence, wherein there is nothing of life from the Lord.  In Jeremiah: A drought is upon her waters, and they shall be dried up; for it is a land of graven images, and they glory in horrors; therefore the ziim dwell with the iim, and the daughters of the owl dwell therein (Jer. 1:38. 39); speaking of Chaldea and Babel; "a drought upon the waters, and they shall be dried up," denotes truths wherein there is nothing of life; "the ziim, and the iim, and the daughters of the owl, dwell therein," denotes evils and falsities, thus those things which are of death within; from this it is that they are called "a land of graven images."  In Isaiah: They that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity; and their most desirable things shall not profit; and they are witnesses to themselves, they see not nor know (Isa. 44:9-11); "they that fashion a graven image," denotes those who hatch out doctrines which are not grounded in truths from the Word, but in self-intelligence, of which doctrines it is said that "their most desirable things do not profit," and that "they see not nor know." In what follows (verses 12-16 of that chapter) there is treated of the art of inventing and of hatching by reasonings from self-intelligence, things which they desire should be acknowledged as Divine, of which things it is thus finally said: The residue thereof he maketh into a god, his graven image, he adoreth it, he boweth himself down, and yet they know not, neither do they understand; and their eyes do not see, that their hearts may not understand (Isa.44:17, 18); that "they know not, and understand not, and see not" denotes that truths and goods are not within, for all things which go forth from self-intelligence are not inwardly truths and goods, but falsities and evils, because they proceed from one's own, and that this at its root is evil, see n. 210, 215, 694, 874-876, 987, 1023, 1044, 1047, 1581, 3812, 4328, 5660, 5786, 8480.  In the same: To whom will ye liken God? and what image will ye compare with Him. The craftsman casteth the graven image, and the founder overlayeth it with gold, and casteth silver chains. He that is destitute of an oblation chooseth wood that will not rot; he seeketh him a wise craft man to prepare a graven image that shall not be shaken (Isa. 40:18-20); "the graven cage which the craftsman casteth" denotes false doctrine which is from man's own; "the founder overlayeth it with gold, and casteth silver chains," denotes that through reasonings he makes the falsities of doctrine appear as truths.  In the same: I Jehovah have called thee in righteousness, to open the blind eyes, to bring out the bound one from the prison, them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house. I am Jehovah, this is My name, and My glory will I not give to another, nor My praise to graven images (Isa. 42:6-8); speaking of the Lord, that He is Jehovah, and that from Him is all wisdom, and nothing of it from man. That the Lord is here treated of is evident. That He is "Jehovah" here is also evident, for it is said that "Jehovah hath called Him in righteousness," and then, "I am Jehovah, this is My name, and My glory will I not give to another." That from Him is the wisdom that belongs to life, is signified by His "opening the blind eyes," and "bringing out the bound one from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house;" that nothing of wisdom is from man, is signified by "I will not give My praise to graven images."  By "graven images" are also signified the things of self-intelligence in the following passages: And there cometh a chariot of a man, a pair of horsemen. And he answered and said, Babel is fallen; and all the graven images he hath broken into the earth (Isa. 21:9). Then will ye judge unclean the covering of the graven images of their silver, and the clothing of the molten image of their gold; thou shalt scatter them as a menstruous cloth; it shall be called dung (Isa. 30:22). Why have they provoked Me to anger by their graven images, by vanities of strangers? (Jer. 8:19). They have called themselves, so they went for the sake of themselves; they sacrifice to the Baals, and burn incense to graven images (Hos. 11:2). Cursed be the man that maketh a graven or molten image, an abomination to Jehovah, the work of the hands of the craftsman (Deut. 27:15).8870.
Nor any likeness. That this signifies a semblance of those things which are from the Divine, is evident from the signification of a "likeness," as being a semblance. That it denotes a semblance of those things which are from the Divine, is plain from what precedes and from what follows-from what precedes, that they shall have "no other gods before the faces of Jehovah God," and that they shall not "make to themselves a graven image," by which words are signified truths from another source than the Divine, and yet which are set forth like them; and from what follows, as "of that which is in the heavens, or which is in the earth, or which is in the waters," whereby are meant such things as are from the Divine everywhere.  It must here be told what is meant by a semblance of those things which are from the Divine, because these things are treated of in what follows of this verse and in the beginning of the following verse. Semblances of those things which are from the Divine are made by men when they speak Divine things with the mouth, and also in act do such things as have been commanded by the Divine, and thus induce a belief that they are in good and truth, when yet at heart they think altogether otherwise, and will nothing but evil: such are dissemblers, hypocrites, and the deceitful, and these are they who make semblances of those things which are from the Divine. In the other life evil spirits make semblances of those things which are from the Divine, who set forth a likeness and appearance in outward things, within which there is nothing of the Divine. Dissemblers, hypocrites, and the deceitful learn to do this in the other life, and in general all who from frequent use have contracted the habit of speaking otherwise than they think, and of doing otherwise than they will. Some by such practices wish to get reputation, that they may seem to be good, and thus deceive; some that they may exercise command.  Moreover there, such things are abuses of correspondences. But the outward things whereby they have made a pretense of such things as are of charity and faith, are successively taken away from them; for in this way they act from their very nature that has been acquired in the world, and no more from any pretense or hypocrisy. They who are of this character, and who perceive that these external things are to be taken away from them, say that if these external things were left them, they would be able to live with their associates in the other life, and do what is good in appearance, just as formerly in the world. But this cannot be done, because by the externals which are apparently good they would communicate in some measure with heaven, that is, with those who are in the encompassing parts there and are simple, who correspond to the cuticles in the Grand Man; while by their internals they would communicate with the hells. And as the evils which are within rule, because they are of the will, and the goods that are made a pretense of in externals serve the evil as a means for acquiring dominion, therefore it is contrary to Divine order itself to leave them free to act with pretense and hypocrisy as in the world. Wherefore such things are taken away from them, and they are remitted into the very evil of their will.8871.
Of that which is in the heavens above, or that which is in the earth beneath. That this signifies of those things which are in spiritual light, or of those which are in natural light, is evident from the signification of "a likeness of those things which are in the heavens above," as being those things which appear and are seen in spiritual light, all of which bear relation to the good and truth which are of faith, of charity toward the neighbor, and of love to the Lord-to counterfeit and make a pretense of these things is to "make a likeness of the things which are in the heavens above;" and from the signification of "a likeness of those things which are in the earth beneath," as being those things which appear and are seen in natural light, which are such as bear relation to civil and moral good and truth-to counterfeit and make a pretense of these things is to make a likeness of those things which are in the earth beneath. In the sense of the letter are meant such things as appear in heaven, as the sun, the moon, the stars; and such things as appear on the earth, as animals of various kinds, both flying, walking, and creeping; but in the internal sense are meant such things as are signified by these, all of which bear relation to good and truth, as was said above.  These things are further described in Moses, in these words: Lest ye make you a graven image in the shape of any likeness, the figure of male or of female, the figure of any beast that is on the earth, the figure of any winged bird that flieth under heaven, the figure of anything that creepeth on the earth, of a fish that is in the waters under the earth. And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and look at the sun, and the moon, and the stars, all the army of the heavens, and thou be impelled, and bow thyself to them, and serve them. Take heed to yourselves, lest ye forget the covenant of Jehovah your God, which He made with you, and make you a graven image of any figure. For Jehovah thy God is a devouring fire, a zealous God. When ye shall beget sons, and sons' sons, and ye shall have grown old in the land, and shall corrupt yourselves, and make a graven image of any figure, I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that perishing ye shall quickly perish from off the land. Jehovah shall scatter you among the peoples, where ye shall serve gods, the work of a man's hands, wood and stone (Deut. 4:16-19; 23-28).  The reason why it was so severely forbidden to make a likeness of anything in the heavens and on the earth, was chiefly for the reason that that people, which was from Jacob, was very prone to worship external things. The cause was that they were not willing to know anything about the internal things of the church, which belong to faith and love to the Lord, and to charity toward the neighbor. Therefore if they had been allowed to make likenesses of things, they would then have bowed themselves to them and worshiped them as gods; as is very evident from the golden calf which they made for themselves in the midst of so many miracles, and also from their frequent apostasy from Divine worship to idolatrous worship. Nevertheless in the internal sense such things as these are not meant, but the things which have been set forth above.8872.
Or of that which is in the waters under the earth. That this signifies such things as are in the sensuous corporeal, is evident from the signification of "a likeness of those things which are in the waters under the earth," as being the things below those which are in natural light; and that these things are such as are in the sensuous corporeal is manifest from the successive degrees of the light that belongs to the intellectual in man. In the first degree in man are those things which are in spiritual light, which are signified by "those which are in the heavens above." In the second degree are those which are in natural light, which are signified by "those which are in the earth beneath." And in the third degree are those which are in the sensuous corporeal, which are signified by "those which are in the waters under the earth." (What and of what quality is the sensuous corporeal, see n. 5084, 5089, 5094, 5125, 5128, 5580, 5767, 6183, 6201, 6310-6316, 6318, 6598, 6612, 6614, 6622, 6624, 6844, 6845, 6948, 6949, 7442, 7693.) To the sensuous corporeal bear relation those memory-knowledges which arise most immediately from the experience of the external senses and also of their delights. With the good these knowledges and their delights are good because they are applied to goods; but with the evil they are evil because they are applied to evils. To deceive by means of these, as dissemblers, hypocrites, and the deceitful are wont to do, is to "make a likeness of such things as are in the waters under the earth."8873.
Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them. That this signifies that no Divine worship is to be paid them, is evident from the signification of "bowing down oneself," as being humiliation (see n. 2153, 5682, 6266, 7068); and from the signification of "serving," as being submission (n. 5164). That it denotes Divine worship, is because humiliation and submission are essentials of worship, for worship without them is not worship, but gesture in imitation of those who are in the truth of worship; in which gesture there is nothing of life, for life from the Lord flows in solely into a humble and submissive heart, because such a heart has been fitted to receive. That such is the case is because when the heart is truly humble, nothing of the love of self and of the love of the world stands in the way. That both expressions are used, is because "bowing down" signifies worship from the good of love, and "serving" signifies worship from the truth of faith.8874.
For I Jehovah thy God. That this signifies the Divine from the Lord in each and all things, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8864, 8865).8875.
Am a zealous God. That this signifies that falsity and evil are therefrom, is evident from the fact that in the genuine sense "a zealous God" denotes the Divine truth of the Divine good, for "God" is predicated of truth (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4287, 4402, 7010, 7268, 8301), and "zealous" of good (as will be seen below). But relatively to those who do not receive the Divine truth of the Lord's Divine good, "a zealous God" denotes falsity and evil; for they who are in the opposite perceive Divine truth as falsity, and Divine good as evil; because everyone sees these things from his own quality. Hence it is that the zeal of the Lord, which in itself is love and compassion, appears to them as anger; for when the Lord from love and mercy protects His own in heaven, they who are in evil are indignant and angry against the good, and rush into the sphere where the Divine truth and Divine good are, with the endeavor to destroy those who are there; and then the Divine truth of the Divine good works in them and makes them feel torments such as are in hell. Hence it is that they attribute wrath and anger to the Divine, and also all evil, when yet in the Divine there is absolutely nothing of anger, and absolutely nothing of evil; but pure clemency and mercy.  From all this it is evident why "zealous" signifies falsity and evil, and "zeal" signifies anger. See what has been shown above on these subjects, namely, that wrath and anger are attributed to the Lord, when yet they are with those who are in evil, or who are in anger against the Divine (n. 5798, 6997, 8284, 8483). (That in like manner evils, punishments, and vastations are attributed to the Lord, when yet in the Lord there is nothing but love and mercy, see n. 2447, 6071, 6559, 6991, 6997, 7533, 7632, 7643, 7679, 7710, 7877, 7926, 8214, 8223, 8226-8228, 8282, 8632; also that the evil devastate themselves, and cast themselves into damnation and hell by endeavoring to destroy what is good and true, n. 7643, 7679, 7710, 7926, 7989; as also that the Lord appears to everyone according to his quality, n. 1861, 6832, 8197.) That "the zeal of the Lord" denotes love and mercy, and that when the Lord protects the good against the evil, it appears as hostility and also as anger, is evident from the following passages in the Word.  That "the zeal of the Lord" denotes love and mercy, in Isaiah: Look forth from the heavens, and behold from the habitation of Thy holiness and of Thy comeliness. And where is Thy zeal and Thy mighty deeds? The yearning of Thy bowels and Thy compassions toward me have restrained themselves (Isa. 63:15); where "zeal" denotes mercy, which is the "yearning of the bowels," and is predicated of good; for it is said "Thy zeal and Thy mighty deeds," where "zeal" is said of good, and "mighty deeds" of truth; in like manner "the yearning of the bowels" is said of good, and "compassions" is said of truth; so likewise "the habitation of holiness" denotes the heaven where they are who are of the celestial kingdom, and "the habitation of comeliness," the heaven where they are who are of the spiritual kingdom. From this it is also evident that in the Word where mention is made of good, mention is also made of truth, on account of the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth, in every detail of the Word, as in the case of the two names of the Lord, "Jesus" and "Christ," which signify the Divine marriage that is in the Lord (on which see n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 4138, 5138, 5502, 6343, 7945, 8339).  In the same: Unto us a child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder, and He called His name Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace. To the multiplying of His government and peace there shall be no end. The zeal of Jehovah shall perform this (Isa. 9:6, 7). This is said of the Lord and of His coming; "the zeal of Jehovah shall perform this," denotes that He will do it from the ardent love of saving the human race. Again: Out of Jerusalem shall go forth remains, and an escape from Mount Zion. The zeal of Jehovah shall perform this (Isa. 37:32). "The zeal of Jehovah shall perform this" denotes that He will do it from love and mercy.  In Ezekiel: Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Now will I bring back the captivity of Jacob, and will have mercy upon the whole house of Israel; and I will be zealous for the name of My holiness (Ezek. 39:25); where being "zealous" denotes to have compassion. In David: The zeal of Thy house hath eaten me up (Ps. 69:9); speaking of the Lord; "the zeal of the house of Jehovah" denotes His love toward those who receive good and truth, for these are "the house of Jehovah."  That when the zeal or mercy of the Lord protects the good it appears as hostility, is manifest in Isaiah: Jehovah shall go forth as a Hero; He shall stir up zeal like a man of war; He shall shout and cry, He shall prevail over His enemies (Isa. 42:13). In Joel: Jehovah shall be zealous for His land, and shall spare His people (Joel 2:18).  That the zeal of the Lord is called "anger" and "wrath" because mercy so appears to the evil, is manifest in these passages: Ye shall not go after other gods, of the gods of the peoples which are around you, for Jehovah thy God in the midst of thee is a zealous God; lest the anger of Jehovah thy God be kindled against thee, and He destroy thee from off the faces of the earth (Deut. 6:14, 15). They provoked Him to zeal with strange ones, with abominations they rendered Him angry. They sacrificed to demons. They have moved My zeal with that which is not God; they have provoked Me to anger with their vanities (Deut. 32:16, 17, 21). When Mine anger shall be spent and I shall make My wrath to rest on them, it shall repent Me; and they shall know that I Jehovah have spoken in My zeal, when I shall have consummated My wrath upon them (Ezek. 5:13). The angel of Jehovah in me said unto me, Cry thou, saying, Thus said Jehovah Zebaoth, I have been zealous for Jerusalem and for Zion with great zeal. For with great indignation I am indignant against the careless nations (Zech. 1:14, 15; 8:2). I will pour upon them Mine indignation, all the wrath of Mine anger; for all the earth shall be devoured in the fire of My zeal (Zeph. 3:8). Jehovah will not please to pardon him, but then the anger of Jehovah shall smoke; and His zeal against that man, and all the curse shall rest upon him (Deut. 29:20). How long, O Jehovah! wilt Thou be angry forever? Shall Thy zeal burn like a fire? Pour out Thine anger upon the nations that have not known Thee (Ps. 79:5, 6). In like manner the zeal of Jehovah is described as "anger" in Ps. 38:1; Ezek. 16:42; 23:25; 38:19. From all this it can be seen what is meant by "the zeal of Jehovah," or what by "a zealous God;" namely, that in the genuine sense are meant love and mercy; but in a sense not genuine, such as appears to those who are in evils and falsities, anger and vastation are signified.  Be it known that Jehovah, that is, the Lord, is especially called "zealous," or "an avenger," when that is corrupted which ought to reign universally with the man of the church, namely, the Divine, which must be loved, or thought of, or feared, above all things. When this has been corrupted or destroyed, then instead of heavenly light mere thick darkness usurps its place, for there is no longer any influx of this light from the Divine, because there is no reception. For this reason it is said, "I am Jehovah thy God, a zealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the thirds and upon the fourths of them that hate Me," and this in case they worshiped other gods or made unto themselves a graven image or likenesses; for these things corrupt the Divine which ought to reign universally.  Therefore it is declared in like manner elsewhere in Moses: Take heed lest ye make you a graven image of any figure, for Jehovah God is a devouring fire, a zealous God (Deut. 4:23, 24). Thou shalt not adore another God; for Jehovah, whose name is Zealous, zealous is He (Exod. 34:14). This was so severely forbidden in the case of the Israelitish nation because the adoration of other gods, of graven things, and of images, was destructive of every representative of the church among them; for in heaven Jehovah, that is, the Lord, is the universal regnant; His Divine fills all things there, and makes the life of all. If anything had been worshiped instead of the Divine, every representative would have perished, and thus the communication with heaven.8876.
Visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons. That this signifies the consequent prolification of falsity derived from evil, is evident from the signification of "visiting the iniquity of the fathers," as being the prolification of evils; that "to visit" denotes prolification is because the state of those who utterly reject from themselves the Divine is here treated of, who therefore are no longer receptions of good, but of evil, and this continually, for with such, evil is continually increasing, and this is prolification (that "father" denotes good, and in the opposite sense evil, see n. 3703, 5902, 6050, 7833, 7834); and from the signification of "sons," as being truths (n. 1147, 2623, 3373), consequently in the opposite sense falsities. In the sense nearest the letter, by "visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons" is not meant that the sons suffer the penalty of the iniquity of their fathers, for this is contrary to the Divine (Deut. 24:16); but that evil increases with the fathers, and thus is by heredity carried over into the children, and that there is a consequent successive accumulation of evil (n. 2910, 3701, 4317, 8550, 8551). But in the spiritual sense by "fathers" are not meant fathers, but evils; nor are sons meant by "sons," but falsities; therefore by the above words is signified the continual prolification of falsity derived from evil.8877.
Upon the thirds and upon the fourths. That this signifies in a long series and the conjunction of them, is evident from the signification of "three," as being what is full from beginning to end (see n. 2788, 4495, 7715), thus what is in a long series, and therefore "the third sons" denote falsities in a long series (that "sons" denote falsities see just above, n. 8876); and from the signification of "four," as being conjunction, in like manner as "two" (n. 1686, 5194, 8423); therefore "the fourth sons" denote falsities conjoined in a long series. That this is the signification of "the third and fourth sons" must needs seem like a paradox, or foreign to the sense of the Word; but be it known that in the internal sense numbers do not signify numbers, but things (n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 4495, 4670, 5265, 6175).8878.
Of them that hate Me. That this signifies who absolutely reject the Divine of the Lord, is evident from the signification of "them that hate God," as being those who are in evil and thence in falsity, for these are they who reject the Divine of the Lord; and so far as they are in evil and thence in falsity, so far they not only reject it, but also hold it in hatred. That it is the Divine of the Lord which they reject, is because they who are in evil are not in heavenly light, but in natural light, and finally are in sensuous light which is from the corporeal. From this light they cannot possibly see the Human of the Lord otherwise than as human, for they cannot perceive what the Divine Human is, because they have an idea about the Divine that is utterly empty and worthless. If they are told that the Divine Itself is Divine love, that the Divine love is the being of all life, and that from conception the Lord was this love, which was thus the inmost being of His life, thus was Jehovah, and that He glorified His Human to the likeness of this, that is, made it Divine, all this may indeed be in some measure apprehended by those who are endowed with some intellectual penetration; but still they do not believe it, for when they descend from the intellectual light in which they then are, into their own natural and sensuous light, they fall into mere thick darkness in respect to this truth, and from this into denial.8879.
And doing mercy unto thousands. That this signifies good and truth unto them forever, is evident from the signification of "mercy," as being the influx of good and truth from the Lord and the consequent spiritual life, which is bestowed by means of regeneration (see n. 6180, 6307), for the Lord in mercy bestows such things as belong to eternal life and happiness; and from the signification of "a thousand," as being very much, and when it is said of the Divine mercy, as being forever (n. 2575, 8715).8880.
Of them that love Me. That this signifies who receive the good of love, is evident from the signification of "those who love Jehovah," that is, the Lord, as being to receive the good of love, for they who love the Lord do not love from themselves but from the Lord; for all good flows in from Him, and those love who desist from evil, because evil stands in the way and rejects the influx of good from the Lord. Wherefore when evil has been removed, good is received, which is continually present from the Lord and endeavoring to enter.8881.
And keep My commandments. That this signifies who receive the truths of faith, is evident from the signification of "commandments," as being the truths of faith (n. 3382, 8362). That "to keep" these denotes to receive, is because in order that the truths which are called the truths of faith may be of faith, and may be living with a man, these also flow in from the Lord. They are indeed learned by the man, and stored up in the memory, but so long as the man does not will them, and consequently does not do them, they do not become living. But when they are brought forth from the memory, and are insinuated through the intellectual into the will, that is, through the thought into the affection, and thence into act, they then become living, and are truths of faith. This is effected by the Lord when the man desists from evils (as was said just above, n. 8880).8882.
Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain. 8882-1 That this signifies profanations and blasphemings of the truth and good of faith, is evident from the signification of "the name of God," as being all in the complex by which the Lord is worshiped, thus all the truth and good of faith (see n. 2724, 3006, 6674); and from the signification of "taking in vain," as being to profane and blaspheme. By "taking the name of God in vain" is properly signified to turn truth into evil, that is, to believe that it is truth, and nevertheless to live in evil; and it also denotes to turn good into falsity, that is, to live holily, and yet not to believe. Both are profanation (n. 4601), for believing is of the understanding, and living is of the will; and therefore in those who believe otherwise than they live, the thought and will are divided. But as the will continually flows into the understanding, for the understanding is the form of the will; that is, the will manifests itself there in light; therefore it is that when a man believes in one way and lives in another, truth and evil, or good and falsity, are conjoined; thus the things that are of heaven with man are conjoined with those which are of hell. This conjunction cannot be dissolved, and thereby the man be healed, except by a pulling asunder which carries away with it everything of spiritual life; and therefore these persons are sent into a hell the most grievous of all, where they are direfully tormented.  This is what is meant by the words of the Lord in Matthew: All sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men; but the blasphemy of the spirit shall not be forgiven unto men. If anyone shall say a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but he who shall speak against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this age, nor in that which is to come (Matt. 12:31, 32). Also by these words in Luke: When the unclean spirit hath gone out of a man, he goeth through dry places, seeking rest; and finding none, he saith, I will return into my house whence I came out. And if on coming he findeth it swept and garnished, he goeth away and taketh seven other spirits worse than himself: and they enter in and dwell there; and the man's last things become worse than the first (Luke 11:24-26).  By these words is described the profanation of truth from the Lord; by "the unclean spirit when he goeth out" is meant the acknowledgment and faith of truth; by "the house swept" is meant a life contrary to truths; by "his return with seven other spirits" is meant a state of profanation. These are the things which are signified by "taking the name of God in vain." That such a state with man cannot be healed, thus cannot be forgiven, is signified also by the words which immediately follow, namely, "Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain," by which is meant that it cannot be forgiven. (For further information about the nature of profanation, and who are guilty of it, see n. 593, 1003, 1008, 1010, 1059, 1327, 1328, 2051, 2426, 3398, 3399, 3402, 3489, 6348, 6595, 6959, 6963, 6971, 8394.)  By "taking the name of God in vain" is also signified blasphemy, which takes place when those things which are of the Word, or of the doctrine of faith, thus which are holy, are held in derision, and are debased to unclean earthly things, and thus are defiled (see n. 4050, 5390). But by "taking the name of God in vain," relatively to the Israelitish nation, which did not acknowledge any good and truth of faith (which are signified by "the name of God"), is meant the applying of the name of Jehovah, and also of the commandments and statutes which were commanded them, to the worship of idols, as they did in the wilderness to the worship of the golden calf, unto which they not only offered burnt offerings and sacrifices, and ate of the things sanctified thereby, but also called the day of its celebration "a feast to Jehovah," as we read in Moses: Aaron made of the gold a molten calf, and they said, These be thy gods, Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it, and made proclamation, and said, Tomorrow is a feast to Jehovah. And therefore they rose up in the morning of the next day, and offered burnt-offerings, and brought things eucharistic (Exod. 32:4-6).  That those who thus took the name of Jehovah God in vain could not be forgiven, which is signified by their "not being held guiltless," is evident from the words of Jehovah to Moses at that time concerning them, namely: Him that hath sinned against Me, I will blot out of My book. Nevertheless go, lead this people in unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee; but in the day of My visitation I will visit their sin upon them (Exod. 32:33, 34).8883.
For Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain. That this signifies that these things cannot be forgiven, is evident from what has been unfolded just above (n. 8882).8884.
Verses 8-11. Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work. And the seventh day is the Sabbath to Jehovah thy God; thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy manservant, and thy maidservant, and thy beast, and thy sojourner who is in thy gates. For in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested in the seventh day; wherefore Jehovah blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it. "Remember," signifies what is perpetual in the thought; "the Sabbath day," signifies in the supreme sense the union of the Divine Itself and the Divine Human of the Lord, in the internal sense the conjunction of the Divine Human with the heavens, thus heaven, and so the marriage of good and truth there; "to keep it holy," signifies no violation in any manner; "Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work," signifies the combat which precedes and prepares for this marriage; "and the seventh day is the Sabbath to Jehovah thy God," signifies good implanted and thus the marriage; "thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy manservant, and thy maidservant, and thy beast, and thy sojourner who is in thy gates," signifies that in this case heaven and blessedness are in each and all things in the internal and in the external of man; "for in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea," signifies the regeneration and vivification of those things which are in the internal and in the external man; "and all that is in them," signifies of all things therein; "and rested in the seventh day," signifies that then there are peace and the good of love; wherefore Jehovah blessed the Sabbath 8884-1 day," signifies that then is the heavenly marriage from the Lord; "and hallowed it," signifies that it cannot in any wise be violated.8885.
Remember. That this signifies what is perpetual in the thought, is evident from the signification of "remembering," when said of such a thing as must not in any wise be forgotten, as being what is perpetual in the thought. That is perpetual in the thought which universally reigns there; and that universally reigns with man which is perpetually in his thought, even when he is meditating on other things, or is engaged in business affairs. The thought of man involves many things together, for it is the form of many things which have entered successively. Those things which come to manifest perception are at the time in the midst, and thus in the light of the internal sight, while all other things are then at the sides round about. Those which are in the circuits are in obscurity, and are not manifested except when such objects occur as they are associated with. But the things which are still more remote, and are not on the same plane, but tend downward, are such as the man has rejected and holds in aversion. Such things are evils and falsities with the good, and goods and truths with the evil.  In the very thought of man are those things which are perpetually there, that is, which universally reign there, which are his inmost things. From these man regards those things which are not perpetually there (that is, those things which do not yet universally reign) as being outside of himself, and also as beneath himself, and as not yet being akin to him; from which he can then choose and adjoin to himself those things which agree with the inmost things, and from the adjunction and final consociation of which, the inmost things, that is, those which universally reign, are strengthened. This is effected by means of new truths with the good, and by means of new falsities, or by wrong applications of truths, with the evil.  Be it known further that that which universally reigns is that which has been insinuated into the will itself, for the will itself is the inmost of man, because it has been formed from his love. For whatever man loves, this he wills, and that which he loves above all things, this he inmostly wills. But the understanding serves to make manifest before others the things which the man wills, that is, which he loves; and serves also to bend the wills of others by ideas variously formed for accommodation thereto. When this is the case, love or affection flows from the will into the intellectual ideas also, and by a certain kind of inspiration vivifies and moves them.  With the good these intellectual ideas make a one with the affections which are of the will; but it is otherwise with the evil, for with these the thought and the will do indeed inmostly agree, because the evil which the will wills, the understanding thinks, as falsity that is in agreement with this evil; but this agreement does not appear before men in the world, because from their infancy the evil learn to speak differently from what they think, and to act differently from what they will; in a word, they learn to separate their interior man from their exterior, and in this latter to form another will and also another thought besides that which is in their interior man, and thus by the exterior man to counterfeit good that is quite contrary to the interior man, which at the same instant wills evil and also imperceptibly thinks it. But in the other life the quality of the interior will and thought is manifest as in clear light, for in that life external things are removed, and internal things are laid bare.8886.
The Sabbath day. That this signifies in the supreme sense the union of the Divine Itself and the Divine Human of the Lord, in the internal sense the conjunction of the Divine Human with the heavens, thus heaven, and so the marriage of good and truth there, is evident from what was shown before (n. 8495). As such things are signified by "the Sabbath," therefore in the representative church it was most holy, and was that which was to be perpetually in the thought, that is, which was to reign universally. (That this makes the life of man, see n. 8853-8858, 8885.) The Israelitish nation did not indeed think about the union of the Divine and the Divine Human of the Lord, nor about His union with heaven, nor about the conjunction of good and truth in heaven, which things were signified by "the Sabbath," because they were altogether in externals without an internal. But they were enjoined to hold the Sabbath as most holy, in order that these Divine and heavenly things might be represented in heaven. How the case herein was with them, is plain from what was shown above concerning that nation and the representative of a church therewith (n. 3147, 3479, 3480, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4289, 4293, 4307, 4444, 4580, 4680, 4825, 4844, 4847, 4899, 4912, 6304, 6306, 7048, 7051, 8301).8887.
To keep it holy. That this signifies no violation in any manner, is evident from what was commanded concerning the Sabbath, as before shown (n. 8495), and from what here follows concerning the sanctification of the Sabbath, namely, "Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work; and the seventh day is the Sabbath to Jehovah thy God; thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy sojourner that is within thy gates; for in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested in the seventh day; wherefore Jehovah blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it." From these words it is evident that by "keeping the Sabbath holy" is signified not to violate it in any manner; but in the internal sense that those things which are signified by "the Sabbath" are not to be violated in any manner, namely, the union of the Divine essence of the Lord with His Human essence, also the union of this with the heavens, and the consequent conjunction in these of good and truth (see n. 8886); for if these things are violated, spiritual life perishes with that man, and becomes life merely natural and afterward sensuous; and then falsity is readily learned in place of truth, and evil in place of good, for falsity and evil then universally reign with him.8888.
Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work. That this signifies the combat which precedes and prepares for this marriage, is evident from the signification of "six days," as being states of combat (that "six" denotes combat, see n. 720, 737, 900; and that "days" denote states, see n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 2788, 4850, 5672, 5962, 6110, 8426); and from the signification of "laboring and doing one's work," as being to do those things which are necessary to life, here those which are necessary to spiritual life, that is, to the life in heaven.  Moreover by the combat which precedes, and prepares for the heavenly marriage, is meant spiritual combat or temptation; for before he enters into the heavenly marriage, that is, before he is regenerated, the man is in combat against the evils and falsities in himself, because these must be removed before the truth and good which are from the Lord can be received. These evils and falsities are removed by means of the truths of faith, for by means of these the man not only learns what good is, but is also led to good. This state is the first state of the man who is being regenerated, and is called the state which precedes, and prepares for the heavenly marriage. But when the man is in good and is led by the Lord through good, he is then in the heavenly marriage, thus in heaven, for the heavenly marriage is heaven. The former state is what is signified by "the six days" which precede the seventh, and the latter state by "the seventh day" (concerning these two states with man, see n. 7923, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8512, 8516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701, 8722).  As by "the Sabbath" is signified the heavenly marriage, that is, heaven, therefore the kingdom of the Lord in the heavens is called a perpetual Sabbath, thus a perpetual rest and peace, and there are no longer there six days of labor.8889.
And the seventh day is the Sabbath to Jehovah thy God. That this signifies good implanted and thus the marriage, is evident from the signification of "the Sabbath," as being the heavenly marriage (see above, n. 8886), thus good implanted by means of truths, and afterward formed by them; for the good with man is not spiritual good until it has been formed by truths; and when it has been so formed, there is then the heavenly marriage; for this is the conjunction of good and truth, and is heaven itself with man. From this also it is that "the seventh day" signifies a holy state. (That "day" denotes state, see n. 8888; and that "seven" denotes what is holy, n. 395, 433, 716, 881, 5265.)8890.
Thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy manservant, and thy maidservant, and thy beast, and thy sojourner who is within thy gates. That this signifies that in this case heaven and blessedness are in each and all things in the internal and in the external of man, is evident from the signification of "not doing any work," as being rest and peace, thus heaven; for when man is in heaven, he is free from all solicitude, unrest, and anxiety, and when he is free from these he has blessedness; and from the signification of "thou, thy son, thy daughter, thy manservant, thy maidservant, thy beast, the sojourner within thy gates," as being each and all things in the internal and in the external of man. For by "thou" is signified the man himself, by "son" is signified his intellectual, by "daughter" his will, both in the internal man; by "manservant" is signified the natural as to truth, and by "maidservant" the natural as to good, thus both that are in the external man; but by "beast" is signified affection in general, and by "the sojourner within the gates," memory-knowledge in general; thus there are signified each and all things. That "son" denotes the intellectual, is because "son" denotes truth, for truths constitute the intellectual; and that "daughter" denotes the will, is because "daughter" denotes good, for goods constitute the will. (That "son" denotes truth, thus the intellectual, see n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704, 4227; that "daughter" denotes good, thus the will, n. 489-491, 2362, 3024; that "manservant" denotes the natural as to truth, n. 3019, 3020, 3409, 5305, 7998; that "maidservant" denotes the natural as to good, n. 2567, 3835, 3849; that "beast" denotes affection in general, n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 2179, 2180, 3218, 5198, 7523, 7872; and that "sojourner" denotes one who is being instructed in the truths of the church, n. 1463, 4444, 8007, 8013.) Consequently "the sojourner within the gates" denotes memory-knowledge in general, for memory-knowledge in general is at the gates, that is, at the entrance to the truths which are of the church.8891.
For in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth and the sea. That this signifies the regeneration and vivification of those things which are in the internal and in the external man, is evident from the signification of "six days," as being states of combat (of which just above, n. 8888), and when predicated of Jehovah, that is, the Lord, they signify His labor with man before he is regenerated (n. 8510); and from the signification of "heaven and earth," as being the church or kingdom of the Lord in man, "heaven" in the internal man, and "earth" in the external man (n. 82, 1411, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4535), thus the regenerate man, that is, one who has found the new life and has thus been made alive; and from the signification of "the sea," as being the sensuous of man adhering to the corporeal (n. 8872).  In this verse the subject treated of is the hallowing of the seventh day, or the institution of the Sabbath, and it is described by the words, "In six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested in the seventh day; wherefore Jehovah blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it." They who do not think beyond the sense of the letter cannot believe otherwise than that the creation which is described in the first and second chapters of Genesis, is the creation of the universe, and that there were six days within which were created the heaven, the earth, the sea and all things which are therein, and finally man in the likeness of God. But who that takes into consideration the particulars of the description cannot see that the creation of the universe is not there meant; for such things are there described as may be known from common sense not to have been so; as that there were days before the sun and the moon, as well as light and darkness, and that herbage and trees sprang up; and yet that the light was furnished by these luminaries, and a distinction was made between the light and the darkness, and thus days were made.  In what follows in the history there are also like things, which are hardly acknowledged to be possible by anyone who thinks interiorly, as that the woman was built from the rib of the man; also that two trees were set in paradise, of the fruit of one of which it was forbidden to eat; and that a serpent from one of them spoke with the wife of the man who had been the wisest of mortal creatures, and by his speech, which was from the mouth of the serpent, deceived them both; and that the whole human race, composed of so many millions, was in consequence condemned to hell. The moment that these and other such things in that history are thought of, they must needs appear paradoxical to those who entertain any doubt concerning the holiness of the Word, and must afterward lead them to deny the Divine therein. Nevertheless be it known that each and all things in that history, down to the smallest iota, are Divine, and contain within them arcana which before the angels in the heavens are plain as in clear day. The reason of this is that the angels do not see the sense of the Word according to the letter, but according to what is within, namely, what is spiritual and celestial, and within these, things Divine. When the first chapter of Genesis is read, the angels do not perceive any other creation than the new creation of man, which is called regeneration. This regeneration is described in that history; by paradise the wisdom of the man who has been created anew; by the two trees in the midst thereof, the two faculties of that man, namely, the will of good by the tree of life, and the understanding of truth by the tree of knowledge. And that it was forbidden to eat of this latter tree, was because the man who is regenerated, or created anew, must no longer be led by the understanding of truth, but by the will of good, and if otherwise, the new life within him perishes (see n. 202, 337, 2454, 2715, 3246, 3652, 4448, 5895, 5897, 7877, 7923, 7992, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8512, 8516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8690, 8701, 8722). Consequently by Adam, or man, and by Eve his wife, was there meant a new church, and by the eating of the tree of knowledge, the fall of that church from good to truth, consequently from love to the Lord and toward the neighbor to faith without these loves, and this by reasoning from their own intellectual, which reasoning is the serpent (see n. 195-197, 6398, 6399, 6949, 7293).  From all this it is evident that the historic narrative of the creation and the first man, and of paradise, is a history so framed as to contain within it heavenly and Divine things, and this according to the received method in the Ancient Churches. This method of writing extended thence also to many who were outside of that Church, who in like manner devised histories and wrapped up arcana within them, as is plain from the writers of the most ancient times. For in the Ancient Churches it was known what such things as are in the world signified in heaven, nor to those people were events of so much importance as to be described; but the things which were of heaven. These latter things occupied their minds, for the reason that they thought more interiorly than men at this day, and thus had communication with angels, and therefore it was delightful to them to connect such things together. But they were led by the Lord to those things which should be held sacred in the churches, consequently such things were composed as were in full correspondence.  From all this it can be seen what is meant by "heaven and earth" in the first verse of the first chapter of Genesis, namely, the church internal and external. That these are signified by "heaven and earth" is evident also from passages in the prophets, where mention is made of "a new heaven and a new earth," by which a new church is meant (see n. 82, 1411, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4535). From all this it is now plain that by, "In six days Jehovah made heaven and earth and the sea," is signified the regeneration and vivification of those things which are in the internal and in the external man.8892.
And all that is in them. That this signifies the vivification of all things therein, is evident without explication.8893.
And rested in the seventh day. That this signifies that then are peace and the good of love, is evident from the signification of "resting," as being peace; and from the signification of "the seventh day," as being a state of heavenly love (see n. 8487), and therefore what is holy (n. 395, 433, 716, 5265, 5268). That by "rest in the seventh day" is signified peace and the good of love, is because before a man is regenerated, or created anew, he is in an untranquil and restless state, for his natural life then fights with his spiritual life, and wishes to rule over it. Consequently at this time the Lord has labor, for He fights for man against the hells which assault. But as soon as the good of love has been implanted, the combat ceases, and rest ensues, for the man is then introduced into heaven, and is led by the Lord according to the laws of order there, thus in peace. These things are signified by "the rest of Jehovah in the seventh day."8894.
Wherefore Jehovah blessed the Sabbath 8894-1 day. That this signifies that then is the heavenly marriage from the Lord, is evident from the signification of being "blessed," as being to be disposed into heavenly order, and to be gifted with the good of love (see n. 3017, 3406, 4981, 8674); and from the signification of "the Sabbath day," as being a state of heavenly love (n. 84-87), thus the heavenly marriage; for the heavenly marriage is the conjunction of good and truth, and this is heaven in man (that "the Sabbath" denotes this marriage, see n. 8495, 8510).8895.
And hallowed it. That this signifies that it cannot in any wise be violated, is evident from the signification of "to be hallowed," when the heavenly marriage in the regenerate man is treated of, as being to be inviolate (see above, n. 8887); for the holy of the Lord with man is inviolable, thus the man who receives the holy of the Lord, that is, who is in the good of love, consequently who is in heaven.8896.
Verse 12. Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be prolonged upon the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee. "Honor thy father and thy mother," signifies love for good and truth, in the supreme sense for the Lord and for His kingdom; "that thy days may be prolonged upon the land," signifies the consequent state of life in heaven; "which Jehovah thy God giveth thee," signifies where the Divine is and the consequent influx.8897.
Honor thy father and thy mother. That this signifies love for good and truth, in the supreme sense for the Lord and for His kingdom, is evident from the signification of "honoring," as being to love, for in the spiritual sense "to honor" denotes to love, for the reason that in heaven one loves another, and when he loves he also honors, for in honor there is love. Honor without love is refused in heaven, nay, is rejected, because it is devoid of life from good. From the signification of "father," as being good (see n. 3703, 5581, 5902, 6050, 7833, 7834), and in the supreme sense the Lord as to Divine good (n. 15, 1729, 2005, 2803, 3704, 7499, 8328); that the Lord in the supreme sense is the "father," is because He gives new life to man, and thereby man becomes a son and heir of His kingdom; and from the signification of "mother," as being truth (n. 3703, 5581), and in the supreme sense the Lord as to Divine truth, thus His kingdom, because the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord makes heaven. That the Divine truth of the Lord makes heaven, is because the Lord as to Divine good is in the other life the Sun, and as to the Divine truth is the light. This Divine light from the Lord as the Sun is what illumines angelic minds, and fills them with intelligence and wisdom, and makes them to be angels of light. Divine good is within Divine truth, as heat from the sun is within the light in the time of spring and summer in the world.8898.
That thy days may be prolonged upon the land. That this signifies the consequent state of life in heaven, is evident from the signification of "to be prolonged," as being predicated of good and its increase (of which below); from the signification of "thy days," as being states of life (see n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 5672, 5962, 6110, 7680, 8426); and from the signification of "land," here the land of Canaan (because it is said to the sons of Israel "which Jehovah thy God giveth thee"), as being the kingdom of the Lord (n. 1413, 1437, 1607, 1866, 3038, 3481, 3686, 3705, 4240, 4447). The reason why "to be prolonged" is predicated of good and its increase, is that length of days is duration of the time of life; and in heaven there is neither time nor space, but instead thereof state. Therefore as "to be prolonged" is predicated of state as to good, it denotes its increase. (That "length" is predicated of good, and "breadth" of truth, see n. 1613, 4482; and that in heaven there are no spaces, neither are there times, but instead thereof states, n. 1274, 1382, 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356, 3404, 3938, 4321, 4814, 4882, 4901, 4916, 5605, 6110, 7218, 7381.)8899.
Which Jehovah thy God giveth thee. That this signifies where the Divine is and the consequent influx, is evident from the fact that these words are spoken of heaven, which is here signified by "the land" (see n. 8898); consequently "Jehovah God" denotes the Divine therein, and "to give" denotes influx; for heaven in general with all, and in particular with each one, is the reception of influx from the Divine. That such things are signified by the commandment about honoring parents, may seem strange, because they are remote from the sense of the letter. But be it known that the commandments of the Decalogue are rules of life both for those who are in the world and for those who are in heaven-the sense of the letter or the external sense being for those who are in the world, and the spiritual or internal sense for those who are in heaven-and consequently both senses, external as well as internal, are for those who while they are in the world are also in heaven, that is, for those who are in the good of life according to the truths of doctrine. That the commandments of the Decalogue are also for those who are in heaven, is plain from the internal sense of all things in the Word, and clearly from the fact that the things which Jehovah God (that is, the Lord) Himself speaks, are not only for men, or for the world; but are also for angels, nay, for the whole heaven, because the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord flows through heaven and passes through down unto man. This is the case with these ten commandments, which the Lord Himself spoke from Mount Sinai.  Inasmuch as these commandments were spoken not only for those who are in the world, but also for those who are in heaven, therefore they could not be perceived in the same way by both-as for instance this commandment, that they should honor father and mother in order that their days might be prolonged upon the land which Jehovah God would give them; for in heaven parents and children do not come together the same as on earth; and therefore for "father" there they have the Lord, and for "mother" His kingdom. Nor can it be said of those in heaven that their days would be prolonged, because they live there to eternity; nor can "land" be understood there as in this commandment to mean the land of Canaan, but instead the heavenly Canaan or heaven. As by "father and mother" are meant the Lord and His kingdom, therefore this commandment is the fourth in order, and surpasses in holiness those which follow. The commandment concerning the worship of Jehovah, that is, the Lord, is first and second, because the most holy one. Next comes the commandment concerning the Sabbath, because by this in the supreme sense is signified the union of the Divine Itself and the Divine Human in the Lord. After this follows the commandment concerning honoring parents, because by this is signified the love of the Lord and the consequent love of good and truth which are from the Lord. As these things are signified by this commandment, therefore contempt for parents is enumerated among the crimes which are signified by "shedding blood" (Ezek. 22:6, 7) and for this reason disobedient and rebellious sons were stoned (Deut. 21:18-21).8900.
That by "father" is meant the Lord, and by "mother" His kingdom, has been shown just above (n. 8897). But lest perchance the mind be in doubt whether by "mother" in the internal sense is meant the kingdom of the Lord, that is, heaven, I may add the following to what was said above. In the Word by "mother" is meant the church (see n. 289, 4257, 5581), which also on this account is at one time called "the bride," and at another "the wife," of the Lord; and as the kingdom of the Lord is the same as the church, with only this difference, that the kingdom of the Lord on the earth is called "the church," therefore this also is signified by "mother." For this reason the sons born of this mother are truths, and are called "the sons of the kingdom" (Matt. 13:38; n. 3373). Moreover to all those who are therein the Lord's kingdom is their country, and one's country is "mother" in a natural sense, as the church is "mother" in the spiritual sense.
8858-1 The numbering here followed by Swedenborg from the Hebrew and Latin Bible of Schmidius, includes in verse 13, verses 14, 15, and 16 of our English version. [Reviser.]
8882-1 Here in vanum, but in the head Chapter and in n. 8863 ad vanum. [REVISER.]
8884-1 The Latin has septimo; see also n. 8894. [REVISER.]
8894-1 The Latin has septimo, the seventh. [REVISER.]