Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
In sorrow to the grave. That this signifies without hope of resuscitation, is evident from the signification of "sorrow" here, as being without hope, for when there is no longer any hope there is sorrow; and from the signification of the "grave," as being resurrection and regeneration (see n. 2916, 2917, 3256, 4621), thus the resuscitation of the church; for if in the church there is neither an internal which is "Joseph," nor an intermediate which is "Benjamin," nor faith in the will, or charity, which is "Simeon," there is no longer any hope of its resuscitation. It appears strange that the "grave" should denote resuscitation, but this is because of man's idea concerning it; for he does not separate the grave from death, nor even from the dead body in the grave. Yet the angels in heaven cannot have such an idea of the grave, but one entirely different from man's, namely, an idea of resurrection or resuscitation. For when man's dead body is committed to the grave he is resuscitated into the other life; and therefore the idea angels have about the grave is not an idea of death, but of life, consequently of resuscitation.5552.
Continuation concerning the correspondence with the Grand Man; here concerning the correspondence of the skin, the hair, and the bones therewith. In regard to correspondence the case is this. The things in man which have the most life correspond to those societies in the heavens which have the most life and hence the most happiness there, as do those to which man's external and internal sensories correspond, and the things of his understanding and will. But the things in man which have less life correspond to such societies there as are in less life, as the cuticles which invest the whole body, the cartilages and bones which support and hold together all the parts of the body, and also the hairs which grow out from the cuticles. What the societies are to which these correspond, and what is their quality, is also to be told.5553.
The societies to which the skins correspond are in the entrance to heaven, and to them is given a perception of the quality of the spirits who throng to the first threshold, whom they either reject or admit; so that they may be called entrances or thresholds to heaven.5554.
There are very many societies that constitute the external integuments of the body, with differences from the face to the soles of the feet; for there are differences everywhere. I have spoken much with them. In regard to spiritual life they had been such that they suffered themselves to be persuaded by others that a thing is so; and when they heard it confirmed from the literal sense of the Word, they wholly believed it, and remained in the opinion, and instituted a life, not evil, in accordance with it. Others who are not of a similar nature cannot easily have interaction with them; for they cling tenaciously to the opinions they have received, and do not suffer themselves to be led away from them by reasons. Very many such are from this earth, because our planet is in externals, and also reacts against internals, as does the skin.5555.
There are those who in the life of the body have known nothing but the general things of faith-as that the neighbor ought to be loved-and who from this general principle have done good to the evil and to the upright alike without discrimination, saying that everyone is the neighbor. When these lived in the world they suffered themselves to be led much astray by the deceitful, hypocritical, and pretending; and the same thing happens to them in the other life; nor do they care what is said to them, for they are sensuous and do not enter into reasons. These also constitute the skin, but the outer and less sensitive part. I have spoken with those who constitute the skin of the skull. There is as great a difference in those who constitute the skin, as there is in the skin itself in various places-as on different parts of the skull, about the occiput, sinciput, and temples, on the face, and on the chest, abdomen, loins, feet, arms, hands, and fingers.5556.
It has also been given me to know who constitute the scarf skin. This skin is less sensitive than any other of the coverings, for it is covered over with scales that are nearly like a thin cartilage. The societies which constitute it are they who reason about all things as to whether it be so or not so, and go no further. When I spoke with them, it was given to perceive that they do not at all apprehend what is true or not true; and the more they reason, the less they apprehend. Yet they seem to themselves wiser than others, for they vest wisdom in the faculty of reasoning. They are altogether ignorant that the chief thing in wisdom is to perceive without reasoning, that a thing is so or not so. Many such are from those who in the world became so from a confusion of good and truth through philosophical subtleties, and who thereby have the less common sense.5557.
There are also spirits through whom others speak, and who hardly understand what they say. This they confessed, but still talked much. They become so who in the life of the body only prated, without thinking at all about what they said, and loved to talk about everything. I was told that they are in companies, and that some of these relate to the membranes which cover the viscera of the body, and some to the cuticles which have but little sensitiveness; for they are only passive powers, and do nothing from themselves, but from others.5558.
There are spirits who when they wish to know anything, say that it is so, one after another in the society; and when they say it, they observe whether it flows freely without any spiritual resistance; for when it is not so, they usually perceive a resistance from within; and if they perceive no resistance they think that it is so, and do not know it in any other way. Such are they who constitute the little glands of the skin. But there are two kinds of them, one which affirms because there appears a free flow, as was said, from which they surmise that as there is no resistance it is in agreement with the heavenly form, consequently with the truth, and thereby that it is affirmed; and another kind which boldly affirms that it is so, although they do not know it.5559.
The conformation of the interweavings of the skins has been shown to me representatively. The conformation with those in whom these outermost things corresponded to the interiors, or in whom the material things there were obedient to spiritual things, was a beautiful weaving of spirals wonderfully intertwined in a kind of lace-work which it is impossible to describe. They were of a blue color. Afterward were represented forms still more elaborate, more delicate, and more beautifully interwoven. Of such a structure appear the skins of a regenerate man. But with those who have been deceitful, these outermost things appear like knottings together of mere serpents; and with those who have used magical arts, like foul intestines.5560.
The societies of spirits to which the cartilages and bones correspond are very many; but they are such as have little spiritual life in them, just as there is little life in the bones as compared with the soft parts which they enclose-as for example in the skull and the bones of the head compared with either brain and the medulla oblongata and the sensitive substances there; and also as in the vertebrae and ribs in comparison with the heart and lungs; and so on.5561.
It has been shown me how little spiritual life they have who relate to the bones. Other spirits speak through them, and they themselves know little of what they say; but still they speak, vesting delight in this only. Into such a state are they reduced who have led an evil life, and yet have had some remains of good stored up in them. These remains make that little of spiritual life, after the vastations of many ages. (What remains are, may be seen above, n. 468, 530, 560-561, 660, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284, 5135, 5342, 5344.) It is said that they have little spiritual life, and by spiritual life is meant the life which the angels in heaven have. To this life man is introduced in the world by the things of faith and charity; the very affection of the good which is of charity, and the affection of the truth which is of faith, are spiritual life, man's life without these is a natural, worldly, bodily, and earthly life, which is not spiritual life, unless spiritual life is in it, but is such a life as he has in common with animals.5562.
They who come out of vastations, and serve the uses of the bones, have not any determinate thought, but general, almost indeterminate; they are like those who are called distraught, as if not in the body; they are slow, heavy, stupid, sluggish in everything. Yet sometimes they are not untranquil, because cares do not penetrate, but are dispersed in their general obscurity.5563.
Pains are sometimes felt in the skull, now in one part, now in another; and nuclei seem to be perceived there which are separate from the other bones, and which thus are in pain. It has been given me to know by experience that such pains come from falsities originating in cupidities; and wonderful to say the genera and species of falsities have fixed places in the skull, as has also been made known to me by much experience. Such nuclei, which are indurations, are broken up and made soft in those who are being reformed; and this is done in various ways, in general by instructions in good and truth, by harsh influxes of truths which cause inward pain, and by actual rendings which cause outward pain. Falsities from cupidities are of such a nature that they produce hardness; for they are contrary to truths, which because they are determined according to the form of heaven, flow as it were spontaneously, freely, gently, and softly, while falsities, being of a contrary tendency, have opposite determinations, so that the flow which is of the form of heaven is stopped; hence the indurations. From this cause they who have been in deadly hatred and in the revengefulness of such hatred, and from these in falsities, have skulls completely indurated, and some have skulls like ebony, through which no rays of light, which are truths, penetrate, but are wholly reflected.5564.
There are spirits small in stature who when they speak, thunder, one sometimes like a troop. It is innate in them to speak so. They are not from this earth, but from another, which of the Lord's Divine mercy will be spoken of when I speak of the inhabitants of the various earths. It was said that they relate to the shield like cartilage in front of the chest, and which serves as a support in front to the ribs, and also to the various muscles of tone.5565.
There are also some spirits who relate to bones still harder, as the teeth; but it has not been granted me to know much about them, merely that having scarcely any spiritual life left, when presented to view in the light of heaven, they do not appear with any face, but only with teeth in place of a face; for the face represents man's interiors, thus his spiritual and celestial things, that is, those of faith and charity; and therefore they appear thus who in the life of the body have not acquired anything of this life.5566.
There came toward me one who appeared like a black cloud about which were shooting stars. When shooting stars appear in the other life they signify falsities; but fixed stars signify truths. I perceived that it was a spirit who wished to approach. When he came near he struck me with fear; this certain spirits can do, especially robbers, and therefore I was able to conclude that he had been a robber. When he was near me, he made every effort to infest me by magic arts, but in vain. He stretched out his hand that he might exert his imaginary power, but with no effect whatever. The kind of face he had was afterward shown. It was no face, but something very black in place of one; and in it appeared a mouth gaping so dreadfully and ferociously that it was a very maw in which teeth were set in rows. In a word, it was like a mad dog with distended jaws, so that it was a wide open mouth, not a face.5567.
A certain one applied himself to my left side, and at that time I did not know where he came from, nor what he was; he also acted obscurely. He wanted to penetrate inwardly into me, but was kept out. He induced a general sphere of ideas of thought that is indescribable, and I do not remember having previously noticed any general sphere like it. He was bound by no principles, but in general was against all whom he could readily and ingeniously refute and censure, although he did not know what truth is. I wondered at his having the cleverness to show others to be wrong, and yet do this from no knowledge of truth in himself. Afterward he went away, but soon returned with an earthen jug in his hand, and wanted to give me something out of it to drink. There was in the jug, from phantasy, something that would take away the understanding of those who drank. This was represented because he had deprived those who were attached to him in the world of the understanding of truth and good; but still they clung to him. He also, in the light of heaven, did not appear with any face, but only with teeth, for the reason that he could ridicule others, and still knew nothing of truth himself. I was told who he was, and that when he lived, he was one of the men of note, and his nature had been known to some.5568.
There have been with me at times those who gnashed with their teeth. They were from the hells where are those who had not only led an evil life, but had also confirmed themselves against the Divine, and had referred all things to nature. These gnash with their teeth when they speak, which is horrible to hear.5569.
As there is a correspondence of the bones and the skins, so there is of the hairs; for these push forth from roots in the skins. Whatever has a correspondence with the Grand Man is possessed by angels and spirits; for each one as an image represents the Grand Man; therefore the angels have hair arranged becomingly and in order. Their hair represents their natural life and its correspondence with their spiritual life. That "hair" signifies the things of natural life, may be seen above (n. 3301); and also that "to poll the hair" is to accommodate natural things so that they may be becoming and thus comely (n. 5247).5570.
There are many, especially women, who have vested everything in adornment, nor have they thought higher, and scarcely anything about eternal life. This is pardoned to women until the age of womanhood, when the ardor which is wont to precede marriage ceases; but if they persist in such things in adult age, when they can know better, they then contract a nature which remains after death. Such appear in the other life with long hair spread over the face, which they also comb, vesting elegance therein; for "to comb the hair" signifies to accommodate natural things so that they appear becoming (see n. 5247). From this their quality is known by others; for spirits can tell from the color, length, and arrangement of the hair what the persons had been as to natural life in the world.5571.
They who have believed nature to be everything, and have confirmed themselves in this, and therefore have led a careless life, not acknowledging any life after death, thus neither hell nor heaven, being merely natural, do not appear in the light of heaven to have any face, but in its place something bearded, hairy, unshorn; for as before said, the face represents spiritual and heavenly things inwardly in man, but hairiness natural things.5572.
There are very many at this day in the Christian world who ascribe all things to nature, and scarcely anything to the Divine; but there are more of these in one nation than in another. I may therefore relate a conversation I had with some from that nation in which there are very many such.5573.
A certain one was present above the head who was unseen, but whose presence was perceived from an odor of burnt horn or bone, and from a stench of teeth. Afterward a great multitude, like a black cloud, came unseen from beneath upward behind the back, and stopped above the head. I supposed they were unseen because they were subtle; but I was told that where there is a spiritual sphere they are invisible, but where there is a natural sphere they are visible. They are called invisible natural spirits. The first thing disclosed about them was that they strove with the utmost diligence, skill, and artfulness to prevent anything from being divulged about them, to which end they were skilled in stealing from others their ideas, and inducing other ideas, by which they hindered detection. This continued quite a long time. Hence it was given to know that in the life of the body they had been such as not to desire to have anything divulged of what they did or thought, assuming a different face and a different speech. Nevertheless they had not used these things in order to deceive in a lying manner.  It was perceived that they who were present had been traders in the life of the body, but traders whose delight of life consisted rather in trading itself than in riches, so that trading had been as it were their soul, I therefore spoke to them about this, and was given to say that trading does not at all prevent anyone from coming into heaven, and that the rich as well as the poor are in heaven. But they objected, saying that it had been their opinion that if they were to be saved they would have to renounce trade, give all they had to the poor, and make themselves miserable. But it was given to reply to them that such is not the case, and that those among them who are in heaven because they had been good Christians, had thought otherwise, and yet they had been wealthy, and some of them very wealthy. These had the common good and love toward the neighbor as their end, and had engaged in mercantile pursuits merely for the sake of employment in the world, and moreover had not set their heart on these things. And the reason why they themselves are below is that they had been merely natural, and therefore had not believed in a life after death, nor in hell and heaven, nor even in any spirit; and that they had not hesitated to deprive others of their goods by any artifice whatever, and could without mercy see whole families ruined for the sake of their own gain; and that they therefore had ridiculed everyone who spoke to them about a spiritual life.  The kind of faith they had had about the life after death, and about heaven and hell, was also shown. There appeared one who was taken up into heaven from the left toward the right; and it was said that it was one who had recently died, and was being immediately conducted by the angels into heaven. There was a conversation about this. But although they also saw it they nevertheless had a very strong sphere of unbelief, and spread it around, so much so that they wanted to make themselves and others believe contrary to what they saw. And as their unbelief was so great I was given to say to them, Suppose that in the world you had seen someone resuscitated who was lying dead in a coffin. They said that at first they should not have believed unless they had seen many dead persons resuscitated; and if they had seen this, still they would have attributed it to natural causes. And after they had been left awhile to their own thoughts, they said that at first they would have believed it to be a fraud; and when it was proved to be no fraud they would have believed that the soul of the dead person had a secret communication with him who resuscitated it; and finally that there was some secret thing they did not comprehend, because there are very many incomprehensible things in nature; so that they could never have believed that such a thing took place from any force above nature. Hereby was disclosed the nature of their faith that they could never have been brought to believe that there is any life after death, nor that there is a hell, nor that there is a heaven; thus that they were wholly natural. When such persons appear in the light of heaven, they appear without a face, and with a thick mass of hair in place thereof. Genesis 43 1. And the famine became grievous in the land. 2. And it came to pass when they had finished the eating of the produce which they had brought from Egypt, and their father said unto them, Go back, buy us a little food. 3. And Judah spoke unto him, saying, Protesting the man did protest unto us, saying, Ye shall not see my faces except your brother be with you. 4. If thou wilt send our brother with us, we will go down and buy thee food. 5. And if thou wilt not send, we will not go down; for the man said unto us, Ye shall not see my faces except your brother be with you. 6. And Israel said, Wherefore dealt ye ill with me, to tell the man whether ye had yet a brother? 7. And they said, Asking the man asked unto us, and unto our birth, saying, Is your father yet alive? Have ye a brother? And we told him according to the mouth of these words. Knowing could we know that he would say, Bring your brother down? 8. And Judah said unto Israel his father, Send the boy with me, and we will arise and go; and we will live, and not die, both we and thou, and also our little ones. 9. I will be surety for him; of my hand shalt thou require him; if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee, then I shall sin to thee all the days. 10. For except we had lingered, surely we had now returned these two times. 11. And their father Israel said unto them, If therefore this be so, do this: take of the song of the land in your vessels, and carry down the man a present, a little resin and a little honey, wax and stacte, terebinth 5573-1 nuts and almonds. 12. And take double silver in your hands, and the silver that was returned in the mouth of your bags carry back in your hand; peradventure it was an error. 13. And take your brother, and arise, and return unto the man. 14. And God Shaddai give you mercies before the man, and send you your other brother and Benjamin. And I, as I have been bereaved, I shall be bereaved. 15. And the men took this present, and they took double silver in their hand, and Benjamin; and rose up, and went down to Egypt, and stood before Joseph. 16. And Joseph saw Benjamin with them, and he said to him that was over his house, Bring the men to the house, and slaying slay, and make ready; for the men shall eat with me at noon. 17. And the man did as Joseph said; and the man brought the men to Joseph's house. 18. And the men were afraid because they were brought to Joseph's house; and they said, Over the word of the silver that was returned in our bags in the beginning are we brought; to roll down upon us, and to cast himself upon us, and to take us for servants, and our asses. 19. And they came near to the man that was over Joseph's house, and they spoke unto him at the door of the house, 20. And said, In me, my lord, in coming down we came down in the beginning to buy food; 21. And it came to pass, when we came to the inn and we opened our bags, and behold everyone's silver in the mouth of his bag, our silver in its weight; and we have brought it back in our hand. 22. And the other silver have we brought down in our hand to buy food; we know not who put our silver in our bags. 23. And he said, Peace be to you, fear not; your God and the God of your father gave you a hidden gift in your bags; your silver came to me. And he brought Simeon out unto them. 24. And the man brought the men to Joseph's house, and gave water, and they washed their feet; and he gave their asses provender. 25. And they made ready the present against Joseph came at noon; for they heard that they should eat bread there. 26. And Joseph came to the house, and they brought him the present which was in their hand to the house, and bowed down themselves to him to the earth. 27. And he asked them to peace, and said, Is there peace to your father, the old man of whom ye spoke? Is he yet alive? 28. And they said, There is peace to thy servant our father; he is yet alive. And they bent themselves, and bowed themselves down. 29. And he lifted up his eyes, and saw Benjamin his brother, his mother's son, and said, Is this your youngest brother, of whom ye spoke unto me? And he said, God be gracious unto thee, my son. 30. And Joseph made haste, for his compassions were moved toward his brother; and he sought to weep, and he came to the bed-chamber, and wept there. 31. And he washed his faces, and went out, and he restrained himself, and said, Set on bread. 32. And they set on for him alone, and for them alone, and for the Egyptians who did eat with him, alone; because the Egyptians cannot eat bread with the Hebrews; because this is an abomination to the Egyptians. 33. And they sat before him, the firstborn according to his birthright, and the youngest according to his youth; and the men were amazed, everyone at his companion. 34. And he brought out portions from his faces unto them; and he multiplied Benjamin's portion above the portions of them all, five measures. And they drank and drank largely with him.5574.
The Contents. The subject is continued of the conjunction in the natural of the truths of the church, which are the "ten sons of Jacob," with the celestial of the spiritual, or truth from the Divine, which is "Joseph," through the intermediate which is "Benjamin;" but in this chapter, in the internal sense, only the general influx which precedes conjunction is treated of.5575.
The Internal Sense. Verses 1-5. And the famine became grievous in the land. And it came to pass when they had finished the eating of the produce which they had brought from Egypt, and their father said unto them, Go back, buy us a little food. And Judah spoke unto him, saying, Protesting the man did protest unto us, saying, Ye shall not see my faces except your brother be with you. If thou wilt send our brother with us, we will go down and buy thee food. And if thou wilt not send, we will not go down; for the man said unto us, Ye shall not see my faces except your brother be with you. "And the famine became grievous," signifies desolation from want of spiritual things; "in the land," signifies about the things that were of the church; "and it came to pass," signifies what is new; "when they had finished the eating of the produce," signifies when truths failed; "which they had brought from Egypt," signifies which were from memory-knowledges; "and their father said unto them," signifies perception from the things of the church; "Go back, buy us a little food," signifies that in order to live they must procure for themselves the good of spiritual truth; "and Judah spoke unto him," signifies the good of the church; "saying, Protesting the man did protest unto us," signifies that the spiritual derived from the internal was averse to them; "saying, Ye shall not see my faces," signifies that there will be no compassion; "except your brother be with you," signifies unless there is an intermediate for you; "if thou wilt send our brother with us," signifies that if it is so done by the church that adjunction shall take place, there must be an intermediate; "we will go down and buy thee food," signifies that then the good of truth will be procured there; "and if thou wilt not send him," signifies if not; "we will not go down," signifies that it cannot be procured; "for the man said unto us," signifies perception concerning the spiritual; "Ye shall not see my faces," signifies that there will be no compassion; "except your brother be with you," signifies unless there is an intermediate for you.5576.
And the famine became grievous. That this signifies desolation from the want of spiritual things, is evident from the signification of "famine," as being a lack of the knowledges of good and truth (see n. 3364, 5277, 5279, 5281, 5300), and hence desolation (n. 5360, 5376, 5415); and because desolation comes from a scarcity and consequent want of spiritual things, this also is signified by "famine."  Hunger in the spiritual world or in heaven is not hunger for food, because the angels do not feed upon material food, which is for the body that man carries about in the world; but it is hunger for such food as nourishes their minds. This food, which is called spiritual food, is to understand truth and be wise in good; and wonderful to say the angels are nourished by this food; which has been made evident to me from the fact that after little children who die have been instructed in heaven in the truths of intelligence and the goods of wisdom, they no longer appear as little children, but as adults, and this according to their increase in good and truth; and also from the fact that the angels continually long for the things of intelligence and wisdom, and that when they are in the evening, that is, in a state in which these things fail, they are so far in what is relatively not happiness, and they then hunger and long for nothing more than that the morning may dawn for them afresh, and that they may return into their life of happiness, which is of intelligence and wisdom.  That to understand truth and to will good is spiritual food, may also appear to everyone who reflects that when anyone is enjoying material food for the nourishment of the body, his food is more nourishing if he is at the same time in cheerful spirits and conversing on agreeable topics, which is a sign that there is a correspondence between spiritual food for the soul and material food for the body. And the same is further evident from the fact that when one who longs to imbue his mind with the things of knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom is kept from them, he begins to be saddened and distressed, and like one who is famished longs to return to his spiritual food, and thereby to the nourishment of his soul.  That there is spiritual food which nourishes the soul as material food nourishes the body may also be seen from the Word, as in Moses: Man doth not live by bread only; but by every utterance of the mouth of Jehovah doth man live (Deut. 8:3; Matt. 4:4). The "utterance of the mouth of Jehovah" is in general the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord, thus all truth of wisdom, specifically the Word, in which and from which are the things of wisdom. And in John: Labor not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you (John 6:27); that this meat is the truth of wisdom which proceeds from the Lord is evident.  From this too it may be known what is meant by these words of the Lord in the same chapter: My flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed (John 6:55); namely, that the Lord's "flesh" is Divine good (n. 3813), and His "blood" Divine truth (n. 4735); for when the Lord made His whole Human Divine, then His flesh was nothing else than Divine good, and His blood Divine truth. It is evident that in the Divine nothing material is to be understood; and therefore "food" in the supreme sense, that is, when predicated of the Lord, is the good of the Divine love for saving the human race. This food is what is meant by the Lord's words in John: Jesus said to the disciples, I have meat to eat that ye know not of. My meat is to do the will of Him that sent Me, and to perfect His work (John 4:32, 34); "to do the will of Him that sent Him, and to perfect His work" is to save the human race; the Divine from which this is done is the Divine love. From all this it is now plain what is meant in the spiritual sense by "famine."5577.
In the land. That this signifies about the things that were of the church, is evident from the signification of "land" in the Word, as being the church, here therefore the things that are of the church, because anything that signifies the church, signifies also the things that are of the church; for these produce it. That in the Word "land" signifies the church is because the land of Canaan was the place where the church had been from most ancient times. So when "land" or "earth" is mentioned in the Word, the land of Canaan is meant; and when this is meant, the church is meant; for when a land is mentioned they who are in the spiritual world do not stay in the idea of the land, but in that of the nation which is there, nor in the idea of the nation, but in that of the quality of that nation; thus in the idea of the church when "land" is spoken of and the land of Canaan is meant. From this it is plain how deluded are they who believe that at the day of the last judgment a new earth and new heaven will come into existence, according to the prophecies in the Old Testament, and in John in the New (where however by the "new earth" nothing else is meant than a new external church, and by the "new heaven" a new internal church), and also they who believe that anything but the church is meant where the "whole earth" is mentioned in the Word. Hence it is plain how little they apprehend the Word who think there is no holier sense in it than that which shines forth from the letter alone. That the church was in the land of Canaan from the most ancient times may be seen above (n. 3686, 4447, 4454, 4516, 4517, 5136); that by "land" in the Word is signified the church (n. 662, 1066, 1068, 1262, 1413, 1607, 2928, 4447); and that by the "new heaven and new earth" is signified a new church internal and external (n. 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4535).5578.
And it came to pass. That this signifies what is new, is evident from the signification of "it was," or "it came to pass," as involving a new state (see n, 4979, 4987, 4999, 5074, 5466). In the original tongue the meaning was not at first distinguished by punctuation, but the text was continuous, in imitation of heavenly speech; and instead of punctuation marks, "and" was used, and also "it was," or "it came to pass." This is the reason why these words occur so often, and why "it was," or "it came to pass," signifies something new.5579.
When they had finished the eating of the produce. That this signifies when truths failed, is evident from the signification of "produce," as being truth (see n. 5276, 5280, 5292, 5402); that truth failed is signified by their "finishing the eating of it." Those who are in the spiritual world are sated with things true and good, for these are their food (n. 5576); but when these have served their purpose, they come again into want. This is as with the nourishment of man by material food when this has fulfilled its use, hunger comes on again. The hunger that is a need of spiritual things, in the spiritual world is evening or the twilight of their day; but after it comes daybreak and morning. Thus there are alternations there. They come into that evening or into spiritual hunger, in order that they may feel hungry and long for truths and goods, which yield them more nourishment when they are hungry, just as does material food to one who is famishing. From all this it is evident what is meant by the need of spiritual things when truths failed.5580.
Which they had brought from Egypt. That this signifies which were from memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of "Egypt," as being memory-knowledges (see n. 1164-1165, 1186, 1462), that they were "from these," is signified by their "bringing it thence." By "Egypt" in a good sense are signified the memory-knowledges of the church, namely, those which are of service for the form of the church (see n. 4749, 4964, 4966). By means of such knowledges man is introduced into the truths of the church as through a court into a house; for these knowledges are what first strike the senses, and thereby open a way to interior things; for it is known that the outward things of sense are first opened in man, and then the inner things of sense, and at last the things of the understanding; and that when these last have been opened, they are represented in the former so as to be comprehended. The reason is that things of the understanding arise from those of sense by a sort of extraction, for things of the understanding are conclusions, which when formed are separated, and rise to a higher plane. This is brought about by the influx of spiritual things through heaven from the Lord. From all this it is plain how it is that truths are from memory-knowledges.5581.
And their father said unto them. That this signifies perception from the things of the church, is evident from the signification of "saying" in the historicals of the Word, as being perception (of which often above); and from the representation of Israel, who here is the "father," as being the church (that "Israel" is the internal spiritual church, and "Jacob" the external, may be seen above, n. 4286, 4292, 4570). He is called "father" because by "father" in the Word is also signified the church, and likewise by "mother;" but by "mother" the church as to truth, and by "father" the church as to good. The reason of this is that the church is a spiritual marriage, which is from good as the father, and from truth as a mother.5582.
Go back, buy us a little food. That this signifies that in order to live they must procure for themselves the good of spiritual truth, is evident from the signification of "buying," as being to procure for one's self and to appropriate (see n. 4397, 5374, 5406, 5410, 5426); and from the signification of "food," as being the good of truth (n. 5340, 5342), here the good of spiritual truth, for it is this good that is treated of in what follows. That it means in order to live, follows.5583.
And Judah spoke unto him. That this signifies the good of the church, is evident from the representation of Judah, as being the good of the church (see n. 3654). Judah's now speaking about Benjamin, and Reuben's speaking about him before (in the preceding chapter, Genesis 42:36-37) is a secret which cannot be unfolded except from the internal sense. And so when Reuben spoke about Benjamin, Jacob was called "Jacob" (see Genesis 42:36); while here when Judah speaks about him, Jacob is called "Israel" (verses 6, 8, 11). That there is something involved in this no one can deny; but what it is cannot be known from the historical sense of the letter. So too in other places where Jacob is now called "Jacob" and now "Israel" (n. 4286). The secret involved will of the Lord's Divine mercy be told in the following pages. That Judah now speaks is because the subject treated of is the good of spiritual truth, that it is to be procured (n. 5582); and therefore Judah, who is the good of the church, speaks with Israel, who is the good of spiritual truth, and makes himself answerable for Benjamin, who is the intermediate; for the intermediate must be conjoined by means of good.5584.
Saying, Protesting the man did protest unto us. That this signifies that the spiritual from the internal was averse to them, is evident from the signification of "protesting to protest," as being to be averse; for he protested that they should not see his faces unless their brother were with them; such protesting is of aversion, for by not seeing his faces is signified that there will be no compassion (of which in what presently follows); and from the representation of Joseph, as being the Divine spiritual, or what is the same, truth from the Divine (n. 3969), who here, being called "the man," is the spiritual, or truth flowing in from the internal.5585.
Saying, Ye shall not see my faces. That this signifies that there will be no compassion, is evident from the signification of "faces" when predicated of man, as being his interiors, that is, his affections and derivative thoughts (see n. 358, 1999, 2434, 3527, 3573, 4066, 4796, 4797, 5102); but when predicated of the Lord, they denote mercy or compassion. Therefore "not to see his faces" means that there will be no mercy, or no compassion; for in the supreme sense the Lord is here represented by Joseph. Not that the Lord has no compassion, for He is mercy itself; but when there is no intermediate that conjoins, it appears to the man as if there were no compassion in the Lord. The reason is that if there is not a conjoining intermediate, there is no reception of good, and when there is no reception of good; there is evil in its stead. If the man then cries to the Lord, and because he cries from evil and thus for himself against all others, is not heard, it appears to him as if there were no compassion. That the "faces" of Jehovah or the Lord denote mercy, is evident from the Word; for the "face" of Jehovah or the Lord in the proper sense denotes the Divine love itself; and because it denotes the Divine love, it denotes what is of mercy, for this from love is shown toward the human race steeped in miseries so great.  That the "face" of Jehovah or the Lord is the Divine love, is evident from the face of the Lord when He was transfigured before Peter, James, and John, that is, when He showed them His Divine; for then His face did shine as the sun (Matt. 17:2); that the "sun" is the Divine love may be seen shown above (n. 30-38, 1521, 1529-1531, 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643, 4060, 4321, 4696). The Lord's Divine Itself never appeared in any face, but His Divine Human, and through this as in it the Divine love, or relatively to the human race, the Divine mercy. This Divine mercy in the Divine Human is called the "angel of faces," in Isaiah: I will make mention of the mercies of Jehovah. He will recompense them according to His mercies, and according to the multitude of His mercies, and He became for them a Saviour. And the angel of His faces saved them, for the sake of His love, and for the sake of His pity (Isa. 63:7-9); it is called an "angel" because "angels" in the internal sense of the word signify something of the Lord (n. 1925, 2821, 4085), here His mercy and therefore it is said "the angel of His faces."  That the "face" of Jehovah or the Lord is mercy, and also peace and good, because these are of mercy, may likewise be seen from the following passages. In the benediction: Jehovah make His faces to shine upon thee, and be merciful unto thee. Jehovah lift up His faces unto thee, and give thee peace (Num. 6:25-26); it is very evident that "to make the faces to shine" is to be merciful, and "to lift up the faces" is to give peace. In David: God be merciful unto us, and bless us, and cause His faces to shine upon us (Ps. 67:2); the "faces" here again denote mercy. In the same: Bring us back, O God, and cause Thy faces to shine, that we may be saved (Ps. 80:3, 7, 19); with a similar meaning. Again: Deliver me from the hands of mine enemies, and from them that persecute me. Make Thy faces to shine upon Thy servant (Ps. 31:15, 16; so too Ps. 119:134-135). In Daniel: Hear, O our God, the praying of Thy servant, and his prayers, and cause Thy faces to shine upon Thy sanctuary that is desolate (Dan. 9:17); "causing the faces to shine" denoting to be merciful.  In David: There are many that say, Who will make us see good? Lift up the light of Thy faces upon us (Ps. 4:6, 7); "lifting up the light of the faces" denotes to give good from mercy. In Hosea: Let them seek My faces when distress is theirs; in the morning let them seek Me (Hos. 5:15). Again in David: Seek ye My faces; Thy faces, Jehovah, will I seek (Ps. 27:8-9). Seek Jehovah and His strength; seek His faces continually (Ps. 105:4); "to seek the faces of Jehovah" denotes to seek His mercy. Again: I shall see Thy faces in righteousness (Ps. 17:15); and in Matthew: See that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you that their angels in the heavens do always behold the face of My Father who is in the heavens (Matt. 18:10); "to behold the face of God" denotes to enjoy peace and good from mercy.  But the opposite is "to conceal," or "hide," and also "to turn away the faces" which signifies not to be merciful; as in Isaiah: In the overflowing of My anger I hid My faces from thee for a moment; but with mercy of eternity will I have mercy on thee (Isa. 54:8); where the "overflowing of anger" denotes temptation, and because the Lord appears not to be merciful therein, it is said "I hid My faces from thee for a moment." In Ezekiel: I will turn away My faces from them (Ezek. 7:22). In David: How long wilt Thou forget me, O Jehovah? to eternity? How long wilt Thou hide Thy faces from me? (Ps. 13:1.) In the same: Hide not Thy faces from me; put not Thy servant away in anger (Ps. 27:9). Again: Wherefore Jehovah dost Thou forsake my soul? why hidest Thou Thy faces from me? (Ps. 88:14.) And again: Make haste, answer me, O Jehovah; my spirit is consumed. Hide not Thy faces from me, lest I become like them that go down into the pit. Cause me to hear Thy mercy in the morning (Ps. 143:7-8). And in Moses: My anger shall wax hot against this people in that day, so that I will forsake them; and I will hide My faces from them, whence it will be for consuming; I will surely hide My faces in that day for all the evil which they have done (Deut. 31:17-18);  "the anger waxing hot" denotes a turning away (n. 5034); and "hiding the faces" denotes not being merciful. These things are predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, although He is never angry, and never turns away or hides His faces; but it is so said from the appearance with the man who is in evil; for the man who is in evil turns himself away, and hides from himself the Lord's faces, that is, removes His mercy from himself. That it is the evils in man that do this, may also be seen from the Word, as in Micah: Jehovah will hide His faces from them at that time, according as they have rendered their works evil (Micah 3:4). In Ezekiel: Because they trespassed against Me, therefore I hid My faces from them. According to their uncleanness and according to their transgressions did I with them; and I hid My faces from them (Ezek. 39:23-24). And especially in Isaiah: It is your iniquities that separate between you and your God, and your sins do hide His faces from you (Isa. 59:2). From these and many other passages the internal sense is plain, which here and there stands forth, and is found by him who seeks it.5586.
Except your brother be with you. That this signifies unless there is an intermediate for you, is evident from the representation of Benjamin, as being an intermediate (see n. 5411, 5413, 5443). The intermediate which Benjamin represents is the intermediate between the internal and the external, or between the spiritual and the natural man, and is the truth of good which proceeds from the truth from the Divine which is represented by Joseph. This truth of good is called the spiritual of the celestial, and that this is "Benjamin" may be seen above (n. 3969, 4592). Man's internal and external are most distinct from each other, for his internal is in the light of heaven, and his external in the light of the world; and because they are most distinct, they cannot be conjoined except by means of an intermediate that partakes of both.5587.
If thou wilt send our brother with us. That this signifies that if it is so done by the church that adjunction shall take place, there must be an intermediate, is evident from the representation of Israel, who was to send, as being the church (see n. 4286), and hence "if thou wilt send" denotes if it is so done by the church; and from the representation of Benjamin, who here is their "brother," as being an intermediate (of which just above, n. 5586). From this it is plain that by "if thou wilt send our brother with us" is signified that if it is so done by the church that its external be adjoined to its internal, there must be an intermediate.5588.
We will go down and buy thee food. That this signifies that then the good of truth will be procured, is evident from the signification of "buying," as being to procure and appropriate, and from the signification of "food," as being the good of truth (as may be seen above, n. 5582).5589.
But if thou wilt not send him. That this signifies if not, that is, if it be not of the church that adjunction shall take place, is plain from what was said just above (n. 5587).5590.
We will not go down. That this signifies that it cannot be procured, is evident from what was said just above (n. 5588).5591.
For the man said unto us. That this signifies perception concerning the spiritual, is evident from the signification of the "man," as being the spiritual from the internal (of which above, n. 5584); and from the signification of "saying" in the historicals of the Word, as being perception (of which often above).5592.
Ye shall not see my faces. That this signifies that there will be no compassion, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 5585), where the same words occur.5593.
Except your brother be with you. That this signifies unless there is an intermediate for you, is evident from what was said above in regard to Benjamin, who is here the "brother," that he is an intermediate (n. 5586, 5587).5594.
Verses 6-10. And Israel said, Wherefore dealt ye ill with me, to tell the man whether ye had yet a brother? And they said, Asking the man asked unto us, and unto our birth, saying is your father yet alive? Have ye a brother? And we told him according to the mouth of these words. Knowing could we know that he would say, Bring your brother down? And Judah said unto Israel his father, Send the boy with me, and we will arise and go; and we will live, and not die, both we and thou, and also our little ones. I will be surety for him; of my hand shalt thou require him; if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee, and I shall sin to thee all the days; for except we had lingered, surely we had now returned these two times. "And Israel said," signifies perception from spiritual good; "Wherefore dealt ye ill with me to tell the man whether ye had yet a brother?" signifies that they separated from them the truth of good, to conjoin it with the spiritual from the internal; "and they said, Asking the man asked unto us," signifies that it clearly perceived the things in the natural; "and unto our birth," signifies concerning the truths of faith there; "saying, is your father yet alive?" signifies and concerning the spiritual good from which they were; "have ye a brother?" signifies concerning interior truth; "and we told him according to the mouth of these words," signifies that he perceived them conformably; "knowing could we know that he would say, Bring your brother down?" signifies that we did not believe that he wished the truth of good to be conjoined with him; "and Judah said unto Israel his father," signifies perception from the good of the church concerning those things; "Send the boy with me," signifies that he should be adjoined to him; "and we will arise and go; and we will live, and not die," signifies spiritual life according to degrees; "both we," signifies the external of the church; "and thou," signifies its internal; "and also our little ones," signifies the things which are still more interior; "I will be surety for him," signifies that in the meantime it will be adjoined to itself; "of my hand shalt thou require him," signifies that it shall not be torn away insofar as lies in its power; "if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee," signifies unless he is quite restored to the church; "and I shall sin to thee all the days," signifies that the good of the church will no longer be; "for except we had lingered," signifies tarrying in a state of doubt; "surely we had now returned these two times," signifies that there would have been spiritual life both exterior and interior.5595.
And Israel said. That this signifies perception from spiritual good, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive (of which above); and from the representation of Israel, as being spiritual good (see n. 3654, 4598); and because Israel is spiritual good, he is also the internal spiritual church (n. 3305, 4286), for this church is a church from spiritual good. Spiritual good is truth that has become good; for truth becomes good when the man lives according to it, for it then passes into the will, and from the will into act, and becomes of the life; and when it becomes of the life it is no longer called truth but good. But the will which transforms truth into good is the new will in the intellectual part; it is this good that is called spiritual good. Spiritual good is distinguished from celestial good in that celestial good is implanted in man's will part itself; but this subject has often been treated of before.  That Jacob is not now called "Jacob," as in the previous chapter (Genesis 42:36), but "Israel," is because good is the subject treated of in this chapter, and truth in the preceding; wherefore in that chapter Reuben was the one to speak, by whom is represented the truth of doctrine of the church (see n. 3861, 3866, 4731, 4734, 4761, 5542), while in this chapter it is Judah who speaks, by whom is represented the good of the church (n. 3654, 5583). That good is now treated of is because this time the conjunction between the internal, which is Joseph, and the external, which is the ten sons of Jacob, is effected by means of the intermediate which is Benjamin; and the conjunction of the internal with the external is effected by means of good.5596.
Wherefore dealt ye ill with me, to tell the man whether ye had yet a brother? That this signifies that they separated from them. the truth of good, to conjoin it with the spiritual from the internal, is evident from the signification of "dealing ill," as being to separate, for it is their separating Benjamin from him that he calls "dealing ill;" and from the signification of "telling," as being to give something for another to think and reflect upon (n. 2862, 5508), consequently to communicate (see n. 4856), thus also to conjoin; for when anything passes into the will of another, conjunction is effected by what is communicated, as when Joseph heard that Benjamin was still living and with his father, he wanted him to come to him, and then to be alone with him, conjoined with him, as is plain from the historicals that follow; and from the representation of Joseph, as being the Divine spiritual, and as being, when called "the man," the spiritual from the internal (n. 5584); and from the representation of Benjamin, who is here their brother of whom they told, as being the truth of good (n. 5586). From all this it is plain that by "Wherefore dealt ye ill with me to tell the man whether ye had yet a brother?" is signified that they separated from them the truth of good, to conjoin it with the spiritual from the internal.5597.
And they said, Asking the man asked unto us. That this signifies that it clearly perceived the things in the natural, is evident from the signification of "asking," as being to perceive another's thought (of which in what follows); and from the representation of the ten sons of Jacob, who are here meant by "us," as being the things of the church which are in the natural (see n. 5403, 5419, 5427, 5458, 5512). That by "asking" is meant perceiving another's thought, is because in heaven there is a communication of all thoughts, so that no one has need to ask another what he is thinking. Hence it is that "asking" signifies perceiving another's thought; for in the internal sense the quality of a thing on earth is its quality in heaven.5598.
And unto our birth. That this signifies concerning the truths of faith there, is evident from the signification of "birth," as being the birth of truth from good, or of faith from charity (see n. 1145, 1255, 4070, 4668). That "birth" in the internal sense denotes this is because in heaven no other birth is understood than that which is called regeneration, which is effected by means of the truth of faith and the good of charity. By this birth, from being sons of man men become sons of the Lord; these are they who are said to be "born of God" (John 1:13). According to the varieties of good from truth and of truth from good in this birth are the brotherhoods or relationships by blood and by marriage in heaven; for in heaven there are perpetual varieties, but the varieties are so disposed by the Lord as to represent families in which are brothers, sisters, sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, grandsons, granddaughters, and so on. In general, however, all are disposed in such a form that together they make a one, as is the case with the varieties in the human body, where no member is exactly like another, nor indeed any part in one member the same as another part, and yet all the various parts are disposed in such a form that they act as a one, and each concurs intimately or remotely with the action of every other. Such being the form in man, it may be inferred what the form in heaven must be, with which all the things in man have correspondence-that it must be most perfect.5599.
Saying, Is your father yet alive? That this signifies and concerning the spiritual good from which they were, is evident from the representation of Israel, who is the "father" here, as being spiritual good (see n. 3654, 4598, 5595). It is said "from which they were" because from this good, as from a father, the truths of faith come down (n. 5598).5600.
Have ye a brother? That this signifies concerning interior truth, is evident from the representation of Benjamin, as being the spiritual of the celestial, or what is the same, the truth of good, or interior truth. (That "Benjamin" is truth in which is good, or the spiritual of the celestial, may be seen above, n. 3969, 4592.) This interior truth is the intermediate between truth from the Divine and truth in the natural.