Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
A certain one conversed with me who at the time that he lived in the world had more than others known the exterior truths of faith, but still had not led a life in conformity with the precepts of faith; for he had loved himself only, and had despised others in comparison with himself, and had believed that he would be among the first in heaven; but because he was of such a quality he could not have any other opinion of heaven than as of a worldly kingdom. When in the other life he found that heaven was entirely different from what he had conceived it to be, and that those were chief who had not set themselves above others, especially those who had believed that they were unworthy of mercy, and thus that according to their merits they were the last, he was very indignant, and rejected the things that in the life of the body had been of his faith. He was continually endeavoring to do violence to those who were in the province of the tongue. It was granted me clearly to perceive his effort for several weeks, and hence also to know who and of what quality are those who correspond to the tongue, and who they are that are opposed to them.4802.
There are also spirits who though evil still in some measure admit the light of heaven and receive the truths of faith, so that they have some perception of truth. They also eagerly receive truths, yet not for the purpose of living according to them, but that they may glory in seeming more intelligent and sharpsighted than others; for the intellect of man is such that it can receive truths, and yet truths are not appropriated to any but those who live according to them. Unless man's intellect were such he could not be reformed.  They who in the world have been of such a quality, that is, have understood truths and yet have lived a life of evil, are in the other life also of this quality, but there abuse their capacity to understand truths in order to acquire dominion; for they know there that by means of truths they have communication with some societies of heaven, and consequently that they can be with the evil and have power; for in the other life truths have power in them; but because their life is evil they are in hell.  I have spoken with two persons who had been such in the life of the body, and they wondered at their being in hell, when yet they had had a persuasive belief in the truths of faith. But they were told that the light with them by which they understood truths was a light like that of winter in the world, in which objects appear in their beauty and colors equally as in the light of summer; but that nevertheless in this winter light all things are torpid, and nothing pleasant and gladsome is produced; and that as their end of understanding truths had been glorying, and consequently self, therefore when the sphere of their ends exalts itself toward the interior heavens to the angels there, by whom ends only are perceived, it cannot be endured, but is rejected; and that for this reason they are in hell.  It was added that formerly such persons were pre-eminently called serpents of the tree of knowledge, because when they reason from the life they speak against truths; and moreover that they were like a woman with a lovely face, and a noisome odor, and who wherever she goes is therefore rejected from societies. Moreover, when in the other life such persons come to angelic societies they actually have a foul smell, and this even they themselves perceive as soon as they approach those societies. From this also it is evident what faith is without a life of faith.4803.
It is worthy of mention, being wholly unknown in the world, that the states of good spirits and of angels are continually changing and perfecting, and that they are thus raised into the interiors of the province in which they are, and so into nobler functions; for in heaven there is a continual purification, and so to speak new creation; but still the case is such that no angel can possibly attain absolute perfection even to eternity. The Lord alone is perfect; in Him and from Him is all perfection. They who correspond to the mouth are continually desiring to speak, for in speaking they find their greatest pleasure. When they are being perfected they are reduced to this - that they do not speak anything but what is of service to their companions, to the common good, to heaven, and to the Lord. The delight of so speaking is enhanced with them in the degree of the loss of the desire to regard themselves in their speech, and to seek wisdom from their own.4804.
There are very many societies in the other life that are called societies of friendship. They are composed of those who in the life of the body preferred to every other delight that of conversation, and who loved those with whom they conversed, not caring whether they were good or evil, provided they were entertaining; and thus who were not friends to good or to truth. They who have been such in the life of the body are such also in the other life, in which they associate solely from the delight of conversation. Many such societies have been with me, but at a distance, being seen chiefly a little to the right above the head. That they were present it was given me to note by a torpor and dullness, and by a privation of the delight in which I was, the presence of such societies inducing these effects. For wherever they come they take delight away from others, and wonderful to say, they make it their own; for they turn away the spirits who are with others, and turn them to themselves, whereby they transfer another's delight to themselves; and as they are on this account troublesome and injurious to those who are in good, they are therefore kept away by the Lord, lest they should come near to the heavenly societies. From this it was given me to know how much injury friendship occasions man as to his spiritual life if the person and not good is regarded; everyone may indeed be friendly to another, but still he should be most friendly to what is good.4805.
There are also societies of interior friendship which do not take away another's external delight and divert it to themselves, but take away his internal delight or blessedness, arising from the affection of spiritual things. These societies are in front to the right close above the lower earth, and some of them a little higher. I have several times conversed with those who were below; and then those who were above inflowed in general. In the life of the body their nature was such that they loved from the heart those who were within their common fellowship, and also embraced one another with brotherly affection. They had believed that they only were living and in the light, and that those who were outside of their society were comparatively not living and not in the light; and because they were of such a quality they also thought that the Lord's heaven consists solely of those few.  But it was given to tell them that the Lord's heaven is immense, and that it consists of every people and tongue, and that all are there who have been in the good of love and of faith; and it was shown that there are those in heaven who relate to all the provinces of the body both as to its exteriors and as to its interiors; but that if they aspired beyond the things which correspond to their life, especially if they condemned others who were outside of their society, they could not have heaven; and that in this case their society is a society of interior friendship, which as before said is of such a nature that when they approach others they deprive them of the blessedness of spiritual affection; for they regard them as not being the elect, and as not living; and when this thought is communicated, it induces sadness, which however according to the law of order in the other life returns to themselves.4806.
A continuation concerning Correspondence with the Grand Man will be found at the end of the following chapter.4807.
Genesis 38 THE LAST JUDGMENT Before the preceding chapter (n. 4661-4664) a beginning was made of unfolding what the Lord says in Matthew (chap. 25 from verse 31 to the end) concerning the Judgment upon the good and the evil, who are there called sheep and goats. What the internal sense of these words is, has not yet been unfolded, but is now to be unfolded before this and some following chapters. And it will then be evident that by the Last Judgment is not there meant the last time of the world, and that the dead will then for the first time rise again and be gathered together before the Lord and judged; but that there is meant the last time of everyone who passes out of the world into the other life; for then is his Judgment, and this is the Judgment which is meant. Yet that this is so does not appear from the sense of the letter, but from the internal sense. The reason why the Lord so spoke, is that He spoke here, as everywhere else in the Word of the Old and the New Testament, by representatives and significatives; for to speak by representatives and significatives is to speak at the same time to the world and to heaven, or to men and to angels. Such speech is Divine, because universal, and hence is proper to the Word. Wherefore they who are in the world and care for worldly things only, do not apprehend anything else from what the Lord says here concerning the Last Judgment than that all are to rise again at one and the same time, and even that the Lord will then sit upon a throne of glory, and will speak to those gathered together according to these words. But they who care for heavenly things know that the time of everyone's resurrection is when he dies, and that the Lord's words here involve that everyone will be judged according to his life, thus that everyone carries his judgment with him, because he carries his life.4808.
That this is involved in the internal sense of the words in question will appear from the explication of the particulars according to this sense; but here only those things will be unfolded which are contained in verses 31 to 33: When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory; and before Him shall be gathered all nations, and He shall separate them one from another as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats; and He shall set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left. (Matt. 25:31-33).4809.
When the Son of man shall come in His glory; signifies when the Divine truth shall appear in its light, which takes place with every man when he dies, for he then comes into the light of heaven, in which he can perceive what is true and good, and hence what is his quality. The "Son of man," in the internal sense of the Word, is the Lord as to Divine truth, thus is the Divine truth which is from the Lord. "Glory" is the intelligence and wisdom thence derived, which appear as light, and before the angels as the resplendence of light. This resplendence of light, in which are wisdom and intelligence derived from the Divine truth which is from the Lord, is what in the Word is called "glory." (That the "Son of man" in the internal sense is the Divine truth, may be seen n. 2159, 2803, 2813, 3704.)  And all the holy angels with Him; signifies the angelic heaven. The "holy angels" are the truths which are from the Lord's Divine good; for by "angels" in the Word are not meant angels, but those things which are from the Lord (see n. 1925, 4085); for the angels are recipients of the life of truth proceeding from the Lord's Divine good, and insofar as they receive, so far they are angels. From this it is plain that "angels" are these truths. As the subject here treated of is the state of everyone after death, and the judgment of everyone according to his life, it is said that all the holy angels will be with Him; and by this is signified that the judgment will be effected by means of heaven; for all influx of Divine truth takes place through heaven, and immediate influx can be received by no one.  Then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory; signifies the Judgment, for a "throne" is predicated of the Lord's royalty, and the Lord's royalty is the Divine truth (n. 1728, 2015, 3009, 3670), and the Divine truth is that from which and according to which is the Judgment.  And before Him shall be gathered all nations; signifies that the goods and evils of all will be made manifest; for by "nations" in the internal sense of the Word are signified goods, and in the opposite sense evils (n. 1259, 1260, 1416, 2588, 4574); thus that goods and evils will appear in Divine light, that is, in light from the Divine truth, is signified by all nations being gathered before Him.  And He shall separate them one from another, as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats; signifies the separation of good from evil; for the "sheep" are they who are in good, and the "goats" they who are in evil. They are properly called "sheep" who are in charity and thence in faith, and they "goats" who are in faith and not in charity-both being here treated of. That "sheep" are they who are in charity and thence in faith, may be seen above (n. 2088, 4169), and "goats" they who are in faith and not in charity (n. 4769).  And He shall set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left; signifies separation according to truths from good, and according to falsities from evil. In the other life they who are in truths from good actually appear to the right, and they who are in falsities from evil to the left. Hence to be set on the right hand and on the left, is to be set in order according to the life.4810.
From all this it is evident what these words of the Lord involve, and that they are not to be understood according to the letter (namely, that the Lord at some last time will come in glory, and all the holy angels with Him, and will sit upon a throne of glory, and judge all nations gathered before Him), but that everyone will be judged according to his life, when he passes out of life in the world into life eternal. GENESIS 38 1. And it came to pass in this time and Judah went down from his brethren, and turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite, and his name was Hirah. 2. And Judah saw there a daughter of a man, a Canaanite, and her name was Shua; and he took her, and came to her. 3. And she conceived and bare a son, and he called his name Er. 4. And she conceived again and bare a son, and she called his name Onan. 5. And she added again and bare a son, and she called his name Shelah; and he was in Chezib when she bare him. 6. And Judah took a woman for Er his firstborn, and her name was Tamar. 7. And Er, Judah's firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and Jehovah caused him to die. 8. And Judah said unto Onan, Come to thy brother's wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother unto her, and raise up seed to thy brother. 9. And Onan knew that the seed would not be his; and it came to pass when he came to his brother's wife, and he destroyed it to the earth, that he might not give seed to his brother. 10. And the thing which he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and He caused him also to die. 11. And Judah said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, Remain a widow in thy father's house, till Shelah my son be grown up; for he said, Lest he also die, like his brethren. And Tamar went and abode in her father's house. 12. And the days were multiplied, and Shua's daughter died, the wife of Judah; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto the shearers of his flock, he and his companion Hirah the Adullamite, to Timnah. 13. And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold, thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his flock. 14. And she put off from upon her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself in a veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the gate of the fountains which is upon the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him for a woman. 15. And Judah saw her, and thought her to be a harlot, because she had covered her face. 16. And he turned aside unto her to the way, and said, Grant I pray that I may come to thee; for he knew not that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said, What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come to me? 17. And he said, I will send thee a kid of the goats from the flock. And she said, If thou wilt give a pledge, till thou send it? 18. And he said, What pledge shall I give thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy kerchief, and thy staff that is in thy hand. And he gave them to her, and came to her; and she conceived to him. 19. And she arose, and went, and put off her veil from upon her, and put on the garments of her widowhood. 20. And Judah sent the kid of the goats by the hand of his companion the Adullamite, to receive the pledge from the woman's hand; and he found her not. 21. And he asked the men of that place, saying, Where is the harlot that was at the fountains upon the way? And they said, There was no harlot there. 22. And he returned to Judah and said, I have not found her; and also the men of the place said, There was no harlot there. 23. And Judah said, Let her take it to her, haply we shall be put to shame; behold I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her. 24. And it came to pass about three months after, and it was told Judah, saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot; and moreover, behold she is with child to whoredoms. And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. 25. She was brought forth, and she sent to her father-in-law, saying, By the man whose these are am I with child; and she said, Acknowledge I pray thee whose are these, the signet and the kerchief and the staff. 26. And Judah acknowledged them, and said, She is more just than I; forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son. And he added no further to know her. 27. And it came to pass in the time of her travail, and behold twins were in her womb. 28. And it came to pass when she travailed, that one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound double-dyed upon his hand, saying, This came out first. 29. And it came to pass as he drew back his hand, that behold his brother came out; and she said, Wherefore hast thou broken upon thee a breach? And he called his name Perez. 30. And afterward came out his brother, that had the double-dyed upon his hand; and he called his name Zerah.4811.
THE CONTENTS. The subject treated of in this chapter, in the internal sense is the Jewish Church and the genuine church; the Jewish Church is described by Judah, and the genuine church by Tamar.4812.
The sons by Tamar signify the two essentials of the church, namely, faith and love-Perez faith, and Zerah love. Their birth represents that love is actually the firstborn of the church, and faith only apparently so.4813.
THE INTERNAL SENSE. Verses 1-5. And it came to pass in this time and Judah went down from his brethren, and turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite, and his name was Hirah. And Judah saw there a daughter of a man, a Canaanite, and her name was Shua; and he took her, and came to her. And she conceived and bare a son, and he called his name Er. And she conceived again and bare a son, and she called his name Onan. And she added again and bare a son, and she called his name Shelah; and he was in Chezib when she bare him. "And it came to pass in this time," signifies the state of the things that follow; "and Judah went down from his brethren," signifies the posterity of Jacob, specifically the tribe of Judah, which was separated from the rest; "and turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite," signifies to falsity; "and his name was Hirah," signifies its quality; "and Judah saw there a daughter of a man, a Canaanite," signifies the affection of evil from the falsity of evil; "and her name was Shua," signifies its quality; "and he took her, and came to her," signifies that the tribe of Judah conjoined itself with these things; "and she conceived and bare a son," signifies that the falsity of the church was thence derived; "and he called his name Er," signifies its quality; "and she conceived again and bare a son," signifies evil; "and she called his name Onan," signifies its quality; "and she added again and bare a son," signifies what is idolatrous; "and called his name Shelah," signifies its quality; "and he was in Chezib when she bare him," signifies the state.4814.
And it came to pass in this time. That this signifies the state of the things that follow, is evident from the signification of "time," as being state (see n. 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356, 3404, 3938). That it is the state of the things that follow, is signified by its being said "it came to pass in this time," for what came to pass is related in what follows. Moreover, the things which follow in a series flow from those which precede, for in the preceding chapter it is said of the sons of Jacob that they sold Joseph, and that Judah persuaded them to do it; of whom it is said in that chapter, "And Judah said unto his brethren, What gain is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? Come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites" (verses 26, 27), whereby was signified that the Divine truth was alienated by them, especially by Judah, by whom is there signified in the proximate sense the tribe of Judah, and in general the depraved in the church who are against all good whatever (n. 4750, 4751). This is referred to by its being said "in this time," for the subject now treated of is Judah, and his sons by the Canaanite woman, and afterward by Tamar his daughter-in-law; and by these things in the internal sense is described the tribe of Judah in respect to the things of the church instituted with that tribe.  That by "time" is signified state, and hence by its "coming to pass in this time," the state of the things that follow, cannot but appear strange; for the reason that it cannot be comprehended how the notion of time can be changed into the notion of state, or that when "time" occurs in the Word, something relating to state is to be understood. But be it known that the thoughts of angels do not derive anything from time or from space, because they are in heaven; for when they left the world, they left also the notion of time and space, and put on notions of state, that is, of the state of good and truth. Wherefore when man reads the Word and then thinks of time and of the things belonging to time, the angels with him do not perceive anything of time, but perceive instead the things that are of state, which also correspond thereto. Neither does man in his interior thought perceive time, but only in his exterior, as may appear from the state of man when his exterior thought is lulled to rest, that is, when he is sleeping; and also from various other experiences.  But be it known that there are in general two states, a state of good and a state of truth. The state of good is called a state of being, but the state of truth a state of coming into existence; for being is of good, and the derivative coming into existence is of truth. Space corresponds to the state of being, and time to the state of coming into existence. Hence it may be seen that when man reads "and it came to pass in this time," the angels with him can by no means perceive these words as man does. So likewise in other instances. For whatever is written in the Word is of such a nature that with angels it is turned into a corresponding sense, which does not at all appear in the sense of the letter; because what is worldly of the sense of the letter is turned into what is spiritual of the internal sense.4815.
And Judah went down from his brethren. That this signifies the posterity of Jacob, and specifically the tribe of Judah, which was separated from the rest, is evident from the representation of Judah, as being in the universal sense the posterity of Jacob, and in the specific sense the tribe called the tribe of Judah; and from the signification of "going down from his brethren," as being to be separated from the rest of the tribes, here to go into worse evil than they; for "going down" involves to be cast down to evil, as "going up" involves elevation to good (n. 3084, 4539). The reason of this as before said is that the land of Canaan represented the Lord's kingdom, and Jerusalem and Zion the inmost of it; but the regions outside the boundaries of that land represented those things which are outside the Lord's kingdom, namely, falsity and evil. Therefore going from Zion and Jerusalem toward the boundaries was called "going down;" but going from the boundaries to Jerusalem and Zion was called "going up." Hence "going up" involves elevation to what is true and good, and "going down," to be cast down to what is false and evil. As the falsity and evil to which the tribe of Judah cast itself down are here treated of, it is said that Judah "went down," and then that he "turned aside to a man, an Adullamite;" and by "turning aside" is signified turning to falsity, and afterward to evil.  It is known that the tribe of Judah was separated from the rest of the tribes, and the reason was that this tribe might represent the Lord's celestial kingdom, but the rest of the tribes His spiritual kingdom. For this reason also Judah in the representative sense is the celestial man, and in the universal sense the Lord's celestial kingdom (n. 3654, 3881); and the rest of the tribes were called by the one name, "Israelites," for Israel in the representative sense is the spiritual man, and in the universal sense the Lord's spiritual kingdom (n. 3654, 4286).  That the tribe of Judah went into worse evil than the rest is specifically signified by these words: "Judah went down from his brethren, and turned aside." That the tribe of Judah went into worse evil than the rest is evident from many passages in the Word, especially in the prophets; as in Jeremiah: Her treacherous sister Judah saw when for all the ways whereby backsliding Israel committed adultery I had put her away and given her a bill of divorcement; yet treacherous Judah her sister feared not, but she also went and committed whoredom, so that by the voice of her whoredom the land was profaned, she committed adultery with stone and wood; yet for all these things treacherous Judah hath not returned unto Me; backsliding Israel hath justified her soul more than treacherous Judah (Jer. 3:7-11). And in Ezekiel: Her sister indeed saw, yet she corrupted her love more than she, and her whoredoms above the whoredoms of her sister (Ezek. 23:11 to end); speaking of Jerusalem and Samaria, or of the tribes of Judah and the tribes of Israel. So in many other places.  In the internal sense that tribe is described as to how it lapsed into falsity, and thence into evil, and at last into mere idolatry. This is indeed described in the internal sense before that tribe was separated from the rest, and before it so came to pass; but what is in the internal sense is Divine, and to the Divine future things are present. (See what is foretold of this nation in Deut. 31:16-22; 32:15-44.)4816.
And turned aside to a man, an Adullamite. That this signifies to falsity, is evident from the signification of "turning aside," as being to go away into what is perverse, for "turning aside," like "going down," is predicated of far removal from good to evil, and from truth to falsity; and from the signification of a "man" [vir] as being one who is intelligent, and in the abstract sense truth, because the genuine intellectual is from truths (n. 265, 749, 1007, 3134, 3309); but in the opposite sense it is one who is not intelligent, and consequently falsity. This falsity is represented by an Adullamite, for Adullam was on the boundary of the inheritance of Judah (Josh. 15:35), and hence signified the truth which is from good; as also in Micah: Yet will I bring an heir to thee O inhabitress of Mareshah, even to Adullam shall come the glory of Israel (Micah 1:15); but as most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so too has Adullam, and it then signifies the falsity which is from evil. That most things have also an opposite sense is because before the land of Canaan was made an inheritance for the sons of Jacob, it was possessed by nations by whom were signified falsities and evils; and also afterwards when the sons of Jacob went into what is contrary; for lands take on the representation of the nations and peoples who inhabit them, according to their quality.4817.
And his name was Hirah. That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of "name," and of "calling a name," as being the quality (see n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421). The quality of the falsity spoken of just above is what is signified; for by the names both of places and of persons in the Word are signified states and things (n. 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888, 1946, 2643, 3422, 4298, 4442).4818.
And Judah saw there a daughter of a man, a Canaanite. That this signifies the affection of evil from the falsity of evil, is evident from the signification of a "daughter," as being the affection of good (n. 2362), and in the opposite sense the affection of evil (n. 3024); and from the signification of a "man," as being one who is intelligent, and in the abstract sense truth, but in the opposite sense one who is not intelligent, and falsity, as just above (n. 4816); and from the signification of a "Canaanite," as being evil (n. 1573, 1574). From this it is evident that by a "daughter of a man a Canaanite" is signified evil which is from the falsity of evil. What evil from the falsity of evil is, will be shown below.  Here something must first be said about the origins of the tribe of Judah, for they are described in this chapter. There are three origins of this tribe, or of the Jewish nation-one from Shelah, the son of Judah, by his Canaanite wife; another from Perez, and the third from Zerah, the sons of Judah by Tamar his daughter-in-law. That the whole Jewish nation was from these three sons of Judah is evident from the enumeration of the sons and grandsons of Jacob who came with him into Egypt (Gen. 46:12); and also from their classification according to families, in Moses: The sons of Judah according to their families were: of Shelah, the family of the Shelanites; of Perez, the family of the Perezites; of Zerah, the family of the Zerahites (Num. 26:20; 1 Chron. 4:21); this shows what the origin of that nation was, namely, that one third of them was from the Canaanite mother, and that two thirds of them were from the daughter-in-law; consequently that all were from an illegitimate connection, for marriages with the daughters of the Canaanites were strictly forbidden (as is evident from Gen. 24:3; Exod. 34:16; Deut. 7:3; 1 Kings 11:2; Ezra 9 and 10), and to lie with one's daughter-in-law was a capital offense, as is evident in Moses: If a man lie with his daughter-in-law, both of them shall surely be put to death; they have wrought confusion; their bloods shall be upon them (Lev. 20:12). Judah's referring this deed with his daughter-in-law to the levirate law in which an ordinance is made regarding the brother, but by no means regarding the father (as appears from verse 26 of this chapter), implies that his sons by Tamar should be acknowledged as the sons of Er his firstborn, who was born of the Canaanite mother, and who was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, and was therefore caused to die (verse 7); for those who were born first to the husband's brother were not his by whom they were conceived, but his whose seed they raised up, as is evident from Deuteronomy 25:5, 6, and also from verses 8 and 9 of this chapter. Moreover, those who were born of Tamar were born of fornication; for Judah thought when he went unto her that she was a harlot (verses 15, 16, 21). This shows whence and of what quality was the origin of the Jewish nation, and that they spoke falsely when they said, "We were not born of fornication" (John 8:41).  What this origin involves and represents is plain from what follows, namely, that their interiors were of such a quality, or had such an origin. Judah's marrying a Canaanite involves an origin from the evil which is from the falsity of evil, for this is signified in the internal sense by "a daughter of a man, a Canaanite;" his lying with his daughter-in-law involves and represents damnation from falsified truth from evil, for everywhere in the Word whoredom signifies the falsification of truth (n. 3708). Evil from the falsity of evil is evil of life from false doctrine which has been hatched by the evil of the love of self (that is, by those who are in this evil), and confirmed by the sense of the letter of the Word. Such is the origin of evil with the Jewish nation, and such is its origin with some in the Christian world, especially with those who in the Word are meant by Babylon. This evil is of such a nature that it closes every way to the internal man, insomuch that nothing of conscience can be formed therein; for the evil which a person does from false doctrine, he believes to be good, because he believes it to be true; and therefore he does it freely and with delight, as allowable. Thus heaven is so closed to him that it cannot be opened.  The quality of this evil may be shown by an example. With those who from the evil of the love of self believe that Jehovah has chosen a single nation only, and that all the rest of mankind are relatively slaves, and so vile that they may be killed at pleasure or be cruelly treated - as the Jewish nation believed, and at this day the Babylonish nation also believes - and confirm this belief from the sense of the letter of the Word, then whatever evil they do from this false doctrine and others built upon this as a foundation, is evil from the falsity of evil, and destroys the internal man, preventing any conscience from ever being formed therein. These are they spoken of in the Word who are said to be "in bloods," for they are in cruel rage against the whole human race which does not adore their articles of faith, and thus themselves, and does not offer its gifts upon their altars.  Take another example: with those who from the evil of the love of self and of the world believe that there must be someone as the Lord's vicar on earth, who has the power of opening and shutting heaven, and thus of ruling over the minds and consciences of all, and who confirm this falsity from the sense of the letter of the Word, whatever of evil they do from this belief is evil from the falsity of evil, which in like manner destroys the internal man with those who from this evil claim for themselves this power, and in this way rule; and this evil is destructive to such a degree that they no longer know what the internal man is, nor that anyone has conscience, consequently they no longer believe that there is any life after death, nor that there is a heaven or a hell, no matter how they may speak of these things.  This evil, as regards its quality, cannot be distinguished by men in the world from other evils, but in the other life it is known by the angels as in clear day; for evils and falsities are manifest in that life as to their distinctions of quality and origin, which are innumerable; and according to the genera and species of these also are the distinctions of the hells. Concerning these innumerable differences man knows scarcely anything; he merely believes that evil exists, but what its quality is he does not know, and this for the sole reason that he does not know what good is, and this because he does not know what charity is; for if he had known the good of charity he would have known also the opposites or evils, with their distinctions.4819.
And her name was Shua. That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of "name," as being quality (of which above, n. 4817), here the quality of evil from the falsity of evil (of which also above, n. 4818).4820.
And he took her, and came to her. That this signifies that the tribe of Judah conjoined itself with these things, namely, with evils from the falsities of evil, is evident from the signification of "taking her"-that is to say, for a woman-and "coming" or "entering to her," as being to be conjoined, as explained several times above. For in the internal sense marriages represent the conjunction of good and truth, because this is their source (n. 2727-2759), but in the opposite sense the conjunction of evil and falsity, here the conjunction of the tribe of Judah with evil and falsity; for this is said of Judah, by whom is signified the tribe named after him, as may be seen above (n. 4815). It is not said here that he took her for a wife, but only that he took her and came to her, for the reason that the connection was unlawful (n. 4818); and also because it was thus tacitly indicated that it was not a marriage, but a whoredom, thus that the sons born of her were born of whoredom. The conjunction of evil with falsity is nothing else. Her being afterwards called his wife; in these words-"and the days were multiplied, and Shua's daughter died, the wife of Judah" (verse 12)-will be spoken of below.4821.
And she conceived, and bare a son. That this signifies that the falsity of the church was thence derived, is evident from the signification of "conceiving and bearing," as being to acknowledge in faith and act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919); and from the signification of a "son," as being the truth of the church, but in the opposite sense falsity (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373, 4257). Hence by her "conceiving and bearing a son" is here signified that the church with the tribe of Judah acknowledges falsity in faith and act. That by this son is signified the falsity of the church, is because he was the firstborn, and in the ancient churches by the firstborn was signified the truth of faith (n. 352, 3325), and in the opposite sense falsity-as was also signified by the firstborn of men and of beasts in Egypt (n. 3325). That not truth but falsity is signified, is plain from what shortly follows; for it is said, "Er, Judah's firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and Jehovah caused him to die" (verse 7). The name of his son Er also involves this quality, as likewise the name of the second son Onan involves his quality, namely, what is wrong or evil.4822.
And he called his name Er. That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421), namely, the quality of the falsity of the church, of which just above (n. 4821). It is said "the quality of the falsity," because falsities differ one from another, just as truths do, and to such a degree that their different kinds can scarcely be enumerated; and each kind of falsity has its own quality by which it is distinguished from another. There are general falsities which reign with the depraved in every church, and the falsity is varied with everyone in the church according to his life. The falsity which was in the Jewish Church, and which is here treated of, was falsity from the evil of the love of self, and of the derivative love of the world (see n. 4818).4823.
And she conceived again, and bare a son. That this signifies evil, is evident from the signification of a "son," as being truth, and also good (n. 264); thus in the opposite sense falsity and also evil, but the evil which is from falsity. This evil in its essence is falsity, because it is from it; for one who from a false doctrine does what is evil, does also what is false; but because it is done in act, it is called evil. That by the firstborn son is signified falsity, and by this one evil, is evident from its being related of this son that he did evil in act, namely, that "he destroyed the seed to the earth, that he might not give seed to his brother. And the thing which he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and He caused him also to die" (verses 9 and 10). Here also it is evident that this evil was from falsity. Moreover, in the ancient churches by the second son was signified the truth of faith in act; and therefore by this son falsity in act, that is, evil. That evil is what is signified by him, may be seen also from the fact that Er the firstborn was named by his father, or Judah; while this son, or Onan, was named by his mother, the daughter of Shua, as may be seen in the original tongue. For in the Word by a "man" is signified falsity, and by a "woman" the evil thereof (see n. 915, 2517, 4510). That by the daughter of Shua is signified evil, may be seen above (n. 4818, 4819). Wherefore Er, because he was named by his father, signifies falsity, and Onan, because he was named by his mother, signifies evil; for the former was thus as it were the father's son, but the latter as it were the mother's.  In the Word "man and wife," and also "husband and wife," are often mentioned; and when "man and wife" are mentioned, by "man" is signified truth, and by "wife" good, and in the opposite sense by "man" is signified falsity, and by "wife" evil; but when "husband and wife" are mentioned, good is signified by "husband," and truth by "wife," and in the opposite sense evil is signified by "husband," and falsity by "wife." The reason of this mystery is this: in the celestial church the husband was in good, and the wife in the truth of this good; but in the spiritual church the man is in truth, and the wife in the good of this truth; such were they in fact then, and such are they now, for the interiors of man have undergone this change. Hence where celestial good and celestial truth from it are treated of in the Word, it is said "husband and wife;" but where spiritual good and spiritual truth from it are treated of, it is said "man and wife," or rather "man and woman." From this, as also from the expressions themselves, it is known what good and what truth are treated of in the Word, in its internal sense.  This too is the reason of its having been occasionally stated that marriages represent the conjunction of good and truth, and of truth and good. Moreover, conjugial love has its origin from this conjunction of good with truth; and conjugial love with the spiritual from the conjunction of truth with good. Marriages also actually correspond to these conjunctions. From all this it is evident what is involved in the father's naming the first son, and the mother's naming the second, and also the third-as appears from the original tongue-namely, that the father named the first son, because by him was signified falsity, and that the mother named the second, because by him was signified evil.4824.
And she called his name Onan. That this signifies its quality, namely, the quality of the evil spoken of just above (n. 4823), is evident from the signification of "calling a name," as being the quality (n. 4822). "Onan" signifies and involves the quality of this evil.4825.
And she added again and bare a son. That this signifies what is idolatrous, is evident from the signification of a "son" here, as being what is idolatrous, for those who were born before signified falsity and evil (n. 4821, 4823). From this it follows that the third son means what is idolatrous, for both falsity and evil produce this, and are in it. Of the three sons who were born to Judah of the Canaanite woman, this son was the only one that survived, from whom came a third part of the Jewish nation; and that this nation took its rise from what is idolatrous, is here meant in the internal sense. That this nation was very prone to idolatry is evident from the historic and prophetic parts of the Word according to the sense of the letter; and that it was continually idolatrous is plain from the internal sense. For idolatry consists not only in worshiping idols, graven images, and other gods, but also in worshiping external things without their internals. In this that nation was continually idolatrous, adoring external things only, and entirely removing internal things, not being willing even to know about them. They had indeed holy things with them-as the tent of meeting, with the ark, the mercy-seat on it, the tables on which were the loaves, the lampstand, incenses, and the altar outside the tent, on which were offered burnt-offerings and sacrifices - all which things were called holy; and the inmost of the tent was called the holy of holies, and also the sanctuary. They also had with them the garments that belonged to Aaron and to their high priests, and were called the garments of holiness; for there was the ephod with the breast-plate in which was the Urim and Thummim, besides other things. Yet these things were not holy in themselves, but were holy from representing holy things, namely, the Divine celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom, and also the Lord Himself. Still less were they holy from the people with whom they were, for that people were not at all affected by the internal things which were represented, but only by the external; and to be affected by external things only is idolatrous, for it is to worship wood and stone, and also the gold and silver with which they are covered, from a phantasy that they are holy in themselves. Such was that nation, and such also it is at this day.  But still there might be with them a representative of a church, because the representative does not regard the person, but the thing (see n. 665, 1097e, 3670, 4208, 4281, 4288). Thus their worship did not make them blessed and happy in the other life, but only prosperous in the world so long as they continued in the representatives, and did not turn aside to the idols of the Gentiles, and thus become openly idolaters; for then not anything of the church could any longer be represented with that nation. These are the things which are meant by what is idolatrous that is signified by the third son of Judah by the Canaanite woman. This idolatry with that nation had its origin from their internal idolatry, for they above other nations were in the love of self and the world (n. 4459e, 4750); and those who are in the love of self and of the world are in internal idolatry, for they worship themselves and the world, and perform holy ceremonies for the sake of self-adoration and gain, that is, for self as an end-not for the Lord's church and kingdom as an end, thus not for the Lord.4826.
And she called his name Shelah. That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," as being quality, of which above, where the two former sons of Judah, Er and Onan, are treated of (n. 4822, 4824). The quality of the idolatry is what is signified by Shelah, for there are many idolatries-there is external idolatry and there is internal, both being in general the worship of falsity and evil.4827.
And he was in Chezib when she bare him. That this signifies the state, is evident from the signification of "Chezib," as being the state, namely, the state of the idolatry signified by Shelah, in which the Jewish nation was; and from the signification of "bearing," as being to be conjoined in act (see n. 3905, 3915, 3919); and because the conjunction was with the evil that is in idolatry it is said that "she" called his name Shelah, as appears from the original language; for by "her," namely, the daughter of Shua, is signified evil from the falsity of evil (n. 4818, 4819).4828.
Verses 6-10. And Judah took a woman for Er his firstborn, and her name was Tamar. And Er, Judah's firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and Jehovah caused him to die. And Judah said unto Onan, Come to thy brother's wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother unto her, and raise up seed to thy brother. And Onan knew that the seed would not be his; and it came to pass when he came to his brother's wife, and he destroyed it to the earth, that he might not give seed to his brother. And that which he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, and He caused him also to die. "And Judah took a woman," signifies the church which was for his posterity; "for Er his firstborn," signifies falsity of faith; "and her name was Tamar," signifies the quality of the church, that it was a church representative of spiritual and celestial things; "and Er, Judah's firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah," signifies that it was in the falsity of evil; "and Jehovah caused him to die," signifies that there was no representative of the church; "and Judah said unto Onan," signifies to preserve a representative of the church; "Come to thy brother's wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother unto her," signifies that it should be continued; "and raise up seed to thy brother," signifies lest the church should perish; "and Onan knew that the seed would not be his," signifies aversion and hatred; "and it came to pass when he came to his brother's wife, and he destroyed it to the earth," signifies what is contrary to conjugial love; "that he might not give seed to his brother," signifies that thus there was no continuation; "and that which he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah," signifies that it was contrary to the Divine order; "and He caused him also to die," signifies that there was also no representative of the church.4829.
And Judah took a woman. That this signifies the church which was for his posterity, is evident from the representation of Tamar, who is the "woman" here, as being the church, of which in what follows. That it was for the posterity of Judah, is signified by his taking her for Er his first-born, that he might have descendants thence.4830.
For Er his firstborn. That this signifies falsity of faith, is evident from the representation of Er, as being falsity (n. 4821, 4822); and from the signification of the "firstborn," as being faith (n. 352, 3325, 4821).4831.
And her name was Tamar. That this signifies the quality of the church, that it was a church representative of spiritual and celestial things, is evident from the signification of "name," as being the quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421), here the quality of the church, because in this chapter by Tamar is represented the church, and indeed a church representative of spiritual and celestial things which was to be instituted among the posterity of Judah. That this church is represented by Tamar, is evident from what follows. This entire chapter in the internal sense treats of the Jewish Church, that it should become representative of the spiritual and celestial things of the Lord's kingdom, as had been the Ancient Church; and this not only in external, but also in internal form. For the church is not a church from externals, that is, from rituals, but from internals, which are essential, while externals are only formal. The posterity of Jacob were such as not to be willing to receive internal things; therefore with them the Ancient Church could not be renewed, but only a representative of that Church (n. 4307, 4444, 4500). The internal of the church here is Tamar, and its external is Judah with his three sons by the Canaanite woman.4832.
And Er, Judah's firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah. That this signifies that he was in the falsity of evil, is evident from the representation of Er and the signification of the "firstborn," as being falsity of faith, of which just above (n. 4830). That this falsity was the falsity of evil, is evident from what was said above (n. 4818); but the falsity of evil in this son was of such a nature that not even a representative of a church could be instituted among any posterity from him; wherefore it is said that he was "evil in the eyes of Jehovah and Jehovah caused him to die." With that whole nation from its first origin, especially from Judah, there was falsity of evil, that is, false doctrine from evil of life, but different in one son of Judah from what it was in another. It was foreseen what might be serviceable, and that it was not that which was in Er the firstborn, nor that which was in Onan the second son, but only that which was in Shelah. Therefore the first two were destroyed, and the last was preserved. That falsity of evil was with that whole nation from its first origin is plainly described in Moses in these words: They have corrupted themselves, they are not His sons, it is their blemish; they are a perverse and crooked generation. And Jehovah saw and reprobated because of indignation His sons and His daughters. And He said, I will hide My faces from them, I will see what their posterity shall be; for they are a generation of perversities, sons in whom is no faithfulness; I will add evils upon them, I will spend Mine arrows upon them. They shall be exhausted with hunger, and consumed with burning coals, and bitter overthrow. They are a nation void of counsels, and there is no intelligence in them. Their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah; their grapes are grapes of gall, their clusters are of bitternesses; their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel gall of asps. Is not this laid up in store with Me, sealed in My treasuries? The day of their destruction is at hand, and the things that are to come upon them make haste (Deut. 32:5, 19-24, 28, 32-35); by these words in the internal sense is described the falsity of evil in which that nation was, and which was rooted in them.4833.
And Jehovah caused him to die. That this signifies that there was no representative of the church, is evident from the signification of "dying," as being to cease to be such (see n. 494), and also the end of representation (n. 3253, 3259, 3276), here therefore is signified that there could be no representative of the church among any posterity from him, according to what was said just above (n. 4832).4834.
And Judah said unto Onan. That this signifies to preserve a representative of the church, is evident from the things which follow, to which they have reference; for he said to him that he should perform to his brother the duty of a husband's brother, by which was represented the preservation and continuation of the church, now to be spoken of.4835.
Come to thy brother's wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother unto her. That this signifies that he should continue it, namely, the representative of the church, is evident from the signification of "to come" or "enter to a brother's wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother unto her," as being to preserve and continue that which is of the church. The commandment in the Mosaic law that if any man died childless, his brother should take the widow to wife and raise up seed to his brother, and that the firstborn should be called by the name of the deceased brother, but the rest of the sons should be his own, was called "the duty of the husband's brother." That this statute was not a new thing originating in the Jewish Church, but had been in use before, is evident from this history, and the same is true of many other statutes that were commanded the Israelites by Moses-as that they should not take wives of the daughters of the Canaanites, and that they should marry within their families (Gen. 24:3-4; 28:1-2). From these and many other instances it is evident that there had been a church before, in which such things had been instituted as were afterwards promulgated and enjoined upon the sons of Jacob. That altars and sacrifices had been in use from ancient times is plain from Genesis 8:20-21; 22:3, 7-8, 13. From this it is clear that the Jewish Church was not a new church, but that it was a resuscitation of the Ancient Church which had perished.  What the law in regard to the husband's brother had been is evident in Moses: If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no son, the wife of the deceased shall not marry without, to a strange man; her husband's brother shall enter to her, and take her to him to wife, and thus perform the duty of a husband's brother unto her. Then it shall be that the first-born whom she beareth shall stand upon the name of his deceased brother, that his name be not blotted out of Israel. But if the man will not marry his brother's wife, his brother's wife shall go up to the gate unto the elders, and say, My husband's brother refuses to raise up unto his brother a name in Israel; he will not perform the duty of a husband's brother unto me. Then the elders of his city shall call him, and speak unto him; and if he stand and say, I desire not to take her; then shall his brother's wife come near unto him in the sight of the elders, and shall draw his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face; and she shall answer and say, So shall it be done unto the man that doth not build up his brother's house; whence his name shall be called in Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe taken off (Deut. 25:5-10).  One who does not know what the duty of a husband's brother represents, can have no other belief than that it was merely for the sake of preserving the name, and hence the inheritance; but the preservation of a name and of an inheritance was not of so much importance that for the sake of it a brother should enter into marriage with his brother's wife; but this was enjoined that thereby might be represented the preservation and continuation of the church. For marriage represented the marriage of good and truth, that is, the heavenly marriage, and consequently the church also, for the church is a church from the marriage of good and truth; and when the church is in this marriage it makes one with heaven, which is the heavenly marriage itself. As marriage has this representation, therefore sons and daughters represented and also signified truths and goods; wherefore to be childless signified a deprivation of good and truth, thus that there was no longer any representative of the church in that house, consequently that it was out of communion. Moreover, the brother represented kindred good, with which might be conjoined the truth which was represented by the widowed wife; for in order that truth may be the truth which has life and produces fruit, and so continue that which is of the church, it cannot be conjoined with any other than its own and kindred good. This is what is perceived in heaven by the duty prescribed to the husband's brother.  That if the man would not perform the duty of a husband's brother, his brother's wife should take his shoe from off his foot and spit in his face, signified that, as one who was devoid of external and internal good and truth, he would destroy the things of the church; for a "shoe" is what is external (n. 1748), and the "face" is what is internal (n. 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796). From this it is evident that by the duty of the husband's brother was represented the preservation and continuation of the church. But when the representatives of internal things ceased by the coming of the Lord, then this law was abolished. This is circumstanced as are the soul or spirit of man and his body. The soul or spirit of man is his internal, and the body is his external; or what is the same, the soul or spirit is the very form of man, but the body is his representative image; and when a man rises again, his representative image, or his external, which is the body, is put off; for he is then in his internal, or in his form itself. It is circumstanced also as is one who is in darkness, and from it sees the things which are of the light; or what is the same as is one who is in the light of the world, and from this sees the things which are of the light of heaven; for the light of the world in comparison with the light of heaven is as darkness. In darkness, or in the light of the world, the things which are of the light of heaven do not appear such as they are in themselves, but as in a representative image, as the mind of man appears in his face; and therefore when the light of heaven appears in its clearness, the darkness or representative image is dissipated. This was effected by the coming of the Lord. 4835a. And raise up seed to thy brother. That this signifies lest the church should perish, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being truth from good, or the faith of charity (n. 1025, 1447, 1610, 1940, 2848, 3310, 3373, 3671). The like is also signified by the "firstborn who was to stand upon the name of the deceased brother" (n. 352, 367, 2435, 3325, 3494). To "raise up the seed to a brother" is to continue that which is of the church, according to what was said just above (see n. 4834), thus lest the church should perish.4836.
And Onan knew that the seed would not be his. That this signifies aversion and hatred, is evident from the representation of Onan, as being evil (n. 4823, 4824); and because not to give seed to one's brother, or not to perform the duty of a husband's brother, is not to will the good and truth of the church, and its continuation (n. 4834), therefore by these words is signified aversion and hatred; for evil is nothing else than aversion and hatred toward the good and truth of the church.4837.
And it came to pass, when he came to his brother's wife, and he destroyed it to the earth. That this signifies what is contrary to conjugial love, is evident from what now follows. By Er, Judah's firstborn, is described the falsity of evil in which the Jewish nation was at first; by Onan the second son is described the evil which is from the falsity of evil, in which that nation was afterwards; and by Shelah the third son is described the idolatry thence derived, in which they were thereafter continually (n. 4826). Evil from the falsity of evil is described by what Onan did, that he was not willing to give seed to his brother, but that he destroyed it to the earth. That by this is signified what is contrary to conjugial love, is because in the internal sense by the conjugial is meant what is of the church; for the church is the marriage of good and truth, and to this marriage, evil from the falsity of evil is altogether contrary, that is, those who are in such evil are contrary to this marriage.  That this nation had not anything conjugial, whether understood in a spiritual or in a natural sense, is very evident from the fact that they were permitted to have more wives than one; for where there is the conjugial as understood in a spiritual sense, that is, where the good and truth of the church are, consequently where the church is, this is by no means permitted, for the genuine conjugial is never possible except among those with whom the church or kingdom of the Lord is, and not with these except between two (n. 1907, 2740, 3246). Marriage between two persons who are in genuine conjugial love corresponds to the heavenly marriage, that is, to the conjunction of good and truth, the husband corresponding to good, and the wife to the truth of this good; moreover, when they are in genuine conjugial love, they are in this heavenly marriage. Therefore wherever the church is, it is never permitted to have more wives than one; but because there was no church among the posterity of Jacob, but only a representative of a church, or the external of a church without its internal (n. 4311, 4500), it was therefore permitted among them. Further, the marriage of one husband with several wives would present in heaven an idea or image as if one good were conjoined with several truths which do not agree together, and thus as if there was no good; for a good from truths which do not agree together becomes none at all, since good has its quality from truths and their agreement.  It would also present an image as if the church were not one, but several, and these distinct from one another according to the truths of faith, or according to doctrinals; when yet it is one when good is the essential in it and this is qualified and as it were modified by truths. The church is an image of heaven; for it is the kingdom of the Lord on earth. Heaven is distinguished into many general societies, and into lesser ones subordinate to these; but still they are one through good; for the truths of faith there are in agreement according to good; for they have regard to good, and are from it. If heaven were distinguished according to the truths of faith, and not according to good, there would be no heaven, for there would be no unanimity; for the angels could not have from the Lord a oneness of life, or one soul. This is possible only in good, that is in love to the Lord, and in love toward the neighbor. For love conjoins all; and when everyone has love for good and truth, they have a common life, which is from the Lord, and thus have the Lord, who conjoins all. The love of good and truth is what is called love toward the neighbor; for the neighbor is he who is in good and thence in truth, and in the abstract sense is good itself and its truth. From these things it may be seen why within the church marriage must be between one husband and one wife; and why it was permitted the descendants of Jacob to take a number of wives; and that the reason for this was that there was no church among them, and consequently a representative of a church could not be instituted among them by marriages, because they were in what is contrary to conjugial love.4838.
That he might not give seed to his brother. That this signifies that thus there was no continuation, is evident from the signification of "giving seed to one's brother," or performing the duty of a husband's brother, as being to continue that which is of the church, of which above (n. 4834); and therefore by "not giving seed to his brother," is signified that the there was no continuation.4839.
And that which he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah. That this signifies that it was contrary to the Divine order, is evident from the signification of "evil in the eyes of Jehovah," or evil against Him, as being what is contrary to the order which is from Him. This appears also from the deed, and likewise from the statute in regard to the husband's brother, namely, that his brother's wife should take his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face, and that his name should be called in Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe taken off (Deut. 25:8-10), whereby was signified that he was without good external or internal; and they who are without good, and are in evil, are against Divine order. All that evil which springs or flows forth from interior evil (that is, from the intention or end of evil, such as was this of Onan's), is contrary to Divine order; but that which does not spring or flow forth from interior evil, that is, from an intention or end of evil, though it sometimes appears like evil, yet is not so, provided the end is not evil, for the end qualifies every deed. For man's life is in his end, because what he loves and thence thinks, he has for his end; the life of his soul being nothing else.  Everyone is able to know that evil is contrary to Divine order, and good according to it; for Divine order is the Lord Himself in heaven, because the Divine good and truth which are from Him constitute order, insomuch that they are order, Divine good its essential, and Divine truth its formal. When Divine order is represented in form it appears as a man; for the Lord, from whom it is, is the only Man (n. 49, 288, 477, 565, 1871, 1894, 3638, 3639); and insofar as angels, spirits, and men receive from Him, that is, insofar as they are in good and thence in truth, thus insofar as they are in His Divine order, so far they are men. From this it is that the universal heaven represents one man, which is called the Grand Man, and that the whole and every part of man corresponds thereto, as has been shown at the end of the chapters. From this also it is that the angels in heaven all appear in the human form; and that, on the other hand, the evil spirits who are in hell, though from fantasy they appear to one another like men, in the light of heaven appear as monsters, more dire and horrible according to the evil in which they are (n. 4533); and this because evil itself is contrary to order, and thus contrary to the human form; for as before said the Divine order when represented in form appears as a man.4840.
And He caused him also to die. That this signifies that there was also no representative of the church, is evident from what was shown above (n. 4833), where similar words occur.4841.
Verse 11. And Judah said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, Remain a widow in thy father's house, till Shelah my son be grown up; for he said, Lest he also die, like his brethren. And Tamar went and abode in her father's house. "And Judah said," signifies in general the posterity of Jacob, specifically that from Judah; "to Tamar his daughter-in-law" signifies a church representative of spiritual and celestial things, which is called "daughter-in-law" from truth; "Remain a widow in thy father's house," signifies alienation from itself; "till Shelah my son be grown up," signifies until the time; "for he said," signifies thought; "Lest he also die, like his brethren," signifies fear lest it should perish; "and Tamar went and abode in her father's house," signifies alienation from itself.4842.
And Judah said. That this signifies in general the posterity of Jacob, specifically that from Judah, is evident from the signification of "Judah" in the proximate sense, as being the nation which was from Jacob, and specifically that which was from Jacob by Judah, as also above (n. 4815). In the Word a distinction is indeed made between Judah and Israel, and in the historic sense by "Judah" is meant the tribe of Judah, and by "Israel" the ten tribes which were separated from that tribe. But in the internal or spiritual sense by Judah is represented the celestial or good of the church, and by Israel the spiritual or truth of the church; while in the opposite sense by Judah is represented the evil of the church, and by Israel the falsity of the church, wherever these existed, whether with the Jews or with the Israelites. For the internal or spiritual sense of the Word is universal, and does not distinguish the tribes, as does the external or historic sense. Hence it is that by "Judah" in the proximate sense is signified the whole nation which was from Jacob, and specifically that which was from Jacob by Judah.4843.
To Tamar his daughter-in-law. That this signifies a church representative of spiritual and celestial things, which is called "daughter-in-law" from truth, is evident from the representation of Tamar, as being a church representative of spiritual and celestial things, of which above (n. 4831); and from the signification of a "daughter-in-law" as being the spiritual or truth of the church. That a "daughter-in-law" has this meaning in the internal sense is because all things belonging to marriage, and all who were born from marriage, represented such things as are of the heavenly marriage (see n. 4837), and consequently which are of good and truth; for these are of the heavenly marriage. From this it is that in the Word a husband signifies good, and a wife truth; and also that sons and daughters signify the truths and goods that are from them. Hence a daughter-in-law, being the wife of a son now become a husband, signifies the truth of the church conjoined with good and so on. But in regard to those who are of the celestial church these significations are different from what they are in regard to those who are of the spiritual church; for in the spiritual church the husband is called "man," and signifies truth; and the wife is called "woman," and signifies good (see n. 4823).  That by a "daughter-in-law" in the internal sense of the Word is signified the truth of the church adjoined to its good, consequently in the opposite sense the falsity of the church adjoined to its evil, is also evident from the passages in the Word in which "daughter-in-law" is mentioned-as in Hosea: They sacrifice upon the heads of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under the oak, and the poplar, and the terebinth, because the shadow thereof is good; therefore your daughters commit whoredom, and your daughters-in-law commit adultery. Shall not I visit upon your daughters because they commit whoredom, and upon your daughters-in-law because they commit adultery? (Hos. 4:13-14); where the subject treated of is the worship of evil and falsity, the worship of evil being signified by "sacrificing upon the heads of the mountains," and the worship of falsity by "burning incense upon the hills." A life of evil is signified by the "daughters committing whoredom," and the doctrine of falsity from which is a life of evil is signified by the "daughters-in-law committing adultery." That in the Word adulteries and whoredoms signify adulterations of good and falsifications of truth may be seen above (n. 2466, 2729, 3399); and therefore "daughters-in-law" here denote affections of falsity.  In Micah: The great one speaketh the perversity of his soul; and he wresteth it. Their good one is as a thorn; the upright, as a bramble. The son lightly esteemeth the father, the daughter riseth up against her mother, the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; a man's foes are they of his household (Micah 7:3-4, 6); where the subject treated of is the falsity from evil in which the church is in the last time, when vastated, and in the proximate sense that in which the Jewish Church was. The "daughter rising up against her mother," signifies that the affection of evil is opposed to truth; and the "daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law," that the affection of falsity is opposed to good.  As the case is similar with the man who is in temptations-for in these there is a combat of evil against truth and of falsity against good, spiritual temptations being nothing else than vastations of the falsity and evil in a man-therefore temptations or spiritual combats are described by the Lord in almost the same words, in Matthew: Jesus said, Think not that I am come to send peace on the earth; I am not come to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; and a man's foes shall be they of his household (Matt. 10:34-36); the like words quoted just above from the prophet signified the vastation of the church, but here they signify the temptations of those who are of the church, because as already said temptations are nothing else than vastations, or removals, of falsity and evil; and for this reason both temptations and vastations are also signified and described by inundations of water and by floods (n. 705, 739, 756, 907). Here also therefore the "daughter being at variance against her mother" denotes the affection of evil opposed to truth, and the "daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law," the affection of falsity opposed to good; and because in the man who is in temptation evils and falsities are within or are his, they are said to be of his household-"a man's foes shall be they of his household." That temptations are what are thus described is plain from the Lord's saying that He came not to send peace upon the earth, but a sword, for by a "sword" is signified truth combating, and in the opposite sense falsity combating (n. 2799, 4499), when yet He came to give peace (John 14:27; 16:33). That it is temptations which are so described is evident from what follows in that chapter: "He that taketh not up his cross, and followeth after Me, is not worthy of Me."  So also in Luke: Suppose ye that I am come to give peace in the earth? I tell you, Nay; but division; for from henceforth there shall be five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three. The father shall be divided against the son, and the son against the father; the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother; the mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law (Luke 12:51-53); from these sayings also it is plain that by "father," "mother," "son," "daughter," "daughter-in-law," and "mother-in-law" are signified those things which are from the heavenly marriage, namely, goods and truths in their order, and also their opposites; as likewise in Mark: Jesus said, There is no man that has left house or brethren or sisters or father or mother or wife or children or fields, for My sake and the gospel's, but he shall receive a hundred-fold in this time, houses and brethren and sisters and mothers and children and fields, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life (Mark 10:29-30); one unacquainted with the internal sense of the Word will suppose that nothing more than house, brethren, sisters, father, mother, wife, children, and fields are signified by these words here; but it is such things as appertain to man, his own, which he must forsake; and the spiritual and celestial things that are of the Lord which he must receive in their place, and this by means of temptations, which are meant by "persecutions." Everyone can see that if he forsake a mother he will not receive mothers; in like manner neither brethren, sisters, etc.4844.
Remain a widow in thy father's house. That this signifies alienation from itself, is evident from the fact that thereby he wanted her to go away and return no more to him. He indeed told her to remain there until Shelah his son was grown up; but still he thought that she would not be given to Shelah his son, for he said in himself, "Lest he also die, like his brethren." This is proved also by his action in the matter, as appears from verse 14: "Tamar saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife." From this it follows that by his words is signified that he alienated her away from himself; that is, in the internal sense, that the church representative of spiritual and celestial things, which is represented by Tamar (n. 4811, 4831), was alienated from the Jewish Church, which is represented by Judah. For they could not agree together, because Judaism was only a representative of a church, and not a representative church (n. 4307, 4500); because it acknowledged what is external, but not what is internal.  A "widow" also signifies the truth of the church without its good, because a "wife" in the representative sense signifies truth, and a "husband" good (see n. 4823, 4843); wherefore a wife without a husband is the truth of the church without its good. And when it is said of her that she should "remain in her father's house," it signifies that the truth of the church would be alienated, and also that it would not be received in his house; neither could the Jewish nation receive it, because it was not in good, but in evil.  A "widow" is often mentioned in the Word, and one unacquainted with the internal sense cannot but believe that by a "widow" is signified a widow. But a "widow" in the internal sense signifies the truth of the church without good, that is, those who are in truth without good and still desire to be in good, consequently who love to be led by good; and a "husband" is the good which should lead. In the Ancient Church such persons were understood in the good sense by widows, whether they were women or men. For the Ancient Church distinguished the neighbor toward whom they were to exercise charity into a number of classes, some of which they called poor, some miserable and afflicted, some bound and in prison, some blind and lame, and others strangers, orphans, and widows; and they dispensed works of charity to them according to their qualities. Their doctrinals taught them these things; and that church knew no other doctrinals. Wherefore they who lived at that time both taught and wrote according to their doctrinals, and consequently when they spoke of widows they had in mind no other than such as were in truth without good and yet desired to be led by good.  From this it is also plain that the doctrinals of the Ancient Church taught those things which related to charity and the neighbor, and that their knowledges consisted in knowing what external things signified. For the church was representative of spiritual and celestial things, and therefore the spiritual and celestial things which were represented and signified were what they learned by means of doctrinals and knowledges. But these doctrinals and knowledges are at this day entirely obliterated, and indeed to such a degree that it is not known that they ever existed; for the doctrinals of faith succeeded in their place, which if widowed and separated from those of charity, teach almost nothing. For the doctrinals of charity teach what good is, but the doctrinals of faith what truth is, and to teach truth without good is to walk as one who is blind, because good is what teaches and leads, and truth is what is taught and led. There is as great a difference between these two doctrinals as between light and darkness; and unless the darkness be illumined by the light, that is, unless truth be illumined by good, or faith by charity, there is nothing but darkness. Hence it is that no one knows by looking at it, and consequently neither from perception, whether truth is truth, but only from doctrine imbibed in childhood and confirmed in adult age. Hence also it is that churches differ so widely that what one calls truth, another calls falsity, and they are never in agreement.  That by "widows" in a good sense are signified those who are in truth without good, but still desire to be led by good, is evident from the passages in the Word in which "widows" are mentioned, as in David: Jehovah, who executeth judgment for the oppressed, who giveth food to the hungry; Jehovah, who looseth the bound; Jehovah, who openeth [the eyes of] the blind; Jehovah, who raiseth up them that are bowed down; Jehovah, who loveth the just; Jehovah, who preserveth the sojourners; He upholdeth the orphan and the widow (Ps. 146:7-9); here in the internal sense those are meant who are instructed in truths and led to good by the Lord; but some of these are called the "oppressed," some the "hungry," others the "bound," the "blind," those who are "bowed down," the "sojourners," the "orphan," and the "widow," and this according to their quality; but what this is, no one can know except from the internal sense. The doctrinals of the Ancient Church taught this. In this passage, as in several others, the sojourner, orphan, and widow are named jointly, because by the "sojourner" are signified those who wish to be instructed in the truths of faith (n. 1463, 4444), by the "orphan," those who are in good without truth and desire to be led to good by means of truth, and by the "widow," those who are in truth without good, and desire to be led to truth by means of good. These three are named jointly here and elsewhere in the Word for the reason that in the internal sense they constitute one class, inasmuch as by them, taken together, are signified those who wish to be instructed and to be led to good and truth.  Again: A father of the orphans, and a judge of the widows, is God in the habitation of His holiness (Ps. 68:5); the "orphans" denote those who, like little children, are in the good of innocence, but not yet in truth, whose father is said to be the Lord, because He leads them as a father, and this through truth into good, that is, into the good of life or of wisdom. "Widows" denote those who as adults are in truth, but not yet in good, whose judge is said to be the Lord, because He leads them, and this through good into truth, that is, into the truth of intelligence; for by a "judge" is signified one who leads. Good without truth, which is the "orphan," becomes the good of wisdom through the doctrine of truth; and truth without good, which is the "widow," becomes the truth of intelligence through a life of good.  In Isaiah: Woe unto them that decree statutes of iniquity to turn aside the poor from judgment, and to take away into judgment the miserable of My people, that widows may be their spoil, and that they may plunder the orphans (Isa. 10:1-2); here by the "miserable," the "poor," the "widows," and the "orphans," are signified not those who are naturally, but those who are spiritually such; and because in the Jewish church, as in the Ancient, all things were representative, it was also representative to do good to the orphans and the widows; for thus charity toward those who in the spiritual sense were such was represented in heaven.  In Jeremiah: Do ye judgment and justice, and rescue the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor; and defraud not the sojourner, the orphan, or the widow, neither do violence, neither shed innocent blood in this place (Jer. 22:3); here also by the "sojourner, the orphan, and the widow" are signified those who are spiritually such; for in the spiritual world or heaven it is not known who the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow are, those who have been in this condition in the world not being so there; and therefore when these words are read by man, they are perceived by angels according to their spiritual or internal sense.  Likewise in Ezekiel: Behold, the princes of Israel, everyone according to his arm, have been in thee to shed blood. In thee have they set light by father and mother; in the midst of thee have they dealt by oppression with the sojourner; in thee have they defrauded the orphan and the widow (Ezek. 22:6-7). Also in Malachi: I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his wages, the widow, and the orphan, and that turn aside the sojourner, and fear not Me (Mal. 3:5). And in Moses: A sojourner shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him. Ye shall not afflict any widow or orphan. If thou shalt afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto Me, I will surely hear their cry; and My anger shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives shall be widows, and your sons orphans (Exod. 22:21-24).  This, like all the rest of the precepts, judgments, and statutes in the Jewish Church, was representative; and in that church they were kept so to do in externals, and by such things to represent the internal things of charity, although they had nothing of charity, nor did them from internal affection. The internal was from affection to instruct in truths and to lead by truths to good those who were in ignorance, and to lead by good to truths those who had knowledge; whereby they would have done good in the spiritual sense to the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow. Yet that the external might remain for the sake of representation, it was among the curses pronounced on Mount Ebal, to turn aside the judgment of the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow (Deut. 27:19). To "turn aside their judgment" means to do what is contrary, that is, by instruction and life to lead to what is false and evil. And because depriving others of goods and truths, and appropriating them to self for the sake of self-honor and gain was among those curses, the Lord said: Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees! For ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretense make long prayers; therefore ye shall receive more abundant judgment (Matt. 23:14; Luke 20:47); "devouring widows' houses" means taking away truths from those who desire them, and teaching falsities.  In like manner it was representative that what was left in the fields, oliveyards, and vineyards, should be for the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow (Deut. 24:19-22); and also that when they had made an end of tithing the tithes of their increase in the third year, they should give it to the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow, that they might eat within their gates, and be filled (Deut. 26:12). Because it is the Lord alone who instructs, and leads to good and truth, it is said in Jeremiah: Leave thy orphans, I will make them alive; and the widows shall confide upon Me (Jer. 49:11); and in Moses: Jehovah doth execute the judgment of the orphan and widow, and loveth the sojourner, in giving him bread and raiment (Deut. 10:18); "bread" denotes the good of love (n. 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735); "raiment," the truth of faith (n. 4545, 4763).  What is related of Elijah, that when there was a famine for want of rain in the land he was sent to Zarephath to a widow, and that he asked of her a little cake, which she was first to make and to give to him, and was afterwards to make for herself and her son, and that then the barrel of meal with her was not consumed, and the cruse of oil did not fail (1 Kings 17:1-16), was representative, like all the other things related of Elijah, and in general all that are in the Word. The famine that was in the land because there was no rain, represented the vastation of truth in the church (see n. 1460, 3364); the widow in Zarephath represented those outside of the church who desire truth; the cake which she was to make for him first, represented the good of love to the Lord (n. 2177), whom, out of the little she had, she was to love above herself and her son; the barrel of meal signifies truth from good (n. 2177), and the cruse of oil charity and love (n. 886, 3728, 4582); Elijah represents the Word, by means of which such things are done (see n. 2762).  This is meant also, in the internal sense, by the Lord's words in Luke: No prophet is accepted in his own country. But I tell you of a truth, many widows were in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when there was a great famine over all the land; but unto none of them was Elijah sent, except to Zarephath of Sidon, unto a woman that was a widow (Luke 4:24-26); that is, to those without the church who desire truth. But the widows within the vastated church, to whom Elijah was not sent, are they who are not in truth, because not in good, for wherever there is no good there is also no truth, however much truth may appear with them in outer form like truth, and yet be as a shell without a kernel.  They who are in such truth, and also they who are in falsity, are signified by "widows" in the opposite sense-as in Isaiah: Jehovah will cut off from Israel head and tail, branch and rush, in one day. The elder and the honored in faces is the head, and the prophet the teacher of a lie is the tail. Therefore the Lord will not be glad over their young men, neither will He have compassion on their orphans and widows (Isa. 9:14-15, 17). In Jeremiah: I will fan them with a winnowing fan in the gates of the land; I will bereave them of children, I will destroy My people; they have not turned from their ways. Their widows are increased to Me above the sand of the seas; I will bring to them, upon the mother a young man, a waster at noonday. She that hath borne seven languisheth; she hath breathed out her soul, her sun is gone down while it is yet day (Jer. 15:7-9). Again: Our inheritance is turned unto strangers, our houses unto aliens. We have become fatherless orphans, our mothers are as widows (Lam. 5:2-3).  As by "widows" were signified those who are not in truth because not in good, it was reproachful for churches, even such as were in falsities from evil, to be called widows-as in Revelation: She hath said in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and I shall not see mourning. Therefore in one day shall her plagues come, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be burned with fire (Rev. 18:7-8); speaking of Babylon. In like manner of the same in Isaiah: Hear this, thou delicate one, that sitteth securely, that sayest in thy heart, I am, and there is none else like me; I shall not sit a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children. But these two evils shall come to thee in a moment in one day, the loss of children, and widowhood (Isa. 47:8-9).  From all this it is now evident what is meant by a "widow" in the internal sense of the Word; and as a widow represented and thence signified the truth of the church without its good-because a wife signifies truth and a husband good-therefore, in the ancient churches, where all things in general and particular were representative, it was forbidden the priests to marry a widow who was not the widow of a priest, as is written in Moses: The high priest shall take a wife in her virginity. A widow, or one divorced, or a polluted woman, or a harlot, these shall he not take; but a virgin of his own people shall he take to wife (Lev. 21:13-14); and concerning the new temple and the new priesthood in Ezekiel: The priests, the Levites, shall not take for their wives a widow, nor one divorced; but they shall take virgins of the seed of the house of Israel; yet a widow that is the widow of a priest they may take (Ezek. 44:22). For the virgins whom they were to marry represented and thence signified the affection of truth, and the widow of a priest the affection of truth from good; for a "priest" in the representative sense is the good of the church. For this reason it was also allowed the widows who were daughters of a priest, who were childless, to eat of the offerings or holy things (Lev. 22:12, 13).  That this is the signification of a "widow," was known from their doctrinals to those who were of the Ancient Church; for their doctrinals were doctrinals of love and charity, which contained innumerable things that at this day are wholly obliterated. From these doctrinals they knew what charity to exercise, or what duty they owed the neighbor, thus who were called widows, who orphans, who sojourners, and so on. Their knowledges of truth and memory-knowledges were to know what the rituals of their church represented and signified; and those who were learned among them knew what the things on the earth and in the world represented; for they knew that universal nature was a theater representative of the heavenly kingdom (n. 2758, 2989, 2999, 3483). Such things elevated their minds to heavenly things, and their doctrinals led to life. But after the church turned aside from charity to faith, and still more after it separated faith from charity, and made faith saving without charity and its works, men's minds could no longer be elevated by knowledges to heavenly things, nor by doctrinals be led to life; and this to such a degree that at last scarcely anyone believes that there is any life after death, and scarcely anyone knows what the heavenly is. That there is any spiritual sense in the Word which does not appear in the letter, cannot be believed. In this way men's minds have been closed.4845.
Till Shelah my son be grown up. That this signifies until the time, is evident from the signification of "growing up," as being to be of this age, thus until the time; and from the representation of Shelah, the son, as being what is idolatrous, of which above (n. 4825, 4826), thus the Jewish religion, which with them was idolatrous (n. 4825) Hence by the words, "till Shelah my son be grown up," is signified until the time that the Jewish religion can receive internal things, or the spiritual and celestial things of the representative church, which is Tamar (n. 4829, 4831, 4843).4846.
For he said. That this signifies thought, is evident from the signification of "saying" in the historic parts of the Word, as being to perceive and also to think (see n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 3395). Here therefore by "he said" is signified that he said in himself, or thought, that Tamar would not be given to Shelah his son for a wife-in the internal sense that the internal things of the representative church would be alienated (n. 4844).4847.
Lest he also die, like his brethren. That this signifies fear lest it should perish, namely, the representative of a church that was with the posterity descended from Jacob, and specifically that descended from Jacob through Judah, is evident from the signification of "lest he also die," as being fear lest it should perish. In regard to this-that the representative of a church which was with the posterity of Jacob would perish if the internal things of a genuine representative church were adjoined to it, the case is as follows. A representative church, such as had existed among the ancients, was to have been instituted with the posterity of Jacob; but that nation was of such a quality that they wished to worship and to adore external things only, and did not wish to know anything at all about internal things; for they were immersed in the cupidities of the love of self and of the world, and thence in falsities. That nation, more than the Gentiles, believed that there were many gods, but that Jehovah was greater than they because He could do greater miracles; and therefore as soon as the miracles ceased, and also when they had become little esteemed because of being frequent and familiar, they straightway turned to other gods, as is very evident from the historic and prophetic parts of the Word.  Because that nation was of such a quality, a representative church such as had existed among the ancients could not be instituted with them, but only the representative of a church; and it was provided by the Lord that some communication with heaven might thereby be effected; for what is representative is possible with the evil, because it regards not the person, but the thing. From this it is plain that insofar as they were concerned their worship was merely idolatrous (n. 4825), although the representatives contained within them holy Divine things. With such idolatrous worship, what is internal could not be conjoined, for if what is internal had been conjoined, that is, if they had acknowledged internal things, they would have profaned holy things; for if a holy internal is conjoined with an idolatrous external it becomes profane. It is for this reason that internal things were not disclosed to that nation, and that if they had been disclosed it would have perished.  That that nation could not receive and acknowledge internal things, however much they might have been revealed to them, is very plain from what they are at this day; for they now know internal things, because they live among Christians; but still they reject and also scoff at them. Even the most of those who have been converted do the same at heart. Thus it is evident that a church representative of spiritual and celestial things was not with that nation, but only the representative of a church, that is, the external without the internal, which in itself is idolatrous. From these things it may also be seen how erroneously those Christians think who believe that at the end of the church the Jewish nation will be converted, and be chosen in preference to Christians; and still more those who believe that the Messiah, or the Lord, will then appear to them and by a great prophet and great miracles bring them back into the land of Canaan. But into these errors those fall who by "Judah," "Israel," and the "land of Canaan," in the prophetic parts of the Word, understand simply Judah, Israel, and the land of Canaan; and who thus believe only the literal sense, and care not for any internal sense.4848.
[And Tamar went] and abode in her father's house. That this signifies alienation from itself, is evident from the signification of abiding a widow in the house of a father, as being alienation, of which above (n. 4844).4849.
Verses 12-14. And the days were multiplied, and Shua's daughter died, the wife of Judah; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto the shearers of his flock, he and his companion Hirah the Adullamite, to Timnah. And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his flock. And she put off from upon her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself in a veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the gate of the fountains which is upon the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given to him for a woman. "And the days were multiplied," signifies a change of state; "and Shua's daughter died," signifies as to evil from falsity; "the wife of Judah," signifies the religiosity with the nation descended from Jacob, specifically that from Judah; "and Judah was comforted," signifies rest; "and went up unto the shearers of his flock," signifies some elevation to take counsel for the church; "he and his companion Hirah the Adullamite," signifies that it was still in falsity; "to Timnah," signifies the state; "and it was told Tamar, saying," signifies some communication with a church representative of spiritual and celestial things; "Behold thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his flock," signifies that the Jewish Church wished to take counsel for itself; "and she put off from upon her the garments of her widowhood," signifies a simulation of the truth that is from good; "and covered herself in a veil," signifies truth obscured; "and wrapped herself," signifies thus not acknowledged; "and sat in the gate of the fountains which is upon the way to Timnah," signifies what is intermediate to the truths of the church and to falsities; "for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given to him for a woman," signifies discernment that it could not otherwise be conjoined with the religiosity in which was the posterity of Jacob, specifically that from Judah.4850.
And the days were multiplied. That this signifies a change of state, is evident from the signification of "days being multiplied," as being the changing of the states; for "day" or "time" in the internal sense is state (see n. 23, 487, 488, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785), and "being multiplied," when predicated of days or times, is being changed. That it is a change of state which is signified, is evident also from what follows. It is said "were multiplied," because a change of state is involved as to truths, for "multiplying" is predicated of truths (see n. 43, 55, 913, 983, 2846, 2847). As state and change of state are so often mentioned, and as few know what is meant, it will be well to explain. Time and the succession of time, or space and the extension of space, cannot be predicated of man's interiors, that is, of his affections and the thoughts therefrom; because these interiors are not in time nor in place-although to the senses in the world it appears as if they were-but are in interior things which correspond to time and place. These interior things which correspond we have to call states, because there is no other word by which these corresponding things can be expressed. The state of the interiors is said to be changed when the mind or heart is changed as to affections and consequent thoughts-as from sadness to joy, or from joy to sadness again; from impiety to piety or devotion; and so on. These changes are called changes of state, and are predicated of the affections, and of the thoughts also insofar as they are governed by the affections; but changes of state of the thoughts are in those of the affections like particulars in generals, and are relatively variations.