Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
Verses 40-43. And these are the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families, according to their places, in their names; chief Timnah, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth; chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon; chief Kenaz, chief Tenman, chief Mibzar; chief Magdiel, chief Iram. These are the chiefs of Edom, according to their habitations in the land of their possession. Esau himself is the father of Edom. "And these are the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families, according to their places, in their names," signifies the doctrinal things of good from them, and their rise, state, and quality; "chief Timnah, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth, chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, chief Magdiel, chief Iram," signifies the quality of their doctrinal things; "these are the chiefs of Edom," signifies the principal doctrinal things; "according to their habitations in the land of their possession," signifies as to truths and goods; "Esau himself is the father of Edom," signifies the Lord's Divine good natural in the Lord's Divine Human.4652.
CONTINUATION CONCERNING CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE GRAND OR WITH HEAVEN, HERE CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE HEARING AND OF THE EARS WITH THAT MAN. What is the nature of the correspondence between the soul and the body, or between the things of the spirit which is within man and those of his body which are without him, may be plainly seen from the correspondence, influx, and communication of the thought and perception, which are of the spirit, with the speech and hearing, which are of the body. The thought of a man who is speaking is nothing but the speech of his spirit, and the perception of the speech is nothing but the hearing of his spirit. When man is speaking, his thought does not indeed appear to him as speech, because it conjoins itself with the speech of his body, and is in it; and when man hears, his perception appears merely like hearing in the ear. This is the reason why most persons who have not reflected know no otherwise than that all sense is in the organs of the body, and consequently that when these organs fall to decay by death, nothing of sense survives, whereas the man (that is, his spirit) then comes into his veriest life of sensation.  That it is the spirit which speaks and hears has been made very manifest to me from conversations with spirits. Their speech communicated to my spirit fell into my interior speech, and thence into the corresponding organs, and there terminated in an endeavor which I have sometimes plainly perceived. Hence their speech was heard by me as sonorously as the speech of a man. Sometimes when spirits spoke with me in the midst of a company of men, some of the spirits supposed that as their speech was heard so sonorously, they would be heard by the other people who were there present; but they were informed that such was not the case, because their speech flowed into my ear by an internal way, and human speech flows in by an external way. This shows how the spirit spoke with the prophets-not as a man with a man, but as a spirit with a man, that is, in him (see Zech. 1:9, 13; 2:2, 7; 4:1, 4, 5; 5:10; 6:4; and in other places). But I know that these things cannot be comprehended by those who do not believe that man is a spirit, and that the body merely serves this spirit for uses in this world. Those who have confirmed themselves in this unbelief are unwilling even to hear about any correspondence, and being in denial, if they do hear of it they reject it, and are rather made sad that anything should be taken away from the body.4653.
The spirits who correspond to the hearing, or who constitute the province of the ear, are those who are in simple obedience, that is, those who do not reason whether a thing is so, but believe it to be so because it is said by others to be so: hence they may be called "obediences." The reason of their being such is that the hearing is to speech as the passive is to its active, thus as one who hears a speaker and acquiesces. Hence also in common speech, to "give ear to anyone" is to be obedient, and to "hearken to the voice" is to obey; for the interior things of man's speech have in great part derived their origin from correspondence, for the reason that man's spirit is among spirits in the other life, and thinks there; although man is altogether ignorant of this, and a corporeal man is not willing to know it.  There are many differences among the spirits who correspond to the ear, that is, to its functions and offices. There are those who bear relation to each of its little organs-some to the external ear, some to the membrane called the drum of the ear, some to the interior membranes which are called windows, some to the hammer, to the stirrup, to the anvil, the cylinders, and the cochlea; and there are those who bear relation to parts still more interior, even to those substantiated parts which are nearer to the spirit, and finally to those which are in the spirit; and last of all they are inmostly conjoined with those who belong to the internal sight, from whom they are distinguished by their not having so much discernment, but giving as it were a passive assent to them.4654.
There were spirits with me who flowed in very strongly into my thought when it was exercised upon such things as were of Providence, and especially when I was thinking that the things I awaited and desired were not coming to pass. The angels said that they were spirits who when they lived in the body and prayed for anything and did not obtain it were indignant, and gave way to doubts concerning Providence, and yet when out of this state they acted piously as told to do by others, and were thus in simple obedience. It was said that such belong to the province of the external ear or auricle, and they also appeared there when they spoke with me.4655.
I have likewise frequently noticed spirits near my ear, and also as if within it. Their being noticed as within it, is because it so appears, the state in the other life being what produces the appearance. All these spirits were simple and obedient.4656.
There was a spirit who spoke with me at my left auricle at its hinder part where are its elevator muscles. He told me that he was sent to inform me that he does not reflect at all upon the things which others are speaking, but merely takes them in with his ears. When he was speaking he as it were belched out his words, and also said that this was his manner of speaking. From this it was given to know that there was nothing interior in his speech, thus little of life; and that this was the reason of the belching. It was said that those who attend little to the sense of a thing are those who belong to the cartilaginous and bony part of the external ear.4657.
There are spirits who have sometimes spoken with me, but by muttering, and this quite near the left ear, as if they wished to speak in the ear so that no one would hear. But it was given me to tell them that this is not proper in the other life, because it shows them to be whisperers, and to have become imbued with the habit of whispering; and very many of them are of such a character as to observe the vices and faults of others, and tell them privately to their associates, or whisper them in the ear when others are present; and they see and interpret everything wrongly, and set themselves before others; and for this reason they can by no means be admitted into the company of good spirits, who are not such as to hide their thoughts. It was said that in the other life such speaking is heard louder than open speech.4658.
To the interiors of the ear belong those who have the sight of the interior hearing, and who obey the things which its spirit there dictates, and give fit utterance to its dictates. What their character is has also been shown. A kind of penetrating sound was observed from below, near the left side even to the left ear. I noticed that it was spirits who were thus striving to come forth, but of what character they were I could not know. But when they had struggled forth they spoke with me, saying that they had been logicians and metaphysicians, and that they had immersed their thoughts in such things with no other end but that of hearing themselves called learned, and of thus coming to honors and wealth, and they lamented that they were now leading a miserable life because they had imbibed such things without any other use, and thus had not perfected their rational by their means. Their speech was slow, and had a muffled sound.  Meanwhile two were speaking with each other above my head; and when it was asked who they were, it was said that one of them was a man most renowned in the learned world, and it was given me to believe that it was Aristotle. Who the other was, was not told. The former was then let into the state in which he was when he lived in the world; for everyone can be easily let into the state of his life which he had in the world, because he takes all the state of his life with him. But to my surprise he applied himself to my right ear, and there spoke hoarsely, but still sanely. From the meaning of what he said I observed that he was of a genius quite different from those schoolmen who first rose up, in that the things which he wrote he had hatched out from his own thought, and thereby had brought forth his philosophy; so that the terms which he invented, and which he gave to the subjects of his thought, were forms of expression by which he described interior things; and also that he had been stirred to such things by the delight of affection, and the desire of knowing the things which are of thought, and that he followed obediently what his spirit dictated. For this reason he came to my right ear. It is different with his followers, who are called schoolmen, and who do not advance from thought to terms, but from terms to thoughts, thus in a contrary way. And many of them do not advance to thoughts, but stay in the mere terms, and if they apply these, it is to prove whatever they wish, and to impose on falsities an appearance of truth, in accordance with their desire of persuading. Hence to them philosophy is the means of becoming insane rather than of becoming wise, and hence they have darkness instead of light.  I afterwards spoke with him about analytic science, and it was given me to say that a child speaks more things philosophically, analytically, and logically in half an hour than he would be able to describe in volumes (because all the things of human thought and thence of human speech are analytical, the laws of which are from the spiritual world), and that he who wishes to think artificially from terms is not unlike a dancer who wants to learn to dance from a knowledge of the motor fibers and muscles; but if while he dances his attention were fixed on this knowledge he could scarcely move a foot; and yet without this knowledge he moves all the motor fibers scattered throughout his entire body, and in adaptation to them the lungs, the diaphragm, the sides, the arms, the neck, and all the rest, for describing all of which volumes would not suffice; and the case is similar with those who desire to think from terms. These things he approved, saying that if things are learned in this manner, they proceed in inverted order, and he added, If anyone desires to be a fool let him proceed so; but rather let him continually think of use, and from within.  He then showed me what idea he had of the Supreme Deity, namely, that he represented Him to himself with a human face and encompassed about the head with a radiant circle; and that he now knows that the Lord is that very Man, and that the radiant circle is the Divine going forth from Him, which flows not only into heaven, but also into the universe, and disposes and rules these; adding that He who disposes and rules heaven, also disposes and rules the universe, because the one cannot be separated from the other. He also said that he had believed in one only God, whose attributes and qualities had been distinguished by as many names as were worshiped as gods by others.  A woman was seen by me who stretched out her hand, wishing to stroke his cheek. When I wondered at this, he said that when he was in the world such a woman was often seen by him, who as it were stroked his cheek, and that her hand was beautiful. The angelic spirits said that such women were sometimes seen by the ancients, and were called by them Pallases; and that she appeared to him from the spirits who, when they lived as men in ancient times, were delighted with ideas and indulged in thoughts, but without philosophy. And because such spirits were with him, and were delighted with him because he thought interiorly, they therefore presented to view such a woman representatively.  Lastly he told what kind of idea he had entertained respecting man's soul or spirit, which he called pneuma - namely, that it was an unseen vital something, as of ether. And he said that he had known that his spirit would live after death, because it was his interior essence, which cannot die, because it can think; and further that he could not think distinctly concerning it, but only obscurely,. because he had no knowledge respecting it from any other source than from himself, and a very little also from the ancients. Moreover, Aristotle is among sane spirits in the other life, and many of his followers are among the foolish.4659.
It was said above (n. 4652) that man is a spirit, and that his body serves him for uses in the world; and it has been occasionally said. elsewhere that the spirit is man's internal, and the body his external. They who do not apprehend how the case is with man's spirit and with his body, may suppose from this that thus the spirit dwells within the body; and that the body as it were encompasses and invests it. Be it known however that the spirit of man is in the whole and every part of his body, and that it is its purer substance, both in its organs of motion and in those of sense, and everywhere else; and that the body is the material part that is everywhere annexed to it, adapted to the world in which it then is. This is what is meant by man's being a spirit, and by his body serving him for uses in the world; and by the spirit's being his internal, and the body his external. From this also it is evident that after death man is in an active and sensitive life, and also in the human form, in like manner as in the world, but in greater perfection.4660.
A continuation concerning Correspondence with the Grand Man or Heaven will be found at the end of the following chapter, and there concerning the correspondence therewith of the taste and of the tongue.4661.
Genesis 37 THE LAST JUDGMENT Before the preceding chapter the explication was continued of what the Lord foretold concerning the last time of the church, and there was unfolded what He foretold by the parable of the ten virgins (Matt. 25:1-13). After this follows another parable-that of the servants to whom the man going into a far country gave talents, to one five, to another two, and to another one, that they might trade therewith; and of these servants he who received five talents gained by them five more, he who received two also gained by them two, and he who received the one hid it in the earth. As this parable involves almost the same things as the parable of the ten virgins, I may pass on to explain the concluding part of the same chapter, which in the letter is as follows:4662.
When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory; and before Him shall be gathered all nations, and He shall separate them one from another as a shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats; and He shall set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on His right hand, Come ye blessed of My Father, possess the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was a hungered, and ye gave Me to eat; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me to drink; I was a stranger, and ye gathered Me; naked, and ye clothed Me; I was sick, and ye visited Me; I was in prison, and ye came unto Me. Then shall the righteous answer Him, saying, lord, when saw we Thee a hungered, and fed Thee? or thirsty, and gave Thee to drink? When saw we Thee a stranger, and gathered Thee? or naked, and clothed Thee? Or when saw we Thee sick, or in prison, and came unto Thee? And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these My brethren, ye have done it unto Me. Then shall He say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from Me ye cursed into eternal fire, prepared for the devil and his angels for I was a hungered, and ye gave Me not to eat; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me not to drink; I was a stranger, and ye gathered Me not; naked, and ye clothed Me not [sick, and in prison, and ye visited Me not]. Then shall they also answer Him, saying, Lord, when saw we Thee a hungered, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto Thee ? Then shall He answer them saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to Me. And these shall go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into life eternal (Matt. 25:31-46).4663.
One who is unacquainted with the internal sense cannot but think that these words were spoken by the Lord of some last day, when all in the whole world will be gathered before Him, and will then be judged; and also that the procedure of the Judgment will be just as is described in the letter, namely, that He will set those who are to be judged on the right hand and on the left, and will speak to them as in the parable. But one who is acquainted with the internal sense, and who has learned from other passages in the Word that the Lord judges no one to eternal fire, but that everyone judges himself, that is, casts himself into it; and who has also learned that the Last Judgment of everyone is when he dies, may know in some measure what these words involve in general. And one who from the internal sense and from correspondence knows the interior meaning of the words, may know what they specifically mean, namely, that in the other life everyone receives a reward in accordance with his life in the world.  Those who vaunt the salvation of man through faith alone, cannot explain these words in any other way than by saying that what the Lord said of works means the fruits of faith, and that He mentioned them merely for the sake of the simple, who are unacquainted with mysteries. But even according to their opinion it would still follow that the fruits of faith are what make man blessed and happy after death. The fruits of faith are nothing else than a life in accordance with the precepts of faith; consequently a life in accordance with these precepts saves, but not faith without life; for after death man carries with him all the states of his life, so that he is such as he has been in the body. For instance: one who in the life of the body has despised others in comparison with himself, in the other life also despises others in comparison with himself; one who in the life of the body has regarded the neighbor with hatred, also in the other life regards the neighbor with hatred; one who in the life of the body has acted deceitfully toward his companions, in the other life also acts deceitfully toward his companions; and so in other instances. Everyone retains in the other life the nature which he has acquired in the life of the body; and it is known that a man's nature cannot be cast out, and that if it is cast out, nothing of life remains.  It is for this reason that only works of charity are mentioned by the Lord; for he who is in the works of charity, or what is the same, in a life of faith, is capable of receiving faith, if not in the body, yet in the other life; but one who is not in the works of charity, or in a life of faith, is by no means capable of receiving faith, either in the body or in the other life. For evil does not accord with truth, but the one rejects the other; and if those who are in evil speak truths, they speak them from the lips, and not from the heart, and thus evil and truths are still very far apart.4664.
But what is involved in the internal sense in these things which the Lord here says concerning the Last Judgment, that is, concerning the last judgment of everyone after death, is too much to be unfolded before this chapter, and therefore will of the Lord's Divine mercy be unfolded in order before the chapters which follow. GENESIS 37 1. And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's sojournings, in the land of Canaan. 2. These are the births of Jacob. Joseph, a son of seventeen years, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and he was a boy with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah his father's women; and Joseph brought their evil report unto their father. 3. And Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons, because he was the son of his old age; and he made him a tunic of various colors. 4. And his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren; and they hated him, and could not speak for peace unto him. 5. And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it to his brethren, and they added yet to hate him. 6. And he said unto them, Hear I pray this dream which I have dreamed; 7. And behold we were binding sheaves in the midst of the field, and lo my sheaf arose, and also stood upright, and behold your sheaves came round about, and bowed down themselves to my sheaf. 8. And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? Or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? And they added yet to hate him for his dreams, and for his words. 9. And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it to his brethren, and said, Behold I have dreamed yet a dream, and behold the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down themselves to me. 10. And he told it to his father, and to his brethren; and his father rebuked him, and said to him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth? 11. And his brethren envied him, but his father kept the word. 12. And his brethren went to feed the flock of their father in Shechem. 13. And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? Come, and I will send thee unto them. And he said to him, Behold me! 14. And he said to him, Go I pray, see the peace of thy brethren, and the peace of the flock, and bring me word again. And he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem. 15. And a man found him, and behold he was wandering in the field; and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou? 16. And he said, I seek my brethren, tell me I pray where they are feeding the flock. 17. And the man said, They are departed hence, for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan. And Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan. 18. And they saw him afar off, and before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to cause him to die. 19. And they said a man to his brother, Behold this lord of dreams cometh. 20. Come now therefore and let us slay him, and cast him into one of the pits, and we will say, An evil wild beast hath devoured him; and we shall see what his dreams will be. 21. And Reuben heard, and rescued him out of their hand, and said, Let us not smite him, the soul. 22. And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood; cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, but lay no hand upon him; that he might rescue him out of their hand, to bring him back to his father. 23. And it came to pass when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they stripped Joseph of his tunic, the tunic of various colors that was on him; 24. And they took him, and cast him into the pit; and the pit was empty, there was no water in it. 25. And they sat down to eat bread, and they lifted up their eyes and saw, and behold a company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spices and balsam and stacte, going to carry them down to Egypt. 26. And Judah said unto his brethren, What gain is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? 27. Come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him, for he is our brother, our flesh. And his brethren harkened unto him. 28. And there passed by men, Midianites, merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver. And they brought Joseph into Egypt. 29. And Reuben returned unto the pit, and behold Joseph was not in the pit, and he rent his garments. 30. And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The child is not; and I, whither do I come? 31. And they took Joseph's tunic, and killed a he-goat of the goats, and dipped the tunic in the blood; 32. And they sent the tunic of various colors, and they brought it to their father, and said, This have we found; know now whether it be thy son's tunic or not. 33. And he knew it, and said, It is my son's tunic; an evil wild beast hath devoured him; Joseph is surely torn in pieces. 34. And Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned over his son many days. 35. And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to comfort himself, and he said, For I shall go down to the grave to my son, mourning. And his father wept for him. 36. And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, Pharaoh's chamberlain, prince of the guards.4665.
THE CONTENTS. The subject treated of in this chapter in the internal sense is the truths Divine which are from the Lord's Divine Human, that in course of time they have been rejected in the church, and that at last falsities have been received in their stead. Specifically, those are described who are in faith separate from charity, in that they are against the Lord's Divine Human.4666.
THE INTERNAL SENSE. Verses 1-3. And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's sojournings, in the land of Canaan. These are the births of Jacob. Joseph, a son of seventeen years, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and he was a boy with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah his father's women; and Joseph brought their evil report unto their father. And Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons, because he was the son of his old age; and he made him a tunic of various colors. "And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's sojournings, in the land of Canaan," signifies that the Lord's Divine natural was accordant under Divine rational good; "these are the births of Jacob," signifies the things which follow; "Joseph," signifies the Lord's spiritual Divine Human; "a son of seventeen years," signifies its state; "was feeding the flock with his brethren," signifies that it was present with those who were in faith and taught; "and he was a boy," signifies at first; "with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah his father's women," signifies that it was rejected by them; "and Joseph brought their evil report unto their father," signifies that from it their quality was apparent; "and Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons," signifies the conjunction of the Divine spiritual of the rational with the Divine spiritual of the natural; "because he was the son of his old age," signifies its own life in it; "and he made him a tunic of various colors," signifies the appearances of truth thence, whereby the spiritual of the natural is known and distinguished.4667.
And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's sojournings, in the land of Canaan. That this signifies that the Lord's Divine natural was accordant under Divine rational good, is evident from the signification of "to dwell," as being to live (see n. 1293, 3384, 3613, 4451); from the representation of Jacob, as being in the supreme sense the Lord's Divine natural (n. 3305, 3509, 3525, 3546, 3576, 3599, 3775, 4009, 4234, 4286, 4538, 4570); from the representation of Isaac, who here is the "father," as being the Lord's Divine rational as to good (n. 1893, 2066, 2630, 3012, 3194, 3210); and from the signification of the "land of Canaan," as being in the supreme sense the Lord's Divine Human (n. 3038, 3705). From all this it follows that Jacob's dwelling in the land of his father's sojournings in the land of Canaan, denotes the Lord's Divine natural living together or accordantly under Divine rational good, in the Divine Human. The Lord's natural has been treated of above (Gen. 35:22-26), that all things in it were now Divine (see n. 4602-4610); and (in the following verses of the same chapter, Gen. 35:27-29) the conjunction of the Lord's Divine natural with His Divine rational (n. 4611-4619). Here the conclusion follows: that the Divine natural lived an accordant life under Divine rational good.  It is said "under Divine rational good," because the natural lives under this; for the rational is higher or interior, or according to a customary form of speaking is prior, while the natural is lower or exterior, consequently posterior; thus the latter is subordinate to the former. Nay, when they are accordant, the natural is nothing else than the general of the rational; for whatever the natural has does not then belong to it, but to the rational. The difference is only such as exists between particulars and their general, or between singulars and their form, in which the singulars appear as a one. It is known to the learned that the end is the all in the cause, and that the cause is the all in the effect; thus that the cause is the end in form, and the effect the cause in form; and hence that the effect entirely perishes if you take away the cause, and the cause if you take away the end; and moreover that the cause is under the end, and the effect under the cause. It is similar with the natural and the rational.4668.
These are the births of Jacob. That this signifies the things which follow, is evident from the signification of "births," as being the derivations of those things which are of the church, namely, of truth from good, or of faith from love; for no other births are meant in the internal sense of the Word. These are also treated of in what follows, wherefore it is said that the "births of Jacob" denote the things which follow. That such is the signification of "births" is evident also from the fact that no genealogical births are mentioned in what follows; but only Joseph, his dreams, the conspirings of his brothers against him, and at last his being carried away into Egypt. (That "births" denote such derivations, see n. 1145, 1255, 1330, 3263, 3279, 3860, 3868, 4070.)4669.
Joseph. That this signifies the Lord's Divine spiritual Human, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine spiritual (n. 3969). That the Lord is represented by Joseph is known in the church, for when the heavenly Joseph is spoken of, no one else is thought of; but what of the Lord is represented by Joseph is not so well known, for it is the Divine spiritual which proceeds from His Divine Human. The Divine spiritual which proceeds from the Lord's Divine Human is the Divine truth which is from Him in heaven and in the church. The spiritual in its essence is nothing else. The Divine spiritual, or Divine truth, is also what is called the Lord's royalty, and it is likewise signified by the Christ, or the Messiah (see n. 2015e, 3009, 3670). For this reason Joseph was made as it were a king in Egypt, that he might then represent what is of the Lord's royalty.4670.
A son of seventeen years. That this signifies its state, is evident from the years of the ages of those mentioned in the Word, in that like other numbers they signify things and states. (That all numbers in the Word signify things and states may be seen above, n. 575, 647, 648, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 4495; as also years, n. 487, 488, 493, 893.)  It indeed appears as if numbers of years, or years of ages, had no further meaning, because they seem to be more historical than other numbers. But that these also involve things and states is evident from what was unfolded in the fifth chapter of Genesis, and said as to the age of Abraham (Gen. 17:1; 25:7), and that of Isaac (Gen. 35:28); and moreover from the fact that there is no historical statement in the Word which does not involve what is heavenly; into which also it is changed when it passes from the thought of the man who is reading, to the angels with him, and through the angels to heaven, where from every historical of the Word a spiritual sense is produced.  But what is signified by Joseph's age of seventeen years may be seen from the signification of this number in other places, namely, a beginning, but here the beginning of the representation by Joseph. (That this number signifies a beginning and what is new, may be seen above, n. 755, 853.) Moreover in a general and potential way this number involves all that is represented by Joseph; for "seven" signifies holy, and "ten," remains. (That "seven" in the Word adds holiness may be seen above, n. 881; and that "ten" denotes remains, n. 576, 1906, 2284.) That the remains in the Lord by means of which He united the Human essence to the Divine, were Divine and of Himself, may be seen above (n. 1906).4671.
Was feeding the flock with his brethren. That this signifies that it was present with those who were in faith and taught, is evident from the signification of "feeding the flock," as being to teach, specifically from doctrinal things, those who are in the church. (That a feeder of the flock or "shepherd" denotes one who teaches may be seen above, n. 343, 3772, 3795.) Here is signified that it was present with those who taught, because it is said that "Joseph was feeding with his brethren;" for his brethren in this chapter represent the church which turns away from charity to faith, and at last to faith separate, and so to falsities, as will appear in what follows.4672.
And he was a boy. That this signifies at first, is evident from the signification of a "boy," when predicated of a new church, as being what is at first, or its first state; for the church is as an infant, a boy, a man, and at last an old man, for it passes through its several ages like a man. The church also in general is like a man, and is so called. Moreover, in the church which from its age is called a "boy," and is such as quickly to turn away, the Lord is at first present, both with those who teach and with those who learn; but afterwards He is sent away by them, as is represented by Joseph's being cast by his brethren into a pit and sold.  Such is every church which begins from faith, but very different is the church which begins from charity. The church which begins from faith has nothing to direct it but the understanding, and the understanding nothing but what is hereditary in man, that is to say, the love of self and of the world. These persuade the understanding to search for things from the Word that will confirm them, and to explain away what is not confirmatory. It is otherwise with the church which begins from charity: good is its director, and in good the Lord; for between the Lord and faith there intervenes the good of charity and of love, and without this intervention there can be no spiritual communication, for there is no influx without an intermediate. If evil is in the place of good, it drives away the Lord, and either rejects or perverts all things that are of Him, thus all that are of faith, for faith is from Him through good.4673.
With the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his father's women. That this signifies that it was rejected by them, is evident from the signification of "the sons of Bilhah and the sons of Zilpah," as being exterior or lower affections of truth that serve as means (n. 3849, 3931); thus "with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah" signifies that Divine truth, which is "Joseph," was rejected to lower things, which are relatively things of service. Divine truth is said to be rejected to lower things when faith is placed before charity or becomes primary in the heart, and charity is placed after it and becomes secondary in the heart; for all Divine truth is from Divine good and thence proceeds. If the like is not the case with a man, he is not in the Lord. This Divine truth is the holy itself of the spirit which proceeds from the Lord, and which is called the "Paraclete," and the "Spirit of truth" (John 14:16, 17).4674.
And Joseph brought their evil report unto their father. That this signifies that from it their quality was apparent, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being the Divine spiritual or Divine truth which is from the Lord (n. 4286, 4675); from the signification of "father," as being good (n. 3703, 3704), here the good of the Ancient Church which is represented by Jacob, as will be seen toward the end of this chapter; and from the signification of an "evil report," as being the faults and vices of those signified by Joseph's brethren, who as before said (n. 4671) denote those of the church who turn away from good and truth. This shows what is signified by these words in the proximate internal sense, namely, that the faults and vices signified by Joseph's brethren were exposed to view or made apparent by Divine truth when they were regarded from the good of the Ancient Church; or what is the same thing, that from this truth their quality was apparent.  In regard to these things the case is this: The falsities and evils of the church (that is, of those who are in the church) do not appear to those who are therein, for falsities are not seen from falsities, nor evils from evils, because principles of falsity completely befog truths, and a life of evil extinguishes them. Both principles of falsity and a life of evil induce an appearance that falsities are truths and truths falsities, and that good is evil and evil good. That this is so is evident from manifold experience. But the church, or they who are in the church, appear entirely different in heaven; for in heaven there is Divine truth from the Lord, and Divine truth in heaven is light, and in this light their quality is apparent. For every man as to his soul or spirit is in some society, either angelic or diabolical. His thought is there, but his speech and actions are among men in various interactions with them.  How the case further is in regard to the quality of those who are in the church being made apparent by Divine truth, or in Divine light, may appear from the following considerations. Before evil spirits who are recently from the world cast themselves into hell, they above all others suppose that they will be received into heaven, believing that only reception is needed, and that everyone, of whatever quality, may of grace be admitted into heaven. But they are sometimes told that heaven is denied by the Lord to no one, and that they may be admitted if they are able to stay there. Some of them are even taken up into the first societies, at the entrance to heaven; but when they come thither they begin to be tormented and almost suffocated, so distressed is the life of their thought and will-the life of their thought from principles of falsity, and the life of their will from a life of evil, in the world. And when they look at themselves in the light there, they appear to themselves as devils, some as corpses, and others as monsters, and they therefore cast themselves headlong down from that society, and from its light into some dark infernal mist, where they recover their former respiration, and where from phantasy they appear to themselves as spirits not evil. In this way they learn their quality. From this it is now clear in what manner it should be understood that from it (that is, from Divine truth) their quality was apparent.4675.
Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons. That this signifies the conjunction of the Divine spiritual of the rational with the Divine spiritual of the natural, is evident from the representation of Jacob when called "Israel," as being the Divine spiritual of the natural, or the celestial of the spiritual from the natural (n. 4286, 4598); from the representation of Joseph, as being the Divine spiritual of the rational, or the celestial of the spiritual from the rational (n. 4286, 4592); and from the signification of "loving," as being to be conjoined, for love is spiritual conjunction. Hence it is evident that by Israel's loving Joseph is signified the conjunction of the Divine spiritual of the rational with the Divine spiritual of the natural. Because this conjunction is treated of, Jacob here is not called "Jacob," as in the first and second verses, but "Israel;" and from the changing of the name it may be inferred that some secret thing is contained here in the internal sense. But what is the nature of the conjunction of the Divine spiritual of the rational with the Divine spiritual of the natural cannot as yet be unfolded, because it is not treated of in this chapter, but in the chapters which follow, in which so far as possible this secret will be unfolded. This only is to be said here-that the spiritual is predicated both of the rational and of the natural; for the spiritual is the Divine truth which is from the Lord, and which when it shines in the rational or in the internal man, is called the spiritual of the rational; and when it shines thence in the natural or in the external man, is called the spiritual of the natural.4676.
Because he was the son of his old age. That this signifies its own life in it, is evident from the signification of "old age," as being the putting off of a former state and the putting on of a new one, also as being newness of life (see n. 3492, 4620). For "old age" in the internal sense does not signify old age, because the internal man, or man's spirit, does not know what old age is; but as the body or external man grows old, the internal passes into newness of life, man's spirit being perfected by age as his bodily powers diminish. This is still more so in the other life, where those who are in heaven are continually brought by the Lord into more perfect life, and at last into the bloom of youth, even those who have died in a good old age. From this it may be seen that by "old age" in the internal sense, is signified life. What is meant by its own life being in it has been explained above (n. 4667).  It was said that man's spirit or internal man does not know what old age is, and yet as before said it is this spirit that thinks in the body, and from it the body has its life. The reason why this thought of the spirit cannot be communicated to the body, and the man thus know that he lives after death, is that so long as his spirit remains in the body he cannot think otherwise than from the principles which his natural man has become imbued with; and when the principle and persuasion is that only the body lives, and that when this dies everything of man dies, the influx of this reality is not received. But still the influx manifests itself by the fact that most persons are solicitous about their burial and eulogies after death, and some about their reputation then, for which reason they erect magnificent monuments for themselves, that their memory may not perish. Into such things is turned the influx from heaven in respect to the permanence of life with those who in other respects have no belief in it. For without this influx they would be totally indifferent to all that concerns their memory after death.4677.
And he made him a tunic 4677-1 of various colors. That this signifies the appearances of truth thence, whereby the spiritual of the natural is known and distinguished, is evident from the signification of a "tunic," as being the truth of the natural, of which hereafter; and from the signification of "various colors," as being the appearance of truth by which the spiritual of the natural is known and distinguished. That these are signified by "various colors" cannot be known by anyone unless he knows that colors appear in the other life equally as in the world-colors which in beauty and variety far surpass those in this world-and unless he knows what is the source of these colors. The colors seen in the other life are from the variation of the light there, and are so to speak modifications of intelligence and wisdom; for the light which appears there is from the Divine truth that is from the Lord, or is the Divine spiritual from Him, or what is the same, is Divine intelligence and wisdom, which appears as light before the eyes of angels and spirits. Hence it is evident what is signified by the colors from that light, namely, qualities of truth, thus its appearances, and that they appear from the affections of good and truth. (Concerning the colors in the other life see n. 1042, 1043, 1053, 1624, 3993, 4530.)  That a "tunic" is the truth of the natural was said above (n. 3301), but as it was not there shown, I may now confirm it here from other passages in the Word. As the kings in the Jewish Church represented the Lord as to the Divine spiritual, or Divine truth (n. 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670), therefore their daughters were clothed in tunics of various colors, for by "daughters" were signified affections of good and truth, and therefore churches (see n. 2362, 3963); of whom we read in the second book of Samuel: There was upon Tamar, David's daughter, a tunic of various colors, for with such robes were the king's daughters that were virgins appareled (2 Sam. 13:16).  And because the high priests represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial or Divine good, Aaron was clothed in garments that represented the Divine truth which is from the Divine good of the Lord; for Divine good is in the Lord, but Divine truth proceeds from Him, and is what was represented by these garments. So also when the Lord was transfigured before Peter, James, and John, the Divine good appeared as the sun, and the Divine truth was presented as raiment which appeared as the light (Matt. 17:2).  The garments in which Aaron and his sons were clothed are thus described in Moses: Thou shalt make for Aaron a tunic of fine linen, and a miter of fine linen, and thou shalt make a belt, the work of the embroiderer. And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make tunics, and thou shalt make for them belts, and headtires shalt thou make for them, for glory and for adornment (Exod. 28:39-40). Every particular here signified something pertaining to the Divine truth from the Divine good of the Lord, the "tunic of fine linen" specifically signifying the Divine spiritual. So also in another place: Thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the tunic, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and shalt clothe him with the girdle of the ephod; afterwards thou shall cause his sons to approach, and put tunics upon them (Exod. 29:5, 8; 40:14). What these particulars signify will of the Lord's Divine mercy be shown when they come to be treated of. (That "garments" in general are truths, see n. 297, 1073, 2576, 4545.)  The prophets also were clothed in tunics, but in tunics of hair; because by the prophets the Lord was represented as to truths of doctrine, and because these are of the natural or external man, the prophets had tunics of hair, for "hair" signifies what is natural (n. 3301).  That a "tunic" signifies Divine truth from the Lord, is still more obvious from those passages in the New Testament in which "tunic" is mentioned, as in John: The soldiers took His garments and made four parts, to every soldier a part, and also the tunic; now the tunic was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore one to another, Let us not divide it, that the Scripture might be fulfilled which saith, They divided my vestments among them, and upon my tunic did they cast a lot (John 19:23-24); one who reads these words supposes that they involve no greater mystery than that the vestments were divided among the soldiers, and that a lot was cast upon the tunic, and yet every particular was representative and significative of something Divine, as well that the vestments were divided into four parts, as that the tunic was not divided, but upon it was cast a lot, especially that the tunic was without seam and woven from the top throughout; for by the "tunic" was signified the Lord's Divine truth, which as being one only and from good, was represented by the tunic being without seam and woven from the top throughout  The like was signified by the "tunic of Aaron," which was woven, or the work of the weaver, as is evident from Moses: They made the tunics of fine linen, the work of the weaver, for Aaron and for his sons (Exod. 39:27). There was also represented that the Lord did not suffer Divine truth to be rent into parts, as was done by the Jews with the lower truths of the church.  Because Divine truth which is from Divine good is one only, the twelve disciples when sent to preach the gospel of the kingdom were commanded not to have two tunics; as in Luke: Jesus sent the twelve disciples to preach the kingdom of God; and He said unto them, Take nothing for the way, neither staves, nor bag, nor bread, nor silver; neither have two tunics apiece (Luke 9:2-3); and in Mark: He commanded them that they should take nothing for the way save a staff only, no bag, no bread, no brass in their belt; but be clad with shoes; and put not on two tunics (Mark 6:8-9); And in Matthew: Possess neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your belts, nor bag for the way, nor two tunics, nor shoes, nor staves (Matt. 10:9-10).  All the particulars herein are representative of the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom which the disciples were sent to preach. That they were not to take with them gold, silver, brass, bag, nor bread, was because these things signified goods and truths which are from the Lord alone - "gold" signifying good (n. 113, 1551, 1552); "silver," truth therefrom (n. 1551, 2954); "brass," natural good (n. 425, 1551); "bread," the good of love or celestial good (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 4211, 4217). But the "tunic" and "shoe" signified the truths with which they were clothed, and the "staff" the power of truth from good. (That a "staff" is this power may be seen above, n. 4013, 4015; and that a "shoe" is the lowest natural, n. 1748, here as to truth.) A "tunic" is interior natural truth, and because these things ought not to be double, but single, it was forbidden to have two staves, two pairs of shoes, or two tunics. These arcana are within this command of the Lord, and cannot possibly be known except from the internal sense.  All and each of the things the Lord said were representative of Divine things, consequently of the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom, and thus were adapted to the apprehension of men, and at the same time to the understanding of spirits and angels; wherefore those things which the Lord said, filled and continue to fill the whole heaven. From this it is evident of what use and importance it is to know the internal sense of the Word. Moreover, without this sense anyone can confirm from the Word whatever dogma he pleases; and because such is the appearance of the Word to those who are in evil, they therefore deride it, and are ready to believe anything rather than that it is Divine.4678.
Verses 4-11. And his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren; and they hated him, and could not speak for peace unto him. And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it to his brethren, and they added yet to hate him. And he said unto them, Hear I pray this dream which I have dreamed; and behold we were binding sheaves in the midst of the field, and lo my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and behold your sheaves came round about, and bowed down themselves to my sheaf. And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? Or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? And they added yet to hate him for his dreams, and for his words. And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it to his brethren, and said, Behold I have dreamed yet a dream, and behold the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down themselves to me. And he told it to his father, and to his brethren; and his father rebuked him, and said to him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth? And his brethren envied him, but his father kept the word. "And his brethren saw," signifies those things which are of faith, and in the proximate sense the posterity of Jacob; "that their father loved him more than all his brethren," signifies that it was conjoined with the Divine natural, and in the proximate sense with the ancient church, which is the "father;" "and they hated him, and could not speak for peace unto him," signifies contempt and aversion; "and Joseph dreamed a dream," signifies preaching concerning the Divine human; "and he told it to his brethren," signifies in the presence of those who are of faith separate; "and they added yet to hate him," signifies still greater contempt and aversion; "and he said unto them, Hear I pray this dream which I have dreamed," signifies the contents of the preaching; "and behold we were binding sheaves in the midst of the field," signifies that they were teaching from doctrine; "and lo my sheaf arose, and also stood upright," signifies what is doctrinal concerning the Lord's Divine Human; "and behold your sheaves came round about," signifies those who were in faith; "and bowed down themselves to my sheaf," signifies adoration; "and his brethren said to him," signifies those who are of faith separate; "shalt thou indeed reign over us? Or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us?" signifies were they to be subject as to the things of the understanding and of the will; "and they added yet to hate him for his dreams and for his words," signifies still greater contempt and aversion because of the preaching of the Word; "and he dreamed yet another dream," signifies again a preaching; "and told it to his brethren, and said," signifies in the presence of those who are of faith separate; "behold I have dreamed yet a dream," signifies the contents; "and behold the sun and the moon," signifies natural good and natural truth; "and eleven stars," signifies the knowledges of good and of truth; "bowed down themselves to me," signifies adoration; "and he told it to his father and to his brethren," signifies that it was given to know it; "and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed?" signifies indignation; "father" here is the Jewish religion derived from the ancient; "shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?" signifies whether the church will adore; "and his brethren envied him," signifies their aversion; "and his father kept the word," signifies that the truth remained in their religiosity.4679.
And his brethren saw. That this signifies those things which are of faith, and in the proximate sense the posterity of Jacob, is evident from the signification of "seeing," as being to notice and understand (n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863); and from the representation of the brethren of Joseph, as being those things which are of faith. For Joseph in this chapter represents the Divine spiritual or Divine truth of the Lord; and his brethren represent the church which turns away from charity to faith, and then to faith separate from charity, and finally to falsities (see n. 4665, 4671). Thus by the "brethren" of Joseph are here signified those things which are of faith; and because such was the posterity of Jacob, in the proximate sense that posterity is signified.4680.
That their father loved him more than all his brethren. That this signifies that it was conjoined with the Divine natural, and in the proximate sense with the Ancient Church, which is the "father," is evident from what was explained above (n. 4675), where similar words occur. That in the proximate sense this signifies that it was conjoined with the Ancient Church, and that this church is what is meant by "father," is because in this sense, as before said (n. 4679), by Joseph's "brethren" are signified the posterity of Jacob, and consequently the church which was represented among them. How these things are to be understood has already been repeatedly stated, but shall be repeated again in a few words for the sake of the series in what follows.  The Ancient Church which was set up by the Lord after the flood was a representative church, and was of such a nature that all and each of its externals of worship represented the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom, and in the supreme sense the Divine things themselves of the Lord; but all and each of its internals of worship bore relation to charity. This church was spread over a large part of the Asiatic world, and through many kingdoms there; and although there were differences among them as to doctrinal things of faith, still the church was one, because all in every part of it made charity the essential of the church. Those who at that time separated faith from charity, and made faith the essential of the church were called "Ham." But in course of time this church turned away to idolatry, and in Egypt, Babylon, and other places, to magic; for they began to worship external things without the internal; and as they thus receded from charity, heaven also receded from them, and in its place came spirits from hell who led them.  When this church was desolated, a kind of new church began from Heber, which was called the Hebrew Church. This church existed in Syria and Mesopotamia, and also among some nations in the land of Canaan; but this new church differed from the Ancient, in that it made the essential of external worship to consist in sacrifices. It did indeed acknowledge the internal of worship to be charity, but not so much from the heart as did the Ancient Church; but this church also became idolatrous.  At last it pleased the Lord to set up among the posterity of Abraham from Jacob a new kind of church, and to introduce among that nation the externals of worship of the Ancient Church. But such was the nature of this nation that they could not receive any internal of the church, because their hearts were altogether opposed to charity; and therefore only a representative of a church was instituted among them. This then is the reason why the sons of Jacob, or Joseph's brethren, signify in the proximate sense such a church, and why Jacob their father signifies the Ancient Church. In many other places in the Word, especially the prophetic, the Ancient Church is meant by "Jacob;" and sometimes also that Ancient Church is called "father and mother", "father" as to its good, and "mother" as to its truth. From this it is now evident that by their father's loving Joseph more than all his brethren is signified that the Divine truth of the Lord was conjoined with the Ancient Church.4681.
And they hated him, and could not speak for peace unto him. That this signifies contempt and aversion-contempt for the Divine truth which is represented by Joseph, and aversion for it-is evident from the signification of "hating," as being to hold in contempt, for "hatred" in the internal sense does not signify hatred such as men have who hate, for the signification of the word grows milder as it rises into heaven, because in heaven they do not know what hatred is, and therefore contempt is what is signified; and from the signification of "not being able to speak for peace unto him," as being to be averse to. For to "speak for peace" means to wish anyone well, inasmuch as by "peace" the ancients understood in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, in the internal sense His kingdom and life therein, or salvation, but in the external sense safety or health in the world. The contrary of this is not to be able to speak for peace to anyone, that is, not to wish him well, thus to be averse to, here to Divine truth.4682.
And Joseph dreamed a dream. That this signifies preaching concerning it is evident from the signification of "dreaming a dream," as being to preach; and because the dream treats of Joseph, preaching concerning the Lord's Divine Human is signified. That a "dream" here signifies preaching, is because in Joseph's two dreams are contained in a summary all the things which were foreseen and provided in regard to Joseph, or in the internal sense all that were foreseen and provided in regard to Divine truth within such a church as is represented by Joseph's brethren, or such as begins from faith. Moreover, Divine truths were manifested in ancient times either by speech, by visions, or by dreams, and from these were the preachings; consequently by "prophets" in the Word, to whom Divine truth was manifested by speech, by visions, or by dreams, are signified those who teach truths, and in the abstract sense the truths of doctrine (n. 2534).  The like is therefore signified by "seeing visions" and "dreaming dreams;" as in Joel: I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions; and also upon the servants and upon the maidservants in those days will I pour out My spirit (Joel 2:28-29); where "pouring out the spirit upon them" denotes to instruct concerning truths, and "prophesying" denotes to teach and preach them, and the same is signified by "dreaming dreams." "Old men" are the wise, "young men" the intelligent, "servants" those who know.  In Jeremiah: Thus saith Jehovah Zebaoth, Attend not unto the words of the prophets that prophesy unto you; they make you vain, they speak a vision of their own heart, and not out of the mouth of Jehovah. I have heard what the prophets have said, that prophesy a lie in My name, saying, I have dreamed, I have dreamed. The prophet that hath a dream, let him tell a dream; but he that hath My word, let him tell My word in truth. Behold I am against them that prophesy dreams of a lie, saith Jehovah; they tell them, and lead My people astray by their lies (Jer. 23:16, 25, 28, 32); where again "prophesying" denotes to teach and preach, but from dreams of a lie, from which is their preaching.  In like manner elsewhere (as in Jer. 29:8, 9; Zech. 10:2). In Moses: If there arise in the midst of thee a prophet, or a dreamer of a dream, who shall give thee a sign or a wonder, and the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he spoke unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods which thou hast not known, and let us serve them; thou shalt not obey the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of a dream. And that prophet, or that dreamer of a dream, shall be killed, because he hath spoken revolt against Jehovah your God (Deut. 13:1-3, 5); both a "prophet" and a "dreamer of a dream" denote one who teaches and preaches, here falsities.4683.
And he told it to his brethren. That this signifies in the presence of those who are of faith separate, is evident from the representation of Joseph's brethren, as being the church which turns away from charity to faith, or in the abstract sense the things of faith, as above (n. 4665, 4671, 4679); here, those who are of faith separate from charity, because it follows that "they added yet to hate him," by which words are signified still greater contempt and aversion. For as regards this church the fact is that at its beginning charity is preached, but merely as a matter of doctrine, and thus of memory-knowledge, but not from charity itself, thus not from affection, or from the heart. In course of time, as charity and affection are obliterated in the heart, faith is preached; and at last when there is no longer any charity, faith alone, and this is said to be saving without works; then also works are no longer called works of charity, but works of faith, and are called the fruits of faith.  In this way men do indeed conjoin charity and faith, but from doctrine merely, not from life. And because they vest nothing of salvation in a life of faith, or in good, but only in faith (although they know very well from the Word, and also from their own intelligence, that doctrine is nothing without life, or that faith is nothing without fruits), they vest the saving power of faith in confidence, that in this way they may also get away from fruits; not knowing that all confidence derives its being from the life's purpose, and that genuine confidence is impossible except in good, but that a spurious and false confidence is possible even in evil. And in order that they may still further separate faith from charity, they also insist that the confidence of a single moment will save, even life's last moments, no matter what the previous life has been; although they know that everyone's life remains with him after death, and that everyone will be judged according to the works of his life. From these few words it may be seen what is the quality of faith separate from charity, and consequently what the church is that makes faith, and not a life of faith, the essential. The falsities which flow thence as from their fountainhead will of the Lord's Divine mercy be spoken of in the following pages.4684.
And they added yet to hate him. That this signifies still greater contempt and aversion, is evident from what was said above (n. 4681), where similar words occur.4685.
And he said unto them, Hear I pray this dream which I have dreamed. That this signifies the contents of the preaching, is evident from the signification of "dreaming a dream," as being a preaching (n. 4682); here the contents of the preaching, because the description of his dream now follows.4686.
For behold we were binding sheaves in the midst of the field. That this signifies that they were teaching from doctrine, is evident from the signification of a "sheaf," as being doctrine, and hence of "binding sheaves," as being to teach from doctrine (of which hereafter); and from the signification of a "field," as being the, church (n. 2971, 3766, 4440, 4443). The "midst of the field" is what is interior in the church, thus it is those who are in the faith of some charity; for the "midst" in the internal sense is what is interior and what is inmost (n. 1074, 2940, 2973). For there are some in every church who are in the midst of it, or who are inmost, being those who are in charity, here those who are in the faith of some charity. With these the Lord is present, because the Lord is in charity, and through charity in faith (n. 4672). That these are signified is evident also from what follows-that Joseph's sheaf arose, and the other sheaves came round about it; for by Joseph's sheaf is signified doctrine from the Lord's Divine truth.  That a "sheaf" signifies doctrine is because as just said a field is the church, and the standing corn in a field is the truth in the church; therefore a sheaf in which there is corn signifies doctrine in which there is truth. "Sheaves" have a similar signification in David: Those who sow in tears will reap with singing; he who indeed goes forth weeping, carrying a cast of seed, will indeed come with singing, carrying his sheaves (Ps. 126:5-6); said of those who have been in spiritual captivity and are liberated. To "bear the cast of seed" denotes instruction in truths, to "come with singing" denotes the gladness of the affection of truth, and to "bear the sheaves," the doctrinal things of this truth.4687.
And lo my sheaf arose, and also stood upright. That this signifies what is doctrinal concerning the Lord's Divine Human is evident from the signification of a "sheaf" as being doctrine (see just above); and from the signification of "arising and standing upright," as being the supreme that should reign, and that they would adore. That this is the Lord's Divine Human is evident from what follows, namely, that the eleven sheaves bowed down themselves to that sheaf, and in the second dream, that the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down themselves to Joseph, whereby is signified the supreme that should reign, and that they would adore; wherefore also Jacob says, "Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?" As before said the Divine truth of the Lord is what is represented by Joseph; the supreme of this is the Lord Himself, and the supreme among doctrinal things is that His Human is Divine.  With this supreme of doctrinal things the case is this: The Most Ancient Church, which was celestial, and which above all others was called Man, adored the infinite being, and the derivative infinite coming-forth; and because, from the things which could be perceived in their internal man and those which could be felt in their external, and from the visible things in the world, the men of that church could have no perception of the infinite being, but could have some perception of the derivative infinite coming-forth, they therefore adored the infinite coming forth in which is the infinite being. The infinite coming-forth in which is the infinite being they perceived as a Divine Man, because they knew that the infinite coming-forth was brought forth through heaven from the infinite being; and as heaven is the Grand Man, corresponding to each and all things that are in man (as has been shown at the end of the preceding chapters, and will be shown at the end of several to follow), they therefore could have no other idea of perception concerning the infinite coming forth from the infinite being, than as of a Divine Man; for whatever from the infinite being passes through heaven as the Grand Man is attended with an image thereof in each and all things. When that celestial church began to fall away, they foresaw that the infinite coming forth could no longer have influx into the minds of men, and that so the human race would perish; therefore it was revealed to them that One should be born who would make the Human in Himself Divine, and in this way become the same infinite coming-forth as had been before, and would at last become one with the infinite being as also it had been before. From this came their prophecy in Genesis concerning the Lord (Gen. 3:15).  This is described in John in these words: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us; and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:1-4, 14); the "Word" is the Divine truth, which in its essence is the infinite coming-forth from the infinite being, and is the Lord Himself as to His Human. This very Human it is from which truth Divine now proceeds and flows into heaven, and through heaven into the minds of men; consequently which rules and governs the universe, as it has ruled and governed it from eternity; for it is one and the same with the infinite being, because He conjoined the Human with the Divine, which was done by this, that He made the Human in Himself also Divine. From this it is now evident that the supreme of truth Divine is the Lord's Divine Human, and hence that the supreme among the doctrinal things of the church is that His Human is Divine.4688.
And behold your sheaves came round about. That this signifies those who were in faith, namely, in the faith of some charity, is evident from the signification of "coming round about," as here being an approaching to adore, for it follows that "they bowed down themselves to his sheaf," by which is signified adoration; and from the signification of a "sheaf," as being doctrine (of which just above, n. 4686), here all things of doctrine, or all things of faith. That "sheaves" here have such a signification is because in the genuine sense all things of faith are represented by all the sons of Jacob (n. 3858, 3926), thus also by the sheaves, because these in the dream took the place of the sons of Jacob; and also because the scene lay in the midst of the field, and by the midst of the field is signified what is interior, or those who are interior in the church (of which above, n. 4686), thus those who are in the faith of some charity. These therefore are the "sheaves which came round about, and bowed down themselves to the sheaf of Joseph." That those are not meant who are exterior or more remote from the midst, and who in the proper sense are here the "brethren" of Joseph, is plain from what precedes and what follows-that they hated him more and more, that is, despised him and felt aversion; for "hating," "not speaking for peace," and "envying," which are said of his brethren, signify contempt and aversion.4689.
And bowed down themselves to my sheaf. That this signifies adoration, is evident from the signification of "bowing down themselves," as being the effect of humiliation (see n. 2153), consequently adoration; and from the signification of "Joseph's sheaf," as here being the doctrine concerning the Lord's Divine Human (n. 4686), thus it signifies the Divine Human which those in the interior of the church adored. But those who are exterior, that is, those who are of faith separate, are as far as possible from adoring. Faith separate from charity has this effect because as before said the Lord is present in charity, and in faith only through charity; for charity is the conjoining medium. What is truth without good? And what is the intellect without the will? Thus what is faith without charity? Or what is confidence without its essence?  That they who are in faith separate from charity do not at all adore the Lord's Divine Human, was made evident to me from those of this character who come into the other life from the Christian world, with many of whom I have spoken; for in that life the heart speaks, and not the mouth as in the world. The thoughts of everyone are there communicated much more clearly than by any speech in the world; and no one is allowed to speak otherwise than as he thinks and believes. Many of those who in the world have even preached the Lord, there wholly deny Him; and when it is inquired from what end or for what reason they preached Him, and also in outward holy form adored Him, it is found that they did so because it was incumbent upon them on account of the office which they held, and because they thereby gained honors and wealth; and that those who did not preach Him, but yet confessed Him, did so because they were born in the church, and because they would lose their reputation if they should speak against religion. Not a single person from the Christian world knew that the Lord's Human is Divine; and scarcely anyone knew that He alone rules heaven and the universe, still less that His Divine Human is the all in heaven. That this is so, could not be openly revealed, because it was foreseen by the Lord that the Christian Church would turn away from charity to faith, consequently would separate itself from Him, and so not only reject but also profane the holy which is from His Divine Human; for faith separate from charity cannot do otherwise.  That faith is at this day separated from charity, is evident; for churches separate from one another according to their dogmas, and whoever believes differently from what their dogma teaches is cast out from their communion, and is also defamed. But one who robs, and without mercy deprives others of their possessions, provided he does not do it openly, who schemes craftily against the neighbor, who brings the works of charity into disrepute, and who commits adultery - he is nevertheless called a Christian, provided he frequents sacred observances and speaks in accordance with doctrine. From this it is evident that at this day it is doctrine, not life, that constitutes the church; and that the fruits which are adjoined to faith are in their doctrine only, and not at all in their minds.4690.
And his brethren said to him. That this signifies those who are of faith separate, is evident from the representation of Joseph's brethren, as being the church which turns away from charity to faith, and at last separates faith from charity (n. 4665, 4671, 4679); but those who are interior in this church are signified by the "sheaves" in the dream (n. 4686, 4688). The reason why Joseph's brethren represent this church is that in the proximate sense they signify the representative of a church, or the religiosity which was instituted among the posterity of Jacob, which posterity did not indeed know anything about faith as it is understood in the Christian Church, but only about truth. Truth was to them the same as faith is to Christians. Moreover, in the Hebrew language the same word is used for both. But the Jewish Church understood by truth the precepts of the Decalogue, and also the laws, judgments, testimonies, and statutes, which were handed down by Moses. They did not know the interiors of truth, nor did they wish to know them.  The Christian Church however gives the name of faith to those doctrinal matters which they say are the interior things of the church and must be believed; for by faith the common people understand no other than the faith of creeds, or that which books of creeds teach; but those who think that the doctrinal things of faith or the knowledge of them cannot save anyone, and that few are in a life of faith, call confidence faith. These however are above the common people, and are more learned than others. From these things it is evident that the subject here treated of in the internal sense is not only the representative of a church which was instituted with the posterity of Jacob, but also the Christian Church which succeeded; for the Word of the Lord is universal, and comprehends in general every church. For it was equally foreseen by the Lord both how the case would be with the Christian Church, and how it would be with the Jewish Church, but proximately with the Jewish, wherefore this sense is called the proximate sense, or the internal historical sense, and the other the internal sense.4691.
Shalt thou indeed reign over us? Or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? That this signifies were they to be subject as to the things of the understanding and of the will, is evident from the signification of "reigning," as being to be subject as to the things of the understanding; and from the signification of "having dominion," as being to be subject as to the things of the will. That "to reign over them and to have dominion over them" denotes that they were to be made subject is evident, but the reason why the two expressions are here used is that one refers to the things of the understanding, and the other to the things of the will. It is common in the Word, especially the prophetic, for one thing to be expressed in two ways; and he who does not know the mystery in this, cannot but think it a mere repetition for the sake of emphasis. But this is not so, for in every particular of the Word there is the heavenly marriage, namely, the marriage of truth with good and of good with truth; just as there is a marriage of the understanding and the will in man. One expression has reference to truth, the other to good; thus one has reference to the intellect, for to this belongs truth, and the other to the will, for to this belongs good. Moreover, the expressions in the Word consist of terms that constantly have such a signification. This is the secret which lies concealed in two expressions being used for one thing (see n. 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 4138). So also here in regard to "reigning over them" and "having dominion over them" - "reigning" refers to truth which is of the understanding, and "having dominion" to good which is of the will. "Kingdom" is also predicated of truth (n. 1672, 2547), and "dominion" of good, as in Daniel, in which passage also the subject is the Lord's Divine Human: There was given Him dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages should worship Him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom that which shall not perish (Dan. 7:14); and in David: Thy kingdom is a kingdom of all eternities, and Thy dominion is into all generation and generation (Ps. 145:13).4692.
And they added yet to hate him for his dreams, and for his words. That this signifies still greater contempt and aversion because of the preaching of truth - here concerning the Lord's Divine Human - is evident from the signification of "adding," as being more; from the signification of "hating," as being to despise and be averse to (n. 4681); from the signification of a "dream," as being preaching (n. 4682, 4685); and from the signification of "words," as being truths. That "words" denote truths is because every word in heaven is from the Lord; therefore "words" in the internal sense signify truths, and the "Word" in general signifies all Divine truth.  As regards the subject itself, this is the supreme truth of all which the church that has separated faith from charity especially despises, and to which it is averse, namely, that the Human of the Lord is Divine. All who were of the Ancient Church and did not separate charity from faith, believed that the God of the universe was a Divine Man, and that He was the Divine being; and hence they named Him "Jehovah." They knew this from the most ancient people, and also because He had appeared as a Man to some of their brethren. They also knew that all the rituals and externals of their church represented Him. But those who were of faith separate could not so believe, because they could not comprehend how the Human could be Divine, nor could they comprehend that the Divine love effected this; for whatever they did not comprehend from some idea received through the external senses of the body, they regarded as nothing. Faith separate from charity is attended with this, for with those who hold it the internal of perception is closed, as there is no intermediate through which there can be influx.  The Jewish Church which succeeded did indeed believe that Jehovah was Man and also God, because He had appeared as a man to Moses and the prophets, for which reason the Jews called every angel who appeared to them "Jehovah;" nevertheless they had no other idea of Him than the Gentiles had of their gods, to whom the Jews preferred Jehovah God because He could perform miracles (n. 4299), not knowing that Jehovah was "the Lord" in the Word (n. 2921, 3035), and that it was His Divine Human which all their rituals represented. Their only thought of the Messiah or Christ was that He would be the greatest prophet, greater than Moses; and the greatest king, greater than David, who would bring them with stupendous miracles into the land of Canaan. They did not wish to hear anything about His heavenly kingdom, because they apprehended nothing but worldly things, for they were separated from charity.  The Christian Church, however, in external worship does indeed adore the Lord's Human as Divine, especially in the Holy Supper, because He said that the bread therein was His body, and the wine His blood; but in their doctrine they make His Human not Divine, for they make a distinction between the Divine nature and the human nature. The reason of this also is that the church has turned away from charity to faith, and at last to faith separate. And because they do not acknowledge the Lord's Human to be Divine, many stumble and at heart deny Him (n. 4689). Nevertheless the truth is that the Lord's Divine Human is the Divine coming-forth from the Divine being, spoken of above (n. 4687), and that He is the Divine being, for the Divine being and the Divine coming-forth are one, as also the Lord plainly teaches in John: Jesus said to Philip, Have I been so long time with you, and hast thou not known Me? He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father. Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me (John 14:9-11); and also in other places. For the Divine coming-forth is the Divine Itself proceeding from the Divine being, and in image is a Man; because heaven, of which it is the all, represents a Grand Man, as was said above (n. 4687), and has been shown at the end of the chapters, in the correspondence of all things in man therewith.  The Lord was indeed born as is another man, and had an infirm human from the mother; but this human the Lord entirely cast out, so that He was no longer the son of Mary, and made the Human in Himself Divine, which is meant by His being glorified; and He also showed to Peter, James, and John, when He was transfigured, that He was a Divine Man.4693.
And he dreamed yet another dream. That this signifies again a preaching, is evident from the signification of a "dream," as being a preaching (of which above, n. 4682).4694.
And told it to his brethren, and said. That this signifies in the presence of those who are of faith separate, is evident from the representation of Joseph's brethren, as being those who are of faith separate (of which above, n. 4665, 4671, 4679, 4690).4695.
Behold I have dreamed yet a dream. That this signifies the contents of the preaching, is evident from what was said above (n. 4685).4696.
And behold the sun and the moon. That this signifies natural good and natural truth, is evident from the signification of the "sun," as being celestial good (n. 1529, 1530, 2120, 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643, 4060); and from the signification of the "moon," as being spiritual good, or truth (n. 1529, 1530, 2495). The "sun" in the supreme sense signifies the Lord, because He appears as a sun to those in heaven who are in celestial love; and the "moon" also in the supreme sense signifies the Lord, because He appears as a moon to those in heaven who are in spiritual love; all the light in heaven is thence. Therefore the light from the sun there is the celestial of love, or good, and the light from the moon there is the spiritual of love, or truth; in the present passage therefore the "sun" is natural good, and the "moon" natural truth, because they are predicated of Jacob and Leah, as is evident from verse 10, where Jacob says, "Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?" for by Jacob is represented natural good, and by Leah natural truth, as before occasionally shown. The Divine which comes from the Lord is in the supreme sense the Divine in Him; but in the relative sense is the Divine from Him. The Divine good from Him is what is called celestial, and the Divine truth from Him is what is called spiritual. When the rational receives these, the good and the truth of the rational are what are signified; but when the natural receives them, the good and truth of the natural are what are signified. Here they are the good and truth of the natural, because they are predicated of Jacob and Leah.4697.
And eleven stars. That this signifies the knowledges of good and truth, is evident from the signification of "stars," as being the knowledges of good and truth. That "stars" have this signification in the Word is because they are small luminaries which shine at night, when they give forth into our atmosphere gleams of light, just as knowledges give forth gleams of good and truth. That such knowledges are signified by "stars," is evident from many passages in the Word, as in Jeremiah: Thus said Jehovah who giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, who stirreth up the sea that the waves thereof are tumultuous (Jer. 31:35); where a new church is treated of, and by "giving the sun for a light by day" is signified the good of love and of charity, and by "giving the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night" is signified truth and knowledges.  So too in David: Jehovah who made great luminaries, the sun to rule by day, and the moon and stars to rule by night (Ps. 136:7-9); one who knows nothing of the internal sense of the Word will believe that by the "sun" here is meant the sun of the world, and by the "moon and stars," the moon and stars of the world; but from this arises no spiritual and heavenly sense, and yet the Word is heavenly in every particular; from which again it is evident that the goods of love and charity, and the truths of faith, together with the knowledges of these, are what is signified.  So also in the first chapter of Genesis, where the new creation of the celestial man is described: God said, Let there be luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to distinguish between the day and the night; and let them be for signs and for stated times, and for days and for years; and let them be for luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth; and it was so. And God made two great luminaries; the greater luminary to rule by day, and the lesser luminary to rule by night; and the stars. And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth, and to rule in the day and in the night, and to distinguish between the light and the darkness (Gen. 1:14-18; see n. 30-38).  In Matthew: Immediately after the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken (Matt. 24:29); that here by the "sun and moon" are signified love and charity, or good and truth, and by the "stars" knowledges, may be seen above (n. 4060); and because the last day or the last state of the church is here treated of, by "the sun being darkened and the moon not giving her light" is signified that then the good of love and of charity will perish; and by "the stars falling from heaven," that the knowledges of good and of truth will also perish.  That these things are signified, is evident from the prophetic parts of the Word, in which similar things are said of the last state of the church, as in Isaiah: Behold the day of Jehovah cometh cruel, to make the earth a waste, and He shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it For the stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shall not shine with their light; the sun shall be darkened in his rising, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine (Isa. 13:9-10). In Joel: The day of Jehovah is near. The sun and the moon have been blackened, and the stars have withdrawn their shining (Joel 3:14, 16). In Ezekiel: When I shall extinguish thee I will cover the heavens, and I will blacken the stars thereof; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not make her light to shine, all the luminaries of light in heaven will I make black over thee, and will set darkness upon thy land (Ezek. 32:7-8). And in Revelation: The fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; that the third part of them should be darkened, and the day should not shine for the third part of it, and the night in like manner (Rev. 8:12).  Moreover, that "stars" are the knowledges of good and truth is plain from the following passages: in Daniel: Out of one of the horns of the he-goat came forth a little horn, and it grew exceedingly toward the south, and toward the east, and toward adornment. And it grew even to the army of the heavens; and some of the army and of the stars it cast down to the earth, and trampled upon them (Dan. 8:9-10); and in Revelation: The great dragon with his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth (Rev. 12:4). That "stars" are not meant in these passages, is evident. In Daniel and Revelation is described the state of the church in its last times.  Likewise in David: Jehovah counteth the number of the stars; He giveth names to all (Ps. 147:4). Again: Praise ye Jehovah, sun and moon, praise Him all ye stars of light (Ps. 148:3). And in Revelation: A great sign was seen in heaven; a woman encompassed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars (Rev. 12:1).  As "stars" signify the knowledges of good and truth, they signify also the doctrinals of the church, for these are knowledges. The doctrinal respecting faith separate from charity in the last times, is thus described by a star in Revelation: The third angel sounded, and there fell from heaven a great star burning as a torch, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters; and the name of the star is called Wormwood, and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter (Rev. 8:10-11); the waters made bitter by this star are truths, and the "rivers and fountains of waters" are intelligence thence and wisdom from the Word. (That "waters" are truths may be seen above, n. 2702, 3058, 3424; that "rivers" are intelligence, n. 3051; and that "fountains" are wisdom from the Word, n. 2702, 3424.)4698.
Bowed down themselves to me. That this signifies adoration, is evident from the signification of "bowing down themselves," as being adoration, of which above (n. 4689).4699.
And he told it to his father, and to his brethren. That this signifies that it was given to know it, may be seen without explication.4700.
And his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? That this signifies indignation, is evident from the signification of "rebuking," as being to be indignant, and this because of the preaching of truth concerning the Lord's Divine Human, which preaching is signified by "dreaming a dream" (n. 4682, 4693, 4695). The father and brethren of Joseph here denote the Jewish religion derived from the ancient. The external of this religion was for the most part like the external of the Ancient Church. With those who were of the Ancient Church, however, there was an internal in their externals, but not with those who were of the Jewish religion, because the Jews did not acknowledge any internal, nor do they at this day; and yet there was an internal within. This external with its internal is what is here called "father," and the external without the internal is what is called "brethren;" hence the statement follows that "his brethren envied him, but his father kept the word;" and by the first words are signified the aversion of those who are in an external without the internal, and by the last is signified that truth still remained in their religion.  This is the same as it is in the Christian Church, where those who are in the external without the internal eat the bread and drink the wine in the Holy Supper with no other thought than that this should be done because it has been commanded and is accepted by the church. Some of them believe that the bread and the wine are holy, but not that the holiness in them comes from the fact that "bread" is the holy of love and charity in heaven, and that "wine" is the holy of charity and faith there (n. 3464, 3735). Whereas those who are in external and at the same time in internal worship do not adore the bread and wine, but the Lord whom these represent, and from whom is the holy of love, of charity, and of faith; and this they do, not from doctrine, but from love, charity, and faith, appropriated to the life.
4677-1 The "tunic" was the under garment.