Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
And he erected there an altar. That this signifies interior worship, is evident from the signification of "erecting an altar," as being worship. For an altar was the principal representative of the Lord (see n. 921, 2777, 2811), and hence also the principal thing in worship. By worship is here meant interior worship from the Divine Spiritual, which subject now follows.4402.
And he called it El Elohe Israel. That this signifies from the Divine Spiritual (namely, interior worship), is evident from the signification of "El Elohe" (explained in what follows); and from the signification of "Israel," as being the spiritual (see n. 4286, 4292). As regards what has been said from verse 17 of this chapter thus far, the case is this: In this chapter in the supreme sense the subject treated of is the Lord, how He made His natural Divine. But as the things which exist in the supreme sense concerning the Lord surpass the ideas of man's thought (for they are Divine), I may illustrate them by such things as fall more nearly into the ideas, namely, by the manner in which the Lord regenerates man's natural; for in the internal sense the regeneration of man as to his natural is also here treated of, because the regeneration of man is an image of the glorification of the Lord (n. 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490). For the Lord glorified Himself, that is, made Himself Divine, according to Divine order; and according to such order He also regenerates man, that is, makes him celestial and spiritual. Here it is explained how He makes man spiritual, for "Israel" signifies the spiritual man.  The spiritual man is not the interior rational man, but the interior natural. The interior rational man is what is called the celestial man. What the difference is between the spiritual and the celestial man has already been frequently stated. A man is made spiritual by having the truths in him conjoined with good, that is, the things of faith conjoined with those of charity, and this in his natural. Exterior truths are there first conjoined with good, and afterwards interior truths. The conjunction of exterior truths in the natural was treated of in this chapter from verses 1 to 17; and the conjunction of interior truths with good, from verse 17 to the end. Interior truths are not conjoined with good in any other way than by enlightenment flowing in through the internal man into the external man. From this enlightenment Divine truths are manifest only in a general manner, comparatively as innumerable objects are seen by the eye as one obscure thing without distinction. This enlightenment from which truths are manifest only in a general manner, was signified by Esau's words to Jacob, "Let me set I pray with thee of the people that are with me;" and by Jacob's answer, "Wherefore is this? Let me find grace in thine eyes" (as explained above, n. 4385-4386).  That the spiritual man is relatively in obscurity see n. 2708, 2715, 2716, 2718, 2831, 2849, 2935, 2937, 3241, 3246, 3833. It is this spiritual man who is represented by Israel (n. 4286). The spiritual man is so called from the fact that the light of heaven, in which is intelligence and wisdom, flows into those things in man which are of the light of the world, and causes the things which are of the light of heaven to be represented in those which are of the light of the world, and thereby to correspond. For regarded in itself the spiritual is the Divine light itself which is from the Lord, consequently it is the intelligence of truth and the wisdom thence derived. But with the spiritual man this light falls into the things which are of faith in him, and which he believes to be true; whereas with the celestial man it falls into the good of love. But although these things are clear to those who are in the light of heaven, they are nevertheless obscure to those who are in the light of the world, thus to most people at this day, and possibly so obscure as to be scarcely intelligible; and yet as they are treated of in the internal sense, and are of such a nature, the opening of them is not to be dispensed with; the time is coming when there will be enlightenment.  The reason why the altar was called El Elohe Israel, and by it was signified interior worship from the Divine Spiritual, is that in the supreme sense "El Elohe" is the same as the Divine Spiritual, and so also is "Israel." (That "Israel" denotes the Lord as to the Divine Spiritual, and in the representative sense the Lord's spiritual church, or what is the same, the man who is spiritual, may be seen above, n. 4286, 4292.) In the original tongue "El Elohe" means "God God," and strictly according to the words, "God of gods." In the Word, Jehovah or the Lord is in many places called "El," in the singular, also "Eloah;" and He is likewise called "Elohim," in the plural; sometimes both in one verse, or in one series. He who is not acquainted with the internal sense of the Word cannot know why this is so. That "El" involves one thing, and "Eloah" another, and "Elohim" another, everyone may judge from the fact that the Word is Divine, that is, derives its origin from the Divine, and that it is thereby inspired as to all the words, nay, as to the least point of all.  What "El" involves when mentioned, and what "Elohim," may be seen from what has been occasionally shown above, namely, that "El Elohim" or "God" is mentioned when truth is treated of (see n. 709, 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921e, 4287). Hence it is that by "El" and "Elohim" in the supreme sense is signified the Divine Spiritual, for this is the same as the Divine truth, but with the difference that by "El" is signified truth in the will and act, which is the same as the good of truth (n. 4337, 4353, 4390). The expression "Elohim" is used in the plural, because by truth Divine are meant all truths which are from the Lord. Hence also angels are sometimes called in the Word "Elohim" or "gods" (n. 4295), as will also appear from the passages adduced from the Word below. Now as in the supreme sense "El" and "Elohim" signify the Lord as to truth, they also signify Him as to power; for truth is that of which power is predicated, because good acts by truth when it exerts power (n. 3091, 4015). Therefore wherever power from truth is treated of in the Word, the Lord is called "El" and "Elohim," that is, "God." Hence also it is that in the original language "El" also signifies one who is powerful.  That "El" and "Elohim," or "God," are mentioned in the Word where the Divine Spiritual is treated of, or what is the same, the Divine truth, and hence the Divine power, may be still more evident from the following passages. In Moses: God said unto Israel in the visions of the night, I am the God of gods [El Elohe] of thy father; fear not to go down into Egypt, for I will there make of thee a great nation (Gen. 46:2-3); as these words were spoken to Israel, whom He would make a great nation, and thus the subject treated of is truth and its power, it is here said "El Elohe," which in the proximate sense signifies "God of gods." That in the proximate sense "Elohim" denotes "gods," because predicated of truths and the derived power, is also evident in the same: Jacob built there an altar, and called the place El-Beth-El, because there the Elohim were revealed unto him, when he fled before his brother (Gen. 35:7). And also elsewhere: Jehovah your God, He is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God [El], powerful and formidable (Deut. 10:17); where "God of gods" is expressed by "Elohe Elohim," and afterwards "God" by "El," to whom greatness and power are ascribed.  In David: Jehovah is a great God [El], and a great King above all gods [Elohim]. In His hand are the searchings out of the earth; and the strengths of the mountains are His (Ps. 95:3-4); here "God" or "El" is used because the subject treated of is the Divine truth and the derivative power; and also "gods," because the subject treated of is also the truths thence derived; for in the internal sense a "king" signifies truth (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670). Hence it is evident what a "great king above all gods" involves. The "searchings out of the earth" also denote the truths of the church, which are called the "strengths of the mountains" from the power from this good. In the same: Who in heaven shall compare himself to Jehovah? Who among the sons of the gods [Elim] shall be likened to Jehovah ? God [El] mighty in the secret of the holy ones. O Jehovah God Zebaoth, who is as Thou the strong Jah? (Ps.89:6-8). Here the "sons of the gods" or "of Elim," denote truths Divine, of which it is evident that power is predicated; for it is said a "God [El] mighty, Jehovah God of Armies, who is strong as Thou?"  So in another place in David: Give unto Jehovah, O ye sons of the gods, give unto Jehovah glory and strength (Ps. 29:1); In Moses: They fell upon their faces, and said, God of gods [El Elohe] of the spirits of all flesh (Num. 14:22). In David: I said, ye are gods [Elohim] and ye are all sons of the Most High (Ps. 82:6; John 10:34); where they are called "gods" from truths, for "sons" are truths (see n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2628, 3373, 3704). Again: Confess ye to the God of gods [Elohe Elohim]; confess ye to the Lord of lords (Ps. 136:2-3). In Daniel: The king will act according to his own pleasure, and will puff himself up, and will exalt himself above every god [El], and above the God of gods [El Elohim] will speak wondrous things (Dan. 11:36); from this it is evident that in the proximate sense "El Elohe" is "God of gods," and that in the internal sense "gods" are predicated of the truths which are from the Lord.  It is said "El," or "God," in the singular, where the subject treated of is the power which is from the Divine truth, or what is the same, from the Lord's Divine Spiritual, as may be seen from the following passages. In Moses: Let my hand be as God [El] to do evil to thee (Gen. 31:29). And again: Neither is there a hand for God [El] (Deut. 28:32). And in Micah: Neither is there a hand for God (Micah 2:1). "A hand for God" denotes that there may be power. (That "hand" denotes power may be seen above, n. 878, 3387; and that "hand" is predicated of truth, n. 3091.) In David: I will set his hand also in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers; He shall call Me, Thou my Father, my God [El], the rock of my salvation (Ps. 89:25-26); speaking of power from truths. Again: The wicked saith in his heart, God [El] hath forgotten, He hath hidden His faces, He will never see: arise, Jehovah God [El], lift up Thy hand wherefore doth the wicked despise God [Elohim]? (Ps. 10:11-13); denoting the same.  Again: Jehovah is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; my God [El], my rock (Ps. 18:2); where power is treated of. In Isaiah: The residue shall return, the residue of Jacob, to the powerful God [El](Isa. 10:21). Again: Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder; and His name shall be called, Wonderful, Counselor, God (El), Mighty, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6). Again: Behold the God [El] of my salvation, I will trust, and not be afraid; for He is my strength (Isa. 12:2). Again: I am God [El] yea, from this day, I am He, and there is none that can rescue out of My hand, I am doing, and who shall withdraw it? (Isa. 43:12-13); said of power. In Jeremiah: God [El] the great, the powerful, whose name is Jehovah of Armies (Jer. 32:18). In the second book of Samuel: With my God [El] I will leap over a wall. God [El], His way is perfect, the discourse of Jehovah is pure. Who is God [El] save Jehovah? Who is a rock save our God [Elohim] ? God [El] is the strength of my refuge (2 Sam. 22:30-33).  In Moses: God [El] is not a man that He should lie, or the son of man that He should repent; hath He said, and shall He not do ? or hath He spoken, and shall He not establish? He brought them forth out of Egypt, He hath as it were the strengths of a unicorn; in that time it shall be said to Jacob and Israel, What hath God [El] wrought? (Num. 23:19, 22-23); where in the internal sense power and truth are treated of. And again: God [El] who brought him forth out of Egypt; He hath as it were the strengths of a unicorn; He shall consume the nations His enemies, and shall break their bones, and shall crush his darts (Num. 24:8). That "horns" and "strengths of a unicorn" signify the power of truth from good, see n. 2832. Not to mention many other passages. As most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so also have "god" and "gods," which names are used when falsity and power from falsity are treated of; as in Ezekiel: The gods [Elim] of the strong shall speak to him in the midst of hell (Ezek. 32:21). In Isaiah: Ye have been in heat in the gods [Elim] under every green tree (Isa. 57:5); where the term "gods" is used from falsities. In like manner in other places.4403.
CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE GRAND MAN AND CONCERNING CORRESPONDENCE, HERE CONCERNING CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE EYE AND WITH LIGHT. Of what quality spirits were, and to what province of the body they belonged, it has also been given me to observe and know from their position and place with me, and also from the plane in which they were, and from their distance therein. Those who were seen near me were for the most part subjects of entire societies; for societies send spirits from themselves to others, and through these spirits they perceive the thoughts and affections, and thus effect communication. But concerning these so-called Subjects that is, emissary spirits-something shall of the Lord's Divine mercy be said in particular. The following facts have been observed in connection with these emissary spirits. Those who appear above the head, and near it, are those who teach, and who also easily suffer themselves to be taught. Those who are under the back of the head are those who act silently and prudently. Those who are near the back act similarly, with a difference. Those who are at the chest or breast are those who are in charity. Those who are at the loins are those who are in conjugial love. Those who are at the feet are those who are natural, and those who are at the soles of the feet are the more gross of this kind. But those who are at the face vary in genius, according to their correspondence with the sensories of this part, those for instance who are at the nostrils are those who excel in perception, those who are at the ears are those who obey, and those who are at the eyes are those who are intelligent and wise, and so on.4404.
The external senses, which are five, namely, touch, taste, smell, hearing, and sight, have each of them a correspondence with the internal senses. But at this day correspondences are known to scarcely anyone because it is not known that there are any correspondences, and still less that there is a correspondence of spiritual things with natural, or what is the same, of the things of the internal man with those of the external. As regards the correspondence of the senses, speaking generally the sense of touch corresponds to the affection of good, the sense of taste to the affection of knowing, the sense of smell to the affection of perceiving, the sense of hearing to the affection of learning, and also to obedience, and the sense of sight to the affection of understanding and of being wise.4405.
The reason why the sense of sight corresponds to the affection of understanding and being wise, is that the sight of the body corresponds precisely to the sight of its spirit, thus to the understanding. For there are two lights, one which is of the world from the sun, the other which is of heaven from the Lord. In the light of the world there is no intelligence, but there is intelligence in the light of heaven. Hence insofar as those things with man which are of the light of the world are illumined by those which are of the light of heaven, thus insofar as these two classes of things correspond to each other, so far the man understands and is wise.4406.
As the sight of the eye corresponds to the understanding, for this reason sight is attributed to the understanding also, and is called intellectual sight. Moreover the things which a man observes are called the objects of this sight; and also in ordinary discourse we say that things are "seen" when they are understood; and light and enlightenment, and the consequent clearness, are also predicated of the understanding; and on the other hand, so are shades and darkness, and the consequent obscurity. It is on account of the correspondence that these and the like things have come into common speech among men; for man's spirit is in the light of heaven, and his body is in the light of the world, and the spirit is that which lives in the body, and also is that which thinks. Hence many things that are interior have fallen in this way into words.4407.
The eye is the noblest organ of the face, and communicates more immediately with the understanding than do the rest of man's organs of sense. It is also modified by a more subtle atmosphere than the ear, and therefore the sight penetrates to the internal sensory, which is in the brain, by a shorter and more interior way than does the speech which is perceived by the ear. Hence also it is that certain animals, being devoid of understanding, have as it were two subsidiary brains within the orbits of their eyes, for their intellectual depends on their sight. But with man this is not the case, for he enjoys the use of an ample brain, in order that his intellectual may not depend on the sight, but the sight on the intellectual. That the sight of man depends on the intellectual is very evident from the fact that his natural affections portray themselves representatively in the face, but his more interior affections, which pertain to the thought, appear in the eyes, from a certain flame of life and a consequent vibration of light, which flashes out in accordance with the affection in which is the thought; and this a man knows and observes, without being taught by any science, for the reason that his spirit is in society with spirits and angels in the other life, who know this from a plain and clear perception. (That every man as to his spirit is in society with spirits and angels, may be seen above, n. 1277, 2379, 3644, 3645.)4408.
That there is a correspondence of the sight of the eye with intellectual sight, plainly appears to those who reflect; for the objects of the world, all of which derive something from the light of the sun, enter through the eye, and bestow themselves in the memory, and this evidently under a like visual figure, for whatever is produced therefrom is seen inwardly. This is the source of man's imagination, the ideas of which are called by philosophers material ideas. When these objects appear still more interiorly they present thought, and this also under some visual figure, but more pure, the ideas of which are called immaterial, and also intellectual. That there is an interior light, in which there is life, and consequently intelligence and wisdom, and that this light illumines the interior sight, and meets the things which have entered in through the external sight, is very evident; and also that the interior light operates according to the disposition of the things present there from the light of the world. The things that enter through the hearing are also inwardly turned into forms like those of the visual images that come from the light of the world.4409.
As the sight of the eye corresponds to intellectual sight, it also corresponds to truths, for all things that are of the understanding bear relation to truth, and likewise to good, in this way-that a man may not only know what is good, but also be affected by it. Moreover all things of the external sight also bear relation to truth and to good, because they bear relation to the symmetries of objects, consequently to their beauties and the derivative charms. A clearsighted observer can see that each and all things in nature bear relation to truth and to good, and thereby he can also know that universal nature is a theater representative of the Lord's kingdom.4410.
It has become evident to me from much experience that the sight of the left eye corresponds to truths which are of the understanding, and the right eye to affections of truth, which are also of the understanding; and consequently that the left eye corresponds to the truths of faith, and the right eye to the goods of faith. The reason why there is such a correspondence is that in the light which is from the Lord there is not only light, but also heat, the light itself being the truth which proceeds from the Lord, and the heat being the good. It is from this, and also from the influx into the two hemispheres of the brain, that there exists such a correspondence; for those who are in good are on the Lord's right hand, and those who are in truth are on His left hand.4411.
Each and all things that are in the eye have their correspondences in the heavens, such as the three humors, the aqueous, the vitreous, and the crystalline; and not the humors only, but also the coats, and indeed every part. The more interior things of the eye have correspondences more beautiful and more pleasant, but in a different manner in each heaven. When the light which proceeds from the Lord flows into the inmost or third heaven, it is there received as the good which is called charity; and when it flows into the middle or second heaven, both mediately and immediately, it is received as the truth which is from charity; but when this truth flows into the lowest or first heaven, mediately and immediately, it is received substantially, and appears there as a paradise, and in some places as a city in which are palaces. Thus do the correspondences succeed one another even to the external sight of the angels. It is similar with man, in his ultimate which is the eye this truth is presented materially by the sight, the objects of which are those of the visible world. The man who is in love and charity, and consequently in faith, has his interiors of this quality, for he corresponds to the three heavens, and is a little heaven in effigy.4412.
There was a certain person whom I had known in the bodily life, but whom I had not known in respect to his animus and interior affections. He spoke with me several times in the other life, but for a while at a distance. He usually showed himself by means of pleasant representatives, for he could present things which excited delight, such as colors of every kind and beautiful colored forms, could exhibit infants beautifully decorated like angels, and very many similar things that were pleasant and delightful. He operated by a gentle and soft influx into the coat of the left eye. By such means he instilled himself into the affections of others, with the end to please and delight their life. I was told by the angels that they who belong to the coats of the eye are of such a character, and that they communicate with the paradisal heavens, where truths and goods are represented in a substantial form, as stated above (n. 4411).4413.
That the light of heaven has within it intelligence and wisdom, and that it is the intelligence of truth and the wisdom of good from the Lord that appear as light before the eyes of the angels, it has been given me to know by a living experience. I was taken up into a light that sparkled like the light radiating from diamonds; and while I was kept in it, I seemed to myself to be withdrawn from bodily ideas and to be brought into spiritual ideas, thus into those things which belong to the intelligence of truth and of good. The ideas of thought which originated from the light of the world then appeared to be remote from me, and as it were not belonging to me, although they were present obscurely; and by this it was given me to know that insofar as anyone comes into the light of heaven, so far he comes into intelligence. It is for this reason that the more intelligent the angels are, the greater and the brighter is the light in which they are.4414.
The differences of light in the heavens are as many as are the angelic societies which constitute heaven, nay, they are as many as are the angels in each society. The reason is that heaven is ordered in accordance with all the differences of good and truth, thus in accordance with all states of intelligence and wisdom, and consequently in accordance with the various receptions of the light which is from the Lord. The result is that nowhere in the universal heaven is the light exactly the same as it is anywhere else in heaven, but on the contrary it differs according to the various ways in which it is tempered with a flaming or with a bright white quality, and also according to the various degrees of its intensity; for intelligence and wisdom are nothing but an eminent modification of the heavenly light which is from the Lord.4415.
Souls newly arrived, or novitiate spirits-that is, those who have been in the other life but a few days since the death of the body-are very much surprised to find that there is light in the other life, for they carry with them the ignorance that supposes light to be exclusively from the sun and material flame. Still less do they know that there is any light which illumines the understanding, for in the bodily life they have not observed this, and even still less that this light confers the capacity to think, and by its influx into forms which are from the light of the world presents all things that are of the understanding. If these spirits have been good they are taken up into heavenly societies to be instructed, and are passed from one society to another, in order that they may perceive by living experience that there is light in the other life, and this more intense than is ever found in the world; and that they may at the same time take notice that insofar as they are in the light there, so far they are in intelligence. Some who were taken up into the spheres of heavenly light spoke with me from thence, and confessed that they had never believed in any such thing, and that the light of the world is relatively darkness. From that light they also looked through my eyes into the light of the world, and perceived it as nothing but a dark cloud, and in pity said that such is the light in which are men. From what has been said it may also be seen why the angels of heaven are called in the Word "angels of light;" and also that the Lord is the Light, and consequently is the life for men (John 1:1, 9; 8:12).4416.
The quality of spirits in the other life is evident from the light in which they are, for as before said the light in which they see corresponds to the light by which they perceive. They who have known truths and have also confirmed them with themselves, and yet have lived a life of evil, appear in a snowy light, but cold, like the light of winter; and when they approach those who are in the light of heaven, their light is then completely darkened, and becomes pitch-dark; and when they remove themselves from the light of heaven, there succeeds a yellow light as from sulphur, in which they appear like specters, and their truths like phantasms. For their truths had been those of persuasive faith, which is of such a nature that they had believed because believing led to honor, gain, and reputation, and it was all the same to them what the truth was, provided it was received.  But they who are in evil and thence in falsities, appear in a light like that of a charcoal fire. This light becomes quite dusky in the light of heaven; but the very lights from which they see are varied in accordance with the falsity and evil in which they are. This showed very plainly why those who lead a life of evil can never have faith in Divine truths from a sincere heart; for they are in that smoky light which, when heavenly light falls upon it, becomes dark to them, so that they see neither with their eyes nor with their mind; and besides they then fall into agonies, and some into a kind of swoon. Hence it is that the evil cannot possibly receive truth, but only the good.  The man who leads a life of evil cannot believe that he is in such a light, because he cannot see the light in which his spirit is, but only that in which is the sight of his eyes and from this his natural mind. But if he could see the light of his spirit, and could make proof of what it would become if the light of truth and good from heaven were to flow into it, he would then very well know how far he is from receiving the things which are of this light, that is, those which are of faith, and how much further he is from becoming imbued with those which are of charity, thus how far distant he is from heaven.4417.
I was once conversing with spirits concerning life - that no one has any life from himself, but from the Lord, although he may seem to live from himself (compare n. 4320). First of all we spoke of what life is, namely, that it is to understand and to will; and as all understanding bears relation to truth, and all willing to good (n. 4409), that the intelligence of truth and the will of good are life. But some reasoning spirits made reply (for there are spirits who are to be called reasoners, because they reason about everything as to whether it is so, and such are for the most part in obscurity in regard to all truth), and said that those who are in no intelligence of truth and will of good nevertheless live, and in fact they preeminently believe that they live. But it was given to answer them that the life of the evil does indeed appear to them like life, but nevertheless it is the life which is called spiritual death, as they might know from the consideration that as to understand truth and to will good are life from the Divine, it follows that to understand falsity and to will evil cannot be life, because evils and falsities are contrary to life itself.  To convince them they were shown the quality of their life, which when seen appeared like the light from a coal fire mingled with smoke. When they are in this light, they cannot but suppose that the life of their thought and of their will is the only life there is, and this the more from the fact that the light of the intelligence of truth, which is that of life itself, cannot appear to them at all, for the moment they come into this light their own light becomes dark, so that they can see nothing at all, thus neither can they perceive anything. They were further shown what was then the state of their life, by the withdrawal of the delight they had from what is false, which in the other life is effected by separating the associate spirits. On this being done they appeared with ghastly faces, like those of the dead, so that they might have been called images of death. But as regards the life of animals, of the Lord's Divine mercy this subject shall receive particular treatment.4418.
They who are in the hells are said to be in darkness, but this is because they are in falsities; for as light corresponds to truth, so darkness corresponds to falsities. As already said, they are in a light like that from a charcoal fire and of a sulphurous yellow, and this light is what is meant by "darkness;" for according to their light, and consequently according to their sight from it, is their understanding, because the two things correspond to each other. It is called darkness also because these lights become darkness in the presence of heavenly light.4419.
There was a spirit present with me whose extensive knowledge during his earthly life had occasioned him to believe that he was wiser than anyone else, which had resulted in his contracting the evil that wherever he was he wanted to direct everything. He was sent to me by a certain society to serve them as a subject, that is, for communication (n. 4403); and also that they might get rid of him, because he was troublesome through his wanting to direct them from his own intelligence. While he was with me it was given me to speak to him about intelligence from self, which I said so greatly prevails in the Christian world that it is believed that all intelligence is from this source, and therefore none is from God; although when people are speaking from their doctrinal beliefs they say that everything true and good is from heaven, thus from the Divine, consequently all intelligence, for this is of truth and good. But as the spirit would not attend to these things, I said that he would do well to withdraw, because the sphere of his intelligence infested me; but being in the persuasion that he was preeminently intelligent, he would not do so.  He was then shown by angels what is the nature of intelligence from self, and what the nature of intelligence from the Divine, and this by means of lights, for in the other life such things are presented to view in a wonderful manner by means of variegations of light. Intelligence from self was shown by a light which appeared as a fatuous light, surrounded by a dark border, and extending but a little distance from its focus; and it was further shown that this light is at once extinguished when it is looked at by an angelic society, exactly as is a fatuous light in the light or daytime of the sun. He was then shown what is the quality of intelligence from the Divine, and this also by means of a light which was brighter and more full of light than the noonday light of the sun, and which also extended itself to every distance and terminated as does the light of the sun in the universe; and it was said that intelligence and wisdom enter from all sides into the sphere of this light, and cause truth and good to be perceived by an almost unlimited mental view; but this in accordance with the quality of the truth from good.4420.
From all this it is evident that the things in man which are of the light of the world correspond to those which are of the light of heaven; consequently that the sight of the external man, which is of the eye, corresponds to the sight of the internal man, which is of the understanding; and also that in the other life the quality of the intelligence shows itself by means of lights.4421.
A continuation concerning correspondence with the eye and with light will be found at the end of the following chapter.4422.
Genesis 34 THE LAST JUDGMENT Prefatory to this chapter the Lord's words in Matthew 24, verse 42 to the end, remain to be unfolded. These words are the last in that chapter which treat of the consummation of the age, or the advent of the Lord, and which in the letter are these: Watch therefore, for ye know not what hour your Lord cometh. But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would assuredly have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken through. Therefore be ye also ready, for in an hour that ye think not the Son of man will come. Who therefore is the faithful and prudent servant, whom his lord hath set over his domestics, to give them their food in due season? Blessed is that servant whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. Verily I say unto you, that he will set him over all his goods. But if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth to come; and shall begin to beat his fellow servants, and to eat and drink with the drunken; the lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour when he knoweth not, and shall cut him asunder, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites; there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. What these words involve may be seen from the series of things, for the subject treated of in this whole chapter of the evangelist is the last period of the church, which in the internal sense is the consummation of the age and the advent of the Lord. That this is the case is evident from the explication of all the contents of the chapter, as may be seen in the prefaces to the immediately preceding chapters of Genesis (namely, 26, n. 3353-3356; 27, n. 3486-3489; 28, n. 3650-3655; 29, n. 3751- 3757; 30, n. 3897-3901; 31, n. 4056-4060; 32, n. 4229-4231; 33, n. 4332-4335).  What these contents are in a series has also been there stated, namely, that when the Christian Church that was set up after the Lord's coming began to vastate itself, that is, to recede from good, then: (1) They began not to know what good and truth are, but disputed about them. (2) They despised them. (3) Next they did not at heart acknowledge them. (4) Afterwards they profaned them. (5) And as the truth of faith and the good of charity were still to remain with some, who are called the "elect," the state of faith at that time is described. (6) And then the state of charity. (7) Lastly, the beginning of a new church is treated of; and, (8) The state as to good and truth within the so-called church, when that church is being rejected and a new church is being adopted. From this series it may appear what is involved in the words that have been transcribed above, and are the last of the chapter, namely, that they are words of exhortation to those in the church, that they should be in the good of faith, and that if not they must perish.4423.
Scarcely anyone knows how the case is with the rejection of an old church and the adoption of a new church. He who does not know man's interiors and their states, and consequently man's states after death, cannot but infer that those who are of the old church, and in whom good and truth have been laid waste, that is, are no longer at heart acknowledged, are to perish, either as the antediluvians perished by the flood, or as did the Jews by expulsion from their land, or in some other way. But when the church has been laid waste, that is, when it is no longer in any good of faith, it perishes chiefly in respect to the states of its interiors, thus in respect to its states in the other life. Heaven then removes itself away from them-and consequently the Lord-and transfers itself to others, who are adopted in their stead; for without a church somewhere on the earth there is no communication of heaven with man; for the church is like the heart and lungs of the Grand Man on the earth (see n. 468, 637, 931, 2054, 2853).  They who are then of the old church, and thus are removed from heaven, are in a kind of inundation as to their interiors, and in fact in an inundation over the head. This inundation the man himself does not observe while he lives in the body, but he comes into it after death. In the other life this inundation plainly appears like a thick cloud by which they are encompassed and separated from heaven. The state of those who are in this thick cloud is that they cannot possibly see what the truth of faith is, and still less what is its good; for the light of heaven, in which is intelligence and wisdom, cannot penetrate into this cloud. This is the state of a vastated church.4424.
What the Lord's words quoted above involve in the internal sense may be seen without explication; for the Lord spoke them not so much by representatives and significatives, as by comparatives. There shall be stated merely what is signified by the words of the last verse, namely: "He shall cut him asunder, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites; there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth." He shall cut him asunder; signifies separation and removal from goods and truths; for they who are in knowledges of good and truth, as are those who are within the church and yet in a life of evil, are said to be "cut asunder" when they are removed from these knowledges. For the knowledges of good and truth are separated from them in the other life, and they are kept in evils, and therefore also in falsities; which is done in order to prevent them from communicating with heaven by the knowledges of truth, and with hell by evils and the derivative falsities, and thus hanging between the two; and also to prevent them from profaning goods and truths, which is done when these are commingled with falsities and evils. The same is also signified by the Lord's words to him who hid the talent in the earth: "Take therefore the talent from him; and give it unto him that hath ten talents; for unto everyone that hath shall be given, and from him that hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken away" (Matt. 25:28, 29); also by what the Lord says in another place in Matthew 13:12; and in Mark 4:25; and in Luke 8:18.  And appoint his portion with the hypocrites; signifies his lot (which is his "portion") with those who outwardly appear to be in truth as to doctrine and in good as to life, but inwardly believe nothing of truth and will nothing of good, who are the "hypocrites." In this manner they are "cut asunder." Therefore when their externals are taken away from them, as takes place with all in the other life, they appear such as they are as to their internals, namely, devoid of faith and charity, of which they nevertheless have made a show in order to win others and acquire honors, gain, and reputation. Those within a vastated church are almost all of this character, for they have externals, but no internals. This is the origin of that inundation of their interiors which has been already spoken of (n. 4423).  There shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth; signifies their state in the other life, "wailing," their state as to evils, and "gnashing of teeth," their state as to falsities. For in the Word the "teeth" signify the lowest natural things, in the genuine sense the truths of these natural things, and in the opposite sense their falsities. The teeth moreover correspond to these things, and therefore the "gnashing of teeth" is the collision of falsities with truths. They who are in mere natural things, and who are in these from the fallacies of the senses, and who believe nothing but what they see thereby, are said to be in the "gnashing of teeth," and also in the other life appear to themselves to be so when they draw conclusions from their fallacies concerning the truths of faith. In a church vastated as to good and truth such persons abound. The like is signified elsewhere also by the "gnashing of teeth," as in Matthew: The sons of the kingdom shall be cast forth into the outer darkness, there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth (Matt. 8:12); the "sons of the kingdom" are those who are in a vastated church; the "darkness" is falsities (n. 4418), for they are in darkness when they are in the thick cloud mentioned above; the "gnashing of teeth" is the collision of falsities therein with truths. In like manner elsewhere, as in Matt. 13:42, 50; 22:13; 25:30; and Luke 13:28. GENESIS 34 1. And Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land. 2. And Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her, and took her, and lay with her, and forced her. 3. And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spoke upon the heart of the damsel. 4. And Shechem said unto Hamor his father, saying, Get me this girl for a woman. 5. And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; and his sons were with his acquisition in the field; and Jacob was silent until they came. 6. And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him. 7. And the sons of Jacob came from the field as they heard it, and the men were grieved, and they were very angry, because he had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with Jacob's daughter, and so it ought not to be done. 8. And Hamor spoke with them, saying, Shechem my son, his soul longs for your daughter, give her I pray to him for a woman. 9. And share kinships with us; give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to you. 10. And ye shall dwell with us, and the land shall be before you, dwell ye, and range through it trading, and get you possession therein. 11. And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brothers, Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye say unto me I will give. 12. Multiply upon me exceedingly dowry and gift, and I will give as ye say unto me; and give me the damsel for a woman. 13. And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father in fraud, and spoke, because he had defiled Dinah their sister. 14. And they said unto them, We cannot do this word, to give our sister to a man that hath a foreskin, because this would be a reproach unto us. 15. Nevertheless in this will we consent to you, if ye be as we to circumcise for you every male. 16. We will both give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you, and we will be for one people. 17. And if ye will not listen unto us to circumcise, we will even take our daughter and go. 18. And their words were good in the eyes of Hamor, and in the eyes of Shechem Hamor's son. 19. And the lad delayed not to do the word, because he was well pleased in Jacob's daughter; and he was honored above all the house of his father. 20. And Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city, and spoke unto the men of their city, saying, 21. These men are peaceable with us, and let them dwell in the land, and range through it trading, and behold the land is broad in spaces before them; let us take their daughters to us for women, and let us give our daughters to them. 22. Nevertheless in this will the men consent to us to dwell with us, to be for one people, in every male being circumcised to us, even as they are circumcised. 23. Their acquisition, and their purchase, and all their beast, will they not be ours? Only let us consent to them, and they will dwell with us. 24. And they listened to Hamor and to Shechem his son, all that went out of the gate of his city; and they circumcised every male, all that went out of the gate of his city. 25. And it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain, that the two sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, brothers of Dinah, took each his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew every male. 26. And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son at the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem's house, and went forth. 27. The sons of Jacob came upon those who were pierced, and plundered the city, because they had defiled their sister. 28. Their flocks and their herds and their asses, and whatever was in the city, and whatever was in the field, they took; 29. And all their wealth, and all their babe, and their women, they took captive and made a prey of, and all that was in the house. 30. And Jacob said to Simeon and to Levi, Ye have troubled me, to make me to stink to the inhabitant of the land, to the Canaanite and the Perizzite; and I am mortals [few] of number, and they will be gathered together upon me, and will smite me, and I shall be destroyed, I and my house. 31. And they said, Shall he make our sister as a harlot?4425.
THE CONTENTS. The subject here treated of in the internal sense is the posterity of Jacob - that they extinguished all the truth of doctrine which was of the Ancient Church. Hamor and Shechem, together with the people of their city, represent this truth. For the representative of a church among the posterity of Jacob consisted solely in externals without internals, whereas the representative church among the ancients consisted in externals with internals.4426.
THE INTERNAL SENSE. Verses 1-4. And Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land. And Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her and took her, and lay with her, and forced her. And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spoke upon the heart of the damsel. And Shechem said unto Hamor his father, saying, Get me this girl for a woman. "And Dinah went out," signifies the affection of all things of faith, and the church thence derived; "the daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob," signifies in externals; "to see the daughters of the land," signifies to become acquainted with the affections of truth and the churches thence derived; "and Shechem saw her," signifies truth; "the son of Hamor the Hivite," signifies from the ancients; "the prince of the land," signifies what is primary among the churches; "and he took her, and lay with her, and forced her," signifies that in no other way could this truth be conjoined with the affection of the truth signified by the sons of Jacob her brothers; "and his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob," signifies an inclination to conjunction; "and he loved the damsel, and spoke upon her heart," signifies love; "and Shechem said unto Hamor his father," signifies thought from the truth that was among the ancients; "saying, Get me this girl for a woman," signifies that it desired to be conjoined with the affection of that truth.4427.
And Dinah went out. That this signifies the affection of all things of faith and the church thence derived, is evident from the representation of Dinah, as being the affection of all truths and the church thence derived (see n. 3963, 3964); for the twelve sons of Jacob represented all things of faith, thus all things of the church (n. 2129, 2130, 3858, 3926, 3939), and therefore Dinah, who was born after the ten sons of Jacob by Leah and the handmaids, signifies the affection of them, and therefore the church. For the church is from the affection of truth, insomuch that whether you say the affection of truth, or the church, it is the same thing, because it is from the affection of truth that a man is the church.4428.
The daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob. That this signifies in externals, is evident from the representation of Leah, as being the affection of external truth (see n. 3793, 3819); and from the representation of Jacob, as being in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine truth of the natural (see n. 3305, 3509, 3525, 3546, 3576, 4234, 4273, 4337), and in the relative sense the external church, or what is the same, the external of the church (n. 3305, 4286). Hence it is evident that "the daughter of Leah whom she bare unto Jacob," signifies the affection of truth in externals.4429.
To see the daughters of the land. That this signifies to become acquainted with the affections of truth and the churches thence derived, is evident from the signification of "to see" as being to become acquainted with (of which several times before); from the signification of "daughters," as being affections and the churches thence derived (see n. 2362, 3024, 3963); and from the signification of "the land," here the land of Canaan, as being the region where the church is, and hence also the church itself (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 3705, 3686).  The signification of the things contained in this verse may be seen from what follows, for the subject treated of is the representative of a church that was to be instituted among the descendants of Jacob. That this representative could not be instituted among them until they had been completely vastated in respect to interior truths - that is, until they no longer knew them - may be seen above (n. 4289). These interior truths are all those represented and signified by the rituals that were commanded them; for all the rituals represented and signified something in the Lord's kingdom in the heavens, and consequently something in the Lord's kingdom on earth, that is, in the church; and the things that were signified and represented are the interior truths here meant. That each and all of the things commanded the descendants of Jacob when the representative of a church was being instituted among them (as described in the books of Moses, especially in Exodus and Leviticus) were representative and significative of the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom, has been everywhere shown in the explications. All these things were unknown to the descendants of Jacob, because these were of such a nature that if they had known them they would have profaned them (n. 301-303, 2520, 3398, 3479, 3769, 4281, 4293); and therefore they did not come into these representatives until they had been completely vastated in respect to their interiors; and therefore the truths in question and the extinguishing of them by the Israelites are described in this chapter.  The representatives that were commanded to the descendants of Jacob were not new, but for the most part were such as had previously been in use among the ancients; but the ancients did not worship the externals, as did the descendants of Jacob (that is, the Jews and Israelites), but they worshiped the internal things, and by means of these they acknowledged the Lord Himself. There were still remains in the land of Canaan of the church of ancient time, especially among those called Hittites and Hivites, and this is the reason why by these nations are represented the truths that had been of the church. From what has been said it may in some measure appear what is signified by Dinah, Jacob's daughter by Leah, going out to see the daughters of the land; for by Dinah is represented the external church, such as was instituted among the descendants of Jacob, and by the daughters of the land are signified the churches among the ancients. That in the internal sense of the Word "daughters" everywhere signify churches, has been shown above (n. 2362, 3024); and that the "land" signifies the region and nation where the church is, and thus the church (n. 662,1066, 1067, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 3686, 3705).4430.
And Shechem saw her. That this signifies truth, is evident from the representation of Shechem as being truth, here the truth of the church from ancient time. That this is represented by Shechem is because there still were remains of the church with that nation to which Shechem belonged. That this was one of the well-disposed nations is manifest from the sincerity with which Hamor and Shechem spoke to Jacob and his sons (verses 8-12), and from the condescension that Shechem might take Dinah for a wife (verses 18-24); for which reason the truth of the church was represented by them. And besides, the city Shechem was Abram's first station when he came from Syria into the land of Canaan (Gen. 12:6); and was now also Jacob's first station in coming from Syria, in which he spread his tent, made booths, and erected an altar (Gen. 33:17-20). That by the journeys or sojournings of Abraham and Jacob were represented progressions into the truths of faith and goods of love which in the supreme sense relate to the Lord and in the relative sense to the man who is being regenerated by the Lord, has been repeatedly shown. Hence by the "city Shechem" was signified the first of light (n. 1440, 1441), consequently interior truth, for this is the first of light.  But in this chapter in the internal sense the descendants of Jacob are treated of - how they extinguished in themselves this first of light, or interior truth. In this sense, which is the internal historical sense, the sons of Jacob signify all his descendants; for in the internal sense of the Word the things of the Lord's kingdom are exclusively treated of, thus the things of His church. The sons of Jacob themselves did not constitute any church, but their descendants, and this only after they had gone out of Egypt, and in actuality only after they came into the land of Canaan.  Moreover as regards this city named from Shechem, it was anciently called "Shalem," as is evident in the foregoing chapter: Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan (Gen. 33:18); that by "Shalem" is signified tranquillity, and by the "city of Shechem" the interior truths of faith, and that when a man comes to these truths he comes into a tranquil state, may be seen above (n. 4393). But the same city was afterwards called "Shechem," as may be seen in Joshua: The bones of Joseph, which the sons of Israel caused to go up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in the portion of the field which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for a hundred kesitah (Josh. 24:32). And in the book of Judges: Gaal the son of Ebed said to the citizens of Shechem, Who is Abimelech, and who is Shechem, that we should serve him? Is not he the son of Jerubbaal, and Zebul is his officer? Serve ye the men of Hamor the father of Shechem, and why should we serve this man? (Judg. 9:28).  The same city was afterwards called "Sychar," as is evident in John: Jesus came to a city of Samaria called Sychar, near to the field which Jacob gave to his son Joseph; and Jacob's spring was there (John 4:5-6). That by this city is signified interior truth, is evident from these passages, and also from others where it is named, as in Hosea: Gilead is a city of them that work iniquity, it has been befouled with blood; and as troops wait for a man, a companionship of priests, on the way to Shechem they kill, because they have wrought wickedness; in the house of Israel I have seen a foul thing (Hos. 6:8-10); where "on the way to Shechem they kill" signifies that they extinguish truths even to those which are interior, thus all external truths. The extinction of interior truth is also signified by Abimelech's destroying that city and sowing it with salt (Judges 9:45).4431.
The son of Hamor the Hivite. That this signifies from the ancients, is evident from the signification of a "son," who here is Shechem, as being interior truth, of which just above (that a "son" denotes truth see n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373, 4257); and from the representation of Hamor, as being the father of this truth, thus meaning from the ancients; for the truth that was interior in the representatives and rituals emanated from the church of ancient time. For this reason Hamor is also named "the Hivite," for the Hivite nation was that by which such truth among the ancients was signified, because the Hivites had been in such truth from ancient time, and hence it is that Hamor is here called "the Hivite." For by all the nations in the land of Canaan some good or truth of the church of ancient time was signified, because the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial, was there (n. 4116). But afterwards these nations, like all the other nations among whom the church had been, turned aside to things idolatrous, and therefore by the same nations idolatries also are signified. Yet because the Hivites had from ancient time signified interior truth, and because they were one of the better disposed nations, with whom iniquity was not so far consummated (that is, the truth of the church was not so far extinguished as with others), the Gibeonite Hivites were of the Lord's providence preserved, by means of a covenant made with them by Joshua and the princes (Josh. 9:15). That they were Hivites may be seen in Joshua 9:7; 11:19. From all that has been said it is now evident whence it is that interior truth from the ancients is signified by "Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite."4432.
The prince of the land. That this signifies what is primary among the churches, is evident from the signification of a "prince," as being what is primary (see n. 1482, 2089); and from the signification of "the land," as being the church (see n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 3686, 3705).4433.
And he took her, and lay with her, and forced her. That this signifies that in no other way could this truth be conjoined with the affection of the truth signified by the sons of Jacob her brothers, is evident from the signification of "taking her, lying with her, and forcing her," as being to be conjoined, but not in a lawful way, as is done by betrothal. That by these words is signified that in no other way could it be conjoined, cannot be seen unless it is known how the case is. The interior truth from the ancients which is signified by "Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite" is that truth which had been the internal of the church among the ancients, thus which was the internal in their statutes, judgments, and laws: in a word, in their rituals and the like. These truths were their doctrinal things according to which they lived, and indeed doctrinal things of charity; for in the ancient time those who were of the genuine church had no other doctrinal things. Relatively to doctrine the same may be called interior truths of faith, but goods relatively to life. If any church were to be instituted with the nation sprung from Jacob, it was necessary that they should be initiated into these truths and goods; for unless there are internal things within external ones, that is, unless men think of internal things when they are in external ones, and unless they are at the same time affected by the internal things, or at least unless they are affected by external things for the sake of internal things, there is not anything of the church. For internal things make the church, because in these is the Lord; for in these are the spiritual and celestial things which are from Him.  But the nation sprung from Jacob, that is, the Israelitish and Jewish nation, could not be initiated into these internal things in the lawful way which is effected by betrothal, for the reason that their external worship did not correspond. For from their fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, they received the worship instituted by Eber, which was different in its externals from the worship of the Ancient Church, as may be seen above (n. 1238, 1241, 1343, 2180). And because their worship was different, the interior truths that existed among the ancients could not be conjoined with it in the lawful manner, by betrothal, but in the way here described. From this it may be understood what is meant by saying that "in no other way could this truth be conjoined with the affection of the truth signified by the sons of Jacob, Dinah's brothers."  But although the conjunction could be effected in this manner, according to a law also known to the ancients (see Exod. 22:15; Deut. 22:28, 29), still that nation was of such a character that they would by no means suffer any conjunction of the interior truth that was from the ancients with the externals of worship that existed among the descendants of Jacob (see n. 4281, 4290, 4293, 4307, 4314, 4316, 4317). For this reason there could not be any church instituted with that nation, but instead of it only the representative of a church (see n. 4281, 4288, 4307). That this nation was of such a character that not only was it impossible for them to receive interior truths, but that they also completely extinguished them in themselves, is here represented by the sons of Jacob answering Shechem and Hamor in fraud (verse 13); and then by Simeon and Levi smiting the city with the edge of the sword, and killing Shechem and Hamor (verses 25, 26); and by the rest of the sons coming upon those who were pierced, and pillaging the city, and carrying away the flocks, the herds, and whatever was in the city, in the field, and in the house (verses 27-29). From this it is evident what is signified by the prophecy of Jacob, then Israel: Simeon and Levi are brethren, instruments of violence are their swords; let not my soul come into their secret, let not my glory be united in their congregation; because in their anger they slew a man, and in their pleasure they unstrung an ox; cursed be their anger because it was vehement, and their fury because it was grievous; I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel (Gen. 49:5-7).4434.
And his soul clave unto Dinah. That this signifies an inclination to conjunction, is evident from the signification of "his soul cleaving," as being an inclination. That it is to conjunction is evident, because in the internal sense the things which belong to conjugial love involve spiritual conjunction, which is that of truth with good, and of good with truth. The reason why in the internal sense the things which belong to conjugial love involve this conjunction, is that conjugial love derives its origin from the marriage of truth and good, and of good and truth (n. 2618, 2727-2729, 2737, 2803, 3132). Hence also the adulterations of good are meant in the Word by "adulteries," and the falsifications of truth by "whoredoms" (n. 2466, 2729, 2750, 3399). From all this it may be seen that by all that is related of Shechem and of Dinah in this chapter nothing else is meant in the internal sense than the conjunction of the truth represented by Shechem with the affection of truth represented by Dinah; thus that by the words "his soul clave unto Dinah" is signified an inclination to conjunction.  As in the whole of this chapter conjugial love toward Dinah is treated of, and how Shechem sought her for a woman, and as by the things of conjugial love there is signified spiritual conjunction, I may confirm from the Word that marriages and what belongs to them involve nothing else. In John: Let us be glad and exult, and let us give the glory unto Him, because the wedding of the Lamb is come, and His wife hath made herself ready, as have they who are called unto the wedding supper of the Lamb (Rev. 19:7, 9). In the same: I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. One of the seven angels spoke with me, saying, Come, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb's wife; and he carried me away in the spirit upon a mountain great and high, and showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God (Rev. 21:2, 9-10); that by what relates to betrothal and marriage naught else is here signified than the Lord's conjunction with the church, and this by means of truth and good, is very evident, for the "holy city" and the "New Jerusalem" are nothing else than the church. (That a "city" is the truth of the church may be seen above, n. 402, 2268, 2449, 2451, 2712, 2943, 3216; and that "Jerusalem" is the spiritual church, n. 402, 2117, 3654.)  In Malachi: Judah hath dealt treacherously, and an abomination has been committed in Israel and in Jerusalem, for Judah hath profaned the holiness of Jehovah, because he hath loved and hath betrothed to him the daughter of a strange god. Jehovah hath borne witness between thee and the wife of thy youth, against whom thou hast dealt treacherously (Mal. 2:11, 14); where "to love and betroth the daughter of a strange god" is to conjoin one's self with falsity instead of truth, which is the "wife of youth."  Ezekiel: Thou hast taken thy sons and thy daughters whom thou hast borne unto Me, and hast sacrificed to devour them. Was there little of thy whoredoms? Thou art the daughter of thy mother, who loathes her husband and her sons; and thou art the sister of thy sisters who loathed their husbands and their sons (Ezek. 16:20, 45); here the abominations of Jerusalem are treated of, which because they were from evils and falsities, are described in this chapter by such things as are contrary to marriages, namely, by adulteries and whoredoms. The "husbands whom they loathed" are goods; the "sons" are truths; and the "daughters" are the affections of these.  In Isaiah: Sing, O barren one, that didst not bear, resound with singing and shout for joy that didst not travail, because more are the sons of the desolate than the sons of the married one. The reproach of thy widowhood shalt thou remember no more, because thy makers are thy husbands, Jehovah Zebaoth is His name, and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel, the God of the whole earth is He called; for as a woman forsaken and afflicted in spirit hath Jehovah called thee, and as a woman of youth when she is divorced, hath said thy God. All thy sons are taught of Jehovah, and much is the peace of thy sons (Isa. 54:1, 5-6, 13); as by marriage is signified the conjunction of truth and good and of good and truth, it is evident what is signified by "husband and wife," by "sons and daughters," by "widows," by the "divorced," and by "bearing," "travailing," "being desolate," and "being barren;" for these things belong to marriage. What these signify in the spiritual sense has been frequently shown in the explications.  In the same: For Zion's sake I will not be silent, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest; it shall no longer be said to thee, Forsaken one; but thy land shall be called The married one, for Jehovah shall be well pleased in thee, and thy land shall be married; because a young man shall marry a virgin, thy sons shall marry thee, and there shall be joy of the bridegroom over the bride, thy God shall rejoice over thee (Isa. 62:1, 4-5); he who knows not the internal sense of the Word may suppose that such things in the Word are only comparisons, like many expressions in common speech, and that this is the reason why the church is compared to a daughter, to a virgin, and a wife; thus the things of faith and charity to those of marriage. But in the Word all things are representative of spiritual and celestial things, and are real correspondences; for the Word has come down from heaven, and because it has come down thence it is in its origin the Divine celestial and spiritual to which those things which belong to the sense of the letter correspond. Hence it is that the things of the heavenly marriage, which is the conjunction of good and truth, fall into such as correspond, thus into those which belong to marriages on earth.  Hence also it is that the Lord likened the kingdom of the heavens (that is, His kingdom in heaven, and His kingdom on earth which is the church) to a "man, a king, who made a wedding for his son, and invited many to it" (Matt. 22:2-14); and also to "ten virgins who took their lamps and went forth to meet the bridegroom" (Matt. 25:1-13). And the Lord likewise called those who are of the church "sons of the wedding": Jesus said, Can the sons of the wedding mourn, so long as the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then will they fast (Matt. 9:15).  Hence also the affection of good and the affection of truth are called "the joy and gladness of the bridegroom and the bride," because heavenly joy is from and in these affections. As in Isaiah: Thy sons shall marry thee, and there shall be the joy of the bridegroom over the bride, Jehovah thy God shall rejoice over thee (Isa. 62:5). In Jeremiah: The voice of joy and the voice of gladness, and the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that say, Confess ye to Jehovah, because good is Jehovah (Jer. 33:11). In the same: I will cause to cease from the cities of Judah and from the streets of Jerusalem the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, because the land shall go forth into a waste (Jer. 7:34; 16:9; 25:10). And in John: The light of a lamp shall not shine in Babylon anymore, and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall not be heard in her anymore (Rev. 18:23).  As through love truly conjugial marriages on earth correspond to the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth, therefore the laws delivered in the Word concerning betrothals and marriages wholly correspond to the spiritual laws of the heavenly marriage, as that they were to espouse only one wife (Mark 10:2-8; Luke 16:18); for such is the case in the heavenly marriage, namely, that good cannot be conjoined except with its own truth, and truth with its own good. If good were conjoined with any other truth than its own, it would not subsist at all, but would be rent asunder and so would perish. In the spiritual church the wife represents good and the man represents truth, but in the celestial church the husband represents good and the wife truth; and-what is a mystery-they not only represent, but also in all their activities correspond to them.  Moreover, the laws delivered in the Old Testament about marriages have in like manner a correspondence with the laws of the heavenly marriage, such as those in Exod. 21:7-11; 22:15, 16; 34:16; Num. 36:6; Deut. 7:3, 4; 22:28, 29, and also the laws about the forbidden degrees (Lev. 18:6-20); as regards each of which, of the Lord's Divine mercy elsewhere. That the degrees and laws of marriages have their origin in the laws of truth and good, which are those of the heavenly marriage, and bear relation to them, is manifest in Ezekiel: The priests the Levites shall not take for their wives a widow nor her that is divorced, but virgins of the seed of the house of Israel and a widow that has been the widow of a priest shall they take (Ezek. 44:22); the subject here treated of is the holy city New Jerusalem and the heavenly Canaan, and it is evident that these are the Lord's kingdom and His church. Consequently by "the Levites" are not signified Levites, nor by a "widow and her that is divorced" are there signified a widow and one who has been divorced, but the things to which these correspond.4435.
And he loved the damsel, and spoke upon her heart. That this signified love, is evident without explication.4436.
And Shechem said unto Hamor his father. That this signifies thought from the truth that was among the ancients, is evident from the signification in the historicals of the Word of "to say," as being perception and the consequent thought (see n. 3395); and from the representation of Shechem the son of Hamor, as being the truth among the ancients (n. 4430, 4431). Hence it is evident that "Shechem said unto Hamor his father," denotes thought from the truth that was among the ancients.4437.
Saying, Get me this girl for a woman. That this signifies that it desired to be conjoined with the affection of that truth, is evident from the signification of a "girl," here Dinah, as being the affection of the truth signified by the sons of Jacob her brothers (see n. 4427, 4433); and from the signification of "getting for a woman," as being to be conjoined (concerning which see just above, n. 4434).4438.
Verses 5-7. And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; and his sons were with his acquisition in the field; and Jacob was silent until they came. And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him. And the sons of Jacob came from the field as they heard it, and the men were grieved, and they were very angry, because he had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with Jacob's daughter, and so it ought not to be done. "And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter," signifies a conjunction not legitimate ("Jacob" here is the external Ancient Church); "and his sons were with his acquisition in the field," signifies his descendants - that they were in their religiosity; "and Jacob was silent until they came," signifies a consultation from the truths of faith that belonged to him and his descendants; "and Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him," signifies a consultation about the truth of that church; "and the sons of Jacob came from the field," signifies that they consulted from their religiosity; "and the men were grieved, and they were very angry," signifies that they were in evil against the truth of the Church among the Ancients; "because he had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with Jacob's daughter, and so it ought not to be done," signifies a conjunction that was unlawful in their eyes, because contrary to the truth which they had.4439.
And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter. That this signifies a conjunction not legitimate, namely, with the affection of the truth that belonged to the external church here represented by Jacob, is evident from the signification of "to defile," as being a conjunction not legitimate, for by marriages is signified a conjunction that is legitimate (see n. 4434), hence by their "defilement" is signified conjunction not legitimate (n. 4433); from the representation of Dinah, as being the affection of all things of faith, and the church thence derived (n. 4427); and from the representation of Jacob, who here is the external Ancient Church. That by "Jacob" is here signified the external Ancient Church is because this church was to be instituted among his descendants, and would have been instituted if his descendants had received the interior truths that existed among the ancients. That this church is here represented by Jacob is evident also from the connection in this chapter, for he was not in the plot with his sons to smite the city and kill Hamor and Shechem; and therefore he said to Simeon and Levi, "Ye have troubled me to make me stink to the inhabitant of the land" (verse 30); and in his prophetic utterance before his death, "Let not my soul come into their secret, in their congregation let not my glory be united; because in their anger they slew a man, and in their pleasure they unstrung an ox" (Gen. 49:6). Moreover in very many passages in the Word the external Ancient Church is represented by Jacob (n. 422, 4286). The reason why Jacob represents this church is that in the supreme sense he represents the Lord's Divine natural, to which the external church corresponds. But by his "sons" are signified his descendants, who extinguished in themselves the truth that existed among the ancients, and thus destroyed that which was of the church, the result being that only its representative remained with them (see n. 4281, 4288, 4289, 4303).4440.
And his sons were with his acquisition in the field. That this signifies his descendants-that they were in their own religiosity, is evident from the signification of his "sons," as being his descendants; from the signification of "acquisition," as being external truths (see n. 1435, 4391); and from the signification of a "field," as being the church (n. 2971, 3766). Hence by "his sons were with his acquisition in the field" is signified that they were in their own religiosity; for such a kind of church as existed among the descendants of Jacob should be called a "religiosity," because it was external worship without internal.4441.
And Jacob was silent until they came. That this signifies a consultation from the truths of faith that belonged to him and his descendants, is evident from the signification of "to be silent," as being to silently think and take counsel; and from the signification of "until they (that is, the sons) came," as being to do this from the truths of faith that belonged to him and his descendants (that "sons" are truths see n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373, 4257). As the consultation was made with the sons, thus with the truths signified by the sons of Jacob, it follows that it was from the truths that belonged to Jacob and his descendants.4442.
And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him. That this signifies a consultation about the truth of that church, is evident from the representation of Hamor the father of Shechem, as being the truth of the ancients (see n. 4430, 4431); from the representation of Jacob, as being the external Ancient Church (n. 4439); and from the signification of "speaking with him," as being to consult. Hence by these words is signified a consultation about the truth of that church.  He who does not know that names in the Word signify things, will wonder that by the words "Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him," is signified a consultation of the truth of the church that existed among the ancients with the truth that was in accordance with the Ancient Church that was to be set up anew among the descendants of Jacob; but this will excite no surprise in anyone who knows that such is the nature of the internal sense of the Word, nor in those who have learned from the books of the ancients their manner of writing; for it was customary with them to set forth things as speaking together, such as wisdom, intelligence, knowledges, and the like; and also to give them names by which such things were signified. The gods and demigods of the ancients were nothing else, and so were the personages whom they devised in order to present their subjects in a historical form.  The sages of old took this custom from the Ancient Church, which was spread over much of the Asiatic world (n. 1238, 2385); for the people of the Ancient Church set forth sacred things by means of representatives and significatives. The Ancient Church, however, received this from the mouth of the Most Ancient people, who were before the flood (n. 920, 1409, 1977, 2896, 2897); and these from heaven, for they had communication with heaven (n. 784, 1114-1125); and the first heaven, which is the last of the three, is in such representatives and significatives. This is the reason why the Word was written in such a style. But the Word has this peculiar feature, not possessed by the writings of the ancients, that each of the subjects in a continuous series represents the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself; even the historicals themselves being of the same character; and-what is more-they are real correspondences, and these continuous through the three heavens from the Lord.4443.
And the sons of Jacob came from the field. That this signifies that they consulted from their religiosity, is evident from the signification of the "sons of Jacob," as being the nation derived from them, among whom there was instituted the representative of a church; and from the signification of a "field," as being a religiosity (see n. 4440). That "to come from the field" denotes consultation from the religiosity, follows from the series, as also from the fact that it is their religiosity of which "coming" is predicated.4444.
As they heard it, and the men were grieved, and they were very angry. That this signifies that they were in evil against the truth of the Church among the Ancients, is evident from the signification of being "grieved and very angry," as being to be in evil. That this was against the truth of the Church among the Ancients, follows, because it was against Shechem the son of Hamor, by whom is signified the truth among the ancients, as before said (n. 4430, 4431). That they were in evil is evident from what follows, in that they spoke with fraud (verse 13), and then, after Shechem and Hamor had complied with their demands, they slew them (verses 26-29). Thus by being "grieved and very angry" is here signified that they were in evil. It appears as if these words signify zeal because he lay with their sister, according to the words which presently follow: "Because he had wrought folly in Israel in lying with Jacob's daughter, and so it ought not to be done;" and at the end of the chapter: "They said, Shall he make our sister as a harlot?" (verse 31); but it was not zeal, for zeal is impossible with anyone who is in evil, being possible only with him who is in good, because zeal has good within it (n. 4164).  It is true that the religiosity which existed with their posterity had good within it, for each and all things of it represented the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom; but as regards those who were in that religiosity it had no good within it, for they were in mere externals without internals, as shown above. The case herein is the same as it is with the religiosity of that nation as now prevalent among them: they acknowledge Moses and the prophets, thus the Word, which in itself is holy, but as regards them it is not holy, for in everything therein they regard themselves, and thus make the Word worldly, nay, earthly, for that there is anything heavenly in it they do not know and neither do they care. They who are in such: a state cannot be in good when in their religiosity, but in evil, for nothing heavenly flows in, because they extinguish it in themselves.  Moreover, it was according to a law known in the Ancient Church that he who forced a virgin should give a dowry and take her for his wife, as thus stated in Moses: If a man persuade a virgin who is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall endow her with a dowry to be his wife. If refusing her father refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay silver, as much as is the dowry of virgins (Exod. 22:15-16). And elsewhere: If a man find a damsel who is a virgin, who has not been betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be caught, the man who lay with her shall give the damsel's father fifty pieces of silver, and she shall be his wife, because he forced her, and he may not put her away all his days (Deut. 22:28-29). That this same law was known to the ancients is very evident from the words of Shechem to the damsel's father and brothers: "Shechem said unto her father and unto her brethren, Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye say unto me I will give. Multiply upon me exceedingly dowry and gift, and I will give according as ye shall say unto me, and give me the damsel for a woman" (verses 11, 12). And as Shechem desired to fulfill this law, and Dinah's brothers gave their consent provided that be would become as they were by circumcising every male, according to the words which follow: "Nevertheless in this will we consent unto you, if ye will be as we are, that every male with you be circumcised, we will both give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you, and we will be one people" (verses 15, 16), it is evident that Dinah's brothers did not act from the law (thus not from good), but contrary to the law, and consequently from evil.  It was indeed according to their law that they should not enter into marriages with the nations, as stated in Moses: "Lest thou take of their daughters for thy sons, and their daughters go a whoring after their gods, and make thy sons go a whoring after their gods" (Exod. 34:16); and again: "Thou shalt not contract kinship with the nations, thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, and his daughter thou shalt not take unto thy son, because he will turn aside thy son from following Me, that they may serve other gods" (Deut. 7:3-4); but this law was given in regard to idolatrous nations, lest by marriages with them the sons of Israel should turn aside from truly representative worship to idolatrous worship; for when they became idolaters they could no longer represent the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom, but the opposites, which are infernal, for they then called forth from hell a certain devil whom they worshiped, and to whom they applied the Divine representatives, and therefore it is said, "Lest they go a whoring after their gods." This law was given for the additional reason that by the "nations" were signified the evils and falsities with which the goods and truths represented by the sons of Israel were not to be commingled, consequently not diabolical and infernal things with heavenly and spiritual things (see n. 3024e).  But they were never forbidden to intermarry with the nations who accepted their worship, and who after being circumcised acknowledged Jehovah. These they called "sojourners sojourning with them," who are thus spoken of in Moses: If a sojourner shall sojourn with thee, and be willing to keep the passover to Jehovah, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it, and he shall be as an inhabitant of the land; there shall be one law for the inhabitant and for the sojourner that sojourneth in the midst of you (Exod. 12:48-49). And again: When a sojourner shall sojourn with you, he shall keep the passover unto Jehovah; according to the statute of the passover, and according to the statutes thereof, so shall he do; one statute shall there be for you, both for the sojourner and for the native of the land (Num. 9:14). The reason why they were called "sojourners sojourning in the midst of them" and "with them" was that "to sojourn" signified to be instructed; and therefore a "sojourner" signified those who suffered themselves to be instructed in the statutes and doctrinal things. (That "to sojourn" and a "sojourner" have this signification may be seen above, n. 1463, 2025, 3672.) In the same: If a sojourner shall sojourn with you who shall have made a fire-offering of an odor of rest unto Jehovah, as ye do, so he shall do: as to the assembly, there is one statute for you and for the sojourner that sojourneth, a statute of eternity for your generations; as ye are, so is the sojourner before Jehovah; one law and one judgment shall be for you and for the sojourner that sojourneth with you (Num. 15:14-16). As the native of you shall be the sojourner that sojourneth with you (Lev. 19:34). One judgment shall there be for you, such as is for the sojourner, such shall be for the native (Lev. 24:22).  That this statute was known not only to Jacob and his sons, but also to Shechem and Hamor, is evident from their words; for the statutes, judgments, and laws that were given to the Israelitish and Jewish nation were not new, but such as had previously existed in the Ancient Church and in the second Ancient Church which was called Hebrew from Eber, as has been shown. That consequently this law was known is evident from the words, "The sons of Jacob said to Hamor and Shechem, We cannot do this word, to give our sister to a man who has a foreskin, for this is a reproach to us; nevertheless in this will we consent to you, if ye will be as we, to circumcise for you every male, we will both give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you and will be for one people" (verses 14-16); and the same is evident from the words of Hamor and Shechem, in that they not only consented, but also caused themselves and every male of their city to be circumcised (verses 18-24).  Hence it is evident that Shechem became a sojourner such as is spoken of in the law, and thus could take the daughter of Jacob for a woman; so that to kill them was a wicked deed, as Jacob also testified before his death (Gen. 49:5-7). That not only Judah, but also Moses, and also the kings of the Jews and of the Israelites, and also many of the people, took wives from the nations, is evident from the historicals of the Word; and that these wives received their statutes, judgments, and laws, and were acknowledged as sojourners, is not to be doubted.4445.
Because he had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with Jacob's daughter, and so it ought not to be done. That this signifies a conjunction that in their eyes was unlawful, because contrary to the truth which they had, is evident from the signification of "committing folly in lying with Jacob's daughter," as being unlawful conjunction. (That to lie with her and thus defile her, denotes conjunction not legitimate, may be seen above, n. 4439.) It is said "in Israel," because by "Israel" is signified the internal of the church; and it is next said "Jacob's daughter," because by "Jacob" is signified the external of the church. (That "Israel" is the internal of the church and "Jacob" the external, may be seen above, n. 4286, 4292, 4439.) That although lawful, the conjunction appeared in their eyes unlawful, may be seen from what has been said and shown just above (n. 4444), and in other places.4446.
Verses 8-12. And Hamor spoke with them, saying, Shechem my son, his soul longs for your daughter; give her I pray to him for a woman. And share kinships with us; give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to you. And ye shall dwell with us, and the land shall be before you, dwell ye, and range through it trading, and get you possession therein. And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brothers, Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye say unto me I will give. Multiply upon me exceedingly dowry and gift, and I will give as ye say unto me; and give me the damsel for a woman. "And Hamor spoke with them, saying," signifies the good of the Church among the Ancients; "Shechem my son," signifies the truth thence derived; "his soul longs for your daughter, give her I pray to him for a woman," signifies a desire for conjunction with this new church which appears in outward form like the Ancient Church; "and share kinships with us, give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to you," signifies a union of goods and truths; "and ye shall dwell with us," signifies life; "and the land shall be before you, dwell ye," signifies the church which would be one; "and range through it trading, and get you possession therein," signifies doctrinal tenets from what is general that would agree together; "and Shechem said unto her father and unto her brothers," signifies a consultation of the truth from the ancient Divine stock with the good and truth of this religiosity; "let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye say unto me I will give," signifies if they had a like mind on their side to what he had on his; "multiply upon me exceedingly dowry and gift, and I will give as ye say unto me," signifies that he will accept the things that are with them, and will make them his own; "and give me the damsel for a woman," signifies provided there is conjunction.4447.
And Hamor spoke with them, saying. That this signifies the good of the Church among the Ancients, is evident from the representation of Hamor, as being what is from the ancients (see n. 4431), that is, the good of the church which was among them. For the good of the church is father, and the derivative truth ("Shechem") is son; and therefore by "father" in the Word is signified good, and by "son" truth. It is here said "the good of the Church among the Ancients," but not "the good of the Ancient Church," for the reason that by the "Church among the Ancients" is meant the church that was derived from the Most Ancient Church which existed before the flood, and by the "Ancient Church" is meant the church that existed after the flood. These two churches have sometimes been treated of in the preceding pages, and it has been shown that the Most Ancient Church which was before the flood was celestial, but the Ancient Church which was after the flood was spiritual, and the difference between them has often been treated of.  The remains of the Most Ancient Church which was celestial still existed in the land of Canaan, especially among those called Hittites and Hivites. The reason why these remains did not exist anywhere else was that the Most Ancient Church called "Man" or "Adam" (n. 478, 479) was in the land of Canaan, and therefore the "garden of Eden," by which was signified the intelligence and wisdom of the men of that church (n. 100, 1588), and by the trees in it their perception, (n. 103, 2163, 2722, 2972), was in that land. And because intelligence and wisdom were signified by this "garden" or paradise, the church itself was meant by it; and because the church was meant, so also was heaven; and because heaven, so also in the supreme sense, was the Lord; and therefore in this sense the "land of Canaan" itself signifies the Lord, in the relative sense heaven and also the church, and in the individual sense the man of the church (n. 1413, 1437, 1607, 3038, 3481, 3705); and therefore also the term "land" or "earth" when mentioned alone in the Word has a like signification (n. 566, 662, 1066, 1067, 1413, 1607, 3355); the "new heaven and new earth" being a new church in respect to its internal and its external (n. 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355). That the Most Ancient Church was in the land of Canaan may be seen in n. 567; and the result of this was that the places there became representative, and for this reason Abram was commanded to go there, and the land was given to his descendants the sons of Jacob in order that the representatives of the places in accordance with which the Word was to be written, might be retained. (See n. 3686; and that for the same reason all the places there, as well as the mountains and rivers, and all the borders round about, became representative, n. 1585, 1866, 4240.)  All this shows what is here meant by the "Church among the Ancients," namely, remains from the Most Ancient Church. And as these remains existed among the Hittites and Hivites, therefore Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, together with their wives, obtained a place of burial with the Hittites in their land (Gen. 23:1-20; 49:29-32; 50:13); and Joseph with the Hivites (Josh. 24:32). Hamor the father of Shechem represented the remains of this Church, and therefore by him is signified the good of the Church among the Ancients, and consequently the origin of interior truth from a Divine stock (n. 4399). (What the distinction is between the Most Ancient Church which was before the flood, and the Ancient Church which was after the flood, may be seen above, n. 597, 607, 608, 640, 641, 765, 784, 895, 920, 1114-1128, 1238, 1327, 2896, 2897.)4448.
Shechem my son. That this signifies the truth thence derived, is evident from the representation of Shechem, as being interior truth (see n. 4430), thus the truth thence derived, namely, from the good which is "Hamor" (n. 4447); for all the truth of the church is from its good, and from no other source does this truth ever come forth. This truth, here represented by Shechem, is called interior truth, and in its essence is nothing else than the good of charity. For the Most Ancient Church, being celestial, was in the good of love to the Lord, and thence in the perception of all truth, because the men of that church were almost like angels, and had communication with them, from which came their perception, and therefore they never reasoned about any truth of faith, but said "It is so," because they perceived it from heaven, insomuch that they were not willing even to mention faith, but in its stead charity (see n. 202, 337, 2715, 2718, 3246), and this is the reason why by "interior truth" is here meant the good of charity. That there were remains of the church in question with Hamor the Hivite and his son Shechem, was shown just above (n. 4447).  The case was different with the Ancient Church which was spiritual, for this church was not in love to the Lord, as was the Most Ancient Church, but was in charity toward the neighbor; and they could not attain to charity except through the truth of faith, of which they had no perception, like the most ancient people, and therefore they then began to make an investigation about truth to see whether it is so. (As to the difference between the celestial who had perception, and the spiritual who have it not, see n. 2088, 2669, 2708, 2715, 3235, 3240, 3246, 3887.)4449.
His soul longs for your daughter, give her I pray to him for a woman. That by this is signified a desire for conjunction with this new church which appears in outward form like the Ancient Church, is evident from the signification of the "soul longing for," as being a desire; from the representation of Dinah who here is the "daughter," as being the affection of truth, and consequently the church, for the church is the church from the affection of truth, and this is here meant by the "new church;" and from the signification of "giving her for a woman," as being conjunction (see n. 4434).  As regards the fact that the new church set up among the descendants of Jacob appeared in the outward form like the Ancient Church, be it known that the statutes, judgments, and laws commanded to the Israelitish and Jewish nation through Moses, were not foreign to the statutes, judgments, and laws that existed in the Ancient Church, such as those relating to betrothals and marriages, to servants, to the animals that were good for eating and those which were not, to cleansings, festivals, the tabernacles, the perpetual fire, and many other things; and also those concerning altars, burnt- offerings, sacrifices, and libations, which were received in the second Ancient Church which was from Eber. That these were known before they were commanded that nation, is very evident from the historicals of the Word, as for example the altars, burnt-offerings, and sacrifices.  It is said of Balaam that he ordered seven altars to be built, and burnt-offerings and sacrifices of bullocks and rams to be offered upon them (Num. 23:1, 2, 14, 15, 29). And it is also related of the nations in many places that their altars were destroyed; and also of the prophets of Baal whom Elijah slew, that these offered sacrifices. From all this it is evident that the sacrifices commanded to the people of Jacob were not new, and so neither were the rest of their statutes, judgments, and laws. But because these things had become idolatrous among the nations, especially in that by such things they worshiped some profane god, and thus turned to what is infernal the representatives of Divine things, not to mention their addition of other representatives, therefore in order that the representative worship of the Ancient Church might be restored, the same things were recalled. Hence it is evident that this new church, instituted among the descendants of Jacob, appeared in the outward form like the Ancient Church.4450.
And share kinships with us, give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to you. That this signifies a union of goods and truths, is evident from the signification of "sharing kinships," as being union (see n. 4434); and from the signification of "daughters," as being affections, thus goods (n. 489-491, 2362, 3963). That the union is with truths, is signified by "giving us, and taking to you;" for by "Shechem" and by the "sons of Jacob" are signified truths, as before shown. Hence it is evident that by these words is signified the union of goods and truths, that is, that this new church would by this union be like the Ancient Church, not only in the external, but also in the internal form.