Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
See, God is witness between me and thee. That this signifies confirmation, here from the Divine, is evident from the signification of "witness," as being confirmation (see n. 4197).4202.
Verses 51-53. And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold the pillar which I have set up between me and thee. This heap be witness, and the pillar be witness, that I will not pass over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not pass over this heap to me, and this pillar, for evil. The God of Abraham and the God of Nahor judge between us, the God of their father; and Jacob sware by the Dread of his father Isaac. "And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold the pillar which I have set up between me and thee," signifies conjunction; "this heap be witness, and the pillar be witness," signifies confirmation; "that I will not pass over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not pass over this heap to me, and this pillar, for evil," signifies the limit defining how much can flow in from good; "the God of Abraham and the God of Nahor judge between us," signifies the Divine flowing into both; "the God of their father," signifies from the supreme Divine; "and Jacob sware by the dread of his father Isaac," signifies confirmation from the Divine Human, which in this state is called "the Dread."4203.
And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold the pillar which I have set up between me and thee. That this signifies conjunction, is evident from what has been said above; for the heap and the pillar were for a sign and for a witness that a covenant was made (that is, friendship) thus in the internal sense the signification is conjunction.4204.
This heap be witness, and the pillar be witness. That this signifies confirmation, is evident from the signification of "witness," as being confirmation; namely, of good by truth which is the "pillar," and of truth from good which is the "heap" (concerning which above, n. 4197).4205.
That I will not pass over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not pass over this heap to me, and this pillar, for evil. That this signifies the limit defining how much can flow in from good, is evident from the signification here of "passing over," as being to flow in; from the signification of a "heap," as being good (n. 4192); and from the signification of a "pillar," as being truth (concerning which n. 3727, 3728, 4090); and also because both the heap and the pillar were for a sign or for a witness; but here, for a sign of the limit. As conjunction is treated of, the connection involves that in the internal sense the signification is the limit defining how much can flow in from good. It has been stated above that conjunction is effected by good, and that good flows in according to the reception. But the reception of good is not possible in any other way than according to truths, truths being that which good flows into; for good is the agent, and truth is the recipient; and therefore all truths are recipient vessels (n. 4166). As truths are that which good flows into, truths are what limit the inflow of good; and this is what is here meant by the limit that defines how much can flow in from good.  How the case herein is shall be briefly stated. The truths with man, no matter what they may be, or of whatever nature, enter into his memory by means of affection, that is, by a certain delight which is of love. Without affection (or without the delight which is of love) nothing can enter to man, for in these is his life. The things which have entered are reproduced whenever a similar delight recurs, together with many other things which have associated or conjoined themselves with them; and in the same way when the same truth is reproduced by one's self or by another, the affection or delight of love which there was when it entered, is in like manner excited again; for being conjoined they cohere. From this it is evident how the case is with the affection of truth; for the truth which has entered together with an affection of good, is reproduced when a similar affection recurs; and the affection also is reproduced when a similar truth recurs. It is also manifest from this that no truth can ever be implanted with genuine affection, and become rooted interiorly, unless the man is in good; for the genuine affection of truth is from the good which is of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor. The good flows in from the Lord, but is not fixed except in truths; for in truths good is welcomed, because they are in accord. From all this it is also evident that the reception of good is according to the nature of the truths. The truths that exist with those Gentiles who have lived in mutual charity are of such a nature that the good which inflows from the Lord can also find in them a welcome; but so long as they live in this world, not in the same way as with those Christians who have truths from the Word and live from them in spiritual charity (n. 2589-2604).4206.
The God of Abraham and the God of Nahor judge between us. That this signifies the Divine flowing into both, namely, into the good which those have who are within the church, and into the good which those have who are outside the church, is evident from the signification of the "God of Abraham," as being the Divine of the Lord regarding those who are within the church; and from the signification of the "God of Nahor," as being the Divine of the Lord regarding those who are without the church. From this it is manifest that by these words is signified the Divine flowing into both. The reason why the "God of Abraham" denotes the Divine of the Lord regarding those who are within the church, is that Abraham represents the Divine of the Lord, and consequently that which comes directly from the Lord (n. 3245, 3878). Hence they who are within the church are specifically meant by the "sons of Abraham" (John 8:39). And the reason why the "God of Nahor" denotes the Divine of the Lord regarding those who are out of the church, is that Nahor represents the Church of the Gentiles, and his sons those therein who are in brotherhood (n. 2863, 2864, 3052, 3778, 3868). For this reason also Laban, who was Nahor's son, here represents good that is aside, such as the Gentiles have from the Lord. That such various things of the Lord are represented, is not because various things are in the Lord, but because His Divine is variously received by men. This is like the life in man, which flows in and acts upon the various sensory and motive organs of the body, and upon the various members and viscera, and everywhere presents variety. For the eye sees in one way, the ear hears in another, the tongue perceives in another; so the arms and hands move in one way, and the loins and the feet in a different way; the lungs act in one way and the heart in another; the liver in one way and the stomach in another, and so on; but nevertheless it is one life which actuates them all so variously, not because the life itself acts in different ways, but because it is differently received; for the form of each organ is that according to which the action is determined.4207.
The God of their father. That this signifies from the supreme Divine, is evident from the signification of the "God of a father," as being the supreme Divine; for wherever "father" is mentioned in the Word, it signifies in the internal sense good (see n. 3703); and the "Father" of the Lord, or the "Father" when named by the Lord, is the Divine good that is in Him (n. 3704). The Divine good is the supreme Divine, but the Divine truth is that which is from the Divine good, and is also called the "Son." Moreover by "father" is here meant Terah, who was the father of both Abraham and Nahor, and represents the common stock of the churches, as may be seen above (n. 3778). Hence in the relative sense Abraham represents the genuine church; and Nahor the Church of the Gentiles (as said just above, n. 4206).4208.
And Jacob sware by the Dread of his father Isaac. That this signifies confirmation from the Divine Human, which in this state is called "the Dread," is evident from the signification of swearing," as being confirmation (see n. 2842, 3375) and from the signification of the "Dread of Isaac," as being the Lord's Divine Human (n. 4180). (That oaths were made in the name of the Lord's Divine Human may be seen above, n. 2842.)  The reason why it is here said, "the God of Abraham, the God of Nahor, the God of their father" (that is, of Terah) and "the Dread of Isaac," Jacob's father, is that the sons of Terah acknowledged this number of gods, for they were idolaters (n. 1353, 1356, 1992, 3667). And it was a peculiarity in that house that each family worshiped its own god. This is the reason why it is here said, "the God of Abraham, the God of Nahor, the God of their father, and the Dread of Isaac." Nevertheless it was enjoined upon the family of Abraham to acknowledge Jehovah as their God; and yet they did not acknowledge Him otherwise than as another god, by whom they might distinguish themselves from the Gentiles, thus they acknowledged Jehovah merely as to the name, and it was in consequence of this that they so often fell away to other gods, as may be seen from the historic parts of the Word. The reason of this merely nominal acknowledgment was that they were solely in externals, and what internal things were they knew not at all, and did not desire to know.  Insofar as they were concerned the very rituals of their church were merely idolatrous, because they were separated from internal things; for when separated from its internal every ritual of the church is idolatrous. Nevertheless what is genuine of the church could be represented by them; for representations do not regard the person, but the thing (n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147). Yet in order that a representative church might come into existence, and that there might thus be some communication of the Lord through heaven with man, it was of especial importance that they should be kept in the acknowledgment of Jehovah, if not in heart, still with the mouth; for with them the representatives did not issue from internal, but from external things; and it was in this way that they had communication with the Lord; quite otherwise than in the genuine church, in which the communication is effected by means of internal things. For this reason their Divine worship did not at all affect their souls, that is, did not make them blessed in the other life, but only prosperous in this world.  Therefore in order that they might be kept in these external things, there were so many miracles performed among them, which would never have taken place if they had been in internal things; and for this reason they were so many times driven to their worship by punishments, captivities, and threats; whereas no one is driven by the Lord to internal worship, but this is implanted through freedom (n. 1937, 1947, 2874-2881, 3145, 3146, 3158, 4031). Their principal external was that they should confess Jehovah; for Jehovah was the Lord, who was represented in all things of that church. (That Jehovah was the Lord may be seen above, n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3035.)4209.
Verses 54, 55. And Jacob sacrificed a sacrifice in the mountain, and called his brethren to eat bread; and they did eat bread, and tarried all night in the mountain. And in the morning Laban arose early, and kissed his sons and his daughters, and blessed them; and Laban departed and returned to his place. "And Jacob sacrificed a sacrifice in the mountain," signifies worship from the good of love; "and called his brethren to eat bread," signifies the appropriation of good from the Lord's Divine natural; "and they did eat bread," signifies the effect; "and tarried all night in the mountain," signifies tranquillity; "and in the morning Laban arose early," signifies the enlightenment of this good from the Lord's Divine natural; "and kissed his sons and his daughters," signifies the acknowledgment of these truths and of the affections of the same; "and blessed them," signifies the consequent joy; "and Laban departed and returned to his place" signifies the end of the representation by Laban.4210.
And Jacob sacrificed a sacrifice in the mountain. That this signifies worship from the good of love, is evident from the signification of a "sacrifice," as being worship (see n. 922, 923, 2180); and from the signification of a "mountain," as being the good of love (n. 795, 796, 1430). "Sacrifice" signifies worship because sacrifices and burnt-offerings were the chief things of all the worship in the later or Hebrew representative church. They also sacrificed on mountains, as is evident from various passages in the Word, because "mountains," from their height, signified things which are high, such as are those which are of heaven and are called celestial; and hence in the supreme sense they signified the Lord, whom these people called the Most High. They thought in this way from the appearance, for things which are more interior appear higher, as does heaven to man. This is interiorly within him, yet man supposes that it is on high. For this reason where what is high is mentioned in the Word, in the internal sense there is signified that which is interior. In the world it must be supposed that heaven is on high, both because the visible heavens spread above us are so called, and because man is in time and place, and therefore thinks from ideas thence derived; and also because few know what that which is interior is, and still fewer that there is there neither place nor time. It is for this reason that the language of the Word is in agreement with the ideas of man's thought; and if instead of being so it had been in accordance with angelic ideas, the result would have been that men would have perceived nothing at all; but everyone would have stood wondering what it was, and whether it was anything at all, and so would have rejected it as being destitute of anything fit for the understanding.4211.
And called his brethren to eat bread. That this signifies the appropriation of good from the Lord's Divine natural, is evident from the signification of "brethren," as being those who were now conjoined by a covenant, that is, by friendship; and in the internal sense those who are in good and truth (that these are called "brethren" may be seen above, n. 367, 2360, 3303, 3459, 3803, 3815, 4121, 4191); from the signification of "eating," as being appropriation (see n. 3168, 3513, 3832; and that banquets and feasts with the ancients signified appropriation and conjunction by love and charity, see above, n. 3596); and from the signification of "bread," as being the good of love (n. 276, 680, 1798, 3478, 3735), and in the supreme sense the Lord (n. 2165, 2177, 3478, 3813). As in the supreme sense "bread" signifies the Lord, it therefore signifies everything holy which is from Him, that is, everything good and true; and because there is nothing else good, which is good, except that which is of love and charity, "bread" signifies love and charity. Nor did the sacrifices of old signify anything else, for which reason they were called by the one word "bread" (n. 2165). They also ate together of the flesh of the sacrifices, in order that the heavenly feast might be represented, that is, conjunction by the good of love and charity. This is what is now signified by the Holy Supper; for this succeeded in the place of sacrifices, and of the feasts from the sanctified things; and the Holy Supper is an external of the church that contains within itself an internal, and by means of this internal it conjoins the man who is in love and charity with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord. For in the Holy Supper also, "eating" signifies appropriation, the "bread" celestial love, and the "wine" spiritual love; and this so entirely that when a man is in a holy state while eating it, nothing else is perceived in heaven.  The reason why the expression "the appropriation of good from the Lord's Divine natural" is made use of, is that the subject treated of is the good of the Gentiles, and it is this good which is now represented by Laban (n. 4189). Man's conjunction with the Lord is not a conjunction with His Supreme Divine Itself, but with His Divine Human; for man can have no idea whatever of the Lord's Supreme Divine, which so transcends his idea as altogether to perish and become nothing; but he can have an idea of His Divine Human. For everyone is conjoined by thought and affection with one concerning whom he has some idea, but not with one concerning whom he has no idea. If when anyone is thinking about the Lord's Human, he has holiness in his idea, he is thinking also of that holy which coming from the Lord fills heaven, so that he is also thinking of heaven; for in its complex heaven bears relation to a man, and it does this from the Lord (n. 684, 1276, 2996, 2998, 3624-3649); and this accounts for the fact that no conjunction is possible with the Lord's Supreme Divine, but only with His Divine Human, and through His Divine Human with His Supreme Divine. Hence it is said in John that no one hath seen God at any time, except the Only begotten Son (1:18); and that no one can come to the Father except through Him; and hence also He is called the Mediator. That such is the case may be very well known from the fact that all within the church who say they believe in a Supreme Being, and make no account of the Lord, are precisely those who believe nothing at all, not even that there is a heaven, or that there is a hell, and who worship nature. Moreover, if such persons are willing to be instructed by experience, they will see that the evil, even the worst of them, say the same thing.  But as regards the Lord's Human, men think in various ways, one in one way and another in another, and one in a more holy way than another. They who are within the church are able to think that His Human is Divine, and also that as He says He is one with the Father, and that the Father is in Him, and He in the Father. But they who are without the church cannot do this, both because they know nothing about the Lord and because they have no idea of the Divine except from the images which they see with their eyes, and the idols which they can touch with their hands. And yet the Lord conjoins Himself with these by means of the good of their charity and obedience that is within their gross idea of Him. For this reason it is here said that such have an "appropriation of good from the Lord's Divine natural;" for the conjunction of the Lord with man is according to the state of his thought and the derivative affection. They who are in the most holy idea concerning the Lord, and at the same time in the knowledges and affections of good and truth-as those can be who are within the church-are conjoined with the Lord in respect to His Divine rational; whereas they who are not in such holiness, nor in such interior idea and affection, and yet are in the good of charity, are conjoined with the Lord in respect to His Divine natural. They who have a holiness of a still grosser kind are conjoined with the Lord in respect to His Divine sensuous; and this conjunction is what is represented by the brazen serpent, in that those who looked at it recovered from the bite of the serpents (Num. 21:9). In this conjunction are those among the Gentiles who worship idols, and yet live in charity in accordance with their religion. From all this it is now evident what is meant by the appropriation of good from the Lord's Divine natural, which is signified by Jacob's calling his brethren to eat bread.4212.
And they did eat bread. That this signifies the effect, namely, in the external sense friendship, and in the supreme sense conjunction by good and truth in the Lord's natural, is evident.4213.
And tarried all night in the mountain. That this signifies tranquillity, is evident from the signification of "tarrying all night," as being to have peace (see n. 3170), thus tranquillity. It was also a rite that those who entered into a covenant should tarry all night in one place, because tarrying all night in one place signified that there was no longer any hostility, and in the internal sense, that there was tranquillity and peace; for they who are conjoined in respect to good and truth are in tranquillity and in peace. It is therefore said here, "in the mountain," because by a "mountain" is signified the good of love and charity (see n. 4210); for the good of love and charity confers peace. (What peace and tranquillity are, may be seen above, n. 92, 93, 1726, 2780, 3170, 3696, 3780.)4214.
And in the morning Laban arose early. That this signifies the enlightenment of this good from the Lord's Divine natural, is evident from the signification of "rising early in the morning," as being enlightenment (see n. 3458, 3723); and from the representation of Laban, as being such good as is that of the Gentiles (n. 4189). That the enlightenment of this good here meant is from the Lord's Divine natural, is manifest from the series. As regards enlightenment, it is all from the Lord, and through the good that is in the man; and such as is the good, such is the enlightenment.  Most people believe that those men are enlightened who are able to reason about good and truth and about evil and falsity; and that their enlightenment is the greater in proportion to the subtlety and acuteness with which they can speak about these things, and at the same time confirm them by many memory-knowledges, and likewise make what they say appear probable by comparisons, especially those drawn from things of sense, and by other modes of persuasion. And yet such men may be in no enlightenment, in spite of their power of imagination and perception. This power is of two kinds, one which comes from the light of heaven, and the other from a fatuous light; and in the outward form these two appear alike, although in the inward form they are quite different. That which is from the light of heaven is in good, that is, is with those who are in good, and who from good are able to see truth, and to know as in clear day whether a thing is so, or is not so. But that which is from fatuous light is in evil, that is, is with those who are in evil; and their being able to reason about such things comes from the fact that they possess some capacity of knowing them, but no affection of doing them; and that this is to be in no enlightenment everyone can comprehend.  As regards fatuous light the case in the other life is this: They who have been in such light in this world are in the like in the other life, and there reason about good and truth and about evil and falsity, and this much more perfectly and excellently than when in the life of the body; for their thoughts are not there beclogged and impeded by the cares of the body and of the world, nor so terminated or bounded in them, as when they were in the body and the world. But still it at once appears (not to them, but to good spirits and angels) that their reasonings are those of fatuous light, and that the light of heaven that inflows with them is instantly turned into such a light; so that that which was the light of heaven with them is either suffocated, as when the light of the sun falls upon something opaque and becomes black; or is reflected, as with those who are in principles of falsity; or is perverted, as when the sun's light flows into ugly and unclean objects, and produces repulsive colors and offensive smells. Such is the case with those who are in fatuous light and believe themselves to be more enlightened than others simply because they are able to reason intelligently and wisely, while nevertheless living an evil life.  Who these are, and what is their character, appears from everything they speak, provided they do not counterfeit what is good for the sake of deceiving. Among them are those who deny or despise the Lord, and within themselves ridicule those who confess Him. Among them are those who love adulteries, and who ridicule those who believe marriages to be holy, and by no means to be violated. Among them are those who believe the precepts and doctrinal things of the church to be for the sake of the common people, that they may thereby be kept in bonds, and who in themselves make them of no account. Among them in like manner are those who ascribe all things to nature, and believe those to be simple-minded and of feeble judgment who ascribe them to the Divine. Among them also are those who attribute everything to their own prudence, and who say, and have confirmed themselves in the opinion, that there is a Supreme Being that exercises some government in general or in the universal, but nothing in particular or individually. And so in other cases.  Such persons are in fatuous light even in the other life, and among their like they also reason acutely; but when they approach any heavenly society, this light is extinguished and becomes darkness; and consequently their thought is obscured to such a degree that they cannot think at all; for they are then cramped and constricted by the light of heaven, which as before said is with them either suffocated, reflected, or perverted; and they therefore throw themselves down headlong, and cast themselves into hell, where such light prevails. From all this can be seen what true enlightenment is, namely, that it comes from the good which is from the Lord; and also what false enlightenment is, namely, that it comes from the evil which is from hell.4215.
And kissed his sons and his daughters. That this signifies the acknowledgment of these truths, and of the affections of the same, is evident from the signification of "kissing," as being conjunction from affection (see n. 3573, 3574), consequently acknowledgment (for where there is conjunction by means of good and truth, there is the acknowledgment of these); from the signification of "sons," as being truths or verities (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3773); and from the signification of "daughters," here Rachel and Leah, as being the affections of the same, that is, of truths (n. 3758, 3782, 3793, 3819).  It is from the correspondence that "kissing" signifies conjunction from affection; for there is a correspondence of heaven with all the organs and members of the body, as shown at the end of the chapters. There is a correspondence of the internal things of man with all things of the face, and hence the animus shines forth from the countenance, and the interior animus or mind from the eyes. There is also a correspondence of the thoughts and affections with the actions and gestures of the body; as is well known in regard to those which are of a voluntary as well as those which are of an involuntary character. For humiliation of heart produces kneeling, which is an external gesture of the body; humiliation still greater and more internal produces prostration to the earth; gladness of heart and joy of mind produce singing and joyful shouting; sadness and internal mourning produce weeping and wailing; but conjunction from affection produces kissing. From all this it is evident that because such external acts correspond, they are signs of things internal; and that in them as signs there is an internal from which they take their quality. But with those who desire to counterfeit internal things by means of external, such externals are also signs, but signs of simulation, hypocrisy, and deceit. Such is the case with kissing, by which everyone wishes to signify that he loves another from the heart; for he knows that the act of kissing comes from such love, and is a mark of conjunction from affection, and he thereby desires to persuade his neighbor that he loves him for the sake of the good that is in him; when in fact it may be for his own sake, and for his own honor and gain, and thus not for the sake of good, but of evil. For he who regards himself as the end, and not as an intermediate end to good, and desires to be conjoined with another as to that end, is in evil.4216.
And blessed them. That this signifies the consequent joy, is evident from the signification of "blessing," as being to devoutly wish success and happiness (see n. 3185); thus to testify joy when anyone is going away.4217.
And Laban departed and returned to his place. That this signifies the end of the representation by Laban, is evident from the signification of "returning to his place," as being to return to the former state. (That "place" is state, see above, n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 3404.) Consequently by these words is signified the end of the representation by Laban. From all that has been shown it may be seen that all things in the Word both in general and particular contain interior things, and that the interior things are of such a nature as to be adapted to the perception of the angels who are with man. For example: when "bread" is mentioned in the Word, the angels become aware not of material but of spiritual bread; thus instead of bread they perceive the Lord, who is the Bread of life, as He Himself teaches in John 6:33, 35. And because they perceive the Lord, they perceive what is from the Lord, thus His love toward the universal human race; and they then perceive at the same time man's reciprocal love to the Lord; for these two things cohere in one idea of thought and affection.  Not unlike this are the thoughts of the man who is in a holy state when receiving the bread of the Holy Supper; for he then thinks not of bread, but of the Lord and His mercy, and of what is of love to Him and of charity toward the neighbor, because he thinks of repentance and amendment of life; but this with variety according to the holiness in which he is, not only as to his thought, but also as to his affection. From this it is manifest that "bread" as mentioned in the Word suggests to the angels no idea of bread, but the idea of love, together with innumerable things that are of love. It is the same with "wine," which when read of in the Word, and also when received in the Holy Supper, suggests to the angels no thought of wine, but of charity toward the neighbor. This being the case, and as in this way there is a connection of man with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord, the bread and wine have become symbols, and unite the man who is in holiness of life with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord.  The same is the case with everything in the Word, and therefore the Word is a medium uniting man with the Lord; and unless there were such a uniting medium, heaven could not inflow with man; for without a medium there would be no unition, but heaven would remove itself away from man; and if this were removed, no one could any longer be led to good, not even to corporeal and worldly good; but all bonds whatever, even those which are external, would be broken. For the Lord rules the man who is in good by means of internal bonds, which are of conscience; but one who is in evil by external bonds alone; and if these should be broken, every such man would become insane; even as is the man who is without fear of the law, without fear for his life, and without fear of the loss of honor and gain, and thus of reputation-for these are the external bonds-and so the human race would perish. From all this it may be seen why the Word exists, and what the character of the Word is. (That the church of the Lord where the Word is, is like the heart and the lungs, and that the church of the Lord where the Word is not, is like the rest of the viscera which live from the heart and the lungs, may be seen above, n. 637, 931, 2054, 2853.)4218.
CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE GRAND MAN, AND CONCERNING CORRESPONDENCE. At the end of the preceding chapters, I have related matters granted me to see and perceive in the world of spirits and in the heavens of angels; and in the last place the subject of the Grand Man and Correspondence has been dealt with. In order to make fully known how the case is with man, and that he is in connection with heaven, not only as to the thoughts and affections, but also as to the organic forms both interior and exterior, and that without this connection he could not subsist for a single moment, we may in this volume continue the consideration of the subject of correspondence with the Grand Man which was commenced at the end of the preceding chapters.4219.
In order that the reader may have a general knowledge of how the case is with the Grand Man, let him bear in mind that the universal heaven is the Grand Man, and that heaven is called the Grand Man because it corresponds to the Divine Human of the Lord; for the Lord alone is Man, and an angel and a spirit, and also a man on earth, are men in exact proportion to what they have from Him. Let no one believe that man is man from his possession of a natural human face, body, brain, and organs and members; for all these are common to him with brute animals, and therefore these are what die and become a carcass. But man is man from being able to think and will as a man, and thus to receive what is Divine, that is, what is of the Lord. By this man distinguishes himself from beasts and wild animals; and in the other life also his quality as a man is determined by what he has received from the Lord and made his own in the life of the body.4220.
They who in the life of the body have received the Divine things of the Lord, that is, His love toward the universal human race; and consequently they who have received charity toward the neighbor; and also they who have received reciprocal love to the Lord, are in the other life endowed with intelligence and wisdom, and with ineffable happiness; for they become angels and thus truly men. But they who in the life of the body have not received the Divine things of the Lord, that is, who have not received love toward the human race, and still less reciprocal love to the Lord, but who have loved and indeed worshiped themselves only, and consequently have had as their end what is of self and of the world, they, in the other life, after some brief passages of life there, are deprived of all intelligence, and become utterly stupid, being among the stupid infernals there.4221.
In order that I might know that such is the case, I have been permitted to speak with those who have lived in this manner, and likewise with one with whom I had been acquainted in the life of the body. During this man's life on earth, all the good he had done to the neighbor had been done for the sake of himself, that is, for his own honor and gain. All who could not be made subservient to these ends he had despised, and even hated. He had indeed made an oral confession of God, but at heart acknowledged Him not; and when I was permitted to speak to him there exhaled from him a sphere that was as it were corporeal. His speech was not like that of spirits, but was like that of a mortal still in the flesh; for the speech of spirits is distinguished from that of men in being full of ideas, or in having within it something spiritual, thus something alive that is inexpressible; but this was not the case with this man's speech. Such was the sphere that exhaled from him and that was perceived in everything that he said. He appeared there among the vile; and I was told that persons of this character successively become so gross and stupid in respect to their thoughts and affections, that no one in this world is more so. They have their abode under the buttocks, where their hell is. From the same place there had previously appeared a certain person (not as a spirit, but as a grossly corporeal man, appears), in whom there was so little of the life of intelligence which is properly human, that you would call it stupidity personified. From these examples it was evident what kind of spirits those become who are in no love toward the neighbor, nor toward the state, and still less toward the Lord's kingdom; but who are exclusively in the love of self, and who in everything regard themselves alone, even adoring themselves as gods, and also desiring to be so adored by others, and having this intent in everything they do.4222.
As regards the correspondence of the Grand Man with the things that appertain to man, it is a correspondence with all things of him both in general and in particular, that is to say, with his organs, members, and viscera, and this so perfect that there is not a single organ or member in the body, nor any part in an organ or member, nor even any particle of a part, with which there is not correspondence. It is well known that each organ and member in the body consists of parts, and of parts of parts-as the brain, for example, which consists in general of the cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis, for this last is a continuation, or kind of appendix. Again, the cerebrum consists of many members, which are its parts, namely, of the membranes called the dura mater and pia mater, of the corpus callosum, the corpora striata, the ventricles and cavities, the smaller glands, the septa, in general of the cineritious substance and the medullary substance, and furthermore of the sinuses, blood vessels, and plexuses. The like is the case with the bodily organs of sense and motion, and with the viscera, as is well known from anatomical studies. All these things both in general and in particular correspond most exactly to the Grand Man, and to so many heavens, as it were, therein. For the heaven of the Lord is distinguished in like manner into lesser heavens, and these into heavens still less, and these into least, and finally into angels, each one of whom is a little heaven corresponding to the greatest. These heavens are most distinct from one another, each one belonging to its own general heaven, and the general heavens to the most general, or whole, which is the Grand Man.4223.
But as regards this correspondence, the fact is that although the heavens above mentioned do indeed correspond to the very organic forms of the human body, and therefore it is said that these societies or those angels belong to the province of the brain, to the province of the heart, to the province of the lungs, or to the province of the eye, and so on, they nevertheless correspond chiefly to the functions of these viscera or organs. The case herein is as with the organs or viscera themselves, in that their functions constitute a one with their organic forms; for no function can be conceived of except from forms, that is, from substances, for the substances are the subjects from which they exist. Sight, for example, cannot be conceived of apart from the eye; nor breathing apart from the lungs. The eye is the organic form from which and by means of which the sight exists, and the lungs are the organic form from which and by means of which the breathing exists; and so with all the rest. It is the functions therefore to which the heavenly societies chiefly correspond; and as they correspond to the functions, they correspond also to the organic forms; for the one is indivisible and inseparable from the other, inasmuch that whether you speak of the function or the organic form by which and from which is the function, it comes to the same thing. Hence there is correspondence with the organs, members, and viscera, because there is with the functions; and therefore when the function is brought into exercise, the organ also is excited. The same is the case with everything that man does; when he wills to do this or that, in this manner or that, and is thinking of it, the organs then move in concurrence, thus in accordance with the intention of the function or use; for it is the use that commands the forms.  This shows that the use existed before the organic forms of the body came forth; and that the use produced and adapted them to itself, and not the reverse. But when the forms have been produced, and the organs adapted, the uses proceed from them; and then it appears as if the forms or organs were prior to the uses, when yet such is not the case. For use flows in from the Lord, and this through heaven, according to order, and according to the form in which heaven has been ordinated by the Lord, thus according to correspondences. Thus does man come into existence, and thus also does he subsist. And hence again does it appear why it is that man corresponds to the heavens in regard to both generals and particulars.4224.
Organic forms are not only those apparent to the eye, and that can be detected by microscopes; for there are also organic forms still more pure, which can never be discovered by any eye, whether naked or assisted. The latter forms are interior forms such as are those of the internal sight, and which in the last analysis are of the understanding. These are inscrutable, but still they are forms, that is, substances; for no sight, not even intellectual sight, is possible except from something. This is also known in the learned world; that is to say, that without a substance, which is the subject, there is not any mode, nor any modification, nor any quality which manifests itself in an active manner. These purer or interior forms which are inscrutable, are those which form and set forth the internal senses, and also produce the interior affections. It is to these forms that the interior things of heaven correspond, because they correspond to the senses which they set forth, and to the affections of these senses. But as very many things have been disclosed to me respecting these matters and their correspondence, they cannot be clearly presented unless each one is treated of specifically; and therefore of the Lord's Divine mercy I may continue below the consideration of the subject of the correspondence of man with the Grand Man that was commenced in a preceding volume, to the intent that man may at last know, not from any ratiocination, and still less from any hypothesis, but from experience itself, how the case is with him, and with his internal man which is called his soul, and in consequence with his conjunction with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord; and consequently whence man is man, and by what he is distinguished from beasts; and furthermore, how man himself separates himself from this conjunction, and conjoins himself with hell.4225.
At the outset it must be stated who are within the Grand Man, and who are out of it. All those are within the Grand Man who are in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor, and who do good to the neighbor from the heart according to the good that is in him, and who have a conscience of what is just and equitable; for these are in the Lord, and consequently in heaven. But all those are outside the Grand Man who are in the love of self and the love of the world and the derivative concupiscences, and who do what is good solely on account of the laws, and for the sake of their own honor and the world's wealth and the consequent reputation, and who thus are interiorly unmerciful and in hatred and revenge against the neighbor for their own and the world's sake, and are delighted with the neighbor's injury when he does not favor them for these are in hell. These do not correspond to any organs and members in the body, but to various corruptions and diseases induced in them; concerning which also of the Lord's Divine mercy, I shall speak from experience in the following pages.  They who are out of the Grand Man (that is, out of heaven), cannot enter into it, for their lives are contrary to it. Nay, if in any way they do enter, which is sometimes done by such as have learned in the life of the body to counterfeit angels of light; nevertheless on arriving there, as is sometimes permitted in order that they may learn their own character, they are admitted only to the first entrance, that is, to those who are as yet simple-minded, and who have not as yet been fully instructed. And even there those who enter as angels of light are scarcely able to tarry a few moments, because the life there is that of love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor; and as there is nothing there which corresponds to their life, they are hardly able to breathe. (That spirits and angels breathe, may be seen above, n. 3884-3893.) Consequently they begin to be distressed, for respiration takes place in accordance with freedom of life; and wonderful to say they are finally scarcely able to move, but become like those who are in, anguish and torment taking possession of their interiors, and they therefore cast themselves down headlong, even into hell, where they recover their respiration and power of motion. Hence it is that in the Word life is represented by mobility.  But they who are in the Grand Man breathe freely when they are in the good of love; but nevertheless they are distinguished according to the quality and the amount of the good. Hence there are so many heavens, which in the Word are called "mansions" (John 14:2). And everyone when in his own heaven is in his life, and receives influx from the universal heaven, each person there being a center of all the influxes, and therefore in the most perfect equilibrium; and this according to the amazing form of heaven, which is from the Lord alone; thus with all variety.4226.
Spirits recently arrived, who when they lived in the world had been inwardly evil, but had outwardly assumed the appearance of good by means of the works which they had done to others for the sake of themselves and the world, have sometimes complained that they were not admitted into heaven; for they had no other notion about heaven than that of admission from favor. But they have sometimes received for answer that heaven is denied to no one; and that if they desire it, they will be admitted. Some have also been admitted into the heavenly societies nearest the entrance; but on arriving there, they, as before said, observed a cessation of their breathing on account of the contrariety and resistance of their life, together with distress and torment as it were infernal, and they cast themselves down and afterwards said that to them heaven was hell, and that they would never have believed heaven to be of such a character.4227.
There are many of both sexes who in this life have been of such a character that whenever possible they sought by art and deceit to subjugate to themselves the minds of others, with the end of ruling over them, especially those who were powerful and rich, in order that they alone might rule in their name; and who had acted in a secret manner, and had removed other men, especially the upright, and this in various ways-not indeed by censuring them, for uprightness defends itself; but by other modes, such as by misrepresenting their suggestions by calling these simple and evil; and by attributing to them any misfortunes that might occur; together with other similar detractions. They who have been of this character in the life of the body are the same in the other life, for the life of everyone follows him.  I discovered this by living experience among such spirits when they have been with me, for they then acted in a similar manner, but still more craftily and ingeniously; for spirits act more subtly than men, being released from all connection with the body, and from the bonds of gross modes of sensation. They were so subtle that sometimes I did not perceive that their intention and end was to exercise command; and when they spoke among themselves they took care that I should not hear and perceive it; but I was told by others who heard them that their designs were wicked; and that they were studying to attain their end by magic arts, and thus by assistance from the diabolical crew. The murder of the upright they accounted as a matter of no moment; and as for the Lord (under whom they said that they desired to exercise command), they made Him very cheap, regarding Him merely as another man, to whom worship is paid by ancient custom, as among other nations which made men gods and worshiped them, and whom they durst not speak against, because they were born in that worship, and would thereby injure their reputation. Concerning these spirits I am able to state that they obsess the thoughts and the will of the men who are like them, and insinuate themselves into their affection and intention, so that without the Lord's mercy the men cannot possibly know that such spirits are present, and that they themselves are in a society of such.  These spirits correspond to the corruptions of man's purer blood, called the animal spirit, into which corruptions enter in a disorderly manner; and wherever they diffuse themselves they are like poisons which induce cold and torpor upon the nerves and fibers, from which break forth the most grievous and fatal diseases. When such act together in company, they are known by their acting-so to speak-in a quadruped manner, 4227-1 and they beset the back of the head under the cerebellum to the left; for they who act under the occiput operate more clandestinely than others, and they who act upon the back parts desire to exercise command.  They reasoned with me about the Lord, and said that it was strange that when they prayed He did not hear their prayers, and thus did not aid those who made supplication. But I was permitted to reply that they could not be heard, because they had as their end such things as are contrary to the welfare of the human race; and because they pray for themselves against all others; and that when they pray in this manner heaven is closed, for they who are in heaven attend solely to the ends of those who are praying. These things they indeed would not acknowledge, but still they could make no answer.  I have met male spirits of this kind who were accompanied by some of the female sex, and who said that they can avail themselves of many of the suggestions of women, because these are more quick-witted and deft in seeing how to manage such matters. These men are greatly pleased with the society of women who had been harlots. In the other life such persons for the most part apply themselves to secret and magical arts; for a host of such arts are there known which are quite unknown in this world; and no sooner do persons of this character arrive in the other life than they apply themselves to these arts, and learn to fascinate those with whom they are, and especially those under whom they desire to reign. For wicked deeds they have no abhorrence. Their hell, and the nature of this their abode when not in the world of spirits, shall be spoken of elsewhere. From all that has been said it is evident that after death every man's life remains with him.4229.
In volume 3 4229-1 a commencement was made with the explication of the Lord's predictions in the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew concerning the Last Judgment, the explication being prefixed to the last chapters of that volume, and being continued as far as the thirty-first verse of the chapter in the Evangelist just referred to (see n. 3353-3356, 3486-3489, 3650-3655, 3897-3901, 4056-4060). The internal sense in a summary of these predictions of the Lord plainly appears from the explications already given, namely, that prediction is there made concerning the successive vastation of the church, and the ultimate setting up of a New Church, in the following order: 1. That the members of the church would begin not to know what good and truth are, and would dispute about them. 2. That they would hold them in contempt. 3. That at heart they would not acknowledge them. 4. That they would profane them. 5. And because the truth of faith and the good of charity would still remain with some, who are called the "elect," a description is given of the state of the faith as it then existed. 6. Next of the state of the charity. 7. And finally the commencement of a New Church is treated of, which is meant by the words that were last explained: He shall send forth His angels with a trumpet and a great voice, and they shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from the end of the heavens even to the end thereof (Matt. 24:31), by which is meant the commencement of a New Church (see n. 4060e).4230.
When the end of an old church and the beginning of a new church is at hand, then is the Last Judgment. This is the time that is meant in the Word by the "Last Judgment" (see n. 2117-2133, 3353, 4057), and also by the "coming of the Son of man." It is this very Coming that is now the subject before us, as referred to in the question addressed to the Lord by the disciples: Tell us when shall these things be, especially what is the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation of the age? (Matt. 24:3). It remains therefore to unfold the things predicted by the Lord concerning this very time of His Coming and of the Consummation of the age which is the Last Judgment; but in the preface to this chapter only those contained in verses 32 to 35: Now learn a parable from the fig-tree. When her branch is now become tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that the summer is nigh. So also ye, when ye see all these things, know that it is nigh, even at the doors. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away till all these things be accomplished. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away (Matt. 24:32-35). The internal sense of these words is as follows.4231.
Now learn a parable from the fig-tree. When her branch is now become tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that the summer is nigh; signifies the first of a new church; the "fig-tree" is the good of the natural; her "branch" is the affection of this; and the "leaves" are truths. The "parable from which they should learn" is that these things are signified. He who is not acquainted with the internal sense of the Word, cannot possibly know what is involved in the comparison of the Lord's coming to a fig-tree and its branch and leaves; but as all the comparisons in the Word are also significative (n. 3579), it may be known from this signification what is meant. A "fig-tree" wherever mentioned in the Word signifies in the internal sense the good of the natural (n. 217); that her "branch" is the affection of this, is because affection springs forth from good as a branch from its trunk; and that "leaves" are truths may be seen above (n. 885). From all this it is now evident what the parable involves, namely, that when a new church is being created by the Lord, there then appears first of all the good of the natural, that is, good in the external form together with its affection and truths. By the good of the natural is not meant the good into which man is born, or which he derives from his parents, but a good which is spiritual in respect to its origin. Into this no one is born, but is led into it by the Lord through the knowledges of good and truth. Therefore until a man is in this good (that is, in spiritual good), he is not a man of the church, however much from a good that is born with him he may appear to be so.  So also ye, when ye see all these things, know that it is nigh, even at the doors; signifies that when those things appear which are signified in the internal sense by the words spoken just before (verses 29-31), and by these concerning the fig-tree, then it is the consummation of the church, that is, the Last Judgment, and the Coming of the Lord; consequently that the old church is then being rejected, and a new one is being set up. It is said, "at the doors," because the good of the natural and its truths are the first things which are insinuated into a man when he is being regenerated and is becoming the church. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all these things be accomplished; signifies that the Jewish nation shall not be extirpated like other nations, for the reason shown above (n. 3479).  Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away; signifies that the internals and the externals of the former church would perish, but that the Word of the Lord would abide. (That "heaven" is the internal of the church, and "earth" its external, may be seen above, n. 82, 1411, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355e). By the Lord's "words" are plainly meant not only these now spoken respecting His coming and the consummation of the age, but also all that are in the Word. These words were said immediately after what was said about the Jewish nation, because that nation was preserved for the sake of the Word, as may be seen from the number already cited (n. 3479). From all this it is now evident that the beginnings of a New Church are here foretold. GENESIS 32 1. And Jacob went to his way, and the angels of God ran to meet him. 2. And Jacob said when he saw them, This is the camp of God; and he called the name of that place Mahanaim. 3. And Jacob sent messengers before him, to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the field of Edom. 4. And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye say unto my lord Esau: Thus saith thy servant Jacob, I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now. 5. And I had ox and ass, flock and manservant and handmaid; and I send to tell my lord, to find grace in thine eyes. 6. And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother, to Esau, and moreover he cometh to meet thee, and four hundred men with him. 7. And Jacob feared exceedingly, and was distressed; and he halved the people that was with him, and the flock, and the herd, and the camels, into two camps. 8. And he said, If Esau come to the one camp, and smite it, then there will be a camp left for escape. 9. And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O Jehovah, that saith unto me, Return unto thy land, and to thy birth, and I will do well with thee; 10. I am less than all the mercies, and all the truth, which Thou hast done with Thy servant; for in my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I am in two camps. 11. Rescue me I pray from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau, for I fear him, lest he come and smite me, the mother upon the sons. 12. And Thou saidst, I will surely do well with thee, and I will make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which is not numbered for multitude. 13. And he passed the night there in that night, and he took of that which came into his hand a present for Esau his brother: 14. Two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams: 15. Thirty milch camels and their colts, forty heifers and ten bullocks, twenty she-asses and ten foals. 16. And he gave into the hand of his servants each drove by itself; and said unto his servants, Pass over before me, and put a space between drove and drove. 17. And he commanded the first, saying, When Esau my brother meeteth thee, and asketh thee, saying, Whose art thou? and whither goest thou? and whose are these before thee? 18. Then thou shalt say, Thy servant Jacob's; this is a present sent unto my lord Esau; and behold he also is behind us. 19. And he commanded also the second, and the third, and all that went after the droves, saying, According to this word shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye find him. 20. And ye shall also say, Behold thy servant Jacob is behind us. For he said, I will expiate his faces in a present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his faces; peradventure he will lift up my faces. 21. And the present passed over before him, and he passed the night in that night in the camp. 22. And he rose up in that night, and took his two women, and his two handmaids, and his eleven sons, and passed over the passage of Jabbok. 23. And he took them, and caused them to pass the river, and caused to pass what he had. 24. And Jacob remained alone, and there wrestled a man with him until the dawn arose. 25. And he saw that he prevailed not over him, and he touched the hollow of his thigh, and the hollow of Jacob's thigh was out of joint in his wrestling with him. 26. And he said, Let me go, for the dawn ariseth. And he said, I will not let thee go, unless thou bless me. 27. And he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob. 28. And he said, Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel; for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed. 29. And Jacob asked and said, Tell I pray thy name. And he said, Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name? And he blessed him there. 30. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel; for I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered. 31. And the sun arose to him as he passed over Penuel, and he halted upon his thigh. 32. Therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, even unto this day, because he touched in the hollow of Jacob's thigh the nerve of that which was displaced.4232.
THE CONTENTS. The subject here treated of in the internal sense is the inversion of state in the natural, in order that good may be in the first place, and truth in the second. The implantation of truth in good is treated of (verses 1 to 23); and the wrestlings of the temptations which are then to be sustained (verses 24 to 32). At the same time the Jewish nation is also treated of, because although that nation could receive nothing of the church, it nevertheless represented the things of the church.4233.
THE INTERNAL SENSE. Verses 1, 2. And Jacob went to his way, and the angels of God ran to meet him. And Jacob said when he saw them, This is the camp of God; and he called the name of that place Mahanaim. "And Jacob went to his way," signifies the successive advance of truth toward its conjunction with spiritual and celestial good; "and the angels of God ran to meet him," signifies enlightenment from good; "and Jacob said when he saw them, This is the camp of God," signifies heaven; "and he called the name of that place Mahanaim," signifies the quality of the state.4234.
And Jacob went to his way. That this signifies the successive advance of truth toward its conjunction with spiritual and celestial good, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being here the truth of the natural. What Jacob represented has been already stated, namely, the Lord's natural; and as where Jacob is treated of in the historical narrative, in the internal sense the Lord is treated of, and how He made His natural Divine, therefore Jacob first represented the truth in that natural, and then the truth to which was adjoined the collateral good which was "Laban;" and after the Lord had adjoined this good, Jacob represented it; but such good is not the good Divine in the natural, but is a mediate good by means of which the Lord could receive good Divine; and this mediate good was the good that Jacob represented when he withdrew from Laban. Nevertheless in itself this good is truth which from its mediate character possesses the capacity of conjoining itself with the good Divine in the natural. Such then is the truth that Jacob now represents.  But the good with which this truth was to be conjoined is represented by Esau. (That Esau is the Divine good of the Lord's Divine natural, may be seen above, n. 3300, 3302, 3494, 3504, 3527, 3576, 3599, 3669, 3677.) It is this very conjunction of truth Divine with the good Divine of the Lord's Divine natural, that is now treated of in the supreme sense. For after Jacob withdrew from Laban and came to the Jordan, thus to the first entrance into the land of Canaan, he advances into the representation of this conjunction; for in the internal sense the land of Canaan signifies heaven, and in the supreme sense the Lord's Divine Human (n. 3038, 3705). It is for this reason that by the words, "and Jacob went to his way," is signified the successive advance of truth toward conjunction with spiritual and celestial good.  But these things are of such a nature as to prevent their being fully set forth to the apprehension; the cause of which is that the most general things of this subject are unknown in the learned world, even among Christians. For it is scarcely known what the natural in man is, and what the rational, and that these are altogether distinct from each other; and scarcely even what spiritual truth is, and what its good, and that these also are most distinct from each other. Still less is it known that when man is being regenerated, truth is conjoined with good, in one distinct way in the natural, and in another distinct way in the rational, and this by innumerable means. It is not even known that the Lord made His Human Divine according to the same order as that in which He regenerates man.  Since therefore these most general things are unknown, it must needs be that whatever is said about them will appear obscure. Nevertheless they have to be stated, because otherwise the Word cannot be unfolded as to its internal sense. At the very least this may be the means of showing how great angelic wisdom is, and also of what kind it is, for the internal sense of the Word is chiefly for the angels.4235.
And the angels of God ran to meet him. That this signifies enlightenment from good, is evident from the signification of the "angels of God," as being something of the Lord; here, the Divine which was in the Lord; for in the Lord was the Divine Itself which is called the "Father." The very essence of life (which in man is called the soul) was therefrom, and was Himself. This Divine is what is called in common speech the Divine nature, or rather the Lord's Divine essence. (That something of the Divine of the Lord is signified in the Word by the "angels of God," may be seen above, n. 1925, 2319, 2821, 3039, 4085.) By "the angels of God running to meet him" is signified in the proximate sense the influx of the Divine into the natural, and the consequent enlightenment; for all enlightenment is from the influx of the Divine. As the subject treated of is the inversion of state in the Lord's natural, in order that good might be in the first place, and truth in the second; and as the subject treated of in this first part of the chapter is the implantation of truth in good therein (n. 4232), and as this could not be effected without enlightenment from the Divine, therefore the first thing treated of is the enlightenment effected by the good into which truth was to be implanted.4236.
And Jacob said when he saw them, This is the camp of God. That this signifies heaven, is because the "camp of God" signifies heaven, for the reason that an "army" signifies truths and goods (n. 3448), and truths and goods are marshaled by the Lord in heavenly order; hence an "encamping" denotes a marshalling by armies; and the heavenly order itself which is heaven, is the "camp." This "camp" or order is of such a nature that hell cannot possibly break in upon it, although it is in the constant endeavor to do so. Hence also this order, or heaven, is called a "camp," and the truths and goods (that is, the angels) who are marshaled in this order, are called "armies." This shows whence it is that the "camp of God" signifies heaven. It is this very order, and thus heaven itself, which was represented by the encampments of the sons of Israel in the wilderness; and their dwelling together in the wilderness according to their tribes was called the "camp." The tabernacle in the midst, and around which they encamped, represented the Lord Himself. That the sons of Israel encamped in this manner, may be seen in Numbers 1 and 33:2-56; as also that they encamped around the tabernacle by their tribes-toward the east Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun; toward the south Reuben, Simeon, and Gad; toward the west Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin; toward the north Dan, Asher, and Naphtali; and the Levites in the middle near the tabernacle (2:2-34).  The tribes signified all goods and truths in the complex (see n. 3858, 3862, 3926, 3939, 4060). It was for this reason that when Balaam saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, and the spirit of God came upon him, he uttered his enunciation, saying: How good are thy tabernacles, O Jacob, thy dwelling places, O Israel, as the valleys are they planted, as gardens by the river (Num. 24:5-6). That by this prophecy was not meant the people named Jacob and Israel, but that it was the heaven of the Lord that was represented, is very manifest. For the same reason their marshallings in the wilderness, that is, their encampings by tribes, are called "camps" in other passages of the Word; and by a "camp" is there signified in the internal sense heavenly order; and by "encamping" a marshalling in accordance with this order, namely, the order in which goods and truths are disposed in heaven (as in Lev. 4:12; 8:17; 13:46; 14:8; 16:26, 28; 24:14, 23; Num. 2; 4:5-33; 5:2-4; 9:17 to the end; 10:1-10, 28; 11:31, 32; 12:14, 15; 31:19-24; Deut. 23:10-14).  That the "camp of God" denotes heaven may also be seen in Joel: The earth quaked before Him, the heavens trembled, the sun and the moon were blackened, and the stars withdrew their brightness, and Jehovah uttered His voice before His army, for His camp is exceeding many, for numerous is he that doeth His word (Joel 2:10-11). In Zechariah: I will encamp at my house from the army, on account of him who passeth by, and on account of him who goeth away, lest the extortioner should pass over them (Zech. 9:8). In John: Gog and Magog went up over the plain of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city; but fire came up from God and consumed them (Rev. 20:9); "Gog and Magog" denote those who are in external worship that is separated from internal and made idolatrous (n. 1151); the "plain of the earth" denotes the truth of the church (that a "plain" is the truth which is of doctrine may be seen above, n. 2450; and that the "earth" is the church, n. 556, 662, 1066, 1067, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355); the "camp of the saints" denotes the heaven or kingdom of the Lord on the earth, which is the church.  As most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so likewise has a "camp," which then signifies evils and falsities, consequently hell; as in David: Though the evil should encamp against me, my heart shall not fear (Ps. 27:3). In the same: God hath scattered the bones of them that encamp against me; thou hast put them to shame, because God hath rejected them (Ps. 53:5). By the camp of Assyria, in which the angel of Jehovah smote a hundred and eighty-five thousand (Isa. 37:36), nothing else is meant; and the same by the camp of the Egyptians (Exod. 14:20).4237.
And he called the name of that place Mahanaim. That this signifies the quality of the state, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," as being quality (see n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 3421); and from the signification of "place" as being state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387). In the original language "Mahanaim" means "two camps;" and "two camps" signify both heavens, or both kingdoms of the Lord, the celestial and the spiritual; and in the supreme sense the Lord's Divine celestial and Divine spiritual. Hence it is evident that the quality of the Lord's state when His natural was being enlightened by spiritual and celestial good, is signified by "Mahanaim." But this quality of the state cannot be described, because the Divine states which the Lord had when He made the human in Himself Divine, do not fall into any human apprehension, nor even into angelic, except by means of appearances enlightened by the light of heaven which is from the Lord; and by means of the states of man's regeneration; for the regeneration of man is an image of the Lord's glorification (n. 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490).4238.
Verses 3-5. And Jacob sent messengers before him, to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the field of Edom. And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye say unto my lord Esau: Thus saith thy servant Jacob, I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now. And I had ox and ass, flock, and manservant and handmaid; and I send to tell my lord, to find grace in thine eyes. "And Jacob sent messengers before him, to Esau his brother," signifies the first communication with celestial good; "unto the land of Seir," signifies celestial natural good; "the field of Edom," signifies the derivative truth; "and he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye say unto my lord Esau," signifies the first acknowledgment of good as being in the higher place; "I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now," signifies that He had imbued Himself with the good signified by "Laban;" "and I had ox and ass, and flock, and manservant and handmaid," signifies acquisitions therein in their order; "and I send to tell my lord, to find grace in thine eyes," signifies instruction concerning His state, and also the condescension and humiliation of truth in the presence of good.4239.
And Jacob sent messengers before him, to Esau his brother. That this signifies the first communication with celestial good, is evident from the signification of "sending messengers," as being to communicate; and from the representation of Esau, as being celestial good in the natural (see n. 3300, 3302, 3494, 3504, 3527, 3576, 3599, 3669). As before said (n. 4234), the subject here treated of is the conjunction of the truth Divine of the natural (which is "Jacob,") with the good Divine therein (which is "Esau"), and therefore the enlightenment of the natural from the Divine was first treated of (n. 4235); and here there is treated of the first communication, which is signified by Jacob's sending messengers to Esau his brother. (That in the Word good and truth are called "brothers," see n. 367, 3303).4240.
Unto the land of Seir. That this signifies celestial natural good, is evident from the signification of the "land of Seir," as being in the supreme sense the Lord's celestial natural good. The reason why the "land of Seir" has this signification, is that Mount Seir was a boundary of the land of Canaan on one side (Josh. 11:16, 17); and all boundaries, such as rivers, mountains, or lands, represented those things which were ultimates (n. 1585, 1866, 4116); for they put on their representations from the land of Canaan, which was in the midst, and represented the Lord's heavenly kingdom, and in the supreme sense His Divine Human (see n. 1607, 3038, 3481, 3705). The ultimates, which are boundaries, are those things which are called natural; for it is in natural things that spiritual and celestial things are terminated. Thus is it in the heavens; for the inmost or third heaven is celestial, because it is in love to the Lord; the middle or second heaven is spiritual, because it is in love toward the neighbor; and the ultimate or first heaven is celestial and spiritual natural, because it is in simple good, which is the ultimate of order there. It is similar with the regenerate man, who is a little heaven. From all this can now be seen whence it is that the "land of Seir" signifies celestial natural good. Esau also, who dwelt there, represents this good, as was shown above; and hence the same is signified by the land where he dwelt; for lands take on the representations of their inhabitants (n. 1675).  From all this it is now evident what is signified in the Word by "Seir." As in Moses: Jehovah came from Sinai, and arose from Seir unto them, He shone forth from Mount Paran and He came from the ten thousands of holiness (Deut. 33:2-3). In the song of Deborah and Barak in the book of Judges: O Jehovah, when thou wentest forth out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens also dropped, the clouds also dropped water, the mountains flowed down, this Sinai, before Jehovah the God of Israel (Judg. 5:4-5). In the prophecy of Balaam: I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not nigh; there shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise up out of Israel; and Edom shall be an inheritance; Seir also shall be an inheritance of his enemies, and Israel maketh strength (Num. 24:17-18). Everyone can see that in these passages "Seir" signifies something of the Lord, for it is said that Jehovah "arose from Seir," that He "went forth out of Seir, and marched out of the field of Edom," and that "Edom and Seir shall be an inheritance." Yet what of the Lord it signifies, no one can know except from the internal sense of the Word; but that it is the Lord's Divine Human, and specifically the Divine natural as to good, may be seen from what has been said above. To "arise," and to "go forth out of Seir" denote that He made even His natural Divine, in order that from this also there might be light, that is, intelligence and wisdom; and that in this way He might become Jehovah, not only as to His Human Rational, but also as to His Human Natural; and therefore it is said, "Jehovah arose from Seir," and "Jehovah went forth out of Seir." (That the Lord is Jehovah may be seen above, n. 1343, 1736, 2004, 2005, 2018, 2025, 2156, 2329, 2921, 3023, 3035.) The "prophecy concerning Dumah" in Isaiah involves a like meaning: He calleth unto me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night; watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night (Isa. 21:11-12).  By the "land of Seir" in the relative sense is properly signified the Lord's kingdom with those who are out of the church, that is, with the Gentiles, when the church is being set up among them, on the former or old church falling away from charity and faith. That those who are in darkness then have light is evident from many passages in the Word. This is properly signified by "arising from Seir," and "going forth out of Seir, and marching out of the field of Edom," and by "Seir being an inheritance;" as also by the above words in Isaiah: "He calleth unto me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night;" "the morning cometh" denotes the Lord's advent (n. 2405, 2780), and the consequent enlightenment to those who are in night (that is, in ignorance), but enlightenment from the Lord's Divine natural (n. 4211). As most of the things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so likewise has "Seir;" as in Ezekiel 25:8, 9; 35:2-15, and occasionally in the historicals of the Word.4241.
The field of Edom. That this signifies the derivative truth (that is, truth from good) is evident from the signification of the "field of Edom," as being the Lord's Divine natural as to good, with which are conjoined the doctrinal things of truth, or truths (see n. 3302, 3322). The "derivative truths," or those which are from good, are distinct from the truths from which is good. The truths from which is good are those with which man imbues himself before regeneration; but the truths which are from good are those with which he imbues himself after regeneration, for after regeneration truths proceed from good, because the man then perceives and knows from good that they are true. Such truth, thus the truth of good, is what is signified by the "field of Edom;" as also in the passage cited above from the book of Judges: "O Jehovah, when Thou wentest forth out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of the field of Edom" (Judg. 5:4).4242.
And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye say unto my lord Esau. That this signifies the first acknowledgment of good as being in the higher place, may be seen from the signification here of "commanding the messengers to say," as being reflection and the consequent perception that it is so (see n. 3661, 3682), consequently acknowledgment; and from the representation of Esau, as being good (n. 4234, 4239). That good was in the higher place is signified by his not calling Esau his "brother," but his "lord," and also (as follows) by his calling himself his "servant," and afterwards speaking in the same manner. (That while man is being regenerated truth is apparently in the first place and good in the second; but good in the first place and truth in the second when he has been regenerated, may be seen above, n. 1904, 2063, 2189, 2697, 2979, 3286, 3288, 3310, 3325, 3330, 3332, 3336, 3470, 3509, 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3579, 3603, 3701.) This is also what is meant by the prophetic utterance of Isaac the father to Esau his son: By thy sword shalt thou live, and thou shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck (Gen. 27:40). It is the inversion of state foretold in these prophetic words which is treated of in the present chapter.4243.
I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now. That this signifies that He had imbued Himself with the good signified by "Laban," is evident from the representation of Laban, as being mediate good, that is, good not genuine, but still serving to introduce genuine truths and goods (see n. 3974, 3982, 3986, 4063); from the signification of "sojourning," as being to be instructed (see n. 1463, 2025); and from the signification of "tarrying" or "staying," as being predicated of a life of truth with good (n. 3613); here being to imbue with. Hence it is evident that by the words, "I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now," is signified that He had imbued Himself with the good signified by Laban.  The case herein is this: Truth cannot be implanted in good except by mediate things, such as have been treated of in the preceding chapters, in which is described Jacob's sojourning and tarrying with Laban, and his acquisition of a flock there. In the present chapter is described the process of conjunction, and thus the inversion of state, in the order which exists when truth is being made subordinate to good. Truth is apparently in the first place, when a man is learning truth from affection, but does not yet live so much in accordance with it. But good is in the first place when he lives according to the truth which he has learned from affection; for truth then becomes good, inasmuch as the man then believes it to be good to do according to the truth. They who have been regenerated are in this good; and they also who have conscience, that is, who no longer reasoned whether a thing is true, but do it because it is true, and thus have imbued themselves with it in faith and in life.4244.
And I had ox and ass, flock and manservant and handmaid. That this signifies acquisitions therein in their order, is evident from the signification of "ox and ass, flock and man-servant and handmaid" as being instrumental goods and truths both exterior and interior, thus acquisitions in their order. That an "ox" is exterior natural good, and an "ass" exterior natural truth, may be seen above, n. 2781; and that a "flock" is interior natural good, a "manservant" its truth, and a "handmaid" the affection of this truth, is evident from the signification of each, as explained several times above. These goods and truths are the acquisitions here treated of, and that they are named in their order, is manifest; for the exterior are the ox and the ass; and the interior are the flock, the manservant, and the handmaid.4245.
And I send to tell my lord, to find grace in thine eyes. That this signifies instruction concerning His state, and also the condescension and humiliation of truth in the presence of good, is evident from the signification of "sending to tell," as being to instruct concerning one's state. That there then follow condescension and humiliation of truth in the presence of good, is manifest; for Jacob calls him his "lord," and says, "to find grace in thine eyes," which are words of condescension and humiliation. There is here described the nature of the state when the inversion is taking place, that is, when truth is being made subordinate to good, or when they who have been in the affection of truth are beginning to be in the affection of good. But that there is such inversion and subordination is not apparent to any but those who have been regenerated, and to those only of the regenerated who reflect. There are few at this day who are being regenerated, and still fewer who reflect; for which reason the things here said about truth and good cannot but be obscure, and perchance of such a nature as not to be acknowledged; especially with those who put the truths of faith in the first place, and the good of charity in the second; and who consequently think much about doctrinal things, but not about the goods of charity; and think of eternal salvation as being from the former, but not from the latter. They who think in this manner can in no wise know, still less perceive, that the truth of faith is subordinated to the good of charity. The things which man thinks, and from which he thinks, affect him. If he should think from the goods of charity, he would then plainly see that the truths of faith are in the second place and he would then also see the truths themselves as in light; for the good of charity is like a flame that gives light, and thus enlightens each and all things which the man had before supposed to be true; and he would also perceive how falsities had intermingled themselves, and had put on the appearance of being truths.4246.
Verses 6-8. And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother, to Esau, and moreover he cometh to meet thee, and four hundred men with him. And Jacob feared exceedingly, and was distressed; and he halved the people that was with him, and the flock, and the herd, and the camels, into two camps. And he said, If Esau come to the one camp, and smite it, then there will be a camp left for escape. "And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother, to Esau, and moreover he cometh to meet thee," signifies that good flows in continually, so as to appropriate to itself; "and four hundred men with him," signifies its state now, that it may take the prior place; "and Jacob feared exceedingly, and was distressed," signifies the state when it is being changed; "and he halved the people that was with him, and the flock, and the herd, and the camels, into two camps," signifies the preparation and disposal of the truths and goods in the natural to receive the good represented by Esau; "and he said, If Esau come to the one camp, and smite it, then there will be a camp left for escape," signifies according to every event.4247.
And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother, to Esau, and moreover he cometh to meet thee. That this signifies that good flows in continually, so as to appropriate to itself (namely, truths), is evident from the signification of "brother," here Esau, as being good, (namely, that of the Lord's Divine natural, of which above); and from the signification of "coming to meet," as being to flow in (concerning which in what follows); and as influx is signified, so is appropriation.  From what has been said several times before on this subject, it may be seen how the case is with good and truth, and with the influx of good into truth, and with the appropriation of truth by good, namely, that good is continually flowing in, and that truth receives it, for truths are the vessels of good. The Divine good cannot be applied to any other vessels than genuine truths, for they correspond to each other. When a man is in the affection of truth (in which he is in the beginning before he begins to be regenerated), even then good is continually flowing in, but as yet has no vessels (that is, truths) into which to apply itself (that is, to be appropriated); for in the beginning of regeneration man is not as yet in knowledges. At that time, however, as good is continually flowing in, it produces the affection of truth; which is from no other source than the continual endeavor of Divine good to flow in. From this it is evident that even at that time good is in the first place, and acts the principal part, although it appears as if it were truth that did this. But when a man is being regenerated (which takes place in adult age when he is in knowledges), good then manifests itself; for the man is not then so much in the affection of knowing truth, as in the affection of doing it. Heretofore truth had been in his understanding, but now it is in his will; and when it is in the will, it is in the man; for the will constitutes the man himself. Such is the constant circle in man that everything of knowledge is insinuated through the sight or through the hearing into the thought, and from this into the will, and from the will through the thought into act. Or again from the memory, which is like an internal eye, or internal sight, there is a similar circle-from this sight through the thought into the will, and from the will through the thought into act; or if anything hinders, into the endeavor to act, which, as soon as that which hindered is removed, goes forth into act.  From this it is evident how the case is with influx, and with the appropriation of truth by good, namely, that first of all the truths of faith are insinuated through the hearing or through the sight, and are then stored up in the memory; from which they are successively elevated into knowledge, and at last flow into the will, and when in this they proceed thence through thought into act; and if they cannot go into act, they are in endeavor, which is itself an internal act, and whenever there is an opportunity this becomes an external act. Be it known, however, that while there is this circle, nevertheless it is good which produces the circle; for the life which is from the Lord does not flow in except into good, thus through good, and this from the inmosts. That the life which flows in through the inmosts produces this circle, may be seen by everyone, for without life nothing is produced; and as the life which is from the Lord does not flow in except into good and through good, it follows that good is that which produces; and that it flows into truths, and appropriates them to itself, insofar as the man is in the knowledges of truth, and is at the same time desirous to receive them.4248.
And four hundred men with him. That this signifies its state now, that it may take the prior place, is evident from the signification of "four hundred," as properly being temptations and their duration (see n. 2959, 2966). This is the state which is meant, as may be seen from what follows, namely, that "he feared exceedingly, and was distressed," and therefore "halved his camp into two" (verses 7-8); and also that out of fear he made ardent supplication to Jehovah (verses 9-12); and finally wrestled with an angel, by which wrestling is signified temptation, as will be evident from the explication of this wrestling in what follows in this chapter. When the state with the man who is being regenerated is being inverted, that is, when good takes the first place, then come temptations. Before this time the man cannot undergo them, because he is not yet in the knowledges wherewith to defend himself, and to which he may have recourse for comfort. For this reason also no one undergoes temptations until he has arrived at adult age. Temptations are what unite truths to good (see n. 2272, 3318, 3696, 3928). From this it is manifest that by the "four hundred men with him" is signified the state, that good may take the prior place.4249.
And Jacob feared exceedingly, and was distressed. That this signifies the state when it is being changed, is evident from the fact that fear and distress are what is first in temptations, and that when the state is being inverted or changed these take precedence. The arcana which lie hidden more at large in what is here said that Esau went to meet Jacob with four hundred men, and that Jacob therefore feared and was distressed-cannot easily be set forth to the apprehension, for they are too interior. This only may be presented: that when good is taking the prior place and is subordinating truths to itself, which takes place when the man is undergoing spiritual temptations, the good that then flows in from within is attended with very many truths which have been stored up in his interior man. These cannot come to his mental view and apprehension until good acts the first part, for then the natural begins to be enlightened by good, whence it becomes apparent what things in it are in accord, and what are discordant, from which come the fear and distress that precede spiritual temptation. For spiritual temptation acts upon the conscience, which is of the interior man; and therefore when he enters into this temptation the man does not know whence come such fear and distress, although the angels with him know this well; for the temptation comes from the angels holding the man in goods and truths while evil spirits are holding him in evils and falsities.  For the things that come forth with the spirits and angels who are with a man are perceived by the man exactly as if they were in him; for while a man is living in the body, and does not believe that all things flow in, he supposes that the things which come forth interiorly are not produced by causes outside of him, but that all the causes are within him, and are his very own; yet such is not the case. For whatever a man thinks and whatever he wills (that is, his every thought and his every affection) are either from hell or from heaven. When he thinks and wills evils, and is delighted with the consequent falsities, he may know that his thoughts and affections are from hell; and while he is thinking and willing goods, and is delighted with the derivative truths, he may know that they are from heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord. But the thoughts and affections that appertain to a man appear for the most part under another aspect; as for example, the combat of evil spirits with angels that arises from the things which appertain to a man who is to be regenerated, appears under the aspect of fear and distress, and of temptation.  These statements cannot but appear to man as paradoxes, because almost every man of the church at this day believes that all the truth which he thinks, and the good which he wills and does, are from himself, although he says otherwise when he speaks from the doctrine of faith. Nay, of such a nature is man that if anyone should say to him that there are evil spirits from hell who are flowing into his thought and will when he thinks and wills evils, and angels from heaven when he thinks and wills goods, he would stand amazed that anyone should maintain such a thing; for he would say that he feels life in himself, and thinks from himself and wills from himself. From this feeling in himself he forms his belief, and not from his doctrine; when yet the doctrine is true, but the feeling fallacious. It has been given me to know this from an almost continual experience of many years, and so to know it that no doubt whatever remains.4250.
And he halved the people that was with him, and the flock, and the herd, and the camels, into two camps. That this signifies the preparation and disposal of the truths and goods in the natural to receive the good represented by Esau, is evident from the signification of "people," as being truths, and also falsities (see n. 1259, 1260, 3581); from the signification of "flock," as being interior goods, and also things not good; from the signification of "herd," as being exterior goods, and also things not good (n. 2566, 4244); from the signification of "camels," as being exterior or general truths, and also things not true (n. 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145); and from the signification of "camps," as being order in a good sense genuine order, and in the opposite sense order not genuine (see n. 4236). That by "to halve" is here meant to divide into two, and thus to dispose one's self to receive, is manifest. How these things are circumstanced is evident from what was said just above, namely, that when good flows in, as is the case when the order is being inverted and good is taking the prior place, the natural is then enlightened, and it is seen what is genuine truth and good therein, and what not genuine; and the one kind is also discerned from the other, and thus some are retained, while others are removed; and hence the order becomes altogether different from what it had been before. For when good rules it is attended with this effect, because truths are then nothing but ministers and servants, and are disposed more and more nearly in accordance with heavenly order, according to the reception of good by truths, and also according to the quality of the good; for good takes its quality from truths.
4227-1 That is, with "a quadruplicate step, so that the sound is like a quadruped" (Spiritual Experiences 1031, 1127). The reason why the speech and action of such spirits is attended with this bestial sound is doubtless on account of the abnormal development within them of what is merely natural. A quadruped has no hands, but only feet, and the feet correspond to that which is lowest and most external in man. [Reviser.] 4228. The subject of the grand man and correspondence will be continued at the end of the following chapter, where correspondence with the senses in general will be treated of.
4229-1 That is, of the original Latin work.