Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
And he loved also Rachel more than Leah. That this signifies the love of internal truth more than of external truth, is evident from the representation of Rachel and of Leah; Rachel being internal truth, and Leah external truth. (What internal truth is, and what external truth, may be seen above, n. 3820.)3852.
And served with him yet seven other years. That this signifies holy study is evident from the signification of "serving," as being study (see n. 3824, 3846), and from the signification of "seven," as being what is holy (n. 395, 433, 716, 881, 3824). That is called holy study through which internal truths are conjoined with good, for all internal truths look to the Lord, and are conjoined through love to Him, this love being holiness itself.3853.
Verse 31. And Jehovah saw that Leah was hated, and He opened her womb, and Rachel was barren. "And Jehovah saw," signifies the Lord's foresight and providence; "that Leah was hated," signifies that the affection of external truth was not so dear because further from the Divine; "and He opened her womb," signifies that thence came the doctrines of churches; "and Rachel was barren," signifies that interior truths were not received.3854.
And Jehovah saw. That this signifies the Lord's foresight and providence, is evident from the signification of "seeing," when predicated of the Lord, as being foresight and providence, which will be treated of in the following verse, concerning Reuben, whose name was given from "seeing." (That "Jehovah" is the Lord, may be seen, n. 1343, 1736, 1793, 2156, 2329, 2921, 3023, 3035.)  As regards foresight and providence in general, it is foresight relatively to man, and providence relatively to the Lord. The Lord foresaw from eternity what the human race would be, and what would be the quality of each member of it, and that evil would continually increase, until at last man of himself would rush headlong into hell. On this account the Lord has not only provided means by which man may be turned from hell and led to heaven, but also from providence He continually turns and leads him. The Lord also foresaw that it would be impossible for any good to be rooted in man except in his freedom, for whatever is not rooted in freedom is dissipated on the first approach of evil and temptation. This the Lord foresaw, and also that man of himself, or from his freedom, would incline toward the deepest hell; and therefore the Lord provides that if a man should not suffer himself to be led in freedom to heaven, he may still be bent toward a milder hell; but that if he should suffer himself to be led in freedom to good, he may be led to heaven. This shows what foresight means, and what providence, and that what is foreseen is thus provided.  And from this we can see how greatly the man errs who believes that the Lord has not foreseen, and does not see, the veriest singulars appertaining to man, and that in these He does not foresee and lead; when the truth is that the Lord's foresight and providence are in the very minutest of these veriest singulars connected with man, in things so very minute that it is impossible by any thought to comprehend as much as one out of a hundred millions of them; for every smallest moment of man's life involves a series of consequences extending to eternity, each moment being as a new beginning to those which follow; and so with all and each of the moments of his life, both of his understanding and of his will. And as the Lord foresaw from eternity what would be man's quality, and what it would be to eternity, it is evident that His providence is in the veriest singulars, and as before said governs and bends the man to such a quality; and this by a continual moderating of his freedom. But concerning this subject, of the Lord's Divine mercy more hereafter.3855.
That Leah was hated. That this signifies that the affection of external truth was not so dear because it was further from the Divine, is evident from the signification of "hated," as being what is not dear; and from the representation of Leah, as being the affection of external truth (concerning which see above). That external truths are more remote from the Divine than internal truths, may be seen from the fact that external things come forth from internal ones; for external things are images and forms composed of myriads of internal things which appear as a one; and this being the nature of external things, they are further from the Divine; for the Divine is above the inmost, or in the highest. The Lord flows from the highest into the inmosts of man, and through these into his interiors, and through these again into his externals; thus He flows in mediately, and also immediately; and as the externals are further from the Divine, they are also on this account relatively without order, nor do they suffer themselves to be reduced to such order as do the internals. The case herein is the same as it is with seeds, which are more perfect within than without, being so perfect within as to enable them to produce a whole plant, or a whole tree, in its order, together with its leaves and fruits, the external forms of which may easily suffer injury from various causes, but not so much so the internal or inmost forms of the seeds, which are in a more interior and perfect nature. The case is the same with the internals and externals of man, and therefore when man is being regenerated, he is regenerated as to the rational before he is regenerated as to the natural (n. 3493); and the regeneration of the natural is both later and more difficult, because in it are many things which are not in order and are exposed to injuries from the body and the world; and this being the case, it is said that these things are "not so dear;" but insofar as they agree with internal things, and insofar as they conduce to the life and to the sight of the internal things that are within them, and also to man's regeneration, so far they too are dear.3856.
And He opened her womb. That this signifies that therefrom came the doctrines of churches, is evident from the signification of "opening the womb," or of conceiving and bringing forth, as being to become a church; and because this is effected by means of doctrinal things, therefore by "opening the womb" are signified the doctrines of churches. (That by "conceptions" and "births" in the Word are signified spiritual conceptions and births, such as occur when man is born anew, may be seen above, n. 1145, 1255, 1330, 2584.) How the case stands with these things will appear from what presently follows.3857.
And Rachel was barren. That this signifies that interior truths were not received, is evident from the representation of Rachel, as being the affection of interior truth (concerning which see above); and from the signification of "barren," as being that there were no doctrines therefrom, consequently no churches; for this statement is opposed to what is said of Leah-that "Jehovah opened her womb," by which is signified that therefrom came the doctrines of churches. The reason why interior truths were not received, is that interior truths are such as to transcend man's faith, for they do not fall into his ideas, neither are they according to external appearances, that is, the fallacies of the senses, by which every man suffers himself to be led, and does not believe that which does not in some measure coincide with them.  For example: it is an interior truth that there are no times and spaces in the other life, but instead of these, states. Whereas during his life on earth, man-who is in time and space-has all his ideas from them, insomuch that without time and space he cannot think at all (see n. 3404); and therefore unless the states that are in the other life were described to man by means of times and spaces, or by means of such objects as derive therefrom their forms, he would perceive nothing, thus would believe nothing, and consequently would not receive the instruction; so that the doctrine would be barren and there would be no church from it  To take another example: unless celestial and spiritual affections were described by means of such things as belong to worldly and bodily affections, man would not perceive anything, for he is in these affections, and thereby is capable of having some notion of celestial and spiritual affections, when nevertheless they are as different, or as distinct from each other, as heaven is from earth (n. 3839). For instance-in regard to the glory of heaven, or of the angels in heaven-unless man formed for himself an idea of the glory of heaven in accordance with the idea of glory in the world, he would not apprehend the matter, thus neither would he acknowledge it. And so in all other cases.  For this reason the Lord spoke in the Word in accordance with man's apprehension, and in accordance with the appearances of the same. The literal sense of the Word is of this nature, but still it is such as to contain within it an internal sense, in which are interior truths. This then is the reason why it is said of Leah, that "Jehovah opened her womb," and of Rachel, that "she was barren;" for as before said by Leah is represented the affection of exterior truth, and by Rachel the affection of interior truth. But inasmuch as exterior truths are the first truths man learns, it is provided by the Lord that by means of them he may be introduced into interior truths, and this is what is signified when it is said that at last "God remembered Rachel, and hearkened to her, and opened her womb" (Gen. 30:22).  These matters may be substantiated from the churches which were of ancient time, and from their doctrinal things, in that these were formed from external truths. Thus with the Ancient Church that was after the flood, its doctrinal things were for the most part external representatives and significatives, in which internal truths were stored up. Most of the members of this church were in holy worship when in externals; and had anyone told them in the beginning that these representatives and significatives were not the essentials of Divine worship, but that the essentials were the spiritual and celestial things represented and signified thereby, they would have altogether rejected such a doctrine, and thus there would have been no church. This was still more the case with the Jewish Church: if anyone had told the men of this church that their rituals derived their sanctity from the Divine things of the Lord that were in them, they would not have acknowledged it at all.  Such also was man when the Lord came into the world, and still more corporeal had he become, and especially they who belonged to the church. This is very plain from the disciples themselves, who were continually with the Lord, and heard so many things concerning His kingdom, and yet were not able to perceive interior truths, not being able to form any other notion of the Lord than such as the Jews at this day entertain concerning the Messiah whom they expect; namely, that He will exalt their people to dominion and glory above all the nations in the universe. And even after they had heard so many things from the Lord respecting the heavenly kingdom, they still could not think otherwise than that the heavenly kingdom would be like an earthly kingdom, and that God the Father would be the highest therein, and after Him the Son, and then the twelve, and thus that they would reign in their order; wherefore also James and John asked that they might sit, the one on His right hand and the other on His left (Mark 10:35-37); and the rest of the disciples were angry at their desiring to be greater than they (Mark 10:41; Matt. 20:24). For the same reason also the Lord, after He had taught them what it was to be the greatest in heaven (Matt. 20:25-28; Mark 10:42-45), still spoke according to their apprehension, saying that they should sit on twelve thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Luke 22:24, 30; Matt. 19:28).  If they had been told that by "the disciples" are not meant themselves, but all who are in the good of love and faith (n. 3354, 3488); also that in the Lord's kingdom there are neither thrones, sovereignties, nor rule, as in the world, and that they could not even judge the least thing in a single man (n. 2129, 2553), they would have rejected the saying, and, leaving the Lord, would have returned everyone to his own occupation. The reason why the Lord so spoke was that they might receive external truths, and thereby be introduced into internal ones, for within those external truths which the Lord spoke, internal truths were concealed, which in course of time stand open; and when these stand open, the external truths are dissipated and serve only as objects or means of thinking about the internal truths. From this it may now be known what is meant by what is here related-that Jehovah first opened Leah's womb and she bare sons to Jacob, and that Rachel bare sons afterwards.3858.
As in what now follows the twelve sons of Jacob are treated of, and the twelve tribes of Israel were named from them as their fathers, it is here to be premised what the tribes signify, and why there were twelve. No one has yet known the arcanum herein concealed, because it has been believed that the histories of the Word are bare histories, and that there is no more of the Divine therein than that they can serve as examples for the application of holy things. Hence also it has been believed that the twelve tribes signify nothing but divisions of the Israelitish people into so many distinct nations or general families, when yet they involve Divine things; that is to say, so many universal divisions of faith and love, consequently things relating to the Lord's kingdom in the heavens and on earth, each tribe involving some distinct universal; but what each signifies will appear from what presently follows, where the sons of Jacob are treated of, from whom these tribes were named. In general the twelve tribes signified all things of the doctrine of truth and good, or of faith and love; for these (that is, truth and good, or faith and love) constitute the Lord's kingdom; for the things of truth or faith are the all of thought therein, and the things of good or love are the all of affection; and because the Jewish Church was instituted in order that it might represent the Lord's kingdom, therefore the divisions of that people into twelve tribes signified these things. This is a mystery never before disclosed.  That "twelve" signifies all things in general, was shown above (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272); but that "tribes" signify those things which are of truth and good, or of faith and love, thus that the "twelve tribes" signify all things of these, may be here confirmed from the Word, before they are described separately. In John: The holy city New Jerusalem had twelve gates, and over the gates twelve angels; and names written thereon which are the names of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel; and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. He measured the city with the reed unto twelve thousand furlongs; and he measured the wall thereof, a hundred and forty and four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is of an angel. The twelve gates were twelve pearls (Rev. 21:12, 14, 16-17, 21). That the holy city, or New Jerusalem, is the Lord's New Church, is manifest from all the particulars thereof. In some of the foregoing chapters the state of the church is described, as it would be before its end. This chapter treats of the New Church, and therefore the gates, wall, and foundations of the city are nothing else than things of the church, which are those of charity and faith, for these constitute the church.  Everyone can see that by the "twelve" so often mentioned in the above passage, and also by the "tribes," and likewise the "apostles," are not meant twelve, or tribes, or apostles, but by "twelve" all things in one complex (as may be seen above, n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272); and in like manner by the number "a hundred and forty and four," for this is twelve times twelve. And as by "twelve" are signified all things, it is evident that by the "twelve tribes" are signified all things of the church; which as before said are truths and goods, or faith and love; and in like manner by the "twelve apostles," who also represented all things of the church, that is, all things of faith and love (as may be seen above, n. 2129, 3354, 3488, 3857. This number is therefore called the "measure of a man, that is, of an angel," by which is meant a state of truth and good. (That "measure" signifies state, see above, n. 3104. That "man" signifies that which is of the church, is evident from what was said above concerning the signification of "man," n. 478, 479, 565, 768, 1871, 1894; and also from the fact that the Lord's kingdom is called the Grand Man, and this by virtue of good and truth which are from the Lord, on which subject see at the close of the chapters, n. 3624-3648, 3741-3750. That "angel" signifies the same, may be seen above, n. 1705, 1754, 1925, 2821, 3039.)  As in John, so also in the Prophets of the Old Testament is the New Jerusalem treated of, and there in like manner it signifies the Lord's New Church-as in Isa. 65:18-19 seq.; in Zech. 14; especially in Ezek. 40-48; where by the "New Jerusalem," the "new temple," and the "new earth," are described in the internal sense the Lord's kingdom in the heavens, and His kingdom on earth which is the church. From what is said in these chapters in Ezekiel it is plainer than elsewhere what is signified by "earth," by "Jerusalem," by "temple," and by all things therein, and also what by the "twelve tribes;" for the division of the land is treated of, and its inheritance according to tribes, and also the city, its walls, foundations, and gates, and all things that will belong to the temple therein. From these passages we may here quote only what is said concerning the tribes: The Lord Jehovih said, This is the border whereby ye shall inherit the land according to the twelve tribes of Israel. Ye shall divide this land according to the tribes of Israel. And it shall come to pass that ye shall divide it by lot for an inheritance unto you, and to the sojourners who sojourn in the midst of you. They shall cast lot with you for an inheritance in the midst of the tribes of Israel (Ezek. 47:13, 21-23). As for the land, it shall be to the prince for a possession in Israel; and My princes shall no more afflict My people and they shall give the land to the house of Israel according to their tribes (Ezek. 45:8). Concerning the inheritances, and how they were assigned to the several tribes, which are there also mentioned by name, see chap. 48:1, etc. And concerning the gates of the city, according to the names of the tribes of Israel, see the same chapter, verses 31 to 34.  That by "tribes" there, are not meant tribes, is very plain, for the ten tribes were already at that time dispersed through the whole earth, neither did they afterwards return, nor can they ever return, for they are become Gentiles; and yet mention is made of each tribe, and how they should inherit the land, and what should be the boundaries of each; namely, what boundary for the tribe of Dan (verse 2); what for the tribe of Asher (verse 3); what for Naphtali, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben, Judah; what should be the inheritance of the Levites; what the boundary of Benjamin; what of Simeon, of Issachar, of Zebulun, and of Gad (verses 4-29); also that the city should have twelve gates according to the names of the tribes of Israel; that three should be toward the north, for Reuben, Judah, and Levi; three toward the east, for Joseph, Benjamin, and Dan; three toward the south, for Simeon, Issachar, and Zebulun; and three toward the west, for Gad, Asher, and Naphtali (verses 31-34). Thus it is evident that by the "twelve tribes" are signified all things of the Lord's kingdom, or all things of faith and love, for these as before said constitute the Lord's kingdom.  Because the "twelve tribes" signified all things of the Lord's kingdom, therefore also the twelve tribes by their encampments, and also by their journeyings, represented that kingdom. Concerning these we read in Moses that they should encamp according to the tribes around the tent of the assembly; toward the east, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun; toward the south, Reuben, Simeon, and Gad; toward the west, Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin; and toward the north, Dan, Asher, and Naphtali; and that as they encamped, so they journeyed (Num. 2). That in this they represented the Lord's kingdom, is very plain from the prophecy of Balaam: When Balaam lifted up his eyes, and saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, the spirit of God came upon him, and he uttered his enunciation and said, How goodly are thy tabernacles, O Jacob, thy habitations, O Israel! As the valleys are they planted, as gardens by the river side, as the lignaloes which Jehovah hath planted, as cedar trees beside the waters (Num. 24:2-6). That Balaam spoke these words from Jehovah, is expressly stated (Num. 22:8, 18-19, 35, 38; 23:5, 12, 16, 26; 24:2, 13).  From all this it is evident what was represented by the inheritances of the land of Canaan according to the tribes, concerning which we read in Moses that Moses was to take the sum of the congregation of the sons of Israel according to their fathers' houses, from twenty years old, everyone that went forth into the army of Israel; and that the land should be distributed by lot; according to the names of the tribes of their fathers they should receive inheritance (Num. 26:7-56; 33:54; 34:19-29); and that the land was divided by Joshua, by lot, according to the tribes (Josh. 13, 15-19). That as before said the Lord's kingdom was thus represented is manifest from all the particulars; for the "land of Canaan" signifies this kingdom (see n. 1585, 1607, 3038, 3481, 3705).  The reason why the sons of Israel are called "armies," and it is said that they should "encamp according to their armies," and should "journey according to their armies" (Num. 2:4-30), is that an "army" signified the same, namely, truths and goods (see n. 3448); and the Lord is called "Jehovah Zebaoth," that is, "Jehovah of Armies" (n. 3448). Hence they were called the "armies of Jehovah" when they went forth out of Egypt; as in Moses: It came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty years, even the self-same day it came to pass, that all the armies of Jehovah went out from the land of Egypt (Exod. 12:41). It must be evident to everyone that they who were of such a quality in Egypt, and afterwards in the wilderness, were called the "armies of Jehovah" only representatively, for they were in no good or truth, being the worst of all nations.  From the same ground it is very plain what is signified by the "names of the twelve tribes" in Aaron's breastplate, which was called the Urim and Thummim, concerning which we read in Moses that there should be four rows therein, that there should be twelve stones, and these stones according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve according to their names; and that the engravings of a signet should be to each over its name for the twelve tribes (Exod. 28:21; 39:14); for Aaron represented the Lord's Divine priesthood; for which reason all the things with which he was invested signified Divine celestial and spiritual things. But what they signified will of the Lord's Divine mercy appear where they are treated of. In the breast plate itself, inasmuch as it was most holy, there were representations of all things that are of love and faith in the Lord: these are the Urim and Thummim. The reason why the names were engraved on precious stones was that "stones" in general signify truths (n. 1298, 3720); and "precious stones," truths which are transparent from good (n. 114); and as the "names" of the several tribes signified the quality, therefore a particular kind of stone was assigned for each tribe (Exod. 28:17-20; 39:8, 10-13), which stone by its color and transparency expressed the quality that was signified by each tribe; hence it was that Jehovah or the Lord gave answers by the Urim and Thummim.  By the "two onyx stones" that were on the two shoulders of the ephod were represented the same, but in a lesser degree than by the twelve stones on the breastplate; for the "shoulders" signified all power, thus the omnipotence of the Lord (n. 1085); but the "breast," or the "heart and lungs," signified Divine celestial and spiritual love; the "heart," Divine celestial love; and the "lungs," Divine spiritual love; as may be seen above (n. 3635), and at the end of this chapter, where the Grand Man is treated of, and its correspondence with the province of the heart and with that of the lungs. Concerning the "two stones on the shoulder of the ephod," we read in Moses: Thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names of the sons of Israel; six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the six that remain on the other stone, according to their generations. Thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod, stones of memorial for the sons of Israel (Exod. 28:9-10, 12; 39:6-7).  Because the tribes signified what is of truth and good, or of faith and love, and each tribe signified some universal thereof, and the tribe of Levi signified love (as will appear from the explication of verse 34 of this chapter), it may from this be known what was signified by placing rods, one for each tribe, in the tent of assembly, and by Levi's rod alone blossoming with almonds; concerning which we read in Moses: Take twelve rods, one rod for each head of their fathers' houses, and let them be left in the tent of meeting; and thou shalt write Aaron's name upon the rod of Levi. And the rod of Aaron was in the midst of the rods. On the morrow, behold the rod of Aaron for the tribe of Levi blossomed, and brought forth a blossom so that the flower flowered, and bare almonds (Num. 17:2-8); this signified that love is the essential and the principal of all things in the Lord's kingdom, and that from it is all fructification. The reason why Aaron's name was upon it, was that Aaron represented the Lord as to His Divine priesthood. (That by the "Lord's priesthood" is signified the Divine good, which is of His love and mercy; and by the "Lord's royalty," the Divine truth which is from the Divine good, may be seen above, n. 1728, 2015, 3670.)  From what has now been adduced it may be seen what "tribes" and "twelve tribes" signify in the following passages. In John: I heard the number of them which were sealed, a hundred forty and four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of Israel. Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Asher were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Naphtali were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Manasseh were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Zebulun were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand (Rev. 7:4-8). In Moses: Remember the days of eternity; understand the years of generation and generation. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of man, He set the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel (Deut. 32:7-8). In David: Jerusalem is built as a city which is compact together; whither the tribes go up, the tribes of Jah, a testimony unto Israel, to confess unto the name of Jehovah (Ps. 122:3-4).  In Joshua: Behold the ark of the covenant of the Lord of all the earth passeth before you into Jordan. Take you twelve men out of the tribes of Israel, out of every tribe a man. And it shall come to pass, when the soles of the feet of the priests that bear the ark of Jehovah, the Lord of all the earth, shall rest in the waters of Jordan, that the waters of Jordan shall be cut off; they shall stand in one heap (Josh. 3:11-13). Again: Take out of the midst of Jordan, out of the place where the priests' feet stood ready, twelve stones, and carry them over with you, every man a stone upon his shoulder, according to the number of the tribes of Israel; that this may be a sign that the waters of Jordan were cut off. Moreover Joshua set up twelve stones in the midst of Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests that bare the ark of the covenant stood (Josh. 4:3-9). Again: Elijah took twelve stones, according to the number of the tribes of the sons of Jacob, unto whom the word of Jehovah came, saying, Israel shall be thy name; and he built an altar in the name of Jehovah (1 Kings 18:31-32).  That "tribes" signify the goods of love and truths of faith, is evident also from the Lord's words in Matthew: Then shall appear the sign of the Son of man and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory (Matt. 24:30); where by "all the tribes of the earth mourning," is signified that there would no longer be any acknowledgment of truth and of the life of good, for the subject treated of is the consummation of the age. In like manner in John: Behold He cometh with the clouds, and every eye shall see Him, and they also who pierced Him and all the tribes of the earth shall mourn because of Him (Rev. 1:7). What is signified by "coming in the clouds of heaven" may be seen in the preface to the eighteenth chapter; see further what was shown me from experience concerning twelve (n. 2129, 2130).  The reason why all things of faith and love are called "tribes," is that the same expression in the original tongue signifies also a "scepter" and a "staff." That a "scepter," and also a "staff," signifies power, will of the Lord's Divine mercy be shown elsewhere. Hence the name "tribe" involves in it that goods and truths have within them all power from the Lord. For this reason also the angels are called "powers," and likewise "sovereignties," for "princes" signify the primary things of charity and faith, as do the "twelve princes" descended from Ishmael (Gen. 25:16-see n. 2089, 3272), and also the "princes" who presided over the tribes (Num. 7; 13:4-16).  From what has been hitherto said concerning the twelve tribes, it may be known why the Lord's disciples, who were afterwards called "apostles," were twelve in number; and that they represented the church of the Lord as to goods and truths in like manner as did the tribes (n. 2129, 3354, 3488, 3857). That Peter represented faith; James, charity; and John, the works of charity, may be seen above (preface to chapter 18 and to chapter 22, also n. 3750). This likewise is very plain from what the Lord said concerning them and to them.3859.
Verse 32. And Leah conceived and bare a son, and she called his name Reuben; for she said, Because Jehovah hath seen my affliction, for now my man will love me. "And Leah conceived and bare a son," signifies spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is internal; "and she called his name Reuben," signifies the quality thereof, which is described; "for she said, Because Jehovah hath seen," signifies in the supreme sense foresight, in the internal sense faith, in the interior sense understanding, in the external sense sight, and in the present case faith from the Lord; "my affliction," signifies a state of arriving at good; "for now my man will love me," signifies that hence would come the good of truth.3860.
And Leah conceived and bare a son. That this signifies spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is internal, is evident from the signification of "conceiving and bearing," as in the internal sense being to be regenerated; for the man who is being regenerated is conceived and born anew, wherefore regeneration is called a new birth, but spiritual. Man is indeed born of his parents as a man, but he does not become a man until he is reborn of the Lord. Spiritual and heavenly life is that which makes a man, for this distinguishes him from brute animals. It is this spiritual conception and birth which is signified in the Word by the conceptions and births mentioned therein; and by what is here said-that "Leah conceived and bare a son." (That the generations and nativities are those of faith and love, which they signify, see above, n. 613, 1145, 1255, 2020, 2584, 3856.) That these conceptions and births take place from what is external to what is internal, is signified by "Leah conceiving and bearing," for by Leah is represented the affection of external truth (n. 3793, 3819); and by Reuben the truth of faith, which is the first of regeneration, and the external from which regeneration commences. How the case herein is will appear from what follows concerning the children of Jacob by Leah and by Rachel.3861.
And she called his name Reuben. That this signifies the quality thereof, which is described, is evident from the signification of "name" and of "calling a name," as being quality (see n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3321). The quality itself is described by the words, "Jehovah hath seen my affliction, for now my man will love me," which are "Reuben." (That all the names in the Word signify actual things has been often shown above, n. 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888; and that the ancients gave names significative of states, see n. 340, 1946, 2643, 3422.) That here the names of all the sons of Jacob signify the universals of the church, will be shown. A real universal has also been put into the name of each; but what universal it is impossible for anyone to know, unless he knows what is involved in the internal sense of the expressions from which each one was called-as for instance in the expression, "hath seen," from which Reuben was named; in the expression, "hath heard," from which Simeon was named; in the expression, "will adhere," from which Levi was named; and in the expression, "will confess," from which Judah was named; and so with regard to all the others.3862.
It has been shown above (n. 3858) that the "twelve tribes" signified all things of truth and good, or of faith and love; and as the sons of Jacob from whom the tribes were named are now treated of one by one, therefore another arcanum is here to be opened, namely, what is involved in them. That all celestial and spiritual heat, or love and charity, is perceived in external form in heaven as a flaming from the sun; and that all celestial and spiritual light, or faith, in the external form in heaven appears as light from the sun; also, that this celestial and spiritual heat has within it wisdom; and that the light therefrom has within it intelligence, and this because they are from the Lord, who is there the sun, may be seen above (n. 1053, 1521-1533, 1619-1632, 2441, 2495, 2776, 3138, 3167, 3190, 3195, 3222-3223, 3338-3339, 3341, 3413, 3485, 3636, 3643). From this it is evident that all good is from the heat which is from the Lord as a sun; and that all truth is from the light therefrom; and it is further evident that all affections, which are of love or good, are variations of that celestial and spiritual heat which is from the Lord, and that thence come the changes of state; and that all thoughts, which are of faith or truth, are variegations of that celestial and spiritual light which is from the Lord, and that thence comes intelligence. In this heat and light are all the angels in heaven, and their affections and thoughts are from no other source, and are nothing else. This is manifest from their speech, which in consequence of this origin consists of variegations or modifications of heavenly light, within which there is heavenly heat, and is therefore also unutterable, and so various and full as to be beyond comprehension (n. 3342, 3344, 3345).  In order that these things might be exhibited representatively in the world, such names were given to the several sons of Jacob as would signify the universals of good and truth, or of love and faith, thus universals in respect to the variations of celestial and spiritual heat, and as to the variegations of the derivative light. The very order of these universals is that which determines the flame and its derivative resplendence. When the order begins from love, everything which follows thence in genuine order appears flaming; but when the order begins from faith, everything which follows in genuine order appears lucid; but with every difference according to the things which follow. But if the order in which they follow is not genuine, everything appears obscure, with every difference. Concerning this order and the difference thence resulting, of the Lord's Divine mercy something shall be said hereafter. This explains how it was that the Lord gave answers by the Urim and Thummim, and that according to the state of the matter in question they received answers by means of lights and their radiance from the precious and pellucid stones, on which were inscribed the names of the twelve tribes; for as before said, on the names were inscribed the universals of love and faith in the Lord's kingdom, consequently the universals of flame and light whereby the things of love and faith are represented in heaven.  It may therefore be first confirmed from the Word that the order in which the names of the tribes are mentioned is various in the Word, and this in accordance with the state of the subject treated of; and that from this it may be known that the answers from the Lord given by the Urim and Thummim were shinings forth of light according to the state of the matter in question from order; for all the light of heaven varies according to the states of the subject; and the states of the subject vary according to the order of good and truth. But what of truth and good is signified by each son of Jacob, will be seen from the explication; namely, that by "Reuben" is signified faith from the Lord; by "Simeon" faith of the will which is from the Lord; by "Levi" spiritual love or charity; by "Judah" the Divine of love and the Lord's celestial kingdom. What is signified by the eight remaining sons, will be stated in the following chapter. Their order according to birth is what is here described, which is as follows: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin (see verses 32-35 of this chapter, and verses 6, 8, 11, 13, 18, 20, 24 of chapter 30, and verse 18 of chapter 35). This order is according to the state of the subject here treated of, which is the regeneration of man; for in this case the commencement is from the truth of faith, which is "Reuben;" and progression is thence made to willing what is true, which is "Simeon;" and thence to charity, which is "Levi;" thus to the Lord, who in the supreme sense is represented by Judah. That spiritual conception and birth, or regeneration, proceeds from what is external to what is internal, was stated above (n. 3860); that is, from the truth of faith to the good of love.  Previous to Jacob's coming to his father Isaac, in Mamre (Kiriath-arba), the twelve sons are named in the following order: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher (Gen. 35:23-26); in which enumeration the sons born of Leah and Rachel are named first, and last those born of the handmaids, and this according to the state of the subject there treated of. They are enumerated in a still different order when they journeyed and came to Egypt (Gen. 46:9-19); and in another order when they were blessed by Jacob, at that time Israel, before his death (Gen. 49:3-27); and in another when they were blessed by Moses (Deut. 33:6-24). They were in the following order when they encamped around the tent of assembly: to the east, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun; to the south, Reuben, Simeon, Gad; to the west, Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin; to the north, Dan, Asher, Naphtali (Num. 2). In what order they stood for blessing the people on Mount Gerizim and for cursing on Mount Ebal, may be seen in Deut. 27:12-13. When the princes chosen from each tribe were sent to explore the land, they are enumerated in this order: Reuben, Simeon, Judah, Issachar, Ephraim, Benjamin, Zebulun, Joseph or Manasseh, Dan, Asher, Naphtali, Gad (Num. 13:4-16). But the princes who were to give the land for inheritance are enumerated in another order (Num. 34:19-29). In what order the lot was cast and came forth when the land was given for inheritance, may be seen in Joshua 13 to 19.  When in Ezekiel the boundaries of the new or holy land which the tribes were to inherit are described, they are mentioned in this order: Dan, Asher, Naphtali, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben, Judah, Benjamin, Simeon, Issachar, Zebulun, Gad, all from the corner eastward to the corner of the sea or west, except Gad, who was at the corner of the south, toward the south (48:2-8, 23-26); and when treating of the gates of the new or holy city, they are mentioned in this order: toward the north three gates, of Reuben, Judah, and Levi; toward the east three gates, of Joseph, Benjamin, and Dan; toward the south three gates, of Simeon, Issachar, and Zebulun; toward the west three gates, of Gad, Asher, and Naphtali (Ezek. 48:31-34). The order of those who were sealed, twelve thousand out of every tribe, may be seen in Rev. 7:5-8. In all these passages the enumeration of the tribes is altogether according to the state of the specific subject that is being treated of, to which the order corresponds; this state being seen from the things that precede and that follow.  What was the order of the precious stones in the Urim and Thummim is mentioned and described in the Word, but to what tribe each stone corresponded is not mentioned, for the stones represented all things of light from celestial flame, that is, all things of truth from good, or all things of faith from love; and because they had this representation, heavenly light itself shone through in a miraculous manner in accordance with the state of the subject concerning which there was question and answer, being glowing and shining for an affirmative of what was good and true, together with variegations of colors according to the differences of the state of that which was good and true; just as takes place in heaven, where all celestial and spiritual things are expressed by means of lights and their differences, and this in a manner ineffable and altogether incomprehensible by man; for as before shown within heavenly light there is life from the Lord, consequently wisdom and intelligence, and therefore in the differences of the light there is everything that belongs to the life of truth, that is, everything that belongs to wisdom and intelligence; and in the differences of the flame and of its glowing and resplendence, there is everything that belongs to the life of good and to the life of truth from good, or to love to the Lord and the derivative faith. Such were the Urim and Thummim that were on the breastplate of the ephod and on the heart of Aaron, as is also evident from the fact that the words "Urim and Thummim" mean "Lights and Perfections," and that the breastplate, on which they were placed, was called the "breastplate of judgment," because "judgment" is intelligence and wisdom (n. 2235). The reason why this was on Aaron's heart, was that by the "heart" is signified the Divine love (see above, n. 3635, and at the end of this chapter). Hence those precious stones were in settings of gold, for in the internal sense "gold" is the good of love (n. 113, 1551, 1552); and "precious stone," the truth that is transparent from good (n. 114).  Concerning the Urim and Thummim we read in Moses: Thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment, a work of designing, like the work of the ephod thou shalt make it, of gold, of blue, and of crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it. Foursquare it shall be doubled, and thou shalt set in it settings of stone, four rows of stone shall there be; sockets of gold shall there be in their settings. And the stones shall be according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve according to their names; the engravings of a signet, everyone according to his name, they shall be for the twelve tribes (Exod. 28:15-17, 20; 39:8-14). The stones that were to be in each row are also there designated. And further: The breastplate shall not depart from off the ephod; and Aaron shall bear the names of the sons of Israel in the breastplate upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before Jehovah continually. And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before Jehovah; and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the sons of Israel upon his heart before Jehovah continually (Exod. 28:28-30; Lev. 8:7-8). That Jehovah or the Lord was inquired of and gave answers by means of the Urim, may be seen in Moses: Jehovah said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, and thou shalt put of thy glory upon him, that all the congregation of the sons of Israel may obey. He shall stand before Eleazar the priest, and he shall inquire for him in the judgment of the Urim before Jehovah (Num. 27:18, 20-21). And in Samuel: Saul inquired of Jehovah, and Jehovah answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets (1 Sam. 28:6).3863.
For she said, Because Jehovah hath seen. That in the supreme sense this signifies foresight, in the internal sense faith, in the interior sense understanding, and in the external sense sight, in the present case faith from the Lord, is evident from the signification of "seeing," concerning which in what follows. From what has been said above, it may be seen that the twelve tribes, named from the twelve sons of Jacob, signified all things of truth and good, or of faith and love, thus all things of the church, and that each tribe signified some universal; thus the twelve tribes signified the twelve universals which comprehend and include within them all things whatsoever that belong to the church; and in the universal sense, all things that belong to the Lord's kingdom. The universal which "Reuben" signifies, is faith. The reason why faith is the first universal, is that when man is being regenerated or becoming a church, he must first learn and become imbued with the things of faith, that is, of spiritual truth; for he is introduced by means of the doctrine of faith, or of truth. For man is of such a nature that of himself he does not know what heavenly good is, but must learn it from doctrine, which is called the doctrine of faith. Every doctrine of faith regards life as the end, and therefore good, for good is life.  It was a controverted point among the ancients, which was the firstborn of the church, the truth which is of faith, or the good which is of love. They who maintained that the truth which is of faith is the firstborn, argued from the external appearance, and determined this to be the first, because truth is and ought to be first learned, and because by means of it man is introduced to good. But they knew not that good is essentially the firstborn, and that it is insinuated by the Lord through the internal man, in order that it may adopt and receive the truth which is introduced through the external man; nor were they aware that in good there is life from the Lord, and that in truth there is no life but that which it has through good; thus that good is the soul of truth, and appropriates to itself and puts on truth as the soul does its body. From this we can see that according to the external appearance truth is in the first place, and is as it were the firstborn while man is being regenerated; although good is essentially in the first place, and is the firstborn, and is placed first when man has been regenerated. (That this is the case may be seen above, n. 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701.)  As the subject treated of in this chapter, and in those which precede, is the regeneration of the natural, and here its first state, which is that of introduction by means of truth to good, therefore the first son of Jacob, or Reuben, was named from "Jehovah seeing," which in the internal sense signifies faith from the Lord. Regarded in itself, faith is a faith in the understanding and a faith in the will; to know and understand the truth which is of faith is called faith in the understanding; but to will the truth which is of faith is called faith in the will. Faith in the understanding is that which is signified by "Reuben;" but faith in the will is what is signified by "Simeon." That faith in the understanding, or the understanding of truth, precedes faith in the will, or the willing of truth, must be evident to everyone; for when anything is unknown to man (such as heavenly good), he must first know that it exists, and understand what it is, before he can will it.  That in the external sense "to see" signifies sight, is evident without explication; and that in the interior sense "to see" signifies understanding, may also be evident, for the sight of the internal man is nothing else than understanding, and therefore in common discourse understanding is called internal sight, and light is predicated of it, as of external sight, and is called intellectual light. That in the internal sense "to see" denotes faith from the Lord, is evident from the fact that the interior understanding has no other objects than those which are of truth and good, for these are the objects of faith. This interior understanding, or internal sight, which has for its objects the truths which are of faith, does not manifest itself so much as does the understanding which has for its objects the truths of civic and moral life, for the reason that it is within the latter, and is in the light of heaven, which light is in obscurity so long as man is in the light of the world. Nevertheless with those who have been regenerated, it reveals itself, especially by conscience. That in the supreme sense "to see" is foresight, must be evident, for the intelligence which is predicated of the Lord is infinite intelligence, which is nothing else than foresight.  That "seeing," from which Reuben was named, in the internal sense signifies faith from the Lord, is manifest from very many passages in the Word, of which the following may be adduced: Jehovah said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a standard; and it shall come to pass that everyone that is bitten, and shall see it, shall live. Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon a standard; and it came to pass that if a serpent had bitten any man, and he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived again (Num. 21:8-9). That the brazen serpent represented the Lord as to the external sensuous or natural, may be seen above (n. 197); and that "brass" signifies the natural (n. 425, 1551). That faith in Him was represented by the living again of those who saw, or looked upon it, the Lord Himself teaches in John: As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up; that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but should have eternal life (John 3:14-15).  In Isaiah: The Lord said, Go and say unto this people, Hearing hear ye, but do not understand; and seeing see ye, and do not know; make the heart of this people fat, and their ears heavy, and blind their eyes; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and their heart should understand (Isa. 6:9-10). That "seeing and not knowing" here signifies understanding what is true and yet not acknowledging it, is manifest; and that "blinding the eyes, lest they should see with their eyes" signifies depriving them of the understanding of truth; and that "seeing" here signifies faith in the Lord, is evident from the Lord's words in Matthew 13:13-14; and in John 12:36-37, 39-40.  In Ezekiel: Son of man thou dwellest in the midst of the house of rebellion, who have eyes to see, but see not; who have ears to hear, and hear not (Ezek. 12:2); "having eyes to see but not seeing" signifies that they were able to understand the truths of faith, but were not willing, and this because of evils (which are the "house of rebellion") inducing a deceptive light on falsities, and darkness on truths, according to these words in Isaiah: This is a people of rebellion, lying sons, sons that would not hear the law of Jehovah; who have said to the seers, See not; and to them that have vision, See not for us right things, speak to us smooth things, see illusions (Isa. 30:9-10). Again: The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light; they that dwelt in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined (Isa. 9:2); where "seeing a great light" signifies receiving and believing the truths which are of faith. On those who are in faith heavenly light is said to "shine," for the light which is in heaven is Divine truth from Divine good.  Again: Jehovah hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes; the prophets and your heads, the seers hath He covered (Isa. 29:10); "to close the eyes" denotes to close the understanding of truth (that "the eye" denotes the understanding, see above, n. 2701); "covering the seers" denotes to cover those who know and teach the truths of faith. Seers were formerly called "prophets," and that "prophets" denote those who teach, and also the truths of doctrine, may be seen above (n. 2534). Again: The priest and the prophet err through strong drink; they err among the seers; they stumble in judgment (Isa. 28:7); where the sense is the same; that the "judgment" wherein they "stumble" is the truth of faith may be seen above (n. 2235). Again: The eyes of them that see shall not be closed, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken (Isa. 32:3).  Again: Thine eyes shall behold the king in his beauty, they shall see the land of far distances (Isa. 33:17); "to behold the king in beauty" denotes the truths of faith which are from the Lord, which are called "beautiful" from good; "to see the land of far distances" denotes the good of love. (That a "king" is the truth of faith may be seen above, n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670; that "beautiful" is predicated from good, n. 553, 3080, 3821; and that "land" is the good of love, n. 620, 636, 3368, 3379.) In Matthew: Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God (Matt. 5:8); where it is manifest that "to see God" is to believe in Him, thus to see Him by faith; for they who are in faith, from faith see God, because God is in faith, and is that in faith which constitutes true faith.  Again: If thine eye causeth thee to stumble, pluck it out; for it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the gehenna of fire (Matt. 18:9); that in this passage the "eye" does not mean the eye, and that it is not to be plucked out, is manifest, for this does not cause to stumble; but the understanding of truth, which is here meant by the "eye" (n. 2701). That it is better not to know and apprehend the truths of faith, than to know and apprehend them and yet live a life of evil, is signified by its "being better to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the gehenna of fire."  In the same: Blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear. Verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous men have desired to see the things which ye see, but did not see them (Matt. 13:16-17; John 12:40); "seeing" here denotes knowing and understanding the things which are of faith in the Lord, thus faith; for they were not blessed because they saw the Lord, and saw His miracles, but because they believed; as may be seen from these words in John: I said unto you, that ye also have seen Me, and believe not. This is the will of Him that sent Me, that everyone who seeth the Son, and believeth on Him, should have eternal life. Not that anyone hath seen the Father, save He that is with the Father, He hath seen the Father. Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that believeth on Me hath eternal life (John 6:36, 40, 46-47); "seeing and not believing" denotes knowing the truths of faith and not receiving them; "seeing and believing" denotes knowing and receiving them; "no one having seen the Father save He that is with the Father" denotes that Divine good cannot be acknowledged except by means of Divine truth (That the "Father" is Divine good, and the "Son" Divine truth, may be seen above, n. 3704.) Hence the internal sense is that no one can have celestial good unless He acknowledges the Lord.  In like manner in the same Evangelist: No one hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath declared Him (John 1:18). And again: Jesus said, He that seeth Me, seeth Him that sent Me. I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth in Me should not abide in darkness (John 12:45-46); where it is said plainly that "to see" is to believe, or to have faith. Again: Jesus said, If ye had known Me, ye would have known My Father also; and from henceforth ye know Him and have seen Him. He that hath seen Me, hath seen the Father (John 14:7, 9). Again: The Spirit of Truth whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him; I will not leave you orphans; I come unto you. Yet a little while, and the world seeth Me no more; but ye see Me; because I live ye shall live also (John 14:17-19); where "seeing" signifies having faith, for the Lord is seen only by faith, because faith is the eye of love, the Lord being seen by love through faith, and love being the life of faith; wherefore it is said, "Ye see Me; because I live, ye shall live also."  Again: Jesus said, For judgment I am come into this world, that they who see not may see; and that they who see may be made blind. The Pharisees said, Are we also blind? Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye would not have sin; but now ye say, We see; therefore your sin remaineth (John 9:39-41); here "they who see" denote those who imagine themselves to be more intelligent than others, concerning whom it is said that they "should be made blind," that is, should not receive faith. (That "not to see," or "to be blind," is predicated of those who are in falsities, and also of those who are in ignorance, may be seen above, n. 2383.) In Luke: Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God; but to the rest in parables; that seeing they may not see and hearing they may not hear (Luke 8:10). Again: I say unto you, There be some standing here who shall not taste of death, until they see the kingdom of God (Luke 9:27; Mark 9:1); "to see the kingdom of God" denotes to believe. Again: Jesus said unto His disciples, The days shall come, when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of man, but ye shall not see (Luke 17:22); where the consummation of the age, or last time of the church, is treated of, when there is no longer any faith.  Again: It came to pass when Jesus sat down with them, that He took the bread, and blessed, and breaking, gave to them; and their eyes were opened, and they knew Him (Luke 24:30-31); by which was signified that the Lord appears by good, but not by truth without good, for "bread" is the good of love (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813). From these and other passages it is evident that "seeing," in the internal sense, signifies faith from the Lord, for there is no other faith which is faith than that which comes from the Lord. This also enables man to "see," that is, to believe; but faith from self, or from what is man's own, is not faith, for it causes him to see falsities as truths, and truths as falsities; and if he sees truths as truths, still he does not see, because he does not believe, for he sees himself in them, and not the Lord.  That "to see" is to have faith in the Lord, is very plain from what has been frequently said above concerning the light of heaven, namely, that being from the Lord, it is attended with intelligence and wisdom, consequently with faith in Him; for faith in the Lord is inwardly within intelligence and wisdom; wherefore "to see" from that light, as angels do, can signify nothing else than faith in the Lord. The Lord Himself also is in that light, because it proceeds from Him. It is that light also which shines within the conscience of those who have faith in the Lord, although while he lives in the body the man is unaware of the fact, for it is then obscured by the light of the world.3864.
My affliction (namely, "Because Jehovah hath seen"). That this signifies a state of arriving at good, is evident from the signification of "affliction," as being temptation (n. 1846); and because this is the means of arriving at good, "my affliction" here signifies a state of coming from truth (which is external), and of arriving at good (which is internal).3865.
For now my man will love me. That this signifies that hence would come the good of truth, is evident from the signification of "will love," as being the good therefrom; for all good is of love, and is therefore here signified by "loving;" and from the signification of "man," as being truth (n. 3134). What the good of truth is, has often been explained above, namely, that it is the affection of truth for the sake of life; for life is the good which is regarded in the truth by those who are afterwards regenerated. Without a life according to truth, no conjunction of truth with good is effected, consequently no appropriation.  Everyone can plainly see this by directing his attention to those who live ill, and to those who live well: they who live ill, even although like others they have been instructed during childhood and youth in the doctrines of the church, are nevertheless found on examination to believe nothing at all concerning the Lord, or concerning faith in Him and the truths of the church; whereas they who live well have everyone of them faith in the truths which they believe to be truths. They, however, who teach truths, as do the overseers of the church, and live ill, may indeed profess to believe, yet still at heart they do not believe.  With some of these there is a persuasion which has the semblance of faith, amounting to no more than mere memory-knowledge confirmed, not because it is truth, but because it is expedient to make profession of it for the sake of one's office, honor, and gain. This penetrates no deeper than through the ears into the memory, and from the memory it goes forth into the lips, but not into the heart, and from this into confession. From this it is evident that it is the life which shows the quality of the acknowledgment of truth; that is, the quality of the faith; and that it is faith separated from the good of life which declares that however a man lives he may nevertheless be saved through grace; and which argues against the doctrine that everyone's life remains with him after death.3866.
From the internal sense of the words which Leah uttered concerning Reuben at his birth: "Jehovah hath seen mine affliction, for now my man will love me," it may be seen what of the church "Reuben" signifies, or the tribe which took its name from Reuben, namely, that which is the first of regeneration, or which is the first when man is becoming a church; and that this is the truth of doctrine whereby he may attain to the good of life.3867.
Verse 33. And she conceived again, and bare a son, and said, Because Jehovah hath heard that I was hated, and hath given me this one also; and she called his name Simeon. "And she conceived again, and bare a son," signifies, as before, spiritual conception and birth from what is external toward things more interior; "because Jehovah hath heard," signifies in the supreme sense providence, in the internal sense the will of faith, in the interior sense obedience, in the external sense hearing, in the present case faith in the will, which is from the Lord alone; "that I was hated," signifies a state of faith if the will is not correspondent to it; "and hath given me this one also," signifies what is successive; "and she called his name Simeon," signifies its quality.3868.
And she conceived again, and bare a son. That this signifies spiritual conception and birth from what is external toward things more interior, is evident from what was said above (n. 3860), where the same words occur. Advancement is said to be made from what is external toward things more interior, when it is made from the memory-knowledge which is of the understanding, to the will; or, speaking spiritually, when it is made from the truth which is of faith, to charity. For the understanding is that which proceeds from the will, and which manifests the will in a certain visible form; in like manner, faith proceeds from charity, and manifests charity in a certain form. From this it is evident that the understanding is the external of the will; and that faith is the external of charity; or what is the same, that the will is the internal of the understanding, and charity the internal of faith. Thus to advance from what is external to things more interior, is to advance from faith in the understanding to faith in the will, consequently from faith to charity, which is represented by Levi (concerning whom in what presently follows). Be it known that by faith, when distinguished from charity, is meant truth, such as the truth of doctrine, or such as there is in the confession called the Apostles' Creed; and this is according to the general sense in the church; for to have faith in truths is believed to be the faith by which is salvation. Few know that faith is trust and confidence, and among these few, still fewer know that trust or confidence is from charity, and is not possible with anyone who has not lived the life of charity.3869.
And said, Because Jehovah hath heard. That in the supreme sense this signifies providence; in the internal sense, the will of faith; in the interior sense, obedience; in the external sense, hearing; in the present case faith in the will, which is from the Lord alone, is evident from the signification of "hearing." That "to hear" is of the sense of hearing, it is needless to explain; but that in the interior sense "to hear" is obedience, and in the internal sense faith in the will, is evident from many passages in the Word (as will be seen presently); and also from the nature of hearing in respect to that of sight. That in the interior sense "sight" is understanding, and in the internal sense, faith in the understanding, may be seen above (see n. 3863); and this because the quality of things becomes apparent by the internal sight, and thereby they are apprehended by a kind of faith, but an intellectual kind. In like manner when the things which are heard penetrate to the interiors, they are also changed into something like sight, for what is heard is seen interiorly; and therefore by "hearing" there is also signified that which is signified by "sight," namely, that which is of the understanding, and also that which is of faith; but the hearing at the same time persuades that the case is so, and affects not only the intellectual part of man, but also his will part, and causes him to will that which he sees. Hence it is that "hearing" signifies the understanding of a thing, and at the same time obedience; and in the spiritual sense, faith in the will.  As all this is latent in hearing, namely, obedience and faith in the will, therefore these likewise are signified in common speech by "hearing," "hearkening," and "attending;" for "to hear" is to be obedient; and "to hearken to anyone" is also to obey. For the interior things of a matter are sometimes thus contained within the expressions of man's speech, for the reason that it is the spirit of man which thinks and perceives the meaning of the expressions of speech, and this is in a certain communion with spirits and angels, who are in the first principles of the expressions. Moreover, such is the circle of things in man, that whatever enters by the ear and eye, or by the hearing and sight, passes into his understanding, and through the understanding into the will, and from the will into act. And in like manner the truth of faith first becomes the truth of faith in memory-knowledge; afterwards the truth of faith in the will; and lastly the truth of faith in act, thus charity. Faith in memory-knowledge, or in the understanding, is "Reuben," as already shown; faith in the will is "Simeon;" and when faith in the will becomes charity it is "Levi."  That in the supreme sense "to hear" signifies providence, may be seen from what has been said above (n. 3863) concerning "seeing," as being in the supreme sense foresight; for the Lord's foreseeing is the seeing from eternity to eternity that the case is so; but the Lord's providing is the directing that it be so; and is the bending of man's freedom to good, insofar as He foresees that man will suffer himself to be bent in freedom (see n. 3854).  That by "Jehovah hearing," from which Simeon was named, in the interior sense is signified obedience, and in the internal sense faith in the will from the Lord alone, is manifest from very many passages in the Word; as from the following. In Matthew: Behold a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him (Matt. 17:5); "to hear Him" denotes to have faith in Him, and to obey His commandments; thus to have faith in the will. In John: Verily, verily, I say unto you, that the hour cometh when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and they that hear shall live. Marvel not at this; for the hour cometh in which all that are in the graves shall hear His voice (John 5:25, 28); "to hear the voice of the Son of God" denotes to have faith in the words of the Lord, and to will them. They who have faith of the will, receive life; wherefore it is said, "they that hear shall live."  Again: He who entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep; to him the porter openeth; and the sheep hear his voice. And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice, and there shall be one flock, and one shepherd. My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me (John 10:2-3, 16, 27); "to hear the voice" manifestly denotes to obey from faith of the will. Again: Everyone that is of the truth heareth My voice (John 18:37); where the same thing is meant. In Luke: Abraham said unto him, They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them. If they hear not Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be persuaded if one rose from the dead (Luke 16:29, 31); "to hear Moses and the Prophets" denotes to know the things contained in the Word, and to have faith therein; thus also to will them; for to have faith and not to will, is to see and not to hear, but to have faith and to will is both to "see" 3869-1 and to "hear;" wherefore both "seeing" and "hearing" are mentioned together in the Word throughout; and by "seeing" is signified the same as by "Reuben;" and by "hearing" the same as by "Simeon;" for they are joined together as brother to brother.  That "seeing" and "hearing" are mentioned together, is evident from the following passages. In Matthew: Therefore speak I to them by parables; because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand. And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand, and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive; for this people's heart is waxed gross, and with ears they have heard dully, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart. But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear. Verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous men have desired to see the things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear the things which ye hear, and have not heard them (Matt. 13:13-17; John 12:40; Isa. 6:9). In Mark: Jesus said to the disciples, Why reason ye because ye have no bread? Do ye not yet comprehend, neither understand? Have ye your heart yet hardened? Having eyes, see ye not? And having ears, hear ye not? (Mark 8:17-18).  In Luke: Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God; but to others in parables; that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not hear (Luke 8:10). In Isaiah: The eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be opened (Isa. 35:5). Again: And in that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of thick darkness, and out of darkness (Isa. 29:18). Again: Hear, ye deaf; and look, ye blind, that ye may see (Isa. 42:18). Again: Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears (Isa. 43:8). Again: The eyes of them that see shall not be closed, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken (Isa. 32:3). Again: Thine eyes shall see thy teachers, and thine ears shall hear a word (Isa. 30:20-21). Again: He that stoppeth his ear from hearing of blood, and shutteth his eyes from seeing evil, shall dwell on high (Isa. 33:15-16). In Ezekiel: Son of man, thou dwellest in the midst of the house of rebellion, that have eyes to see, and see not; that have ears to hear, and hear not (Ezek. 12:2). In these passages mention is made of both "seeing" and "hearing" because the one follows the other; that is, faith in the understanding which is "seeing," and faith in the will which is "hearing;" otherwise it would have been sufficient to mention one only; and from this it is also evident why one son of Jacob was named from "seeing" and another from "hearing."  That "seeing" signifies faith in memory-knowledge or in the understanding; and "hearing," faith in obedience or in the will, is from the correspondences in the other life, and the derivative significatives; for those who are intellectual and are thence in faith belong to the province of the eye; and those who are obedient and thence in faith belong to the province of the ear. That this is the case will be seen at the close of the chapters, where of the Lord's Divine mercy the Grand Man, and the correspondence of all things in the human body therewith, will be described.  Hence then it is that in the internal sense the "eye" is the understanding (n. 2701); and that the "ear" is obedience, and in the spiritual sense the derivative faith, or faith in the will; as is evident also from the following passages. In Isaiah: Yea, thou heardest not yea, thou knewest not; yea, from that time thine ear opened not itself (Isa. 48:8). Again: The Lord Jehovih will waken mine ear to hear, as they that are taught; the Lord Jehovih hath opened mine ear, and I was not rebellious (Isa. 50:4-5). Again: In attending attend to Me, and eat ye that which is good, that your soul may delight itself in fatness; incline your ear, and come unto Me; hear that your soul may live (Isa. 55:2-3). In Jeremiah: To whom shall I speak and testify, that they may hear; behold their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken (Jer. 6:10). Again: This thing I commanded them, saying, Hear ye My voice and I will be your God, and ye shall be My people; and they heard not, nor inclined their ear (Jer. 7:23-24, 26). Again: Hear the word of Jehovah, O ye women; and let your ear receive the word of His mouth (Jer. 9:20). Again: Ye have not inclined your ear, and have not obeyed Me (Jer. 35:15). In Ezekiel: Son of man, all My words that I have spoken unto thee, receive in thy heart, and hear with thine ears (Ezek. 3:10). Again: I will set my zeal against thee, and they shall deal with thee in fury; they shall take away thy nose and thine ears (Ezek. 23:25); "to take away the nose and the ears" denotes the perception of truth and good, and the obedience of faith. In Zechariah: They refused to hearken, and turned a stubborn shoulder, and made their ears heavy, that they should not hear; and their heart have they set as adamant, that they might not hear the law (Zech. 7:11-12).  In Amos: Thus saith Jehovah, As the shepherd snatcheth out of the mouth of the lion two legs, or a piece of an ear, so shall the sons of Israel be snatched away in Samaria, in the corner of a bed, and on the end of a couch (Amos 3:12); "to snatch the two legs" denotes the will of good; and the "piece of an ear," the will of truth. That a "piece of an ear" denotes this can as before said be seen solely from the correspondences in the other life, and the derivative significatives, according to which is the internal sense of the Word, and also the rituals in the Israelitish and Jewish Church. Hence it was that when Aaron and his sons were inaugurated into the ministry, it was commanded, among other things, that Moses should take of the blood of a ram, and should put it on the tip of Aaron's ear, and upon the tip of the ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of their right foot (Exod. 29:20). By this ritual was represented the will of faith, into which also as priest he was to be initiated. That this ritual was holy, everyone may know, because it was enjoined upon Moses by Jehovah; and so also putting blood on the tip of the ear was holy. But what particular holy thing this signified can be known only from the internal sense of things in the Word, which sense here is that the holy of faith from the will must be preserved.  That by the "ear" is signified obedience, and in the internal sense the consequent faith, is still more plainly evident from the ritual respecting a servant who was not willing to depart from service; concerning whom we read in Moses: If a manservant or maidservant shall not be willing to depart from service, his master shall bring him unto God, and shall bring him to the door, or unto the doorpost, and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl, and he shall serve him forever (Exod. 21:5-6; Deut. 15:17); "boring the ear through with an awl at the doorpost" signifies serving or obeying perpetually; in the spiritual sense it signifies not to will to understand truth, but to will truth from obedience, which relatively is not freedom.  As in the internal sense the obedience of faith is understood by "ears," and obeying by "hearing," it is evident what is signified by these words of the Lord, so often uttered by Him: He that hath an ear to hear, let him hear (Matt. 13:9, 43; Mark 4:9, 23; 7:16; Luke 8:8; 14:35; Rev. 2:7, 11, 29; 3:13, 22).  That in the supreme sense "to hear" signifies providence, and "to see" foresight, is evident from the passages in the Word where "eyes" and "ears" are predicated of Jehovah or the Lord; as in Isaiah: Incline Thine ear, O Jehovah and hear; open Thine eyes, O Jehovah and see (Isa. 37:17). In Daniel: O my God, incline Thine ear and hear; open O Jehovah Thine eyes and see our wastes (Dan. 9:18). In David: O God, incline Thine ear unto me, and hear my speech (Ps. 17:6). Again: Incline Thine ear unto me, and save me (Ps. 71:2). Again: Turn Thine ear to my prayers because of Thy truth, answer me because of Thy righteousness (Ps. 143:1). In Jeremiah: O Jehovah, Thou heardest my voice; hide not Thine ear at my sighing, at my cry (Lam. 3:55-56). In David: O Jehovah, hide not Thy faces from me in the day of my distress; incline Thine ear to me; in the day when I cry, answer me (Ps. 102:1-2). It is known that Jehovah has not ears nor eyes like a man, but that it is some attribute predicable of the Divine that is signified by the "ear" and by the "eye," namely, infinite will and infinite understanding. Infinite will is providence, and infinite understanding is foresight; these are what are understood by "ear" and "eye" in the supreme sense, when they are attributed to Jehovah. From all this it is now manifest what in every sense is signified by "Jehovah hath heard," from which Simeon was named.3870.
That I was hated. That this signifies a state of faith if the will be not correspondent thereto, is evident from the signification of "being hated," as being not loved, for such is the state of faith if the will does not correspond to it. In the internal sense the subject treated of is the progress of man's regeneration from external to internal; that is, from the truth of faith to the good of charity. The truth of faith is external, and the good of charity is internal. In order that the truth of faith may live, it must be introduced into the will, that it may there receive life; for truth does not live from knowing, but from willing. Life flows in from the Lord through the new willing that He creates in man. The first life manifests itself by obedience, which is the first of the will; the second by the affection of doing the truth, which is the progression of the will, and which exists when delight and bliss are perceived in doing the truth. Unless there takes place such a progress of faith, truth does not become truth, but becomes a separate affair from life, sometimes confirmative of falsity, and sometimes persuasive of it, thus a foul affair; for it couples itself with the man's evil affection, or cupidity; that is, with his own proper will, which is contrary to charity. Such is the faith that by many at this day is believed to be faith, and to save without the works of charity.  But this faith, which is separate from charity, and therefore contrary to charity, is represented in what follows by Reuben, in that he lay with Bilhah his father's concubine (Gen. 35:22), and concerning which Jacob, then Israel, expresses his detestation in the words: Reuben, my firstborn, thou art my might, and the beginning of my strength; light as water thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up on thy father's bed, then defiledst thou it; he went up on my couch (Gen. 49:3-4). The will and affection of this faith, namely, that which is separated from charity, as being contrary to charity, is also described in the same chapter by Simeon and Levi in these words: Simeon and Levi are brethren; weapons of violence are their swords; let not my soul come into their secret; into their assembly let not my glory unite itself; for in their fury they slew a man, and in their will they unstrung an ox. Cursed be their fury, for it was fierce; and their anger, for it was cruel; I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel (Gen. 49:5-7). That it is faith separate from charity which is here described by "Simeon and Levi," will of the Lord's Divine mercy be shown in what follows.3871.
And hath given me this one also. That this signifies what is successive, namely, faith in obedience or in the will, as succeeding faith in memory-knowledge or in the understanding, was shown above. This is signified by "and hath given me this one also."3872.
And she called his name Simeon. That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of "name," and of "calling a name," as being quality (see n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421). The quality itself is contained in the internal sense of the words which Leah uttered: "Jehovah hath heard that I was hated, and hath given me this one also." This quality is what is signified by "Simeon," and also by the tribe named from him; and this is the second universal of the church, that is, the second during man's regeneration and when he is becoming a church; namely, obedience, or the will of doing the truth of faith; into which obedience, and in which will, charity is implanted, which next succeeds, and is signified by "Levi."3873.
Verse 34. And she conceived again, and bare a son, and said, Now this time will my man cleave to me, because I have borne him three sons; therefore she called his name Levi. "And she conceived again, and bare a son," signifies as before, spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is still more internal; "and said, Now this time will my man cleave to me," signifies in the supreme sense love and mercy, in the internal sense charity, in the external sense conjunction, in the present case spiritual love; "because I have borne him three sons," signifies what is successive; "therefore she called his name Levi," signifies its quality.3874.
And she conceived again, and bare a son. That this signifies spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is still more internal, is evident from what was said above (n. 3860, 3868), where the same words occur.3875.
And said, Now this time will my man cleave to me. That this signifies in the supreme sense love and mercy, in the internal sense charity, in the external sense conjunction, and in the present case spiritual love, is evident from the signification of "to cleave." That in the external or proximately interior sense "to cleave" is conjunction, is evident without explication. That in the internal sense "to cleave" is charity, is evident from the fact that charity, or what is the same thing, mutual love, is spiritual conjunction; for it is a conjunction of the affections of the will, and a consequent agreement of the thoughts of the understanding; thus it is a conjunction of minds as to both parts. That in the supreme sense "to cleave" is love and mercy, is hence manifest, for the infinite and eternal which is predicated of charity or spiritual love, is mercy, which is the Divine love toward the human race, sunk as it is in such great miseries. For as of himself man is nothing but evil, and as that which is in him, so far as it is from him, is nothing else than infernal, and as he is looked upon by the Lord from Divine love, his elevation out of the hell in which he is of himself, and his deliverance, is called "mercy." Hence, because mercy is from the Divine love, by "to cleave," in the supreme sense, there is signified both love and mercy.  That in the internal sense "to cleave" signifies spiritual love, or what is the same, charity toward the neighbor, may be seen also from other passages in the Word; as in Isaiah: Let not the son of the stranger that cleaveth to Jehovah, speak, saying, Jehovah in separating separates me from His people. The sons of the stranger that cleave unto Jehovah, to minister unto Him, and to love the name of Jehovah, shall be His servants (Isa. 56:3, 6); "to cleave unto Jehovah" denotes to observe the commandments, which is of spiritual love; for no one observes the commandments of God from the heart, except the man who is in the good of charity toward the neighbor. In Jeremiah: In those days the sons of Israel shall come, they and the sons of Judah, going and weeping shall they go, and shall seek Jehovah their God. They shall ask Zion concerning the way, thither shall their faces be, Come ye and let us cleave to Jehovah with an everlasting covenant that shall not be forgotten (Jer. 50:4-5); where "to cleave to Jehovah" in like manner denotes to observe the commandments from the heart, that is, from the good of charity.  In Zechariah: Many nations shall cleave to Jehovah in that day, and shall be My people (Zech. 2:11); where the sense is the same. In Isaiah: Jehovah will have compassion on Jacob, and will again choose Israel, and set them in their own land; and the sojourner shall cleave to them, and they shall join themselves unto the house of Jacob (Isa. 14:1); "the sojourner cleaving to them" denotes being in a similar observance of the law; "to join themselves unto the house of Jacob" signifies to be in the good of charity, in which they are who are signified by the "house of Jacob." In Matthew: No one can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or else he will cleave to the one and despise the other (Matt. 6:24); where "to love" denotes the celestial of love; and "to cleave" the spiritual of love; both are mentioned because they are distinct, otherwise it would have been sufficient to mention one.  They who are in spiritual love are on this account called the "sons of Levi," as in Malachi: Who may abide the day of His coming, and who shall stand when He appeareth? He shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and He shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver (Mal. 3:2-3). That in the supreme sense the Lord is signified by "Levi," from His Divine love and mercy toward those who are in spiritual love, may be seen in the same prophet: That ye may know that I have sent this commandment unto you, that My covenant might be with Levi, saith Jehovah Zebaoth; my covenant shall be with him of life and peace. Ye are turned aside out of the way; ye have caused many to stumble in the law; ye have corrupted the covenant of Levi. Therefore I have made you contemptible (Mal. 2:4-5, 8-9). And as in the supreme sense "Levi" signifies the Lord's Divine love or mercy, and in the internal sense spiritual love, therefore the tribe of Levi was made the priesthood; for in the internal sense of the Word the "priesthood" is nothing else than the holy of love; and the "royalty" the holy of faith (see n. 1728, 2015, 3670).  As by the expression "to cleave," from which Levi was named, there is signified spiritual love, which is the same as mutual love, by the same expression in the original tongue there is also signified a mutual giving and receiving; and in the Jewish Church by mutual giving and receiving there was represented mutual love, concerning which of the Lord's Divine mercy elsewhere. Mutual love differs from friendship in this respect-that mutual love regards the good which is in a man, and because it is directed to good, it is directed to him who is in good; but friendship regards the man; and this also is mutual love when it regards the man from good, or for the sake of good; but when it does not regard him from good or for the sake of good, but for the sake of self which it calls good, then friendship is not mutual love, but approaches the love of self, and insofar as it approaches this, so far it is opposite to mutual love. In itself mutual love is nothing else than charity toward the neighbor; for by the neighbor in the internal sense for by the neighbor in the internal sense nothing else is signified than good, and in the supreme sense the Lord, because all good is from Him, and He is good itself (n. 2425, 3419). This mutual love or charity toward the neighbor is what is meant by spiritual love, and is signified by "Levi."  Moreover in the Word both celestial love and conjugial love are in the sense of the letter expressed by the expression "to cleave," but from a word in the original tongue different from that from which Levi was named. This word signifies a still closer conjunction, as in the following passages. In Moses: Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God; Him shalt thou serve, and to Him shalt thou cleave (Deut. 10:20). Ye shall walk after Jehovah your God, and fear Him, and keep His commandments, and hear His voice, and ye shall serve Him and cleave unto Him (Deut. 13:4). To love Jehovah your God, and to walk in all His ways, and to cleave unto Him (Deut. 11:22). To love Jehovah thy God, to obey His voice, and to cleave unto Him; for He is thy life (Deut. 30:20). In Joshua: Take diligent heed to do the commandment and the law, which Moses the servant of Jehovah commanded you, to love Jehovah your God, and to walk in all His ways, and to keep His commandments, and to cleave unto Him, and to serve Him with all your heart, and with all your soul (Josh. 22:5). In the second book of Kings: King Hezekiah trusted in Jehovah the God of Israel. He clave to Jehovah, he departed not from following Him, but kept His commandments, which Jehovah commanded Moses (2 Kings 18:5-6). In Jeremiah: As a girdle cleaveth to the loins of a man, so have I caused to cleave unto Me the whole house of Israel, and the whole house of Judah; that they might be unto Me for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for adornment; and they have not obeyed (Jer. 13:11).  That conjugial love also is expressed by "cleaving" is manifest from the following passages: Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife; and they shall be one flesh (Gen. 2:24). For your hardness of heart, Moses wrote this commandment; but from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female; for this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave unto his wife; and they twain shall be one flesh; what therefore God hath joined together let not man put asunder (Mark 10:5-9; Matt. 19:5). The soul of Shechem clave to Dinah the daughter of Jacob; he loved the damsel, and spake to the heart of the damsel (Gen. 34:3). Solomon loved many strange women; Solomon clave to these in love (1 Kings 11:1, 2). From all this it is now evident that "to cleave" is a term of love, received into use by the churches in ancient times, which churches were in significatives; and that in the internal sense it denotes nothing else than spiritual conjunction, which is charity and love.3876.
Because I have borne him three sons. That this signifies what is successive, is evident from what was said above (n. 3871). The successive state that is here signified by the "three sons," is that charity now arrives; for while man is being regenerated, that is, being made a church, the first thing must be for him to know and understand what the truth of faith is; the second must be to will and to do it; and the third is to be affected with it. And when man is affected with truth, that is, when he perceives delight and bliss in acting according to truth, he is then in charity or mutual love. This succession is what is here meant by, "I have borne him three sons."3877.
Therefore she called his name Levi. That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of "name," and of "calling a name," as being quality (concerning which above, n. 3872). The quality is what is contained in these words: "Now this time will my man cleave to me, because I have borne him three sons" (concerning which words see just above, n. 3875, 3876). This quality is what is signified by "Levi," and also by the tribe named from him; and this is the third universal of the church (that is, the third when man is being regenerated, or being made a church), and is charity. The case with respect to charity is that it contains within itself the willing of truth; and through this it contains within itself the understanding of truth; for whoever is in charity has these. But before man comes to charity, he must first be in the external, namely, in the understanding of truth; next in the willing of truth; and lastly in being affected with truth, which is charity. And when man is in charity, he then looks to the Lord, who in the supreme sense is signified by "Judah," the fourth son of Jacob.3878.
Verse 35. And she conceived again, and bare a son, and she said, This time I will confess Jehovah; therefore she called his name Judah; and she stood still from bearing. "And she conceived again, and bare a son" signifies, as before, spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is still more internal; "and she said, This time I will confess Jehovah," signifies in the supreme sense the Lord, in the internal sense the Word, in the external sense doctrine therefrom, in the present case the Divine of love and the Lord's celestial kingdom; "therefore she called his name Judah," signifies its quality; "and she stood still from bearing," signifies ascent by a ladder from the earth to Jehovah or the Lord.3879.
And she conceived again, and bare a son. That this signifies spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is still more internal, is evident from what was said above (n. 3860, 3868), where similar words occur.3880.
And she said, This time I will confess Jehovah. That this signifies in the supreme sense the Lord, in the internal sense the Word, in the external sense doctrine therefrom, in the present case the Divine of love and the Lord's celestial kingdom, is evident from the signification of "confessing." That in the external or proximately interior sense "to confess" signifies doctrine from the Word, is manifest; for confession is nothing else, even in common speech, than a man's declaration of his faith before the Lord; thus it comprehends in it whatever the man believes; consequently, whatever is to him doctrine. That in the internal sense "to confess" signifies the Word, follows from this, for all the doctrine of faith and charity must be from the Word; because from himself man knows nothing of things celestial and spiritual, and therefore he can know them only from Divine revelation, which is the Word. That in the supreme sense "to confess" signifies the Lord, is because the Lord is the Word, consequently doctrine from the Word, and because the Word in the internal sense has regard to the Lord alone, and treats of His kingdom (see n. 1871, 2859, 2894, 3245, 3305, 3393, 3432, 3439, 3454). Thus it is that by "confessing Jehovah" is signified the Divine of love and His celestial kingdom; for the Lord is Divine love itself, and the influx of this constitutes His kingdom, and this by means of the Word which is from Him. That by "Judah," who was named from "confessing Jehovah," is signified the Divine of love and the Lord's celestial kingdom, has been shown above (n. 3654); and hence it is here said that "confessing" has this signification.  But the signification of "to confess" and of "confession" may be seen from the passages in the Word in which these expressions occur; as in Isaiah: In that day thou shalt say, I will confess to Thee, O Jehovah; though Thou wast angry with me, Thine anger is turned away, and Thou hast comforted me. And in that day ye shall say, Confess to Jehovah, call upon His name, make known His works among the people, make mention that His name is exalted (Isa. 12:1, 4). In David: We confess to Thee, O God, we confess, and Thy name is near, Thy wondrous works declare (Ps. 75:1). A psalm for confession: Make a joyful noise to Jehovah, all the earth; He hath made us, and not we ourselves, His people and the flock of His pasture. Enter through His gates with confession, into His courts with praise; confess ye to Him, and bless His name. For Jehovah is good, His mercy is forever, and His truth to generation and generation (Ps. 100:1-5). Here it is evident what "confessing" and "confession" signify, namely, acknowledging Jehovah or the Lord, and the things which are His. That this acknowledgment is doctrine and the Word is manifest.  Again in Isaiah: Jehovah will comfort Zion, He will comfort all her waste places; joy and gladness shall be found therein, confession and the voice of singing (Isa. 51:3). And in Jeremiah: Thus saith Jehovah, Behold I am bringing back the captivity of Jacob's tents, and I will have compassion on his dwelling places and the city shall be builded upon her own heap, and the palace shall be inhabited after the manner thereof; and out of them shall proceed confession, and the voice of them that make merry (Jer. 30:18-19). In David: I will confess to Jehovah according to His righteousness, and I will sing to the name of Jehovah Most High (Ps. 7:17). When I shall go to the house of God, with the voice of singing and of confession, with a multitude that keep a festival (Ps. 42:4). I will confess unto Thee, O Lord, among the nations; I will sing psalms unto Thee among the peoples; for Thy mercy is great, even to heaven (Ps. 57:9-10).  From these passages it is evident that "confession" has reference to the celestial of love, for it is distinguished from terms that belong to the spiritual of love; for it is said "confession and the voice of singing," "confession and the voice of them that make merry," "I will confess unto Thee among the nations, and I will sing psalms unto Thee among the peoples," "confession" and "confessing" being celestial, and the "voice of singing," the "voice of them that make merry and sing psalms," being spiritual expressions. It is also said, "confess among the nations, and sing psalms among the peoples," because "nations" signify those who are in good, and "peoples" those who are in truth (see n. 1416, 1849, 2928); that is, those who are in celestial love, and those who are in spiritual love. For in the Word, with the Prophets, two expressions for the most part occur, one having reference to the celestial or good, and the other to the spiritual or truth, in order that there may be a Divine marriage in every part of the Word, thus a marriage of good and truth (n. 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 3132). From this it is also manifest that "confession" involves the celestial of love; and that genuine confession, or that which is from the heart, can only be from good; the confession which is from truth being called the "voice of singing, the voice of them that make merry, and that sing psalms."  So also in the following passages. In David: I will praise the name of God with a song, and will magnify Him with confession (Ps. 69:30). Again: I will confess to Thee with the psaltery, even Thy truth O my God; unto Thee will I sing with the harp, O Thou Holy One of Israel (Ps. 71:22). That "to sing with the harp" and with other stringed instruments signifies spiritual things, may be seen above (n. 418-420). Again: Enter into His gates with confession, into His courts with praise confess to Him, bless His name (Ps. 100:4); here "confession" and "confessing" are from the love of good, but "praise" and "blessing" from the love of truth. Again: Answer unto Jehovah with confession; sing psalms upon the harp unto our God (Ps. 147:7). Again: I will confess to Thee in the great congregation; I will praise Thee among much people (Ps. 35:18). Again: I will confess to Jehovah with my mouth, and in the midst of many will I praise Him (Ps. 109:30). Again: We Thy people and the flock of Thy pasture will confess to Thee forever; we will recount Thy praise to generation and generation (Ps. 79:13). Again: Let them confess to Jehovah His mercy, and His wonderful works to the sons of man. Let them sacrifice the sacrifices of confession, and declare His works with singing (Ps. 107:21-22).  That these passages contain two expressions for one thing, is manifest, and they would appear like vain repetitions unless one involved the celestial, which is good, and the other the spiritual, which is truth; consequently the Divine marriage, the Lord's kingdom itself being such a marriage. This mystery pervades the Word throughout, but can never be disclosed except by means of the internal sense, and the derivative knowledge as to which expression belongs to the celestial class, and which to the spiritual. But it must be known in general what the celestial is, and what the spiritual, and these have often been treated of above.  Real confession of the heart, being from celestial love, is in the genuine sense confession. The man who is in this confession acknowledges that all good is from the Lord, and that all evil is from himself; and when he is in this acknowledgment, he is in a state of humiliation, for he then acknowledges that the Lord is everything in him, and that he himself is relatively nothing; and when confession is made from this state, it is made from celestial love.  But the sacrifices of confession that were offered in the Jewish Church were thanksgivings, and in a universal sense were called eucharistic and repaying sacrifices, which were of two kinds-confessional, and votive. That the sacrifices of confession involved the celestial of love, may be seen from their institution, concerning which we read in Moses: This is the law of the sacrifice of the eucharistics that shall be offered to Jehovah; if he has offered it for confession, then he shall offer, besides the sacrifice of confession, unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and fine flour boiled, cakes mingled with oil, upon leavened cakes of bread he shall offer his gift, besides the sacrifice of confession (Lev. 7:11-13). All the things here mentioned-the "unleavened cakes mingled with oil," the "unleavened wafers anointed with oil," the "fine flour boiled," and the "leavened cakes of bread," signify the celestial things of love and faith, and confessions therefrom, and that those who made the offerings must be in humiliation. (That by "fine flour" and "cakes" thereof are signified the celestial of love and the derivative spiritual of faith, which is charity, may be seen above, n. 2177; by "what is unleavened," purification from evils and falsities, n. 2342; by "oil," the celestial of love, n. 886, 3728; by "bread," the same, n. 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735.)  But the votive sacrifices, which were another kind of eucharistics, in the external sense signified repayment; in the internal sense the will that the Lord should provide; and in the supreme sense a state of providence (n. 3732). This is the reason why mention is made of all these in the Word throughout; as in David: Offer unto God the sacrifice of confession; and pay thy vows unto the Most High. Whoso offereth the sacrifice of confession, honoreth Me; and he who ordereth his way, to him will I show the salvation of God (Ps. 50:14, 23). Again: Thy vows are upon me, O God; I will repay confessions unto Thee (Ps. 56:12). Again: I will sacrifice to Thee the sacrifice of confession, and will call upon the name of Jehovah; I will pay my vows unto Jehovah (Ps. 116:17-18). And in Jonah: I will sacrifice unto Thee with the voice of confession; I will pay that which I have vowed (Jonah 2:9).  From all this it is now manifest what is the confession from which Judah was named; namely, that in the supreme sense it signifies the Lord and the Divine of love; in the internal sense, the Word and also the Lord's celestial kingdom; and in the exterior sense, the doctrine from the Word which is of the celestial church. That these things are signified in the Word by "Judah," may be seen from what now follows.3881.
Therefore she called his name Judah. That this signifies his quality, is evident from the signification of "name," and of "calling a name," as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421). The quality itself is contained in the internal sense of the words that Leah spoke: "This time I will confess Jehovah," concerning which just above (n. 3880), namely, that in the supreme sense it is the Lord and the Divine of His love; in the internal sense, the Word and also the Lord's celestial kingdom; and in the exterior sense, the doctrine from the Word which is of the celestial church. That these things are signified in the Word by "Judah," wherever the name occurs, scarcely anyone as yet knows, because the histories of the Word are believed to be merely historical; and the prophecies to be of the things that have been consigned to oblivion, except some from which doctrinal tenets may be drawn. That there is a spiritual sense in them is not believed, because at this day it is not known what the spiritual sense of the Word is, nor even what that which is spiritual is. The principal reason of this is that men live a natural life, and the natural life is such that when it is regarded as the end, or is loved above all other things, it obliterates both knowledges and faith; insomuch that when spiritual life and a spiritual sense are mentioned, it is as though a kind of nonentity were spoken of, or something unpleasant and sad, that excites loathing, because it is in disagreement with the natural life. As this is now the state of the human race, they do not apprehend, nor are they willing to apprehend that anything else is meant by the names in the Word than the things themselves which are named; such as nations, peoples, persons, countries, cities, mountains, rivers; when yet in the spiritual sense names signify actual things.  That in the internal sense "Judah" signifies the Lord's celestial church; in the universal sense His celestial kingdom; and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, may be seen from many passages in the Old Testament where "Judah" is mentioned; as from the following. In Moses: Thou art Judah; thy brethren shall praise thee; thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; thy father's sons shall bow down themselves to thee. Judah is a lion's whelp; from the prey my son thou art gone up; he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up? The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a law-giver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall be the gathering together of the peoples. Binding his ass's foal unto the vine, and the son of his she-ass unto the choice vine, he shall wash his garment in wine, and his vesture in the blood of grapes. his eyes are red with wine, and his teeth white with milk (Gen. 49:8-12).  This prophetic utterance of Jacob (then Israel) concerning Judah, cannot be understood by anyone-not even a single word of it-except from the internal sense; as for instance what is meant by "his brethren praising him"; and by "his father's sons bowing down themselves to him"; by "his going up from the prey like a lion's whelp, and stooping and couching as a lion"; or what by "Shiloh"; by "binding his ass's foal to a vine, and the son of his she-ass to a choice vine"; by "washing his garment in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes"; by "his eyes being red with wine, and his teeth white with milk." As before said these expressions cannot possibly be understood by anyone except from the internal sense, when yet all and each of them signify celestial things of the Lord's kingdom, and Divine things; and thereby it is predicted that the Lord's celestial kingdom, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, should be represented by Judah. But concerning all these expressions, of the Lord's Divine mercy more shall be said in the explication of that chapter.  The case is the same in other parts of the Word, especially in the Prophets, where mention is made of Judah; as in Ezekiel: Thou son of man, take thee one stick, and write upon it, For Judah, and for the sons of Israel his companions; and take another stick, and write upon it, For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and of all the house of Israel his companions; and join them for thee one to another into one stick, and they shall become one in My hand. I will make them one nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be king to them all. My servant David shall be king over them; and they all shall have one shepherd; and they shall walk in My judgments, and observe my statutes, and do them. And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your fathers dwelt; they and their sons shall dwell upon it, and their sons' sons even forever; and My servant David shall be their prince forever. And I will establish with them a covenant of peace it shall be to them an everlasting covenant. I will place them and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in the midst of them forevermore. Thus shall My habitation be with them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people (Ezek. 37:15-28). Whoever supposes that by "Judah" is here meant Judah; by "Israel," Israel; by "Joseph," Joseph; by "Ephraim," Ephraim; and by "David," David; will believe that all these things are to come to pass as they are described in the sense of the letter-that Israel will be again consociated with Judah, as well as the tribe of Ephraim; likewise that David will rule over them, and that they will thus dwell upon the land given unto Jacob forever; and that an everlasting covenant will in this case be established with them, and a sanctuary in the midst of them forevermore; when in the internal sense the Jewish nation is not meant at all; but the Lord's celestial kingdom which is "Judah," and His spiritual kingdom which is "Israel," and the Lord Himself who is "David." From this it is very plain that by names are not meant persons, but things celestial and Divine.  The case is similar in regard to the following words in Zechariah: Many peoples and numerous nations shall come to seek Jehovah Zebaoth. In those days ten men shall take hold, out of all the languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of a man of Judah, saying, We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you (Zech. 8:22-23). They who apprehend these words according to the letter will say (as the Jewish nation to this day believes) that as this prophecy has not yet been fulfilled, it will be; and therefore that the Jews will return to the land of Canaan, and many will follow them out of all the languages of the nations, and will lay hold of the skirt of a man of Judah, and will pray for leave to follow them; and that then God (namely, the Messiah, whom Christians call the Lord) will be with them, to whom they must first be converted. This would be the promise of the words if by a "man of Judah" there were meant a Jew. But the subject here treated of in the internal sense is a new spiritual church among the Gentiles; and by a "man of Judah" is signified the saving faith which comes from love to the Lord.  That by "Judah" is not meant Judah; but, as already said, in the internal sense the Lord's celestial kingdom, which was represented in the church instituted with Judah or the Jews, may also be clearly seen from the following passages: The Lord shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four wings of the earth. Then shall the envy of Ephraim depart, and the enemies of Judah shall be cut off; Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim (Isa. 11:12-13). And in Jeremiah: Behold the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will raise up unto David a righteous branch, who shall reign as a king, and shall prosper, and shall execute judgment and righteousness in the land. In His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell securely; and this is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our Righteousness (Jer. 23:5, 6). And in Joel: Then ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God, dwelling in Zion, the mountain of My holiness; and Jerusalem shall be holiness. And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the brooks of Judah shall flow with waters; and a fountain shall come forth from the house of Jehovah, and shall water the stream of Shittim. Judah shall abide forever, and Jerusalem to generation and generation (Joel 3:17-18, 20).  And in Zechariah: In that day I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness; and I will open Mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the peoples with blindness. And the chieftains of Judah shall say in their heart, I will strengthen to myself the inhabitants of Jerusalem in Jehovah Zebaoth their God. In that day will I make the chieftains of Judah like a hearth of fire in the wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf; and they shall devour all the peoples round about on the right hand and on the left; and Jerusalem shall yet again be inhabited in her own place, even in Jerusalem; and Jehovah shall save the tents of Judah first, that the glory of the house of David, and the glory of the inhabitant of Jerusalem, may not lift itself up above Judah. In that day will Jehovah defend the inhabitant of Jerusalem. And the house of David shall be as God, as the angel of Jehovah before them. And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitant of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace (Zech. 12:4-10). The subject here treated of is the Lord's celestial kingdom-that truth should not have dominion therein over good, but that truth should be subordinate to good. Truth is signified by the "house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem;" and good by "Judah." From this it is manifest why it is first said that "the glory of the house of David, and the glory of the inhabitant of Jerusalem, may not lift itself up above Judah;" and next, that "the house of David shall be as God, and as the angel of Jehovah, and that the spirit of grace shall be poured upon it, and upon the inhabitant of Jerusalem;" for such is the state when truth is subordinate to good, or faith to love. The "horse which shall be smitten with astonishment, and the horse of the peoples with blindness" signifies self-intelligence (n. 2761-2762, 3217).  Again: In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, Holiness to Jehovah; and the pots in the house of Jehovah shall be like the bowls before the altar; and every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness to Jehovah Zebaoth (Zech. 14:20-21); describing the Lord's kingdom. In Malachi: Behold I send My angel who shall prepare the way before Me; and the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the Angel of the covenant whom ye desire; behold He cometh but who may abide the day of His coming? Then shall the meat-offering of Judah and of Jerusalem be pleasant unto Jehovah, as in the days of old, and as in former years (Mal. 3:1-2, 4); where the subject treated of is manifestly the Lord's advent. It is known that the meat-offering of Judah and Jerusalem was not then pleasant; but that worship from love was pleasant, which is the "meat-offering of Judah;" and worship from faith derived from love, which is the "meat-offering of Jerusalem."  In Jeremiah: Thus saith Jehovah Zebaoth, Yet again shall they say this word in the land of Judah and in the cities thereof, when I shall bring again their captivity; Jehovah bless thee, O habitation of righteousness, O mountain of holiness. And Judah and all the cities thereof shall dwell therein together. Behold the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will sow the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast. Behold the days come that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers (Jer. 31:23-24, 27, 31-32). And in David: The Lord hath chosen the tribe of Judah, the Mount Zion that He loved; and hath built His sanctuary like the heights, like the earth hath He founded it forever (Ps. 78:68, 69).  From these and many other passages here omitted, it may be seen what is signified in the Word by "Judah;" and that it is not the Jewish nation, because this was very far from being a celestial church, or the Lord's celestial kingdom; being the worst of all nations in regard to love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, and also in regard to faith; and this from the days of their first fathers, the sons of Jacob, down to the present time. (That such persons were nevertheless capable of representing the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom, may be seen above, n. 3479-3481, because in representations the person is not reflected upon, but only the thing that is represented, n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147, 3670.)  But when they did not remain in the rituals ordained by Jehovah or the Lord, but turned away from them to idolatries, they then no longer represented celestial and spiritual things, but the opposite, that is, infernal and diabolical things-according to the Lord's words in John: Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will to do; he was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth (John 8:44). That this is signified by "Judah" in the opposite sense, may be seen from the following words in Isaiah: Jerusalem hath stumbled, and Judah is fallen, because their tongue and their works are against Jehovah to rebel against the eyes of His glory (Isa. 3:8). And in Malachi: Judah hath dealt treacherously, and abomination hath been wrought in Israel and in Jerusalem; and Judah hath profaned the holiness of Jehovah, because he hath loved and betrothed to himself the daughter of a strange god (Mal. 2:11); and also in the following passages: Isa. 3:1, and following verses; 8:7, 8; Jer. 2:28; 3:7-11; 9:26; 11:9, 10, 12; 13:9; 14:2; 17:1; 18:12, 13; 19:7; 32:35; 36:31; 44:12, 14, 26, 28; Hosea 5:5; 8:14; Amos 2:4, 5; Zeph. 1:4; and in many other places.3882.
And she stood still from bearing. That this signifies ascent by a ladder from the earth to Jehovah or the Lord, is evident from the signification of "bearing," or of "birth," as being truth and good; for these are births in the spiritual sense, inasmuch as man is regenerated or born anew by means of truth and good. These also are what are signified by the four sons born of Leah-Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah. "Reuben" signifies the truth which is the first of regeneration, or of the new birth; this is truth merely as to memory-knowledge, thus it is to know truth. "Simeon" signifies the truth which is the second of regeneration, or of the new birth; this is truth as to the will, thus it is to will truth. "Levi" signifies the truth which is the third of regeneration, or of the new birth; this is truth as to affection, thus it is to be affected with truth, which is the same thing as charity. But "Judah" signifies good, which is the fourth of regeneration, or of the new birth, and this is the celestial of love. When the regenerate man, or he who is born anew, arrives at this stage, the Lord appears to him, for he has then ascended from the lowest step, as by a ladder, up to the step where the Lord is.  This also is the ascent which was signified by the ladder seen by Jacob in a dream, which stood upon the earth, whose top reached to heaven, and on which the angels of God ascended and descended, and upon which stood Jehovah or the Lord (concerning which see the foregoing chapter, verse 12). Hence it is evident that such is the signification of "standing still from bearing." That by "conceiving and bearing," here mentioned four times, is signified advancement from external to internal, or from truth to good, that is, from earth to heaven, may be seen above (n. 3860, 3868, 3874, 3879). Descent follows afterwards, for man cannot descend unless he has first ascended. Descent is nothing else than looking at truth from good, as from a mountain upon which he has climbed, a man views the things which lie beneath. That he then can comprehend in one view innumerable things more than they who stand beneath or in the valley, is manifest; and the case is precisely the same with those who are in good (that is, in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor), as compared with those who are only in truth, that is, in faith alone.3883.
CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE GRAND MAN, AND CONCERNING CORRESPONDENCE; HERE, CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE HEART AND LUNGS. It has been already shown what the Grand Man is, and what is the correspondence therewith, namely, that the Grand Man is the universal heaven, which in general is a likeness and image of the Lord, and that the correspondence is that of the Lord's Divine with the celestial and spiritual things therein; and of the celestial and spiritual things therein with the natural things in the world; and chiefly with those in man. Thus there is a correspondence of the Lord's Divine through heaven or the Grand Man with man, and with all the things in man, insomuch that man comes forth, that is, subsists, therefrom.3884.
As in the world it is quite unknown that there is a correspondence of heaven or the Grand Man with all things of man, and that man comes forth and subsists therefrom, so that what is said on the subject may seem paradoxical and incredible, I may here relate the things that experience has enabled me to know with certainty. Once, when the interior heaven was opened to me, and I was conversing with the angels there, I was permitted to observe the following phenomena. Be it known that although I was in heaven, I was nevertheless not out of myself, but in the body, for heaven is within man, wherever he may be, so that when it pleases the Lord, a man may be in heaven and yet not be withdrawn from the body. In this way it was given me to perceive the general workings of heaven as plainly as an object is perceived by any of the senses. Four workings or operations were then perceived by me. The first was into the brain at the left temple, and was a general operation as regards the organs of reason; for the left side of the brain corresponds to rational or intellectual things, but the right to the affections or things of the will.  The second general operation that I perceived was into the respiration of the lungs, and it led my respiration gently, but from within, so that I had no need to draw breath or respire by any exertion of my will. The very respiration of heaven was at the time plainly perceived by me. It is internal, and for this reason is imperceptible to man; but by a wonderful correspondence it inflows into man's respiration, which is external, or of the body; and if man were deprived of this influx, he would instantly fall down dead.  The third operation that I perceived was into the systole and diastole of the heart, which had then more of softness with me than I had ever experienced at any other time. The intervals of the pulse were regular, being about three within each period of respiration; yet such as to terminate in and thus direct the things belonging to the lungs. How at the close of each respiration the alternations of the heart insinuated themselves into those of the lungs, I was in some measure enabled to observe. The alternations of the pulse were so observable that I was able to count them; they were distinct and soft.  The fourth general operation was into the kidneys, which also it was given me to perceive, but obscurely. From these things it was made manifest that heaven or the Grand Man has cardiac pulses, and that it has respirations; and that the cardiac pulses of heaven or the Grand Man have a correspondence with the heart and with its systolic and diastolic motions; and that the respirations of heaven or the Grand Man have a correspondence with the lungs and their respirations; but that they are both unobservable to man, being imperceptible, because internal.3885.
Once also when I was withdrawn from the ideas derived from the sensuous things of the body, a heavenly light appeared to me, and that light itself withdrew me farther from them, for in the light of heaven there is spiritual life (see n. 1524, 2776, 3167, 3195, 3339, 3636, 3643). When I was in this light, corporeal and worldly things appeared as beneath me, and yet I still perceived them, but as more remote from me, and as not belonging to me. I then seemed to myself to be in heaven with my head, but not with my body. In this state it was likewise given me to observe the general respiration of heaven, and what was its nature; it was interior, easy, spontaneous, and corresponding to my respiration as three to one. It was also given me to observe the reciprocations of the pulsations of the heart; and I was then informed by angels that each and every creature on the earth has pulsations of the heart and the consequent respirations; and that the reason why they take place at dissimilar moments is that both the cardiac pulsation and the pulmonary respiration which are in the heavens pass off into something continuous, and thus into endeavor, which is of such a nature as to excite these motions variously in accordance with the state of every subject.3886.
But be it known that the variations in the heavens in respect to pulsations and respirations are manifold, being as many as are the societies; for they are according to the states of thought and affection with the angels; and these are according to their states of faith and love; but the general pulsation and respiration are as above described. Once also it was given me to observe the cardiac pulsation of those who were of the province of the hinder part of the head, and to note one by one the pulsations of the celestial and those of the spiritual in that province. The pulsations of the celestial were tacit and gentle; but those of the spiritual were strong and vibratory. The intervals of the pulsation of the spiritual were to those of the celestial as five to two; for the pulsation of the celestial inflows into that of the spiritual, and thus goes forth and passes into nature. And wonderful to say the speech of the celestial angels is not heard by the spiritual angels, but is perceived under the form of a pulsation of the heart; and this because the speech of the celestial angels is not intelligible to the spiritual angels, for it is produced by affections which are of love; whereas that of the spiritual is produced by intellectual ideas (see n. 1647, 1759, 2157, 3343); and the former belong to the province of the heart, but the latter to the province of the lungs.3887.
In heaven or the Grand Man there are two kingdoms, one of which is called Celestial, and the other Spiritual. The celestial kingdom consists of angels who are called celestial, and these are they who have been in love to the Lord, and thence in all wisdom; for they are in the Lord, and thereby they are pre-eminently in a state of peace and innocence. They appear to others like little children; for a state of peace and innocence presents this appearance. Everything there is as it were alive before them, for whatever comes immediately from the Lord is alive. Such is the Celestial Kingdom. The other kingdom is called Spiritual. It consists of angels who are called spiritual, and these are they who have been in the good of charity toward the neighbor. They make the delight of their life to consist in the fact that they can do good to others without recompense; to them it is sufficient recompense to be allowed to do good to others. The more they will and desire this, in so much the greater intelligence and happiness are they; for in the other life everyone is gifted with intelligence and happiness by the Lord, in accordance with the use he performs from the affection of the will. Such is the Spiritual Kingdom.  They who are in the Lord's celestial kingdom all belong to the province of the heart; and they who are in the spiritual kingdom all belong to the province of the lungs. The influx from the celestial kingdom into the spiritual kingdom is like that of the heart into the lungs; as also is the influx of all things of the heart into those of the lungs; for by means of the blood vessels the heart rules in the whole of the body and in all its parts; and the lungs in all its parts by the respiration. Hence there is everywhere in the body as it were an influx of the heart into the lungs; but according to the forms there; and according to the states. From this arises all the sensation as well as all the action that is proper to the body, as may be seen from the case of foetuses and newborn infants, which cannot have any bodily sensation, nor any voluntary action, until their lungs have been opened, and thus an influx established of the one into the other. The case is similar in the spiritual world, but with the difference that there are not there bodily and natural things, but celestial and spiritual ones, which are the good of love and the truth of faith. Hence the cardiac motions with those in the spiritual world are according to the states of love, and the respiratory motions are according to the states of faith; the influx of the one into the other causes in them spiritual sensation and spiritual action. These things will necessarily appear to man as paradoxical, from his having no other idea of the good of love and the truth of faith than that they are certain abstract things without the power of effecting anything, when yet the contrary is true, namely, that all perception and sensation, and all energy and action, even in man on earth, are from the good of love and the truth of faith.3888.
These two kingdoms are presented to view in man by means of the two kingdoms that are in him, namely, the kingdom of the will, and the kingdom of the understanding, which two kingdoms constitute the mind of man, nay, the man himself. The will is that to which corresponds the pulsation of the heart; and the understanding is that to which corresponds the respiration of the lungs. For this reason there are likewise in the body of man two kingdoms, namely, those of the heart and the lungs. He who knows this mystery may also know how the case is with the influx of the will into the understanding, and of the understanding into the will; consequently with the influx of the good of love into the truth of faith, and vice versa; thus how the case is with the regeneration of man. But they who are only in corporeal ideas, that is, who are in the will of what is evil and the understanding of what is false, cannot apprehend these things; for they cannot think of spiritual and celestial things otherwise than sensuously and corporeally, consequently not otherwise than from darkness of the things of heavenly light (or of the truth of faith), and from cold of the things of heavenly flame (or of the good of love). This darkness and cold so extinguish celestial and spiritual things that these appear to such persons to have no existence.3889.
In order that I might know not only that there is a correspondence of the celestial things which are of love with the motions of the heart, and of the spiritual things which are of faith from love with the motions of the lungs, but also how the case is with this correspondence, it was given me for a considerable space of time to be among the angels, who showed it me to the life. By a wonderful and indescribable flowing into gyres they formed a semblance of a heart and another semblance of lungs, together with all the interior and exterior contextures that are in them. They then followed the flow of heaven in a free way; for heaven is in the endeavor toward such a form, from the influx of love from the Lord. Thus they presented the several parts that are in the heart; and afterwards the union between the heart and the lungs, which they also represented by the marriage of good and truth. From this it was evident that the heart corresponds to the celestial which is of good, and the lungs to the spiritual which is of truth; and that the conjunction of these two in a material form is precisely as is that of the heart and the lungs. I was also told that the case is similar in the body throughout (that is, in its several members, organs, and viscera) in regard to the things therein which are of the heart, and those which are of the lungs; for where both do not act, and each distinctly take its turn, there cannot be any motion of life from any principle of the will, nor any feeling of life from any principle of the understanding.3890.
It has been occasionally observed above that heaven or the Grand Man is distinguished into innumerable societies, and in general into as many as there are organs and viscera in the body; and that each particular society belongs to one of these organs and viscera (see n. 3745). Also that the societies, although innumerable and various, nevertheless act as a one; just as all things in the body, although these are various, act as a one. The heavenly societies that belong to the province of the heart are the celestial societies, and are in the midst, or in the inmosts; but those which belong to the province of the lungs are the spiritual societies, and are round about, and are in the exteriors. The influx from the Lord is through the celestial societies into the spiritual ones, or through the middle into the circumferences, that is, through inmosts to exteriors. The reason of this is that the Lord inflows through love or mercy, whence comes all that is celestial in His kingdom; and through love or mercy He inflows into the good of faith, whence comes all that is spiritual in His kingdom; and this with unspeakable variety; but the variety does not arise from the influx, but from the reception.3891.
That not only does the universal heaven respire as one man, but also each of the societies in company, nay all angels and spirits, has been testified to me by very many living experiences, so as to leave me in no doubt on the subject. Spirits are surprised that anyone should have any doubt concerning the matter; but as there are few who have any other idea of angels and spirits than as of that which is immaterial, whence they would be mere thoughts, and thus scarcely substances, still less would as men enjoy the senses of seeing, hearing, and of touch, and still less would have respiration, and thus a life like man's (although of an interior kind, such as is the life of a spirit relatively to that of a man); therefore I may here adduce yet further experiences. Before falling asleep I was once told beforehand that there were some who were conspiring against me with the intent to kill me by suffocation; but I paid no attention to their threats, because I was protected by the Lord, and therefore I fell asleep without apprehension. But on awaking at midnight I was made very sensible that I did not respire from myself, but from heaven; for the respiration was not my own, and yet I respired. On many other occasions it has been given me to be sensible of the breathing or respiration of spirits, and also of angels, from the fact that they respired within me; and that my own respiration was nevertheless at the same time present, distinct from theirs. But no one can be sensible of this unless his interiors are opened, and he is thus brought into communication with heaven.3892.
I have been informed by the most ancient people, who were celestial men, and above all other men were in love to the Lord, that they had not external respiration such as their posterity had, but internal; but that they respired with the angels, with whom they were in fellowship because they were in celestial love. I was further informed that their states of respiration were altogether according to their states of love and of the derivative faith. (See what has been related above on this subject, n. 608, 805, 1118-1120.)3893.
Angelic choirs were once celebrating the Lord together, and this from gladness of heart. Their celebration was sometimes heard as sweet singing; for among themselves spirits and angels are possessed of a sonorous voice, and are heard by each other as well as a man is heard by a man; but human singing is not to be compared with that for a sweetness and harmony which are celestial. From the variety of the sound I perceived that there were many choirs. I was instructed by the angels with me that they belonged to the province of the lungs and to their functions; for it is theirs to sing because this is the office of the lungs. This also was given me to know by experience. They were permitted to direct my respiration, which they did so gently and sweetly, and also so interiorly, that I was scarcely sensible of any respiration of my own. I was further instructed that they who are appointed to the involuntary respiration are distinct from those who are appointed to the voluntary respiration; and I was told that they who are appointed to the involuntary respiration are present with man during sleep; for as soon as he sleeps, the voluntariness of his respiration ceases, and he receives involuntary respiration.3894.
It was said above (n. 3892), that the respirations of angels and spirits are altogether according to their states of love and of the derivative faith. Hence one society does not respire in the same manner as another; and the evil, who are in the love of self and of the world, and thereby in what is false, cannot abide in company with the good; but when they come near them they seem to themselves unable to breathe, and as it were to be suffocated; in consequence whereof they fall down like persons half dead, or like stones, even into hell, where they again receive their respiration, which they have in common with those who are there. From this we can see that they who are in evil and falsity cannot be in the Grand Man, or in heaven; for when on their approaching it their respiration begins to cease, all their observation and thought also cease, and likewise all their endeavor to do what is evil and to persuade what is false; and together with the endeavor there perish all their action and vital motion, so that they can do no otherwise than cast themselves down headlong thence. 3894a. Because this is so, and because the well-disposed on their entrance into the other life are first remitted into the life which they had in the world (see n. 2119), thus also into the loves and pleasures of that life, therefore they cannot as yet, before they are prepared, be in fellowship with angels, even as to respiration. For this reason, when they are being prepared, they are first inaugurated into angelic life by concordant respirations, and then they come at the same time into interior perceptions and into heavenly freedom. This is effected in a society of many, or in choirs, in which the one respires in the same way as the others and also perceives in the same way, and in the same way acts from freedom. How this is effected has also been shown me to the life.3895.
The persuasion of what is evil and false, and also the persuasion of truth when man is in the life of evil, is of such a nature in the other life that it as it were suffocates others, even well-disposed spirits before they have been inaugurated into angelic respiration. They therefore who are in such a persuasion are removed by the Lord and are detained in hell, where one cannot hurt another; for there the persuasion of one is nearly like that of another, and hence their respirations accord. Some spirits who were in such a persuasion came to me with the intent to suffocate me, and even caused somewhat of suffocation, but I was delivered by the Lord. A little child was then sent by the Lord, at whose presence they were so tortured that they could scarcely breathe, in which state they were kept even until driven to supplications, and thus were thrust down into hell.  The persuasion of truth when man is in the life of evil is of such a nature that he persuades himself that truth is truth, not for the sake of good as the end, but for the sake of evil as the end, namely, that he may thereby gain honors, reputation, and wealth. The very worst of all are able to be in such a persuasion, and also in apparent zeal, to such a degree as to condemn to hell all who are not in truth, however much these may be in good. (Concerning this persuasion see n. 2689, 3865.) When such persons first come into the other life they believe themselves to be angels; but they cannot approach any angelic society; being as it were suffocated by their own persuasion as soon as they come near it. These are they of whom the Lord says in Matthew: Many shall say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in Thy name? and in Thy name have cast out demons? and in Thy name done many wonderful works? But then will I profess unto them, I never knew you; depart from Me ye that work iniquity (Matt. 7:22-23).3896.
The subject of the Grand Man, and of Correspondence, will be continued at the end of the following chapter.3897.
CHAPTER 30 In accordance with the plan adopted it is now necessary to explain, as a preface to this chapter, what the Lord taught concerning the Last Judgment, or the last times of the church, in the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew. Before the preceding chapter of Genesis there was explained what is contained in this chapter of Matthew from verse 19 to 22. Now follows what is contained in verses 23 to 28. Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo here is the Christ, or there, believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and shall give great signs and wonders, to lead astray if possible even the elect. Behold I have told you before. If therefore they shall say unto you, Behold He is in the desert, go not out; Behold He is in the inner chambers, believe it not. For as the lightning cometh forth out of the east and appeareth even unto the west, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. For wheresoever the carcass is, there will the eagles be gathered together (Matt. 24:23-28).3898.
What these words involve no one can know except from the internal sense-as that false Christs shall arise who shall give signs and wonders; and that if men should say that Christ is in the desert, they should not go out; and that if they should say that He is in the inner chambers, they should not believe it; and that the coming of the Son of man shall be as the lightning which cometh forth from the east and appeareth even unto the west; and also that wheresoever the carcass is, there also will the eagles be gathered together. These things, like those which precede and that follow in this chapter, seem not to stand in any series as to the sense of the letter; but yet in the internal sense they are in a most beautiful series, which first becomes apparent when it is understood what is signified by "false Christs;" what by "signs and wonders;" what by the "desert" and the "inner chambers;" also what by the "coming of the Son of man;" and lastly what by the "carcass" and the "eagles."  The reason why the Lord spoke in this manner was in order that the people might not understand the Word, lest they should profane it; for when the church has been vastated, as it then was with the Jews, if men understood it they would profane it; wherefore for the same reason the Lord also spoke by parables, as He Himself teaches in Matthew (13:13-15; Mark 4:11, 12; Luke 8:10). For the Word cannot be profaned by those who do not know its mysteries; but by those who do (see n. 301-303, 593, 1008, 1010, 1059, 1327, 1328, 2051, 3398, 3402); and more by those who appear to themselves learned than by those who seem to themselves unlearned.  But the reason why the interiors of the Word are now being opened, is that the church at this day has been so far vastated (that is, is so devoid of faith and love) that although men know and understand, still they do not acknowledge, and much less believe (see n. 3398, 3399), except a few who are in the life of good and are called the "elect," who can now be instructed, and with whom a New Church is to be instituted. But where these are, the Lord alone knows; there will be few within the church; it has been among the Gentiles that previous new churches have been set up (see n. 2986).3899.
In what precedes in this chapter of Matthew the successive vastation of the church has been treated of-that they should first begin no longer to know what good and truth are, but should dispute about them; next that they should despise them; thirdly that they should not acknowledge them; and fourthly that they should profane them (see n. 3754). The subject now treated of is the state of the church in respect to its quality at that time as to doctrine in general, and with those specifically who are in holy external worship, but in profane internal worship; that is, who with the mouth profess the Lord with holy reverence, but at heart worship themselves and the world, so that with them the worship of the Lord is a means of gaining honors and wealth. Insofar as these persons have acknowledged the Lord, and the heavenly life and faith, so far do they profane them when they become of such a character. This state of the church is now treated of, as may better appear from the internal sense of the Lord's words quoted above, which is as follows.3900.
Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo here is the Christ, or there; believe it not; signifies an exhortation to beware of their doctrine. "The Christ" is the Lord as to Divine truth, and hence as to the Word and as to doctrine from the Word. That here the contrary is meant, namely, Divine truth falsified, or the doctrine of falsity is evident. (That "Jesus" is Divine good, and "Christ" Divine truth, may be seen above, n. 3004, 3005, 3008, 3009.)  For there shall arise false Christs and false prophets; signifies the falsities of that doctrine. That "false Christs" are doctrinal things from the Word falsified, or truths not Divine, is manifest from what has been said just above (see also n. 3010, 3732 at the end); and that "false prophets" are those who teach such falsities (n. 2534). In the Christian world they who teach falsities are especially those who have as their end their own pre-eminence, and the riches of the world; for they pervert the truths of the Word in their own favor; for when the love of self and of the world is the end, nothing else is thought of. These are "false Christs and false prophets."  And they shall give great signs and wonders; signifies things that confirm and persuade from external appearances and fallacies, by which the simple suffer themselves to be led astray. That this is "giving signs and wonders," will of the Lord's Divine mercy be shown elsewhere.  To lead astray if possible even the elect; signifies those who are in the life of good and truth, and are consequently with the Lord. These are they who in the Word are called the "elect." In the company of those who veil over profane worship with what is holy, such are rarely seen; or if seen, they are not known; for the Lord hides them, and thus protects them. For before they have been confirmed they suffer themselves to be easily led away by external sanctities; but after they have been confirmed they remain steadfast, being kept by the Lord in the company of angels, without knowing it; and it is then impossible for them to be led astray by that wicked crew.  Behold, I have told you before; signifies an exhortation to prudence, that is, to beware; for they are among false prophets, who appear in sheep's clothing, but inwardly are ravening wolves (Matt. 7:15). The "false prophets" are the sons of the age, who are more prudent in their generation (that is, more crafty) than the sons of light (as described in Luke 16:8). For which reason the Lord exhorts them in the words, "Behold I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves; be ye therefore prudent as serpents and simple as doves" (Matt. 10:16).  If therefore they shall say unto you, Behold He is in the desert, go not forth; Behold He is in the inner chambers, believe it not; signifies that what they say about truth, and what they say about good, as well as many other things, are not to be believed. That this is what is signified, no one can see except the man who is acquainted with the internal sense. That a mystery is contained in these words may be known from the fact that the Lord spoke them, and that without any other sense more interiorly hidden the words amount to nothing-namely, that if they should say that the Christ was in the desert they were not to go forth; and if they should say that He was in the inner chambers, they were not to believe it. But it is vastated truth that is signified by the "desert;" and vastated good by the "inner chambers," or secret recesses. The reason why vastated truth is signified by the "desert," is that when the church is vastated (that is, when there is no longer any Divine truth in it, because there is no longer any good, or love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor), it is then said to be a "desert," or to be in a "desert;" for by a "desert" or "wilderness" is meant whatever is not cultivated or inhabited (n. 2708); also whatever has little life (n. 1927), as is then the case with truth in the church. This shows that the "desert" here is a church in which there is no truth.  But the "inner chambers," or secret recesses, in the internal sense signify the church as to good, and also simply good. The church that is in good is called the "house of God." The "inner chambers," and the things within the house, are goods. (That the "house of God" is Divine good; and a "house" in general, the good of love and charity, may be seen above, n. 2233, 2234, 2559, 3142, 3652, 3720.) The reason why that which men say about truth, and what they say about good, is not to be believed, is that they call falsity truth, and evil good; for they who regard themselves and the world as their end, understand nothing else by truth and good than that they themselves are to be adored, and are to receive benefits; and if they breathe forth piety, it is that they may appear in sheep's clothing.  Moreover, as the Word spoken by the Lord contains innumerable things within it, and as "desert" or "wilderness" is a word of wide signification, for all that is called a "wilderness" which is not cultivated and inhabited, and all interior things are called "inner chambers," therefore by a "desert" is also signified the Word of the Old Testament, because this is regarded as abrogated; and by "inner chambers" the Word of the New Testament, because this teaches interior things, or those which concern the internal man. So also the whole Word is called a "desert," because it no longer serves for doctrinal things; and human institutions are called "inner chambers," which, because they depart from the precepts and institutes of the Word, make the Word to be a "desert." This is also known in the Christian world; for they who are in holy external and in profane internal worship, for the sake of innovations which look to their pre-eminence over all and their opulence above all as the ends in view, abrogate the Word, and this so far as not even to permit it to be read by others. And although they who are not in such profane worship hold the Word to be holy, and permit it to be among the people, they nevertheless bend and explain all things therein in favor of their doctrinal matters, which causes the rest of what is in the Word, and which is not in accordance with their doctrinal matters, to be a "desert." This may be sufficiently evident from the case of those who make salvation to consist in faith alone, and hold in contempt the works of charity. All that the Lord Himself has spoken in the New Testament, and so many times in the Old, concerning love and charity, they make as a "desert;" and all the things that belong to faith without works, they make as "inner chambers." It is manifest from this what is signified by the words, "If they say unto you, Behold He is in the desert, go not forth; Behold He is in the inner chambers, believe it not."  For as the lightning cometh forth from the east, and appeareth even unto the west, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be; signifies that it was with the internal worship of the Lord as with lightning, which is instantly dissipated. For by the "lightning" is signified that which is of heavenly light, and thus that which is preached about love and faith, because these are of heavenly light. In the supreme sense the "east" is the Lord; and in the internal sense, the good of love, of charity, and of faith from the Lord (see n. 101, 1250, 3249). But the "west" in the internal sense is that which has gone down or has ceased to be; thus it signifies no acknowledgment of the Lord, nor of the good of love, charity, and faith; and so the lightning that cometh out of the east and appeareth even unto the west denotes dissipation. The coming of the Lord is not according to the letter, that He is to appear again in the world; but it is His presence in everyone; and this exists whenever the gospel is preached and what is holy is thought of.  For wheresoever the carcass is, there will the eagles be gathered together; signifies that confirmations of falsity by means of reasonings will be multiplied in the vastated church. When the church is without the good and consequently without the truth of faith (that is, when it has been vastated), it is said to be "dead," for its life is from good and truth; and hence when dead it is compared to a "carcass." Reasonings concerning goods and truths that make these out to be nothing except insofar as they are apprehended, and confirmations of evil and falsity thereby, are the "eagles," as is evident from that which now follows. That the "carcass" here is the church devoid of the life of charity and faith, is manifest from the words of the Lord in Luke, where He speaks of the consummation of the age: The disciples said, Where Lord? (that is, the consummation of the age, or the Last Judgment). And He said unto them, Where the body is, thither will the eagles also be gathered together (Luke 17:37). "Body" here stands in place of "carcass," for it is a dead body that is meant, and it signifies the church; for that the Judgment was to commence from the house of God or from the church, is evident from various passages in the Word. This is what is signified in the internal sense by the Lord's words now adduced and unfolded. That they are in a most beautiful series, although this does not appear in the sense of the letter, must be evident to anyone who contemplates them in their connection according to the explication.
3869-1 The Latin here is fidem habere.