Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
And behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it. That this signifies infinite and eternal communication and the consequent conjunction; and that from what is lowest there is as it were an ascent, and afterwards when the order is inverted a descent; is evident from the signification of "angels," as being something Divine of the Lord, which is meant by them when they are mentioned in the Word (see n. 1925, 2319, 2821, 3039). That in the present case they signify Divine truth, is evident from their being called the angels "of God," for "God" is named when in the internal sense truth is treated of, but "Jehovah" when good is treated of (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822); and this is the reason why although "Jehovah" is presently named, and it is said, "behold Jehovah standing upon it," still they are here called angels of "God;" for the subject is the truth from which is good, which is here represented by Jacob, as has been frequently said above. That by "ascending and descending on the ladder" is in the supreme sense signified infinite and eternal communication and the consequent conjunction, is evident without further explication. Communication, and the consequent conjunction, cannot be predicated of the Lord's Divine Itself, and of His Divine Human, unless at the same time they are said to be infinite and eternal; for in the Lord all is infinite and eternal; infinite in respect to being, and eternal in respect to manifestation. From all that has been said it is evident that of the "ladder set on the earth, and its head reaching to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it," the sum total of the signification is an ascent as it were from what is lowest, and afterwards when the order is inverted, a descent.  How the case is with this ascent and descent, may be seen from what has been said and shown above (n. 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3607, 3610, 3665, 3690). But as this order, which is that of the regeneration of man, and which is described in the internal sense of this and the following verses, is altogether unknown in the church, the nature of it may be further illustrated. It is known that man is born into the nature of his parents, and of his grandfathers, and also of those who have been his ancestors for ages; thus he is born into the hereditary evil of them all successively accumulated, insomuch that as regards what is from himself he is nothing but evil. The result of this is that as to both understanding and will man has been utterly destroyed; and of himself wills nothing of good, and consequently understands nothing of truth; and therefore that which he calls good and believes to be good, is evil; and that which he calls truth and believes to be truth, is falsity. For example: loving himself above others; desiring better for himself than for others; coveting what belongs to another; taking thought for himself alone, and not for others except for the sake of himself. As of himself man is desirous of these things he therefore calls them goods, and also truths; and what is more, if anyone injures or endeavors to injure him in respect to these goods and truths as he calls them, he hates him, and also burns with revenge toward him, desires and even seeks his ruin, and feels delight in it, and this in proportion as he actually confirms himself in such things, that is, in proportion as he more frequently brings them into actual exercise.  When such a person comes into the other life he has the same desires; the very nature which he has contracted in the world by actual life remains, and the delight just referred to is plainly perceived. For this reason such a man cannot be in any heavenly society, in which everyone desires better for others than for himself, but has to be in some infernal society where the delight is similar to his own. This nature is that which must be rooted out while the man lives in the world, which cannot possibly be done except by the Lord through regeneration; that is, by his receiving a totally new will and derivative new understanding; or in other words by being made new in respect to both these faculties. But in order that this may be effected, the man must first of all be reborn as a little child, and must learn what is evil and false, and also what is good and true; for without knowledge he cannot be imbued with any good; for from himself he acknowledges nothing to be good but what is evil, and nothing to be true but what is false.  To this end such knowledges are insinuated into him as are not altogether contrary to those which he had before; as that all love begins from self; that self is to be taken care of first and then others; that good is to be done to such as appear poor and distressed outwardly, no matter what may be their inward character; in like manner that good is to be done to widows and orphans simply because they are so called; and lastly, to enemies in general, whoever they may be; and that thereby a man may merit heaven. These and other such knowledges are those of the infancy of his new life, and are of such a nature that while they derive somewhat from his former life or the nature of his former life, they also derive somewhat from his new life into which he is thereby being introduced; and hence they are such as to admit into them whatever things are conducive to the formation of a new will and a new understanding. These are the lowest goods and truths, from which those who are being regenerated commence, and because these admit into themselves truths that are more interior or nearer to Divine truths, by their means there may also be rooted out the falsities which the man had before believed to be truths.  But they who are being regenerated do not learn such truths simply as memory-knowledges, but as life, for they do these truths; but that they do them is from the beginning of the new will which the Lord insinuates entirely without their knowledge; and insofar as they receive of this new will, so far they receive of these knowledges, and bring them into act, and believe them; but insofar as they do not receive of the new will, so far they are indeed capable of learning such things, but not of bringing them into act, because they care merely for memory-knowledge, and not for life.  This is the state of infancy and childhood in respect to the new life which is about to succeed in place of the former life; but the state of the adolescence and youth of this life is that regard is no longer had to any person as he appears in the external form but to his quality in respect to good; first in civil life, next in moral life, and lastly in spiritual life; and good is that which the man then begins to hold and love in the prior place, and from good to love the person; and at last, when he is still further perfected, he takes care to do good to those who are in good, and this in accordance with the quality of the good in them, and at last he feels delight in doing good to them, because he feels delight in good, and pleasantness in the things that confirm it. These confirmatory things he acknowledges as truths; and they also are the truths of his new understanding, which flow from the goods which are of his new will.  In the degree that he feels delight in this good, and pleasantness in these truths, he has a feeling of what is undelightful in the evils of his former life, and of what is unpleasing in its falsities; and the result is that a separation takes place of the things which are of the former will and the former understanding from the things that are of the new will and the new understanding; and this not in accordance with the affection of knowing such things, but in accordance with the affection of doing them. Consequently the man then sees that the truths of his infancy were relatively inverted, and that the same had been by little and little brought back into a different order, namely, to be inversely subordinate, so that those which at first were in the prior place are now in the posterior place; thus that by those truths which were the truths of his infancy and childhood, the angels of God had ascended as by a ladder from earth to heaven; but afterwards, by the truths of his adult age, the angels of God descended as by a ladder from heaven to earth.3702.
And behold Jehovah standing upon it. That this signifies the Lord in the highest, is evident from the fact that in the Word of the Old Testament the Lord is so often called "Jehovah" (see n. 1736, 3023, 3035); and that in the Word of the New Testament He is nowhere called "Jehovah," but instead of Jehovah "the Lord" (n. 2921). That "standing upon it," signifies to be in the highest, is evident without explication. The arcanum which lies concealed in the internal sense of these words, is that all goods and truths descend from the Lord, and ascend to Him; that is, that He is the first and the last; for man has been so created that the Divine things of the Lord may descend through him down to the ultimates of nature, and from the ultimates of nature may ascend to Him; so that man might be a medium that unites the Divine with the world of nature, and the world of nature with the Divine; and that thus the very ultimate of nature might live from the Divine through man as the uniting medium; which would be the case if man had lived according to Divine order.  That man was so created is evident from the fact that as to his body he is a little world, for all the arcana of the world of nature are stored within him; for every hidden property there is in the ether and its modifications is stored within the eye; and every property in the air is stored within the ear; and whatever invisible thing floats and acts in the air is in the organ of smell where it is perceived; and whatever invisible thing there is in waters and other fluids is in the organ of taste; and the very changes of state are in the sense of touch everywhere in the body; besides that things still more hidden would be perceived in his interior organs if his life were in accordance with order. Hence it is evident that there would be a descent of the Divine through man into the ultimate of nature, and from the ultimate of nature there would be an ascent to the Divine, if with faith of heart, that is, with love, man would only acknowledge the Lord as his first and last end.  In such a state were the most ancient people, who were celestial men; for whatever they apprehended by any sense was to them a means for thinking concerning the things of the Lord; thus concerning the Lord and His kingdom; and from this came the delight they derived from things worldly and terrestrial (see n. 1409, 2896, 2897, 2995). Moreover when they thus contemplated the lower and ultimate things of nature, these appeared before their eyes as if they were alive; for the life from which they descended was in their internal sight and perception, and the objects presented to their eyes were as images of this life; which images, although inanimate, to them were thereby animated. Such is the perception the celestial angels have regarding all things in the world; as has frequently been given me to perceive; and hence also little children have such a perception (n. 2297, 2298). From all this we can see what is the quality of those through whom the Divine things of the Lord descend down to the ultimates of nature, and from the ultimates of nature ascend to Him, and represent the Divine communication and the consequent conjunction which in the supreme sense are signified by the "angels ascending and descending on the ladder set on the earth, whose head reached unto heaven, and upon which stood Jehovah."3703.
And He said, I am Jehovah the God of Abraham thy father. That this signifies the Lord, that from Him that good comes, is evident from the fact that Jehovah is the Divine being itself of the Lord, who from the Divine good is called "the God of Abraham." (That Abraham represents the Lord as to the Divine good, may be seen above, n. 2172, 2198.) And because the Divine good is that from which are all celestial and spiritual goods, and derivatively all truths also, it is here said "Abraham the father," and indeed, "thy father," that is, the father of Jacob, when yet Isaac was his father. That in the internal sense "father" signifies good, is because good is that from which all things are in both general and particular, and truth is that through which they all come into manifestation; thus from the marriage of good and truth. Heaven itself, which consists of nothing else than the Divine marriage of good and truth, is from the Divine marriage of good and truth and of truth and good in the Lord.  In universal nature also all things both in general and in particular have relation to good and truth; for there are represented in nature the celestial and spiritual goods and truths of heaven; and in heaven are represented the Divine goods and truths of the Lord. From this it is evident that good is like a father, and truth is like a mother; and that therefore in the internal sense of the Word by "father" is signified good, and by "mother," truth, and indeed the good and truth from which the lower or derived goods and truths have their birth, which are relatively as daughters and sons, and therefore in the Word are also called "daughters" and "sons" (n. 489-491, 2362). They are also relatively as brothers and sisters, as grandchildren and great-grandchildren, as sons-in-law, mothers-in-law, and daughters-in-law; in a word, as kinships and connections in every degree, and this from the marriage of good, which is the father, with truth which is the mother. (That in the heavens all things in general and particular are circumstanced according to the relationships of love and faith in the Lord, or what is the same, of good and truth, may be seen above, n. 685, 917, 2739, 3612; and that on this account the most ancient people compared each and all things to marriage, n. 54, 55; see also n. 718, 747, 1432, 2508, 2516, 2524, 2556.)  That in the internal sense of the Word "father" signifies good, may be seen from many passages, as from the following. In Isaiah: Hearken to Me ye that regard righteousness, ye that seek Jehovah; look unto the rock whence ye were hewn, and to the hole of the pit whence ye were digged; look unto Abraham your father, and unto Sarah that bare you; for when he was but one I called him, and I blessed him, and I will multiply him. For Jehovah will comfort Zion; He will comfort all her waste places, and will make her wilderness like Eden, and her solitude like the garden of Jehovah (Isa. 51:1-3); where the subject is the Lord and His advent, as is evident from each particular; and who as to Divine truth is called a "rock" and a "pit"; and as to Divine good, "Abraham the father." And as the Divine marriage of good and truth is represented by Abraham and Sarah (see n. 1468, 1901, 1965, 1989, 2011, 2063, 2065, 2172, 2173, 2198, 2507, 2833, 2836, 2904, 3245, 3251, 3305), it is said, "Abraham your father and Sarah who bare you." For this reason also it is said that they should "look unto the rock and unto the pit," and also "to Abraham their father and unto Sarah"; and this is why there at once follow the words, "Jehovah will comfort Zion," whereby is meant the celestial church (n. 2362), and "He will comfort her waste places, and make her wilderness like Eden, and her solitude like the garden of Jehovah."  The same is signified by "Abraham" in other passages of the Word where he is called "father," as in John: Jesus said, I speak that which I have seen with My father; and ye do the things which ye have seen with your father. They answered and said unto Him, Abraham is our father. Jesus saith unto them, If ye were Abraham's sons ye would do the works of Abraham; ye do the works of your father (John 8:38-39, 41). And in Matthew: Think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father; for I say unto you that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. And lo the axe is laid unto the root of the trees; therefore every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be hewn down, and cast into the fire (Matt. 3:9-10). And in Luke: When the poor man Lazarus died, he was carried up by the angels into Abraham's bosom; and the rich man also died, and was buried; and when he was in hell he lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom; and he cried and said, Father Abraham have mercy on me; I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house (Luke 16:22-24, 27). In these passages it is evident that Abraham is not meant, but the Lord as to Divine good. (That Abraham is unknown in heaven, and that when mention is made of him from the Word, the Lord is understood, may be seen above, n. 1834, 1876, 1989, 3305.)  That in the internal sense "father" signifies good, may be seen from the following passages. In Moses: Honor thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be long upon the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee (Exod. 20:12; Deut. 5:16). That this precept, like the other precepts of the Decalogue, is true in both senses; and that in the internal sense "honoring father and mother" is to love good and truth, and in good and truth the Lord, may be seen above (n. 2609, 3690). That "days upon the land" are the consequent states of good in the Lord's kingdom, is evident from the signification of "days," as being states (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788); and from the signification of "Canaan," which is here "the land," as being the Lord's kingdom (see n. 1607, 3038, 3481); and that "to belong" is predicated of good (n. 1613).  Because of this signification of "father and mother," in the representative Jewish Church many laws were enacted concerning parents and sons, in all of which in the internal sense is signified good and truth, and in the supreme sense the Lord as to Divine good and Divine truth. As in Moses: And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, dying he shall die. And he that curseth his father or his mother, dying he shall die (Exod. 21:15, 17). Again: Every man that hath cursed his father, or his mother, killing he shall be killed; he that hath cursed his father or his mother, his bloods shall be upon him (Lev. 20:9). And again: Cursed be he that setteth light by his father or his mother: and all the people shall say Amen (Deut. 27:16). In Ezekiel: Behold the princes of Israel, every man according to his arm, have been in thee to shed blood; in thee have they set light by father and mother (Ezek. 22:6-7). In Moses: If a man have a stubborn and rebellious son, who will not obey the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and though they chasten him, will not obey them; then shall his father and his mother lay hold on him, and bring him out unto the elders of the city, and unto the gate of his place; and all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die (Deut. 21:18-19, 21).  In all these passages, in the sense of the letter, by "father and mother" are meant father and mother; but in the internal sense good and truth; and in the supreme sense the Lord as to Divine good and Divine truth; as also the Lord Himself teaches in Matthew: Jesus stretched forth His hand upon His disciples, and said, Behold My mother and My brethren; for whosoever shall do the will of My Father who is in the heavens, the same is My brother, and sister, and mother (Matt. 12:49). And again: Be not ye called Master; for one is your Master, Christ; but all ye are brethren. And call ye not your father on earth; for one is your Father, who is in the heavens (Matt. 23:8-9); it is not here forbidden to be called master, and to be called father on earth; but what is forbidden is to acknowledge at heart any other father than the Lord; that is, when mention is made of "master" and "father," the Lord is to be understood, who in the supreme sense is represented by them; according to what was said above (n. 3702) concerning the most ancient people who were celestial men-that whatever they perceived on earth was to them a means of thinking concerning the Lord.  The like is implied in what the Lord spake to one of His disciples, who said: Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father; but Jesus said unto him, Follow Me, and let the dead bury their dead (Matt. 8:21-22); for relatively to the Father in heaven, or to the Lord, a father on earth is as the dead to the living. Thus the very law concerning honoring parents is as it were dead, unless in it there are honor, worship, and love to the Lord; for that law descends from this Divine law; and hence comes that which is really living in that law; wherefore the Lord said, "Follow Me, and let the dead bury their dead." The same is also signified by what Elijah said to Elisha: Elijah passed by Elisha, and cast his mantle upon him. And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah, and said, Let me, I pray thee, kiss my father and my mother, and then I will follow thee. And he said unto him, Go back again; for what have I done to thee? (1 Kings 19:19-20). That by Elijah was represented the Lord, may be seen above (preface to chapter 18 and n. 2762).  In Malachi: Behold I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of Jehovah come; and he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the sons, and the heart of the sons to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse (Mal. 4:5-6). In Luke, the angel said to Zacharias concerning his son John: And he shall go before His face, in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the sons (Luke 1:17); Here it is manifest that by "fathers" and "sons" are not meant fathers and sons, but the goods and truths of the church, which the Lord was about to restore.  In Malachi: Jehovah will be magnified from over the border of Israel. A son shall honor his father, and a servant his master. If then I be a father, where is Mine honor? If I be a master, where is My fear? (Mal. 1:5-6); where "father" denotes those who are in the good of the church; and "master," those who are in the truth of the church; "father" manifestly denoting the Lord as to Divine good; and "master," or "lord," as to Divine truth.  In David: My father and my mother have forsaken me, but Jehovah taketh me up (Ps. 27:10); where "father and mother" denote good and truth, which are said to have "forsaken" man when he takes note that of himself he is not able to do anything good, or to know anything true: that it is not to be understood as if David was forsaken by his father and mother is manifest.  Again: Thou art far fairer than the sons of men; the king's daughter is all glorious within; her clothing is inwrought with gold. Instead of thy fathers shall be thy sons, whom thou shalt make princes in all the earth (Ps. 45:2, 13, 16); where the Lord is treated of; "instead of thy fathers shall be thy sons," denotes that Divine truths shall be as Divine goods; the "king's daughter" signifies the love of truth; the "clothing inwrought with gold" signifies the quality of this truth derived from good. Inasmuch as the subject here is the Lord and His Divine Human, as is evident from the whole psalm and the particulars in it, it is evident that each and all things therein have a like predication; thus that by the "king's daughter" is not meant a king's daughter, nor that her clothing was inwrought with gold, nor that instead of fathers should be her sons, nor that these should be princes in all the earth; but that Divine celestial and spiritual things are what are signified by each expression. (That "daughter" is affection or love, may be seen above, n. 490, 491, 2362; that "king" is Divine truth,, n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009; that "gold" is good, n. 113, 1551, 1552; that "inwrought" is predicated of natural memory-knowledge, n. 2831; here therefore of Divine natural truth; that "clothing" is such truths as invest good, n. 297, 2576; that "sons who are instead of fathers" signify truths of good, in this case Divine truths as Divine goods, n. 264, 489, 491, 533, 1147, 1729, 1733, 2159, 2623, 2803, 2813; that "princes in the whole earth" are the primary things of the Lord's kingdom and church; that "princes" are primary things, n. 1482, 2089; that "earth" is the Lord's kingdom and church, n. 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355.)  In Moses: Jehovah had a delight in thy fathers to love them, and He chose their seed after them, even you out of all peoples, as at this day. Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and no longer harden your neck (Deut. 10:15-16); where in the internal sense "fathers" denote the Ancient and Most Ancient Churches, which were so called from the love of good and truth in which they were; from the love of good the most ancient people who were celestial men, and from the love of truth the ancient, who were spiritual men. Their goods and truths in the church are what are called the "seed which God chose." That Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and his twelve sons are not the fathers here meant, and that the Israelitish and Jewish people are not the seed, is very evident; but this is said of them and to them in order that the internal sense may have some outward form intelligible to man.  In Isaiah: The child shall behave himself proudly against the old man, and the base against the honorable. When a man shall take hold of his brother in the house of his father, saying, Thou hast raiment, thou shalt be a prince unto us, he shall say, In my house is neither bread nor raiment, ye shall not make me a prince of the people (Isa. 3:5-7); where in the internal sense the perverted state of the church is treated of, when truth is no longer acknowledged as truth, and it is not known what good is. A "man taking hold of his brother in the house of his father" denotes the acknowledging of everything to be good; "raiment" denotes truth (n. 1073, 2576); "prince," the primary of doctrine therefrom (n. 1482, 2089); "there is no bread nor raiment in my house" denotes that there was neither good nor truth (that "bread" signifies good, see above, n. 276, 680, 3478; that "raiment" signifies truth, n. 297, 2576).  From the representation of good and truth by father and mother, and also by daughters and sons, there were in the representative churches numerous laws which had from this what was Divine in them; as these which follow: And the daughter of a priest, if she profane herself by committing whoredom, she profaneth her father, she shall be burned with fire (Lev. 21:9); where the "daughter of a priest" denotes the affection of good; "father," the good from which this affection is; "committing whoredom" denotes to profane good. (What is meant by "committing whoredom" may be seen above, n. 2466, 2729, 3399; and what by "profaning," n. 1008, 1010, 1059, 2051, 3398, 3399.) Also, that if the daughter of a priest be a widow, or be divorced, and she has no seed, she shall return to the house of her father, as in her youth, and shall eat of the bread of her father; there shall no stranger eat thereof (Lev. 22:13).  Likewise this law: When thou shalt see among the captives a wife of beautiful form, and thou hast a desire unto her, to take her to thee for a woman, then thou shalt bring her into the midst of thine house, and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails, and she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall sit in thine house, and bewail her father and her mother a month of days; and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and shalt know her, and she shall be to thee for a woman (Deut. 21:11-13). All things in this law in both general and particular are representative of natural truth, in that after it has been purified from falsities it is adopted by good; such truth is signified by a "wife in captivity, beautiful in form"; purification from falsities is signified by "bringing her into the midst of the house, shaving her head, paring her nails, putting off the raiment of her captivity, and bewailing her father and mother"; adoption is signified by "afterwards going in unto her, knowing her, and taking her for a woman."  The laws we read of in the Word relating to marriages, that these were to be contracted within the tribe and the family; and also the laws of inheritances, that these were not to pass from tribe to tribe, also had their origin from the same source, namely, from the celestial and spiritual marriage in the Lord's kingdom, or from the marriage of good and truth, which two are signified by "father and mother"; and in like manner the laws enacted concerning the degrees of consanguinity allowed and forbidden: each law in the Word that bears on these matters has reference inwardly to the law of consociation and conjunction of good and truth in heaven, and to the consociations of evil and falsity in hell, which are separate from the former. (Concerning the degrees allowed and forbidden see Leviticus 20; concerning inheritances, that they should not pass from tribe to tribe, and concerning marriages that they should be contracted within the tribe, see Numbers 27, verses 7-9; and in other places; that in the heavens all things in general and particular are disposed according to the consanguinities and affinities of good and truth, see above, n. 685, 917, 2739, 3612.)  Because the Israelitish people represented the Lord's kingdom in the heavens, and thus the heavenly order there, it was also commanded that they should be distinguished according to tribes, and according to families, and according to the houses of their fathers (Num. 26); and also that according to this order they should measure out the camp around the tent of the congregation, and likewise that they should journey according to the same order, as is written in Moses: Every man by his own standard, with the ensigns of their fathers' houses, over against the tent of the congregation shall the sons of Israel measure out the camp; and so also were they to go forward (Num. 2:2, 34). And therefore: When Balaam saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, the spirit of God came upon him, and he uttered an enunciation, saying, How goodly are thy tabernacles, O Jacob, thy habitations, O Israel; as the valleys are they planted; as gardens by the river's side (Num. 24:5-6, etc.). In this prophecy neither Jacob nor Israel is meant, but the Lord's kingdom in the heavens, and His church in the lands, which were represented by that order in which Balaam then saw them, as is manifest from the words therein.  From what has been said it may also be known what is signified in the internal sense of the Word by "orphans," that is by those who are without a father; namely, those who are in a state of innocence and charity, and desire to know and to do what is good, and are not able. In such a state especially are those out of the church, of whom the Lord takes care, and in the other life adopts as sons; and because these are signified by "orphans," therefore when these are mentioned in the Word, in many passages there are also mentioned "sojourners" and "widows;" for by "sojourners" are signified those who are being instructed in goods and truths (n. 1463); and by "widows" those who are in a state of good and not so much in truth, and those who are in a state of truth and not so much in good, and yet desire to be therein. Inasmuch as by these three terms- "orphans," "sojourners," and "widows"-somewhat similar is signified in a series, therefore as before said, in many passages they are mentioned together (see Deut. 14:29; 16:14; 24:17, 19; Jer. 7:6; 22:3; Ezek. 22:7; Zech. 7:10; Ps. 94:6; 146:9). From what has been said it may now be seen what is signified in the genuine sense by "father," namely, good; and that in the supreme sense it signifies the Lord.  But as most expressions in the Word have also an opposite sense, so also has "father;" and in this sense it signifies evil; and in like manner "mother," which in the genuine sense signifies truth, but in the opposite sense falsity. That this is so, may be seen from the following passages. In David: The iniquity of his fathers shall be remembered with Jehovah; and the sin of his mother shall not be blotted out (Ps. 109:14). Again: They turned back and dealt treacherously, like their fathers; they were turned aside like a deceitful bow (Ps. 78:57). In Moses: And they that are left of you shall pine away in their iniquity, in your enemies' lands; and also in the iniquities of their fathers shall they pine away with them (Lev. 26:39). In Isaiah: Prepare ye slaughter for his sons, for the iniquity of their fathers, that they rise not up and possess the earth, and fill the face of the earth with cities (Isa. 14:21). Again: I will recompense your own iniquities, and the iniquities of your fathers together (Isa. 65:6-7).  In Jeremiah: The houses of Israel are ashamed; they, their kings, their princes, and their priests, and their prophets; who say to wood, Thou art my father and to stone, Thou hast begotten me; for they have turned their neck unto Me, and not the face (Jer. 2:26-27). Again: I will lay stumbling-blocks before this people; and the fathers and the sons together shall stumble against them; the neighbor and his companion; and they shall perish (Jer. 6:21). Again: The sons gather wood, and the fathers kindle a fire, and the women knead the dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven (Jer. 7:18). And in Ezekiel: I will do in thee that which I have not done, and whereunto I will not do any more the like, because of all thine abominations. Therefore the fathers shall eat their sons, and the sons shall eat their fathers; and I will execute judgments in thee, and the whole remnant of thee will I scatter unto all the winds (Ezek. 5:9-10); speaking of the profanation of what is holy. Again: Thus saith the Lord Jehovah unto Jerusalem, Thy tradings and thy nativity are of the land of the Canaanite; thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother a Hittite (Ezek. 16:3).  In Matthew: The brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father his son; and the children shall rise up against parents, and shall put them to death. And ye shall be hated of all men for My name's sake. I came to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; and a man's foes shall be they of his own household. He that loveth father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me and he that loveth son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me (Matt. 10:21-22, 35-37; Luke 12:49, 52-53). Everyone that hath left houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or fields, for My name's sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall inherit eternal life (Matt. 19:29; Luke 18:29-30; Mark 10:29-30). In Luke: If any man cometh unto Me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own soul also, he cannot be My disciple (Luke 14:26).  In Mark: And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father his children; and the children shall rise up against their parents, and shall put them to death; for ye shall be hated of all men for My name's sake (Mark 13:12-13; Luke 21:16-17); where the consummation of the age, and the state of the church, perverted as to good and truth, is described; in that evil will rise up against truth, and falsity against good. That in the opposite sense by "father" is signified evil, is manifest from the passages already adduced, and also from this in John: Jesus said unto them, If God were your father, ye would love Me; for I went forth and am come from God. Ye are of your father the devil, and the desire of your father it is your will to do; he was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth, because the truth is not in him; when he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own; for he is a liar, and the father thereof (John 8:42, 44).3704.
And the God of Isaac. That this signifies the Lord as to the Divine Human, is evident from the representation of Isaac, as being the Lord's Divine rational; and as the rational is that in which the human begins (see n. 2194), and thus from which and by which the human is; therefore here by the "God of Isaac" is signified the Divine Human of the Lord. As in heaven, and with man, and even in universal nature, all things both in general and in particular have relation to good and truth, therefore also the Lord's Divine is distinguished into Divine good and Divine truth, and the Lord's Divine good is called "father," and his Divine truth "son"; but the Lord's Divine is nothing else than good; yea, good itself; and Divine truth is the Lord's Divine good so appearing in heaven; that is, before the angels. The case herein is the same as with the sun; in its essence the sun itself is nothing but fire, and the light which is thence seen is not in the sun, but from the sun. (That the Lord as to Divine good is represented by the sun, and also that in the other life He is a sun to the universal heaven, may be seen above, n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531, 2495, 3636, 3643; and that the Lord as to Divine truth is represented by light, and also is light in the other life to the universal heaven, see n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1530, 2776, 3138, 3195, 3222-3223, 3339, 3341, 3636, 3643.)  Thus the Lord in His essence is nothing else than Divine good, and this as to both the Divine Itself and the Divine Human; but Divine truth is not in Divine good, but from Divine good, for as before said so does Divine good appear in heaven. And as Divine good comes to appearance as Divine truth, therefore for the sake of man's apprehension the Lord's Divine is distinguished into Divine good and Divine truth, and Divine good is that which in the Word is called "Father," and Divine truth is that which is called "Son." This is the arcanum which lies concealed in the fact that the Lord Himself so often speaks of His Father as distinct, and as if another than Himself; and yet in other places asserts that He is one with Himself. (That in the internal sense "Father" signifies good; and in the supreme sense, the Lord as to Divine good, has been shown above, n. 3703; and also that "Son" signifies truth, and the "Son of God," and the "Son of man," the Lord as to Divine truth, n. 1729, 1730, 2159, 2803, 2813.) And the same is evident from all those passages where the Lord makes mention of His "Father," and calls Himself the "Son."  That it is the Lord who in the Word of the Old Testament is called "Jehovah," may be seen above (n. 1343, 1736, 2921); and that He is there also called "Father" is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah: Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder; and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6); where it is very evident that the "Child born" and the "Son given unto us" is the Lord; thus it is the Lord who is called the "Father of Eternity." In Jeremiah: I will be a Father to Israel, and Ephraim shall be My firstborn (Jer. 31:9); speaking of the Lord, who is "the God of Israel" and "the Holy One of Israel," as may be seen above (n. 3305); and here a "Father to Israel." In Malachi: Have we not all one Father? Hath not one God created us? (Mal. 2:10); where in the internal sense "to create" signifies to regenerate; as also in other passages of the Word (see n. 16, 88, 472); and as the Lord is the only Regenerator and Redeemer, it is He who is here called "Father" and "God." As also in Isaiah: Thou art our Father, for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us; thou Jehovah art our Father, our Redeemer, Thy name is from everlasting (Isa. 63:16).  Again: I will clothe Him with thy tunic, and strengthen Him with thy girdle, and I will commit thy government into His hand; that He may be a Father to the inhabitant of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah; and the key of the house of David will I lay upon His shoulder; and He shall open and none shall shut, and He shall shut and none shall open; and I will fasten Him as a nail in a sure place, and He may be for a throne of glory of His Father; and they shall hang upon Him all the glory of His Father's house, of sons and grandsons, every small vessel, from the vessels of cups even to all the vessels of psalteries (Isa. 22:21-24). That it is the Lord who in the internal sense is here represented and signified, and is called a "Father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah," is very evident; for it is He upon whose shoulder is the key of the house of David, who openeth and none shutteth, and who shutteth and none openeth (see preface to chapter 22); and He has the throne of His Father's glory, and upon Him and from Him are all holy things, which are here called "vessels"; celestial things, "vessels of cups"; and holy spiritual things, "vessels of psalteries."  As kings and priests represented the Lord; kings, by their royalty, the Lord as to Divine truth; and priests the Lord as to Divine good (n. 3670), therefore priests were called "fathers," as may be seen in the book of Judges: Micah said to the Levite, Dwell with me, and be unto me a father and a priest (Judg. 17:10). In like manner said to him the sons of Dan: Hold thy peace, lay thy hand upon thy mouth, and go with us, and be to us a father and a priest (Judg. 18:19). That kings themselves also so called them is evident in the second book of Kings: The king of Israel said unto Elisha, My father, shall I smite them? And he answered, Thou shalt not smite (2 Kings 6:21-22); and Joash the king so addressed Elisha when Elisha died: He wept over his face, and said, my father, my father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof (2 Kings 13:14). The reason why kings so called them was that the kings represented the Lord as to Divine truth; and the priests represented Him as to Divine good; and also because truth in respect to good is as a son to a father, for truth is from good.  This is well known in the other life, and therefore in heaven they call no other Father than the Lord, and perceive no other as meant by "Father" in the Word of the Evangelists (see n. 15, 1729). When being initiated into the good of love and its truth, all little children are there taught to acknowledge the Lord alone as their Father; nay, even novitiates who come into heaven are taught with solicitous care that there is one God; and they who have been born within the church are taught that the whole Trinity is in the Lord; for almost all who come from the Christian world bring with them an idea of three gods, although with their lips they had said that there is but one God; for to think of one, when the idea of three has before entered, and when each of these is called God, and also is distinguished from the others as to attributes and offices, and likewise is separately worshiped, is humanly impossible; consequently the worship of three gods is in the heart, while the worship of one only is in the mouth.  That the whole Trinity is in the Lord is known in the Christian world, and yet among these in the other life the Lord is little thought of; nay, His Human is a stumbling-block to many, because they distinguish the Human from the Divine, neither do they believe it to be Divine; and a man will call himself justified, and thus made pure and almost holy; but these people do not think that the Lord was glorified, that is, that His Human was made Divine; when yet He was conceived from Jehovah Himself; and moreover no one can be justified, much less sanctified, except from the Divine, and indeed from the Lord's Divine Human, which is represented and signified in the Holy Supper, where it is expressly said that the bread is His body and the wine His blood. That the Lord is one with the Father, and that He is from eternity, and that He rules the universe, consequently that He is Divine good and Divine truth itself, is very evident from the Word.  That HE IS ONE WITH THE FATHER, is evident from these words in John: No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father (John 1:18). The Jews sought the more to kill Jesus because He had also said that God was His own Father, making Himself equal with God. Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth the Father do; for what things soever He doeth, these doeth the Son likewise. As the Father raiseth the dead and quickeneth them, even so the Son also quickeneth whom He will. Neither doth the Father judge any man, but He hath given all judgment unto the Son; that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. For as the Father hath life in Himself, even so hath He given to the Son also to have life in Himself. The Father who hath sent Me hath Himself borne witness of Me; ye have neither heard His voice at any time nor seen His shape. Search the Scriptures, for these are they which bear witness of Me (John 5:18, etc.). By "Father" is here meant, as was said, Divine good; and by "Son," Divine truth, both in the Lord. From Divine good which is the "Father," nothing can proceed or go forth but what is Divine, and that which proceeds or goes forth is Divine truth, which is the "Son."  Again: Everyone that hath heard from the Father, and hath learned, cometh unto Me. Not that any man hath seen the Father, save He that is with the Father, He hath seen the Father (John 6:45-46). They said therefore unto Him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered, Ye neither know me nor My Father; if ye knew Me ye would know My Father also (John 8:19). I and the Father are one: though ye believe not Me, believe the works; that ye may know and believe that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father (John 10:30, 38). Jesus said, He that believeth in Me, believeth not in Me, but in Him that sent Me; and he that seeth Me, seeth Him that sent Me. I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth in Me may not abide in darkness (John 12:44-46). By "the Father sending Him" is signified, in the internal sense, that He proceeds from the Father; and the same is signified in other passages where the Lord says that the Father "sent" Him. That the "light" is Divine truth may be seen above.  Again: I am the way, the truth, and the life; no one cometh unto the Father but by Me. If ye had known Me ye would have known My Father also; and from henceforth ye know Him, and have seen Him. Philip saith unto Him, Lord, show us the Father. Jesus saith unto him, Am I so long time with you, and hast thou not known Me, Philip? He that seeth Me, seeth the Father; how then sayest thou, Show us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? The words that I speak unto you, I speak not from Myself; but the Father that abideth in Me, He doeth the works. Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me. And whatsoever ye shall ask in My name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son (John 14:6-13). He that hath My commandments, and doeth them, he it is that loveth Me; and he that loveth Me shall be loved of My Father, and I will love him, and will manifest Myself unto him. If a man love Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come unto him and make Our abode with him (John 14:21, 23).  They who are in Divine truth are they who "have His commandments and do them"; and they who are in Divine good are they who "love Him;" of whom it is therefore said that He "shall be loved of the Father," and "We will come unto him and make Our abode with him"; that is, Divine good and Divine truth will do so; and therefore it is said in the same Evangelist: In that day ye shall know that I am in My Father, and ye in Me (John 14:20). Holy Father, keep them in Thy name; that they may be one, even as We are (John 17:11). From these passages it is evident that the Lord speaks of the "Father" from the Divine good that He Himself had, and of the "Son" from the Divine truth which is from the Divine good; thus that the "Father" and "Son" are not two, but one. The reason why the Lord so spoke, was that the Word might be received as well on earth as in heaven; and also because, before the Lord was glorified, He was the Divine truth that is from Divine good; but when He had been glorified, He was Divine good itself as to each essence, and from Him is all Divine good and Divine truth.  THAT THE LORD WAS FROM ETERNITY may be seen from the fact that it is the Lord who spoke by the Prophets; and that for this reason, and also because from Him was Divine truth, He was called the "Word"; concerning which in John: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him; and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life; and the life was the light of men. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we held His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father (John 1:1-4, 14). The "Word" denotes all truth in the heavens and on earth that is from the Divine.  That the Lord was from eternity He plainly teaches elsewhere in John: John said, This was He of whom I said, He that cometh after me was before me, for He was prior to me. In the midst of you there standeth One whom ye know not; He it is who is to come after me, who was before me (John 1:15, 26-27, 30). If ye should see the Son of man ascending where He was before (John 6:62). Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am (John 8:58). Jesus knowing that He came forth from God, and went to God (John 13:3). The Father Himself loveth you, because ye have loved Me, and have believed that I came forth from the Father. I came out from the Father, and came into the world; again I leave the world, and go unto the Father (John 16:27-28). I have glorified Thee on the earth, I have accomplished the work which Thou gavest Me to do. And now O Father glorify Me with Thine own self, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was; that they may behold My glory which Thou hast given Me, for Thou lovedst Me before the foundation of the world (John 17:4-5, 24). In Isaiah: Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6).  THAT THE LORD RULES THE UNIVERSE is evident in Matthew: All things have been delivered unto Me of My Father (Matt. 11:27). Jesus said to His disciples, All power is given unto Me in heaven and on earth (Matt. 28:18). In John: The Father loveth the Son and hath given all things into His hand; he that believeth in the Son hath eternal life (John 3:35-36). The Father judgeth no man, but hath given all judgment unto the Son (John 5:22). Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into His hand (John 13:3). All things whatsoever that the Father hath are Mine (John 16:15). Jesus said, Glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee; even as Thou hast given Him authority over all flesh (John 17:1-2). All things that are Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine; and I am glorified in them. And I am no more in the world, for I come to Thee (John 17:10-11). In Luke: All things have been delivered unto Me of My Father (Luke 10:22).  From the above passages it is therefore evident that Divine good is that which is called the "Father"; and Divine truth that which is called the "Son"; and that the Lord from Divine good by Divine truth rules all things in the universe, in both general and particular. This being so, and it being so evident from the Word, it is astonishing that in the Christian world, men do not, as in heaven, acknowledge and adore the Lord alone, and thus the one God; for they know and teach that the whole Trinity is in the Lord. That the Holy Spirit, who also is worshiped as a God distinct from the Son and the Father, is the Holy of the spirit, or the Holy which through spirits or angels proceeds from the Lord, that is, from His Divine good through His Divine truth, will of the Lord's Divine mercy be shown elsewhere.3705.
The land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it. That this signifies the good in which He was, that it was from what was His own, is evident from the signification of "land," as being here the good of the natural, concerning which in what follows; from the signification of "whereon thou liest," as being that in which He was; and from the signification of "giving it to thee," as being from what was His own; concerning which also in what follows. That the "land" signifies the good of the natural which will hereafter be represented by Jacob, is because by the "land of Canaan" is signified the Lord's kingdom (see n. 1413, 1437, 1585, 1607, 1866); and because it signifies the Lord's kingdom, it also in the supreme sense signifies the Lord (see n. 3038); for the Lord is the all in all of His kingdom, and whatever there is not from Him, and does not look to Him, is not of His kingdom. The Lord's kingdom is also signified in the Word by "heaven and earth" (n. 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118); but in this case its interior is signified by "heaven," and its exterior by "earth" (n. 82, 1411, 1733, 3355); consequently in the supreme sense "heaven" signifies the Lord as to His Divine rational, and "earth" as to his Divine natural; here therefore "the land whereon thou liest" signifies the good of the natural, in which He was and which was to be represented by Jacob. That "Jacob" denotes the Lord as to the Divine natural has already been frequently stated.  Moreover, that the signification of "land" is various, see above (n. 620, 636, 1067, 2571, 3368, 3379); and this for the reason that Canaan, which is called the "holy land," signifies the Lord's kingdom in general; and when mention is made of "heaven" together with "land" (or "earth"), then, as before said, "heaven" signifies what is interior, and "earth" what is exterior; and consequently it also signifies the Lord's kingdom on earth, that is, the church; and therefore it also signifies the man who is a kingdom of the Lord, or who is a church. Thus in such a man "heaven" signifies what is interior, and "earth" what is exterior; or what is the same, "heaven" signifies the rational, and "earth" the natural; for the rational is interior with man, and the natural exterior. And as "earth" has these significations, it also signifies that which makes man a kingdom of the Lord, namely, the good of love which is from the Divine; from all which it is evident how various are the significations of "earth" (or "land") in the Word.  That "to thee will I give it" signifies that it was from what was His own, may be seen from the signification of "giving," in the Word, when it is predicated of the Lord; for as before shown, the Lord is Divine good and also Divine truth; and the former is what is called "Father," and the latter "Son"; and whereas Divine good is of Himself, consequently His own, it follows that by "giving to thee," when said by Jehovah, and predicated of the Lord, is signified that it is from what is His own. This shows what is signified in the internal sense by what the Lord so often said, that the Father "gave" to Him, that is, that He Himself gave to Himself; as in John: Father, glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee; even as Thou gavest Him authority over all flesh; that whatsoever Thou hast given Him, to them He should give eternal life. I have glorified Thee on the earth; I have accomplished the work which Thou gavest Me to do. I have manifested Thy name unto the men whom Thou gavest Me out of the world; Thine they were, and Thou gavest them Me. Now they have known that all things whatsoever Thou hast given Me are from Thee; for the words which Thou gavest Me I have given them. I pray for them whom Thou hast given Me, for they are Thine; and all things that are Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine (John 17:1-10); where by the Father "having given" is signified that they were from Divine good which was His; thus from what was His own.  From all this it is evident how deep an arcanum lies concealed in each word that the Lord spoke; also how much the sense of the letter differs from the internal sense, and still more from the supreme sense. The reason why the Lord so spoke, was that man, who at that time was in total ignorance of any Divine truth, might still in his own way apprehend the Word, and thus receive it; and the angels in their way; for they knew that Jehovah and He were one, and that the "Father" signified the Divine good; hence also they knew that when He said that the Father "gave" to Him, it was that He Himself gave to Himself, and that thus it was from what was His own.3706.
And to thy seed. That this signifies that so also was the truth, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being the truth of faith (see n. 255, 880, 1025, 1447, 1610, 2848, 3038, 3310, 3373).3707.
And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth. That this signifies that Divine truth natural would be as natural good, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being truth (see above, n. 3706); hence "thy seed," or the seed of Jacob, is Divine truth natural, for by Jacob is represented the Lord's Divine natural, as shown above-and from the signification of the "dust of the earth," as being good (see n. 1610). Therefore "thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth," signifies in the internal sense that Divine truth natural should be as Divine good natural. That the "dust of the earth" signifies good, is because by "earth" is signified the Lord's kingdom, consequently good, as shown above (n. 3705); the "dust of that earth" therefore signifies good, but natural good, because by "earth," as also shown above, is signified that which is lower in the Lord's kingdom, thus the natural; while "heaven," when it also is mentioned, signifies that which is interior, or the rational. This is the reason why fructification of good and multiplication of truth are expressed in the Word throughout by "seed becoming as the stars of the heavens and as the dust of the earth." By the "stars of the heavens" are there signified rational things; and by the "dust of the earth," natural things, which thus increase. What is meant by natural truth being as natural good, will of the Lord's Divine mercy be explained hereafter.3708.
All thou shalt break forth to the sea, and to the east. That this signifies the infinite extension of good; and that to the north and to the south, signifies the infinite extension of truth, thus all states of good and truth, is evident from the signification of "breaking forth," as being extension; in the present case infinite extension, because it is predicated of the Lord: from the signification of the "sea," or "west," as being good as yet obscure, thus in its commencement; from the signification of the "east," as being the good which is lucid, and thus perfect; from the signification of the "north," as being truth as yet in obscurity; and from the signification of the "south," as being truth in the light.  In many passages in the Word mention is made of the "sea," or "west," of the "east," of the "north," and of the "south;" but inasmuch as it has not heretofore been known to anyone that these, like all things whatsoever in the Word, have an internal sense, in which sense they do not signify worldly things according to the sense of the letter, but spiritual and celestial things; and in the supreme sense the Divine things of the Lord Himself, therefore man could know no otherwise than that by the "west," "east," "north," and "south," were meant only the quarters of the world, and that by "breaking forth" to these quarters is meant multiplication. But that by these expressions there are not signified such quarters, nor the multiplication of any people, but states of good and truth, and their extension, may be seen from all the passages in the Word, especially in the Prophets, where they are mentioned; for that which is the west, east, north, and south, is altogether unknown in heaven, inasmuch as the sun there, which is the Lord, is not like the sun of the world, which rises and sets, and by its greatest altitude causes midday, and by its least causes night; but it appears with constancy, yet in accordance with the states of those who receive light from it, for its light has within it wisdom and intelligence (see n. 1619-1632, 2776, 3138, 3167, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3339, 3341, 3485, 3636, 3643); wherefore it appears in accordance with the state of each person's wisdom and intelligence. With those who are in good and truth, it appears with heat and light, but celestial and spiritual heat and light, as our sun appears in its rising and at midday; while with those who are not in good and truth, it appears as does our sun when setting, and at night. From this we can see that in the internal sense of the Word by the "east," "south," "west," and "north," are signified states of good and truth.  Be it known that states of good and truth are described in the Word, not only by the quarters, of which we have been speaking, but also by the times or states of the year-spring, summer, autumn, and winter; and also by the times or states of the day-morning, midday, evening, and night, and this for a similar reason; but when the subject is the extension of good and truth, this is described by the quarters. What is signified by each quarter in particular may be seen from the passages in the Word where they are mentioned. That the "east" signifies the Lord, and the good of love and charity which is from the Lord, was shown above (n. 101, 1250, 3249); and that the "south" signifies truth in light (n. 1458, 3195).  But what is signified in the genuine sense by the "west" and what by the "north;" and what in the opposite sense, may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah: Fear not, for I am with thee; I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west; I will say to the north, Give up; and to the south, Keep not back; bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth (Isa. 43:5-6); speaking of a new spiritual church, which is there called "Jacob" and "Israel." To "bring seed from the east," and to "gather from the west," denotes those who are in good; to "say to the north, Give up, and to the south, Keep not back," denotes those who are in truth.  In David: The redeemed of Jehovah shall say, whom He hath redeemed from the hand of the enemy, and gathered them out of the lands, from the east and from the west, from the north and from the sea. They wandered in the wilderness in a solitary way; they found no city to dwell in (Ps. 107:2-4); concerning those who are in ignorance of good and truth. "From the east and from the west" denotes those who are in ignorance of good; "from the north and from the sea," those who are in ignorance of truth; concerning those who are in ignorance of good it is said that they "wandered in the wilderness," and concerning those who are in ignorance of truth, that they wandered in a "solitary way;" and concerning the ignorance of both good and truth it is said that they "found no city to dwell in." (That "city" signifies what is doctrinal of truth, may be seen above, n. 402, 2449, 2943, 3216; and that "to dwell" is predicated of good, n. 2268, 2451, 2712.)  In Isaiah: Behold these shall come from far; and lo, these from the north and from the west; and these from the land of Sinim (Isa. 49:12); where the "north" denotes those who are in obscurity as to truth; and the "west" those who are in obscurity as to good, who are said to "come from far" because they are remote from the light which is from the Lord.  In Amos: Behold the days come that I will send a famine in the land; and they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east they shall run to and fro to seek the word of Jehovah, and shall not find it (Amos 8:11-12); where "famine" denotes scarcity and failure of knowledges (n. 1460, 3364); "wandering from sea to sea," denotes to inquire where there are knowledges (that "seas" signify knowledges in general, see above, n. 28, 2850); to "run to and fro from the north even to the east" denotes from those knowledges which are in obscurity to those which are in light. It is evident that knowledges are here meant, for it is said, "to seek the word of Jehovah, and they shall not find it."  In Jeremiah: Proclaim these words toward the north, and say, Return, thou backsliding Israel, saith Jehovah; I will not cause My faces to fall upon you; for I am merciful. In those days the house of Judah shall go to the house of Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north upon the land that I gave for an inheritance unto your fathers (Jer. 3:12, 18); speaking of the restoration of the church that is from the Gentiles. The "north" denotes those who are in ignorance of truth, and yet are in a life of good. It is evident that in this passage the north is not meant, nor the land of the north; for Israel no longer had any existence. Again: Jehovah liveth that brought up the sons of Israel from the land of the north (Jer. 16:15); where the "north" in like manner denotes ignorance of truth.  Again: Behold I will bring them from the land of the north, and gather them from the sides of the earth, and among them the blind and the lame (Jer. 31:8); the "land of the north" denotes ignorance of good, because of truth; and because the land of Canaan represented the Lord's kingdom, and thence also good (n. 3705); and what was in the midst thereof, as Zion and Jerusalem, represented the inmost good with which truth was conjoined, therefore the parts which were distant therefrom represented obscurity as to good and truth; and all that which is in obscurity is called the "land of the north," and also the "sides of the earth."  Moreover as all the good which flows in with light from the Lord terminates in what is obscure in man, the "north" is also called an "assembly" or "congregation;" as in Isaiah: Thou saidst in thine heart, I will ascend into the heavens, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; and I will sit upon the mount of congregation, in the sides of the north (Isa. 14:13). Again: Howl, O gate; cry, O city; thou art melted away, O Philistia, all of thee; for a smoke cometh out of the north, there is none solitary in the assemblies (Isa. 14:31). In David: Great is Jehovah, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in the mountain of His holiness. The joy of the whole earth is Mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King (Ps. 48:1-2). Again: The heavens are Thine, the earth also is Thine; the world and the fullness thereof Thou hast founded them; the north and the right hand Thou hast created them (Ps. 89:11-12); where the "north" denotes those who are more remote from the light of good and truth; and the "right hand," those who are nearer thereto. (That these are at the Lord's right hand, see above, n. 1274, 1276.)  In Zechariah (who saw four chariots coming out from between two mountains of brass, with red, black, white, and strong grizzled horses, and the angel said): These are the four winds of the heavens which go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth. All the black horses go forth into the land of the north; and the white went forth after them; and the grizzled went forth into the land of the south. Then he spake unto me, saying, Behold they that go forth to the land of the north have quieted my spirit in the land of the north (Zech. 6:1-8); "chariots going forth between two mountains of brass," denote doctrinal things of good. That "chariots" signify doctrinal things will be made manifest elsewhere; that a "mountain" signifies love, may be seen above (n. 795, 1430, 2722); hence "two mountains" signify two loves-celestial love, which is love to the Lord, and spiritual love, which is love toward the neighbor; that "brass" signifies the good therefrom which is in the natural, see above (n. 425, 1551); that "horses" signify intellectual things, thus the understanding of the doctrinal things of good (see 2760-2762, 3217); the "land of the south" denotes those who are in the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1458, 3195); the "land of the north," those who are in ignorance of good and truth, but in a life of good, in which are the upright Gentiles, among whom when a new church is being set up, the spirit of God is said to "rest."  In Jeremiah: Jehovah, who brought up and who led back the seed of the house of Israel out of the land to the north, and from all the lands whither I had driven them, that they may dwell upon their own land (Jer. 23:8); where "out of the land to the north" signifies from the obscurity of ignorance respecting good and truth. Again: Shall iron be broken, iron from the north, and brass? (Jer. 15:12); "iron" signifies natural truth (n. 425, 426); "brass," natural good (n. 425, 1551). These are said to be "from the north," because from the natural, where there is relative obscurity and a termination. That this prophecy does not signify that iron and brass are from the north, is evident without explication; for what could there be of the Divine, or even of coherence with what goes before and what follows after, if the meaning were that iron and brass were therefrom?  In Matthew: I say unto you that many shall come from the east and from the west, and shall sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Matt. 8:11; Luke 13:29); where "many from the east and the west" denote those who are in the knowledges and the life of good, and those who are in obscurity and ignorance; thus those who are within the church and those who are without it; for that states of good are signified by "east" and "west," was said above. (That to "sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," signifies to be with the Lord, may be seen above, n. 3305.) That in like manner those will come from the east and from the west who shall be with the Lord in His kingdom or in His church, is said in the Prophets; as in Isaiah: I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west (Isa. 43:5). Again: They shall fear the name of Jehovah from the west, and His glory from the east (Isa. 59:19). Again: They shall know from the rising of the sun, and from the setting, that there is none besides Me; I am Jehovah, and there is none else (Isa. 45:6). Again: I will stir up one from the north, and he shall come; from the rising of the sun shall he call upon My name (Isa. 41:25).  Moreover that such is the signification of the "east," "west," "south," and "north," may be clearly seen from the construction of the tabernacle; from the encamping and journeying of the sons of Israel; from the description of the land of Canaan; also from the description of the new temple, of the new Jerusalem, and of the new earth. From the construction of the tabernacle, in that all things therein were arranged according to the quarters (Exod. 38); as what was to be at the east and west corners, and what at the south and north corners (Exod. 26:18, 20, 22, 27; 27:9, 12, 14); and that the candlestick over against the table was to be on the side of the tabernacle toward the south, but the table on the north side (Exod. 26:35; 40:22).  From the encamping and journeying of the sons of Israel, also according to the quarters, in that they were to encamp around the tent of the congregation with the tribes of Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun toward the east; with the tribes of Reuben, Simeon, and Gad toward the south; with the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin toward the west; and with the tribes of Dan, Asher, and Naphtali toward the north (Num. 2:1 to the end). Also that of the Levites, the Gershonites were to be toward the west, the Kohathites toward the south, the Merarites toward the north; and that Moses, Aaron, and his sons, should be before the tabernacle toward the east (Num. 3:23-38); whereby there was represented the heavenly order which in the Lord's kingdom is according to the states of good and truth; and that toward the south they should sound the alarm for their journeys (Num. 10:6); and that as they encamped, so also they journeyed (Num. 2:34).  From the description of the land of Canaan, which was first described by Moses in respect to the boundaries round about, and this at the south corner, at the west corner, the north corner, and the east corner (Num. 34:2-12); and the same afterwards when it was given by lot to the tribes (Josh. 15 to 19); from which and also from the most ancient people who dwelt in the land of Canaan, all the places therein became representative and significative, according to their situation, distance, and boundaries in respect to the quarters (n. 1607, 1866).  From the description of the new temple, of the new Jerusalem, and of the new earth, also according to the quarters in Ezekiel, as that the building of the city was from the south; and that of the gate of the building the faces were toward the east, toward the north, and toward the south (40:2, 6, 19, 20-46); concerning the measure of the temple, and its door toward the north, and toward the south (41:11); concerning the court toward the north, the east, the south, and the west (42:1, 4, 10, 11, 17-20); and that the glory of Jehovah the God of Israel entered from the way of the east (43:1, 2, 4); concerning the gates of the outer court (41:1, 2, 4; 44:1, 9, 10, 19, 20); concerning the boundaries of the holy land (47), toward the north (verses 15-17), toward the east (verse 18), toward the south (verse 19), and toward the west (verse 20); and concerning the inheritances according to the quarters for each tribe (48); and concerning the gates of the holy Jerusalem, on the east, the north, the south, and the west (Rev. 21:13). From all this it is very evident that in the internal sense the four quarters of the world, according to which the above holy things, or representatives of what is holy, were arranged, do not signify those quarters, but states of good and truth in the Lord's kingdom.  That in the opposite sense the "north," and the "west," signify what is false and evil, may be seen from the following passages. In Jeremiah: The word of Jehovah came unto me the second time, saying, What seest thou? And I said, I see an open caldron; and the face thereof is toward the north. Then Jehovah said unto me, Out of the north evil shall be opened upon all the inhabitants of the land. For lo I will call all the families of the kingdoms of the north, saith Jehovah; and they shall come (Jer. 1:13-15). Again: Set up a standard toward Zion, assemble together, stay not; for I will bring evil from the north, and a great shattering (Jer. 4:6). Again: The voice of a noise, behold it cometh, and a great commotion out of the north country, to make the cities of Judah a waste (Jer. 10:22). Again: Blow the trumpet in Tekoa, for evil looketh forth from the north, and a great shattering. Behold a people cometh from the land of the north; and a great nation shall be stirred up from the sides of the earth (Jer. 6:1, 22). Again: Then took I the cup from the hand of Jehovah, and made all the nations to drink; Jerusalem, and the cities of Judah, and the kings thereof, Pharaoh king of Egypt, and all the western throng, all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the west, that dwell in the wilderness, and all the kings of the north, far and near (Jer. 25:17-20, 24, 26).  Again: The swift one shall not flee away, nor the mighty man escape; toward the north, near the shore of the river Euphrates have they stumbled and fallen. Who is this that riseth up like the river? Egypt riseth up like the river, for he saith, I will rise up, I will cover the earth; I will destroy the city and the inhabitants thereof. But this is the day of the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth, a day of vengeance, for the Lord Jehovih hath a sacrifice in the land of the north by the river Euphrates. Egypt is a very fair heifer; destruction cometh from the north. The daughter of Egypt is put to shame; she is delivered into the hand of the people of the north (Jer. 46:6-8, 10, 20, 24). Again: Thus saith Jehovah, Behold waters rise up out of the north and shall become an overflowing stream, and shall overflow the land and the fullness thereof, the city and them that dwell therein (Jer. 47:2).  Again: The word that Jehovah spake against Babylon. From the north there cometh up a nation against her, which shall make her land a desolation, and none shall dwell therein (Jer. 50:3). Again: For lo I will stir up and cause to come up against Babylon an assembly of great nations from the land of the north; and they shall set themselves in array against her; from thence she shall be taken. Behold a people cometh from the north, and a great nation, and many kings shall be stirred up from the sides of the earth (Jer. 50:9, 41). Again: Then the heavens and the earth, and all that is therein, shall sing over Babylon, for the devastators shall come to her from the north (Jer. 51:48). In Ezekiel: Say unto Gog, Thou shalt come from out of thy place, from the sides of the north, thou and many people with thee; thou shalt come up against My people Israel as a cloud to cover the land (Ezek. 38:14-16). Again: Behold I am against thee, O Gog, the prince; I will cause thee to turn about, and leave but the sixth of thee, and will cause thee to come up 3708-1 from the sides of the north; and I will bring thee upon the mountains of Israel. Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel; upon the faces of the field thou shalt fall (Ezek. 39:1-2, 4-5). In Zechariah: Alas! Flee from the land of the north, saith Jehovah; for I will spread you abroad as the four winds of the heavens. Alas Zion! Escape, thou that dwellest with the daughter of Babylon (Zech. 2:6-7).  From all these passages it is evident what is signified in the opposite sense by the "north;" namely, the falsity from which is evil, and the falsity which is from evil. As the falsity from which is evil originates in reasoning concerning Divine things and against Divine things from the memory-knowledges that belong to the natural man, it is called "the people of the north out of Egypt" (that "Egypt" signifies such knowledge may be seen above, n. 1164, 1165, 2588). As the falsity which is from evil originates in external worship apparently holy, the interiors of which are profane, it is called "the nation of the north out of Babylon." (That "Babylon" signifies external worship may be seen above, n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326; that it is Babylon also which causes vastation, n. 1327.) Both the falsity from which is evil, and the falsity which is from evil, are predicated of Gog, for "Gog" signifies worship in externals without an internal, consequently idolatrous worship, such as was that of the Jews at all times. (That "Gog" signifies such worship, see above, n. 1151.)  From the obscurity which is of the natural man there arises both what is true and what is false; when man suffers himself to be enlightened by the Word from the Lord, then his obscurity becomes lucid, for there is opened an internal way whereby influx and communication take place through heaven from the Lord; but when he does not suffer himself to be enlightened by the Word from the Lord, but by his own intelligence, then his obscurity becomes dark, and thus false; for the internal way is closed, and no influx and communication take place through heaven from the Lord, except of such a sort as to enable him to appear in the outward form as a man, by thinking and also speaking from what is evil and false. For this reason with the former the "north" signifies what is true, but with the latter what is false; for the former ascend from obscurity, that is, are elevated to the light, whereas the latter descend from obscurity, that is, remove themselves from the light; thus the former are carried to the south, but the latter to the infernal regions.  That the "north" signifies the darkness of falsity, and the "south" the light of truth, is very evident in Daniel, where the ram and the he-goat are described, as also the king of the south and the king of the north. Concerning the ram and the he-goat it is said: I saw the ram pushing with his horn westward, northward, and southward; so that no beast could stand before him. A he-goat came from the west over all the faces of the earth; and out of one of his horns there came forth a horn, which grew exceedingly toward the south and toward the east, and toward beauty (Dan. 8:4-5, 9). Concerning the king of the south and the king of the north (the "king of the south" signifying those who are in the knowledges of truth; and the "king of the north," those who are in falsity) it is thus written: At the end of years they shall join themselves together; so that the daughter of the king of the south shall come to the king of the north to make equitable terms; but her arm shall not obtain strength. But out of a shoot from her roots shall one stand up that shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall prevail, and shall carry captive into Egypt. The king of the south shall come into the kingdom, and shall come forth and fight with the king of the north. And the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former. There shall many stand against the king of the south. The king of the north shall come and take the fenced cities, and shall destroy many things. The king of the south shall war in battle with a great army, but shall not stand, for they shall devise devices against him. Afterwards he shall return, but shall not be as in the former time. The people that know their God shall strengthen themselves. And at the time of the end shall the king of the south strive with him therefore; the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariot and with horsemen. In the beauteous land many shall fall. But rumors from the east and from the north shall terrify him; and he shall go forth with great anger; he shall come to his end, and none shall help him (Dan. 11). That the "king of the south" signifies those who are in the light of truth, and the "king of the north" those who are at first in shade, and afterwards are in the darkness of falsity, may be seen from all the particulars; and that thus it is a description of the state of the church, and of the way in which it is successively perverted. They are called "kings of the south and of the north," because by "kings," in the internal sense of the Word, are signified truths, and in the opposite sense falsities (n. 1672, 2015, 2069); and by "kingdoms," the things which are of truth, and in the opposite sense, those which are of falsity (n. 1672, 2547).3709.
And in thee shall all the families of the ground be blessed. That this signifies that all the truths of the good of doctrine should be conjoined with good, is evident from the signification of being blessed," as being to be conjoined (see n. 3504, 3514, 3530, 3565, 3584); from the signification of "families," as being goods, and also truths of good (n. 1159, 1261) and from the signification of "ground," as being that which is of the church, consequently the doctrine of good and truth in the natural or external man, which man is here represented by Jacob (n. 268, 566, 990, 3671). All this shows that by the words "in thee shall all the families of the ground be blessed," is signified that all the truths of the good of doctrine should be conjoined with good. Truths of the good of doctrine are the doctrinal things of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor, which are said to be conjoined with good in the natural man when to know them for the sake of doing them is a pleasure and a delight.3710.
And in thy seed. That this signifies with truth also; namely, that they would be conjoined therewith, is evident from the signification of seed," as being truth (n. 29, 1025, 1447, 1610, 2848, 3373).3711.
And behold I am with thee. That this signifies what is Divine; and that "I will keep thee whithersoever thou goest" signifies the Divine Providence, is evident from the fact that "I" here is Jehovah, thus the Divine of the Lord; and from the signification of "keeping thee whithersoever thou goest," as being Providence from the Divine; and because the Lord is treated of, the Divine Providence is signified. By the Divine and the Divine Providence is here meant that the Lord should make even His natural Divine.3712.
And I will bring thee back to this ground. That this signifies conjunction with Divine doctrine, is evident from the signification of "bringing back," as being to conjoin again; and from the signification of "ground," as being the doctrine of good and truth in the natural man (see n. 268, 566, 990); in the present case Divine doctrine, because by the sojourning of Jacob with Laban are represented the intervening means by which the Lord made His natural Divine: and by the "bringing back" of Jacob, or his return to the land of Canaan, is represented the end of the intervening means; namely, that the Lord had now made His natural Divine: thus by the words "I will bring thee back to this ground," is signified conjunction with Divine doctrine.  Divine doctrine is Divine truth; and Divine truth is all the Word of the Lord; Divine doctrine itself is the Word in the supreme sense, in which the Lord alone is treated of; and from this, Divine doctrine is the Word in the internal sense, in which the Lord's kingdom in the heavens and on earth is treated of. Divine doctrine is also the Word in the literal sense, in which the things that are in the world and upon earth are treated of. And whereas the literal sense contains within it the internal sense, and this the supreme sense, and as the literal sense altogether corresponds thereto by means of representatives and significatives, therefore also the doctrine therefrom is Divine. As Jacob represents the Lord's Divine natural, he represents also the Word as to the literal sense; for it is well known that the Lord is the Word, that is, all Divine truth.  The natural of the Word is circumstanced no otherwise than is its literal sense, for this is relatively a cloud (see the preface to chapter 18); whereas its rational-that is, the interior spiritual of the Word-is circumstanced as is the internal sense; and as the Lord is the Word, it may be said that the internal sense is represented by Isaac, but the supreme sense by Abraham. From this we can see what is meant by conjunction with Divine doctrine, when this is predicated of the Lord's Divine natural which is represented by Jacob. Nevertheless these things are not so in the Lord, for all in Him is Divine good, and not Divine truth, and still less Divine natural truth; but Divine truth is the Divine good appearing in heaven before the angels, and on earth before men; and although it is an appearing, still it is Divine truth, because it is from the Divine good; just as light is of the sun, because from the sun (see n. 3704).3713.
For I will not leave thee until I have done that which I have spoken to thee. That this signifies that nothing would be wanting to prevent its having effect, is evident without explication.3714.
Verses 16, 17. And Jacob awoke out of his sleep, and he said, Surely Jehovah is in this place; and I knew it not. And he feared, and said, How terrible is this place! This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven. "And Jacob awoke out of his sleep," signifies enlightenment; "and he said, Surely Jehovah is in this place," signifies the Divine in this state; "and I knew it not," signifies in an obscure state; "and he feared," signifies a sacred alteration; "and said, How terrible is this place," signifies the sanctity of the state; "this is none other than the house of God," signifies the Lord's kingdom in the ultimate of order; "and this is the gate of heaven," signifies the ultimate in which order closes, through which ultimate there is apparently an entrance from nature.3715.
And Jacob awoke out of his sleep. That this signifies enlightenment, is evident from the signification of "sleep," as being an obscure state in comparison with waking, which is a lucid state; hence "to awake out of sleep," in the spiritual sense, denotes to be enlightened.3716.
And he said, Surely Jehovah is in this place. That this signifies the Divine in this state, is evident from the signification in the historicals of the Word of "saying," as being to perceive, of which frequent mention has been made above; and from the signification of "place," as being state (see n. 1273-1275, 1377, 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387). That "Jehovah" denotes the Divine, is evident; from all which it is manifest that by "he said, Surely Jehovah is in this place," is signified a perception that the Divine was in this state.3717.
And I knew it not. That this signifies in an obscure state, is evident without explication; for "not to know," or to be ignorant, signifies what is obscure as to the things which are of intellectual sight. From "not to know," or to be ignorant, as signifying what is obscure; as also from "to awake out of sleep," as signifying to be enlightened; it is evident what and of what nature is the internal sense of the Word; namely, that the things which are of the literal sense are such as appear before the external sight, or some other sense, and are also apprehended according to these senses; whereas the things which are of the internal sense are such as appear before the internal sight, or before some other sense of the internal man. The same things therefore that are contained in the literal sense, and that are apprehended by man according to the external senses, that is, according to things which are in the world, or according to an idea thence derived, are perceived by the angels according to the internal senses; that is, according to those things which are in heaven, or according to an idea thence derived. The former and the latter things stand related as do the things which are in the light of the world to those which are in the light of heaven; the things which are in the light of the world being dead in comparison with those which are in the light of heaven; for in the light of heaven there are wisdom and intelligence from the Lord (see n. 3636, 3643); and therefore when those things which are of the light of the world are obliterated or wiped away, there remain those which are of the light of heaven; thus instead of earthly there remain heavenly things, and instead of natural, spiritual; as in the case above, "not to know," or to be ignorant, signifies to be in an obscure state concerning good and truth; and to "awake out of sleep" signifies to be enlightened; and so in all other cases.3718.
And he feared. That this signifies a sacred alteration, is evident from the signification of "fear," as being a sacred alteration; as is evident from what immediately follows, for he says, "How terrible is this place! This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven," in which words it may be seen that there is implied a sacred alteration. (What "fear" is in the internal sense, may be seen above, n. 2826.) Speaking generally, "fear" is of two kinds-fear in what is not sacred, and fear in what is sacred; fear in what is not sacred is the fear in which are the wicked; but fear in what is sacred is the fear in which are the good. This latter fear (to wit that in which are the good) is called reverential or sacred fear, and is the result of our wonder at and longing for what is Divine, and also of our love. Love that is devoid of reverential or sacred fear is as it were devoid of savor, or is like food unseasoned with salt, and consequently insipid; but love that is attended with fear is like food that is seasoned, but yet does not taste of salt. The fear of love is a fear of injuring the Lord in any way, or of injuring the neighbor in any way, thus of injuring what is good and true in any way, and consequently of injuring the sacred things of love and faith and the consequent worship. But this fear is various, and is not the same with one person as with another. Speaking generally, the greater the amount of the love of good and truth, the greater the fear of injuring them; and yet in the same proportion this fear does not appear to be fear; whereas the less the amount of the love of good and truth, the less the fear on their account, and the less this fear appears to be love, but appears to be fear; hence with such the fear of hell. And where there is nothing of the love of good and truth, there is nothing of reverential or sacred fear; but only fear of the loss of honor, of gain, of reputation for the sake of these, and also of penalties and death; which fear is external, and chiefly affects the body and the natural man and its thoughts; whereas the former fear, that is, reverential or sacred fear, chiefly affects the spirit, that is, the internal man, and its conscience.3719.
And said, How terrible is this place! That this signifies the sanctity of the state, is evident from the signification of "fear" as being a sacred alteration (see just above, n. 3718); and inasmuch as in the original tongue the word "terrible" is derived from the same expression as "fear," it is sanctity which is signified thereby; and whereas in the internal sense "fear" signifies what is sacred, as just stated, by the same expression in the original tongue is signified also veneration and reverence, which likewise is reverential fear: and from the signification of "place," as being state (see above, n. 3716).3720.
This is none other than the house of God. That this signifies the Lord's kingdom in the ultimate of order, is evident from the signification of the "house of God." Mention is made of the "house of God" in many passages of the Word, and in the external sense, or according to the letter, it signifies a consecrated building where there is holy worship; but in the internal sense it signifies the church; and in a more universal sense, heaven; and in the most universal sense, the Lord's universal kingdom; in the supreme sense, however, it signifies the Lord Himself as to the Divine Human. In the Word we sometimes read of the "house of God," sometimes of the "temple," both having the same signification, but with this difference-that the "house of God" is mentioned where good is treated of; but the "temple" where truth is treated of. From this it is manifest that by the "house of God" is signified the Lord's celestial church, and in a more universal sense the heaven of the celestial angels, and in the most universal sense the Lord's celestial kingdom, and in the supreme sense the Lord as to Divine good; and that by the "temple" is signified the Lord's spiritual church, and in a more universal sense the heaven of the spiritual angels, in the most universal sense the Lord's spiritual kingdom, and in the supreme sense the Lord as to Divine truth (see n. 2048). The reason why the "house of God" signifies the celestial which is of good, and the "temple" the spiritual which is of truth, is that in the Word a "house" signifies good (n. 710, 2233, 2234, 2559, 3128, 3652), and also because among the most ancient people the houses were constructed of wood, for the reason that "wood" signifies good (n. 643, 1110, 2784, 2812); whereas "temple" signifies truth, because the temples were constructed of stones; and that "stones" signify truths, may be seen above (n. 643, 1296, 1298).  That "wood" and "stone" have such a signification, is not only evident from the Word where they are mentioned, but also from the representatives in the other life; for they who place merit in good works, appear to themselves to cut wood; and they who place merit in truths, in that they have believed themselves to have been better acquainted with truth than others, and yet have lived evilly, appear to themselves to cut stones; which things have often been seen by me. From this I was assured what is the signification of wood and stone, namely that "wood" signifies good, and "stone" truth; and also from the experience that when a wooden house was seen, there was instantly presented an idea of good; but when a house of stone was seen, there was presented an idea of truth; concerning which I was instructed by angels. For this reason, when mention is made in the Word of the "house of God," there is presented to the angels the idea of good, and good of such a quality as is treated of in that connection; and when mention is made of a "temple," there is presented to them the idea of truth, and truth of such a quality as is treated of in that connection. From this again we can infer how deep and utterly hidden are the heavenly arcana in the Word.  The reason why by the "house of God" is here signified the Lord's kingdom in the ultimate of order, is that Jacob is treated of, by whom is represented the Lord's Divine natural, as frequently shown above. The natural is in the ultimate of order, for in this all the interior things are terminated and are together; and because they are together, and thus things innumerable are viewed together as a one, there is relative obscurity there. This relative obscurity has been spoken of several times before.3721.
And this is the gate of heaven. That this signifies the ultimate wherein order closes, through which ultimate there is apparently as it were an entrance from nature, is evident from the signification of "gate" as being that through which there is going out and coming in. That this signifies the ultimate in which order closes, is because the natural which is represented by Jacob is treated of. (What is meant by "gate," is evident from what was said and shown above, n. 2851, 3187; and that the natural is the ultimate of order is evident from what has been adduced, n. 775, 2181, 2987-3002, 3020, 3147, 3167, 3483, 3489, 3513, 3570, 3576, 3671.) That through this ultimate there is apparently as it were an entrance from nature, is because it is the natural mind in man through which the things of heaven (that is, of the Lord) flow and descend into nature; and through the same mind the things of nature ascend (n. 3702); but that the entrance is only apparently from nature through the natural mind into things interior, may be seen from what has been frequently stated and shown above.  It appears to man that the objects of the world enter through his bodily or external senses, and affect the interiors; and thus that there is an entrance from the ultimate of order into what is within; but that this is a mere appearance and fallacy is manifest from the general rule that posterior things cannot flow into prior; or what is the same, lower things into higher; or what is the same, exterior things into interior; or what is still the same, the things which are of the world and of nature into those which are of heaven and of spirit; for the former are of a grosser nature, and the latter of a purer one; and those grosser things which are of the external or natural man come forth and subsist from those which are of the internal or rational man; and they cannot affect the purer things, but are affected by the purer things. How the case is with this influx, inasmuch as the very appearance and fallacy persuade altogether contrary to it, will of the Lord's Divine mercy be told hereafter when treating on the subject of influx. From this then it is said that through the ultimate in which order closes, there is apparently as it were an entrance from nature.3722.
Verses 18, 19. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had placed for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the head of it. And he called the name of that place Bethel; but the name of the city was Luz at the first. "And Jacob rose up early in the morning," signifies a state of enlightenment; "and took the stone" signifies truth; "that he had placed for his pillows," signifies with which there was communication with the Divine; "and set it up for a pillar," signifies a holy boundary; "and poured oil upon the head of it," signifies the holy good from which it was derived; "and he called the name of that place Bethel," signifies the quality of the state; "but the name of the city was Luz at the first," signifies the quality of the former state.3723.
And Jacob rose up early in the morning. That this signifies a state of enlightenment, is evident from the signification of "rising in the morning early," as being a state of enlightenment (see n. 3458); for when mention is made in the Word of "arising," it implies somewhat of elevation (n. 2401, 2785, 2912, 2927, 3171); and "morning" signifies the coming of heavenly light. Thus in the present case the signification is elevation from obscurity into light, consequently a state of enlightenment.3724.
And took the stone. That this signifies truth, is evident from the signification of "stone," as being truth (n. 1296, 1298, 3720).3725.
That he had placed for his pillows. That this signifies with which there was communication with the Divine, is evident from the signification of "pillows," or neck supports, as being communication of a most general kind; concerning which see above (n. 3695).3726.
And set it up for a pillar. That this signifies a holy boundary, is evident from the signification of a "pillar," concerning which in what follows. How the case herein is may be seen from what goes before; namely, that the subject is the order by which the Lord made His natural Divine; and in the representative sense, how the Lord makes new or regenerates the natural of man. The nature of this order has already been frequently stated and shown; namely, that while man is being regenerated, and truth is regarded in the first place, it is inverse; and that it is restored when man has been regenerated, and good is set in the first place, and truth in the last (see n. 3325, 3330, 3332, 3336, 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3688). This was represented by the ladder by which the angels ascended and descended, where it is first said that they ascended, and afterwards that they descended (n. 3701). The ascent is now treated of; namely, that it is from the ultimate of order (concerning which see above, n. 3720, 3721); in the present verse that it is truth which is the ultimate of order. It is this ultimate which is called a holy boundary, and is signified by the stone which Jacob took and set for a pillar. That truth is the ultimate of order, may be seen from the fact that good cannot terminate in good, but in truth, for truth is the recipient of good (n. 2261, 2434, 3049, 3068, 3180, 3318, 3387, 3470, 3570).  Good in man without truth, that is, without conjunction with truth, is such good as there is in little children, who as yet have nothing of wisdom, because they have nothing of intelligence; but insofar as a child in his advancement to adult age receives truth from good, or insofar as truth in him is conjoined with good, so far he becomes a man. This shows that good is the first of order, and truth the last; and thus it follows that man ought to begin from memory-knowledges, which are the truths of the natural man, and afterwards from doctrinal things, which are the truths of the spiritual man in his natural, in order to be initiated into the intelligence of wisdom; that is, to enter into spiritual life, whereby man becomes man (n. 3504). For example, in order that man as a spiritual man may love his neighbor, he must first learn what spiritual love or charity is, and who is his neighbor. Before he knows this he may indeed love his neighbor, but as a natural, not as a spiritual man, that is, from natural good, not from spiritual good (n. 3470, 3471); whereas after he has attained this knowledge, then spiritual good from the Lord may be implanted therein; and this is the case with all the rest of what are called knowledges, or doctrinal things, or in general, truths.  It is said that good from the Lord may be implanted in knowledges, also that truth is the recipient of good. They who have no other idea of knowledges, and also of truths, than that they are abstract things (such an idea as most people have also concerning thoughts), can in no wise apprehend what is meant by good being implanted in knowledges, and by truth being the recipient of good. But be it known that knowledges and truths are things no more abstracted from the purest substances of the interior man, that is, of the spirit, than sight is abstracted from its organ the eye, or than hearing is abstracted from its organ the ear. There are purer substances, and those real, from which knowledges and thoughts come forth into manifest being; and whose variations of form when animated and modified by the influx of life from the Lord, present them to view; while their agreements and harmonies, in succession or simultaneously, affect the mind, and constitute what is called beautiful, pleasant, and delightful.  Spirits themselves equally with men are forms, that is, consist of continuous forms, but of a purer nature, and not visible to the bodily sight. And because these forms or substances are not visible to the bodily eye, man at this day apprehends no otherwise than that knowledges and thoughts are abstract things; hence also comes the insanity of our age-that men do not believe that they have a spirit within them which is to live after the death of the body, when yet this spirit is a substance much more real than the material substance of its body; nay, if you will believe it, the spirit, after being freed from bodily things, is that very purified body which many say they are to have at the time of the Last Judgment, when they believe that they shall first rise again. That spirits, or what is the same, souls, have a body, see each other as in clear day, discourse together, hear each other, and enjoy much more exquisite sense than while they were in the body or in the world, may be seen very clearly from what has been so abundantly related above from experience.3727.
In regard to the signification of a "pillar," as being a holy boundary, thus the ultimate of order, this comes from the fact that in the most ancient times stones were placed at the boundaries, which marked the possession or inheritance of one person from that of another, and were for a sign and a witness that the boundaries were at that place. The most ancient people, who in every object, and in every pillar, thought of something celestial and spiritual (n. 1977, 2995), in these stones also which they set up, thought from them concerning the ultimates in man, and thus concerning the ultimate of order, which is truth in the natural man. The ancients who were after the flood received this from the most ancient people who were before the flood (n. 920, 1409, 2179, 2896, 2897), and began to account those stones holy which were set up in the boundaries, because as before said, they signified holy truth which is in the ultimate of order. They also called those stones "pillars;" and thus it came to pass that pillars were introduced into worship, and that they erected them in the places where they had their groves, and afterwards where they had their temples, and also that they anointed them with oil, concerning which something shall be said in what follows. For the worship of the Ancient Church consisted in the perceptives and significatives of the most ancient people who were before the flood, as is manifest from the sections just cited. As the most ancient people spoke with angels and were together with them while on earth, they were instructed from heaven that stones signify truth, and that wood signifies good (see above, n. 3720). This is the reason why "pillars" signify a holy boundary, thus the truth which is the ultimate of order in man; for the good that inflows through the internal man from the Lord is terminated in the external man, in the truth therein. Man's thought, speech, and action, which are the ultimates of order, are nothing else than truths from good, being the images or forms of good; for they belong to man's intellectual part, while the good which is in them, and from which they are, belongs to his will part.  That pillars were erected for a sign and for a witness, and also for worship; and that in the internal sense they signify a holy boundary, or the truth in man's natural which is the ultimate of order, may be seen from other passages in the Word-as from the following, concerning the covenant between Laban and Jacob: Come now, let us make a covenant, I and thou; and let it be for a witness between me and thee. And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar. And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold the pillar which I have set up between me and thee; this heap be witness, and the pillar be witness, that I will not pass over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not pass over this heap to me, and this pillar, for evil (Gen. 31:44-45, 51-52). That in this passage a "pillar" signifies truth, will be seen in the explication of the passage.  In Isaiah: In that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt speak with the lips of Canaan, and swear to Jehovah Zebaoth. In that day shall there be an altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the boundary thereof to Jehovah; which shall be for a sign and for a witness unto Jehovah Zebaoth in the land of Egypt (Isa. 19:18-20); "Egypt" denotes the memory-knowledges that belong to the natural man; an "altar," Divine worship in general, for in the second Ancient Church, which began from Eber, the altar was made the primary representative of worship (n. 921, 1343, 2777, 2811); the "midst of the land of Egypt" denotes what is primary and inmost of worship (n. 2940, 2973, 3436); a "pillar," the truth which is the ultimate of order in the natural. That this is in the boundary for a sign and for a witness is manifest.  In Moses: Moses wrote all the words of Jehovah, and rose up early in the morning and builded an altar near Mount Sinai, and twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel (Exod. 24:4); where in like manner an "altar" was representative of all worship, and indeed of good in worship; while the twelve pillars were a representative of the truth which is from good in worship. (That "twelve" denotes all things of truth in one complex may be seen above, n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272; and that the "twelve tribes" in like manner signify all things of the truth of the church, will of the Lord's Divine mercy be shown in the following chapter.)  Inasmuch as altars were representative of all the good of worship, and as the Jewish Church was instituted in order that it might represent the celestial church which acknowledged no other truth than that which is from good, which is called celestial truth-for it was not in the least willing to separate truth from good, insomuch that it was not willing to mention anything of faith or truth unless it was thinking of good, and this from good, n. 202, 337, 2069, 2715, 2718, 3246-therefore there was a representative of truth by means of the stones of the altar, and it was forbidden to represent it by pillars, lest thereby truth should be separated from good, and should be representatively worshiped instead of good. For this reason it is written in Moses: Thou shalt not plant thee a grove of any tree beside the altar of Jehovah thy God which thou shalt make thee; and thou shalt not set thee up a pillar, which Jehovah thy God hateth (Deut. 16:21-22); for to worship truth separate from good, or faith separate from charity, is contrary to the Divine, because contrary to order, and this is signified by the prohibition, "thou shalt not set thee up a pillar, which Jehovah thy God hateth."  Nevertheless that they did set up pillars, and thereby represented those things which are contrary to order, is evident in Hosea: Israel according to the multiplying of his fruit, multiplies his altars; according to the good of their land they make goodly pillars; but He shall overturn their altars; He shall lay waste their pillars (Hos. 10:1-2). In the first book of Kings: Judah did that which was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; they also built them high places, and pillars, and groves, on every high hill, and under every green tree (1 Kings 14:22-23). In the second book of Kings: The sons of Israel set them up pillars and groves on every high hill, and under every green tree (2 Kings 17:10). Hezekiah removed the high places, and he brake the pillars and cut down the grove and ground to pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made, for they did burn incense to it (2 Kings 18:4).  Inasmuch as the Gentiles also had by tradition the belief that the holy of worship was represented by altars and by pillars, and yet were in evil and falsity, therefore by "altars" among the gentiles are signified evils of worship, and by "pillars," falsities; for which reason it was commanded that they should be destroyed. As in Moses: Ye shall overthrow their altars, and break in pieces their pillars, and ye shall cut down their groves (Exod. 34:13; Deut. 7:5; 12:3). Thou shalt not bow to their gods, nor worship them, nor do after their works; because destroying thou shalt destroy them, and breaking thou shalt break in pieces their pillars (Exod. 23:24); the "gods" of the nations denote falsities; their "works," evils; to "break in pieces their pillars" denotes to destroy worship from falsity.  In Jeremiah: Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon shall break in pieces the pillars of the house of the sun that is in the land of Egypt, and the houses of the gods of Egypt shall he burn with fire (Jer. 43:13). In Ezekiel: Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon with the hoofs of his horses shall tread down all thy streets; he shall slay the people with the sword, and shall cause the pillars of thy strength to go down to the earth (Ezek. 26:11); speaking of Tyre. "Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon" denotes that which causes vastation (n. 1327); the "hoofs of the horses" denote the lowest intellectual things, such as are memory-knowledges from mere things of sense; that "hoofs" are the lowest things will of the Lord's Divine mercy be confirmed elsewhere; "horses" denote intellectual things (n. 2760-2762); "streets," truths, and in the opposite sense, falsities (n. 2336); to "tread them down" is to destroy the knowledges of truth, which are signified by "Tyre" (that "Tyre," which is the subject here referred to, signifies the knowledges of truth, may be seen above, n. 1201); to "slay the people with the sword" denotes to destroy truths by that which is false. (That "people" is predicated of truth, may be seen above, n. 1259, 1260, 3295, 3581; and that a "sword" signifies falsity combating, n. 2799.) From all this we see what is meant by "causing the pillars of strength to come down to the earth." That "strength" is predicated of what is true and of what is false, is also evident from the Word.3728.
And poured oil upon the head of it. That this signifies holy good, is evident from the signification of "oil," as being the celestial of love, or good (see n. 886, 3009); and from the signification of the "head," as being that which is higher, or what is the same, that which is interior. That good is higher, or interior, and truth lower, or exterior, has been shown above in many places. From this it is evident what was signified by the ancient rite of pouring oil on the head of a pillar, namely, that truth should not be without good, but from good, thus that good should have the dominion as the head over the body; for truth without good is not truth, but is a sound void of life, and such that it is dissipated of itself. In the other life also it is dissipated with those who have excelled others in knowing truth or the doctrinal things of faith, and even the doctrinal things of love if they have not lived in good, and thus if they have not retained truth from good.  Hence the church is not a church from truth separate from good, consequently not from faith separate from charity; but from truth which is from good, or from faith which is from charity. The like is signified also by what the Lord said to Jacob: I am the God of Bethel, where thou anointedst a pillar, where thou vowedst a vow unto Me (Gen. 31:13); and by what is said again: Jacob set up a pillar of stone, and he poured out a drink-offering thereon, and poured oil thereon (Gen. 35:14); by "pouring out a drink-offering on a pillar" is signified the Divine good of faith; and by "pouring oil" upon it, the Divine good of love. Everyone can see that to pour oil upon a stone, without the signification of something celestial and spiritual, would be ridiculous and idolatrous.3729.
And he called the name of that place Bethel. That this signifies the quality of the state, is evident from the signification of "name" and of "calling a name," as being the quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421); and from the signification of "place," as being state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387). The quality of the state is that which is signified by "Bethel." In the original tongue "Bethel" means the "house of God;" and that this is good in the ultimate of order, may be seen above (n. 3720).3730.
But the name of the city was Luz at the first. That this signifies the quality of the former state, is evident from the signification of "name," as being the quality (see just above, n. 3729); and from the signification of "city," as being that which is doctrinal of truth (n. 402, 2268, 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216). In the original tongue "Luz" means "recession," thus disjunction, which comes to pass when that which is doctrinal of truth, or truth itself, is put in the first place, and good is neglected; thus when truth alone is in the ultimate of order. But when truth is together with good in the ultimate of order, there is then no recession or disjunction, but accession or conjunction; and this is the quality of the state which is signified by "Luz."3731.
Verses 20-22. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way wherein I walk, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, and I return in peace to my father's house, Jehovah shall be to me for God. And this stone which I have set up for a pillar shall be God's house; and all that Thou shalt give me, tithing I will tithe it to Thee. "And Jacob vowed a vow, saying," signifies a state of Providence; "if God will be with me and will keep me in this way wherein I walk," signifies continuously Divine; "and will give me bread to eat," signifies even to conjunction with Divine good; "and raiment to put on," signifies conjunction with Divine truth; "and I return in peace to my father's house," signifies even to perfect union; "and Jehovah shall be to me for God," signifies that the Divine natural should also be Jehovah; "and this stone which I have set up for a pillar," signifies truth which is the ultimate; "shall be God's house" signifies here as before the Lord's kingdom in the ultimate of order, in which are higher things as in their house; "and all that Thou shalt give me, tithing I will tithe it to Thee," signifies that He would make all things Divine in general and in particular by His own power.3732.
And Jacob vowed a vow. That this signifies a state of Providence, is evident from the signification of "vowing a vow," as being in the internal sense to will that the Lord shall provide, and therefore in the supreme sense, in which the Lord is treated of, a state of Providence. That in the internal sense "to vow a vow" signifies to will that the Lord shall provide, is from the fact that in vows there is the desire and affection that what is willed may come to pass; thus that the Lord shall provide. There is also implied somewhat of stipulation, and at the same time somewhat of obligation on the part of man, which he takes upon himself if he comes to possess the object of his wish; as here on the part of Jacob, that Jehovah should be to him for a God, and the stone which he set up for a pillar should be the house of God, and that he would tithe all that was given him, provided that Jehovah would keep him in the way, and would give him bread to eat and raiment to put on, and that he should return in peace to his father's house. This shows that in those days vows were special compacts, especially as regards the acknowledging of God as being their God if He would provide for them what they desired, and as regards the repaying of Him by some gift if He would so provide.  From all this it is very evident what was the quality of the fathers of the Jewish nation, as here that of Jacob, who as yet did not acknowledge Jehovah, and was still undetermined in his choice as to whether he should acknowledge Him or another for his God. It was a peculiarity of that nation, even from the time of their fathers, that everyone desired to have his own God, and that if anyone worshiped Jehovah, it was only that he worshiped some god called Jehovah, and who by this name was distinguished from the gods of other nations, so that their worship even in this respect was idolatrous; for the worship of a mere name, even of the name Jehovah, is nothing but idolatry (n. 1094). The case is the same with those who call themselves Christians and say they worship Christ, but do not live according to His precepts; such worship Him with idolatry, because they worship His name alone, since it is a false Christ whom they worship; concerning which false Christ see Matthew 24:23, 24 (n. 3010).3733.
Saying, if God will be with me and will keep me in this way wherein I walk. That this signifies continuously Divine, is evident from the signification of "God being with" anyone, and "keeping him in the way wherein he walks" as being what is continuously Divine; for this is predicated of the Lord, who as to the very essence of life was Jehovah; so that His whole life, from earliest infancy to the end, was continuously Divine, and this even to the perfect union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence.3734.
And will give me bread to eat. That this signifies even to conjunction with Divine good, is evident from the signification of "bread," as being all celestial and spiritual good which is from the Lord, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself as to Divine good (n. 276, 680, 1798, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478); and from the signification of "eating," as being to be communicated, appropriated, and conjoined (n. 2187, 2343, 3168, 3513, 3596).3735.
And raiment to put on. That this signifies conjunction with Divine truth, is evident from the signification of "raiment," as being truth (n. 1073, 2576), in the present case Divine truth, because the Lord is treated of; and from the signification of "putting on," as being to be appropriated and conjoined. The nature of the internal sense of the Word may be seen from these and all other such significatives, namely, that when bread and raiment are treated of in the sense of the letter, and also when the matter in question is expressed historically, as here-"if God will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on," the angels who are with the man at the time think not at all of bread, but of the good of love, and in the supreme sense of the Lord's Divine good; neither do they think of raiment, but of truth, and in the supreme sense of the Lord's Divine truth. Such things as are in the sense of the letter are to them merely objective representatives for thinking concerning things heavenly and Divine; for such things are the vessels which are in the ultimate of order.  Thus when in a holy state a man thinks of bread, as for instance of the bread in the Holy Supper, or of the "daily bread" in the Lord's Prayer, then the thought which the man has about bread serves the angels who are with him as an objective representative for thinking about the good of love which is from the Lord; for the angels apprehend nothing of man's thought about bread, but instead of this have thought concerning good, for such is the correspondence. In like manner when in a holy state a man thinks about raiment, the thought of the angels is about truth; and so it is with everything else in the Word. This shows what is the nature of the conjunction of heaven and earth by the Word, namely, that a man who reads the Word in a holy manner is by such correspondence conjoined closely with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord, even although the man thinks only of those things in the Word which are in the sense of its letter. The holiness itself then present with the man comes from an influx of celestial and spiritual thoughts and affections, such as angels have.  That there might be such an influx and the consequent conjunction of man with the Lord the Holy Supper was instituted by the Lord, in connection with which it is expressly said that the bread and wine are the Lord; for the Lord's "body" signifies His Divine love, and the reciprocal love in man such as is that of the celestial angels; and the "blood" in like manner signifies His Divine love, and the reciprocal love in man, but such as is that of the spiritual angels. From this it is manifest how much of the Divine there is in everything of the Word, notwithstanding man's ignorance as to what it is and what its quality. Yet those who when in the world have been in the life of good, after death come into the knowledges and perceptions of all these things; for then they put off earthly and worldly things, and put on heavenly ones; and in like manner are in a spiritual and celestial idea like that of the angels.3736.
And I return in peace to my father's house. That this signifies even to perfect union, is evident from the fact that the "house of my father," when predicated of the Lord, is the Divine Itself in which the Lord was from His very conception; and to "return to that house," is to return to the Divine good itself which is called the "Father." That this good is the "Father" may be seen above (n. 3704); and that to "return to that house" is to be united, is evident. The same was meant by the Lord when He said that He came forth from the Father and was come into the world, and that again He should go to the Father; that is to say, by coming forth from the Father" is meant that the Divine Itself assumed the Human; by "coming into the world," that He was as a man; and by His "going again to the Father," that He would unite the Human Essence to the Divine Essence. The same was meant also by these words of the Lord in John: If ye should see the Son of man ascending where He was before (John 6:62). Again: Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands, and that He came forth from God, and went to God, said unto them, Children, yet a little while I am with you; whither I go ye cannot come (John 13:3, 33). Again: Now I go unto Him that sent Me; and none of you asketh Me, Whither goest Thou? It is expedient for you that I go away; for if I go not away the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I go I will send Him unto you. A little while and ye shall not see Me; and again a little while and ye shall see Me; and because I go to the Father (John 16:5, 7, 16-17). Again: I came out from the Father, and am come into the world; again I leave the world, and go to the Father (John 16:28). In these passages, to "go to the Father" is to unite the Human Essence to the Divine Essence.3737.
And Jehovah shall be to me for God. That this signifies that the Divine natural also was Jehovah, is evident from the series of things in the supreme internal sense, which treats of the unition of the Lord's Human with His Divine; but in order that this sense may appear, the thought must be abstracted from the history of Jacob and be kept fixed on the Lord's Divine Human, and in this case on His Divine natural, which is represented by Jacob. The human itself, as before repeatedly stated, consists of the rational, which is the same as the internal man, and of the natural, which is the same as the external man, and also of the body, which serves the natural as a means or outermost organ for living in the world, and through the natural serves the rational, and moreover through the rational, serves the Divine. Inasmuch as the Lord came into the world in order that He might make the whole human in Himself Divine, and this according to Divine order; and as by Jacob is represented the Lord's natural, and by his life of sojourning, in the supreme sense, how the Lord made His natural Divine, therefore here, where it is said, "if I shall return in peace to the house of my father, Jehovah shall be to me for God," there is signified the unition of the Lord's Human with His Divine, and that as to the Divine natural also He should be Jehovah, through the unition of the Divine Essence with the Human, and of the Human with the Divine. This unition is not to be understood as being a unition of two who are distinct from each other, and conjoined merely by love; as a father with a son, when the father loves the son and the son the father; or as when a brother loves a brother, or a friend a friend; but it is a real unition into a one in order that they may be not two but one (as the Lord also repeatedly teaches); and because they are a one, therefore the whole Human of the Lord is the Divine being or Jehovah (see n. 1343, 1736, 2156, 2329, 2447, 2921, 3023, 3035).3738.
And this stone which I have set up for a pillar. That this signifies that truth which is the ultimate, is evident from what was said above (n. 3724, 3726), where the same words occur.3739.
Shall be God's house. That this signifies the Lord's kingdom in the ultimate of order, in which higher things are as in their house, is evident also from what was said above (n. 3720), where the same words occur, and further from what was said in n. 3721. As regards higher things being in the ultimate of order as in their house, the case is this: Such an order has been instituted by the Lord that higher things inflow into lower ones, and therein present an image of themselves in general, and consequently are together therein in a certain general form, and thus are in order from the Highest, that is, from the Lord; from this it is that the proximate image of the Lord is the inmost heaven, which is the heaven of innocence and peace, where those who are celestial dwell; which heaven, because nearest to the Lord, is called His "likeness." The next heaven, namely, that which succeeds and is in a lower degree, is an "image" of the Lord, because in this heaven, as in something general, there are simultaneously presented the things which are in the higher heaven. The ultimate heaven, which succeeds this again, is similarly circumstanced, for the particulars and singulars of the heaven next higher inflow into this heaven, and are therein presented in general, and in a correspondent form.  The case is similar with man, for he has been created and formed to be an image of the three heavens. In man that which is inmost inflows in like manner into that which is lower; and this in like manner into that which is lowest or last. The natural and corporeal consists of such an influx and concourse into those things which are beneath, and finally into those which are last. In this way there is a connection of the last or ultimate things with the first, without which connection that which is last in order would not subsist a single moment. Thus it is manifest what is meant by higher things being in the ultimate of order as in their house. Whether we speak of things higher and lower, or interior and exterior, it is the same; for to man's view things interior appear as higher; and for this reason man places heaven on high, when yet it is in what is internal.3740.
And all that Thou shalt give me, tithing I will tithe it to Thee. That this signifies that He made all things Divine in general and in particular by His own power, is evident from the signification of "giving," when predicated of the Lord, as being that He gave to Himself (see n. 3705), thus that it was by His own power; and from the signification of "tithing," and of "tithes," as being the goods and truths which are stored up by the Lord in man's interiors, and which goods are called "remains" (n. 576, 1738, 2280). When these are predicated of the Lord they are the Divine goods and Divine truths which the Lord procured to Himself by His own power (n. 1738, 1906).3741.
CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE GRAND MAN AND CORRESPONDENCE THEREWITH. The heavenly kingdom presents the form of one man, for the reason that all the things therein correspond to the Only Lord-that is, to His Divine Human-who alone is Man (see n. 49, 288, 565, 1894). From correspondence with Him, and from being an image and likeness of Him, heaven is called the Grand Man. From the Divine of the Lord come in heaven all the celestial things which are of good, and all the spiritual things which are of truth. All the angels there are forms (that is, substances formed according to the reception) of the Divine things which are from the Lord. The Divine things of the Lord as received by the angels are what are called things celestial and spiritual, because in them the Divine life, together with the Divine light thence derived, come forth and are modified as in their recipients.  From this it is that the forms and material substances with man are also of the same nature, but in a lower degree, because grosser and more composite. That these also are forms recipient of celestial and spiritual things, is very evident from signs that are clearly visible; as from thought, which flows into the organic forms of the tongue, and produces speech; from the affections of the mind, which present themselves visible in the face; and from the will, which by the muscular forms flows into actions; and so on. Thought and will, which produce such effects, are spiritual and celestial, whereas the forms or substances which receive them and carry them into act, are material; and it is evident that these latter have been formed altogether for the reception of the former, and thus it is evident that the latter are from the former, and that unless they were from them, they could not have come forth such as they are.3742.
That there is one only life, which is from the Lord alone, and that angels, spirits, and men are only recipients of life, has been made known to me by experience so manifold as to leave not even the slightest doubt. Heaven itself is in the perception that this is the case, insomuch that the angels manifestly perceive the influx, and also how it flows in; and likewise the fullness and quality of their reception of it. When they are in a fuller state of reception they are then in their peace and happiness; otherwise they are in a state of unrest and of a certain anxiety. Nevertheless the life of the Lord is so appropriated to them as to cause them to feel that they live from themselves, but yet they know that it is not from themselves. The appropriation of the Lord's life comes from His love and mercy toward the universal human race, in that He wills to give Himself to everyone, and all that is His, and in that He actually does give them insofar as they receive, that is to say, insofar as they are in the life of good and in the life of truth, as being likenesses and images of Him. And as such a Divine endeavor is continually proceeding from the Lord, as before said His life is appropriated.3743.
But they who are not in love to the Lord and toward their neighbor, consequently who are not in the life of good and truth, are not able to acknowledge that there is only one influent life, and still less that this life is from the Lord. But all such are indignant, nay, feel aversion, when it is said that they do not live from themselves. The love of self is the cause of this; and wonderful to say, although shown by living experience in the other life that they do not live from themselves, and although being at the time convinced they say that it is so, yet afterwards they persist in the same opinion, and imagine that if they lived from another, and not from themselves, all the delight of their life would perish; for they are not aware that the reverse is the truth. For this reason the wicked appropriate evil to themselves, because they do not believe that evils are from hell; and good cannot be appropriated to them, because they believe good to be from themselves, and not from the Lord. Nevertheless the wicked, and also those in hell, are forms recipient of life from the Lord, but such forms that they either reject, or suffocate, or pervert good and truth; and thus the goods and truths which are from the Lord's life become with them evils and falsities. The case herein is like that of the light of the sun, which although single and white, is yet varied as it passes through or flows into various forms, and thereby produces beautiful and pleasing colors, as well as those which are not beautiful and not pleasing.3744.
From all this it is now evident what is the nature of heaven, and from what ground heaven is called the Grand Man; that is to say, the varieties as regards the life of good and truth therein are innumerable, and are in accordance with the reception of life from the Lord. These varieties have a relation to each other altogether similar to that which subsists between the organs, members, and viscera in man, all of which are forms in perpetual variety recipient of life from their soul, or rather through their soul from the Lord; and yet notwithstanding they are in such variety, they together constitute one man.3745.
How great this variety is, and of what nature, may be seen from the variety in the human body. It is known that one organ or member is not like another; for instance, that the organ of sight is not like the organ of hearing, and that the same is true of the organ of smelling, the organ of taste, and also the organ of touch, which last is diffused throughout the whole body. So also with the members-the arms, hands, loins, feet, and soles of the feet; and also with the viscera that lie hidden within, as those of the head, namely, the cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis, with all the minute organs, viscera, vessels, and fibers of which they are composed; also those belonging to the body below the head, as the heart, lungs, stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen, intestines, mesentery, and kidneys; and also those which are appropriated to generation in both sexes. It is known that all of these both in general and in particular are dissimilar in form and in function; so dissimilar that they are entirely different. In like manner there are forms within forms, which also are of such variety that no one form, nor even one particle, is altogether like another, that is to say, so like that it may be substituted in place of it, without some alteration however slight. All these things in both general and particular correspond to the heavens, but in such a manner that the things with man that are corporeal and material are there celestial and spiritual; and they correspond in such a way that it is from this that they come forth and subsist.3746.
In general all these varieties bear relation to the things of the head, of the chest, of the abdomen, and to those of the members of generation; in like manner to the things which are interior and to those which are exterior in each of these.3747.
I have occasionally conversed with spirits concerning the learned of our age-that they know only the distinction of man into internal and external, and this not from any reflection on the interior things of the thoughts and affections in themselves, but from the Word of the Lord; and that still they are ignorant what the internal man is, and that many even have doubts as to whether it exists, and also deny its existence, because they do not live the life of the internal man, but that of the external; and because they are so much led astray by the appearance as regards brute animals, in their seeming like themselves in respect to organs, viscera, senses, appetites, and affections. And it was said that the learned know less about such subjects than the simple, and that still they seem to themselves to know much more; for they dispute about the interaction of the soul and body, and even about the nature of the soul, as to what it is; when yet the simple know that the soul is the internal man, and that it is man's spirit which is to live after the death of the body; also that it is the real man which is in the body.  And further it was said that more than the simple, the learned make themselves out to be like the brutes, and ascribe all things to nature, and scarcely anything to Divine; and still further, that they do not reflect that as distinguished from brute animals man has a capacity for thinking about heaven, and about God, and thereby of being elevated above himself, consequently of being conjoined with the Lord by love; and thus that men cannot but live after death to eternity. And it was added that they are especially ignorant that all things whatsoever belonging to man depend on the Lord through heaven, and that heaven is the Grand Man, to which correspond all things in man in both general and particular, and also all things in nature; and possibly when they shall hear and read these things they will seem to them like paradoxes, and unless experience confirms them they will reject them as a fanciful affair; as they will also do when they shall hear that there are three degrees of life in man, as there are three degrees of life in the heavens, that is, three heavens and that man so corresponds to the three heavens that when he is in the life of good and truth, and by this life an image of the Lord, he is himself in image a little heaven.  I have been instructed concerning these degrees of life-that it is the last or ultimate degree of life which is called the external or natural man by which man is like animals as regards lusts and fantasies; that it is the second degree of life which is called the internal and rational man by which man is above animals, for it is through this that he is able to think and will what is good and true, and have dominion over the natural man, by restraining and also rejecting its lusts and the resultant fantasies, and also by reflecting within himself concerning heaven, nay, concerning Divine, which brute animals are altogether incapable of doing; and lastly that the third degree of life is that which is the most unknown to man, although it is that through which the Lord inflows into the rational mind, whereby man has the faculty of thinking as a man, and also has conscience, and perception of what is good and true, and also elevation by the Lord toward Himself. But these things are remote from the ideas of the learned of this age, who merely dispute whether a thing exists; and who, so long as they do this, cannot know that it does exist, and still less what it is.3748.
There was a certain spirit who while he had lived in the world had gained a great public reputation for learning, being of a subtle genius in confirming falsities, but very stupid as regards goods and truths. As he had previously done in this world, he imagined that he knew everything; for such spirits believe themselves to be most wise and that nothing is hidden from them; and such as they have been in the life of the body, such they remain in the other life; for all things that belong to anyone's life, that is, which are of his love and affection, follow him and are in him as the soul is in its body, because from these he has formed and given quality to his soul. This spirit came to me and conversed with me, and because he was of such a quality, I asked him, Who is the more intelligent, he who knows many falsities, or he who knows a little truth? He replied, He who knows a little truth. The reason of his giving this answer was that he imagined that the falsities which he knew were truths, and thus that he was wise.  He afterwards desired to reason about the Grand Man, and about the influx therefrom into everything of man; but as he understood nothing about it, I asked him how-seeing that the thing which moves is spiritual, and that which is moved is corporeal-he understood the fact that thought, which is spiritual, moves the whole face and exhibits its own expression; and also moves all the organs of speech, and this distinctly according to the spiritual perception of such thought; and that the will moves the muscles of the whole body, and the thousands of fibers dispersed throughout it, to one action. But he knew not what answer to give. I conversed further with him on the nature of endeavor, and asked him whether he knew that endeavor produces actions and motions, and that all action and motion must have endeavor within them in order that they may come forth and subsist. He replied that he did not know this; and he was therefore asked how he could desire to reason, seeing that he did not know even first principles, in which case reasoning is like scattered dust with no coherence, which falsities dissipate in such a manner that at last the man knows nothing, and consequently believes nothing.3749.
A certain spirit came to me unawares, and flowed into my head. Spirits are distinguished according to their influx into different parts of the body. I wondered who and whence he was; but after he had been silent for some time the angels who were with me said that he had been taken from among the spirits who were with a certain learned man still living in the world, who had gained extraordinary reputation for his learning. Communication was also then given through this intermediate spirit with the thought of that man. I asked the spirit what idea this learned man was enabled to form concerning the Grand Man, and concerning its influx and consequent correspondence. He said that he could form no idea. He was next asked what idea he had of heaven. He said that he had none at all, except blasphemous ones-as that people there are always playing on musical instruments such as rustics are wont to make a sound with. And yet this man is held in high estimation, and is believed to know what influx is, and what the soul is, and what is the nature of its interaction with the body; and possibly it is believed that he knows better than other men what heaven is. From this it is evident what sort of men are now the teachers of others, namely, that from mere objections and difficulties they oppose the goods and truths of faith, although they publish the contrary.3750.
What kind of idea of heaven those have who are believed to have more than ordinary communication therewith, and influx thence, was also shown me to the life. They who appear above the head are those who in the world had been desirous to be worshiped as deities, and with whom the love of self had been exalted to the utmost height, by successive steps of power, and by a consequent imaginary liberty; they are also deceitful under the appearance of innocence and love to the Lord. From the phantasy of height they appear on high above the head; but nevertheless are beneath the feet in hell.  One of these spirits led himself down to me; and others informed me that in the world he had been a pope. He conversed with me very courteously; first concerning Peter and his keys, which he imagined he himself was in possession of. But when he was questioned concerning the power of admitting into heaven whomsoever he pleased, he was found to have so gross an idea of heaven that he represented a kind of door which gave entrance; and he said that he opened that door to the poor gratis, but that the rich paid according to their ability, and that what they paid was holy. Being asked whether he believed that those whom he had admitted remained there, he said that he did not know, but if not, they went out again. He was then told that he could not know their interiors, as to whether they were worthy, and that they might be robbers, who will be in hell. He answered that this was no concern of his, and if they were not worthy they might be sent out. But he was instructed what is meant by the keys of Peter, namely, the faith of love and charity; and inasmuch as the Lord alone gives such faith, therefore it is the Lord alone who admits into heaven; and that Peter does not appear to anyone; and that he is a simple spirit, who has no more power than others. He had no other opinion about the Lord than that He ought to be worshiped insofar as He gives such power; but if He should not give it, it was perceived that he thought that He ought not to be worshiped. Further: in conversing with him concerning the internal man, he was found to have an unclean idea of it.  The liberty, fullness, and delight of the respiration he enjoyed when he sat upon his throne in the Consistory, and believed that he spoke from the Holy Spirit, was shown me to the life. He was let into a state similar to that in which he had been when present there (for in the other life everyone can easily be let into the state of life he had in the world, because the state of his life remains with him after death); and his respiration was communicated to me, such as he then had. It was free, and attended with delight-slow, regular, deep, filling the breast; but when he was contradicted, there was somewhat as it were rolling itself and creeping in the abdomen, from the continuation of the respiration; and when he supposed that what he was laying down was Divine, he perceived it from the respiration being more tacit, and as it were in agreement therewith.  I was afterwards shown by whom such popes are directed, namely, by a crowd of sirens who are above the head, who have contracted a nature and life of insinuating themselves into all kinds of affections, with a design to exercise command, and to subject others to themselves, and to destroy for the sake of self all they are able to destroy; using for this purpose holiness and innocence as means. They are timid on their own account, and act cautiously; but when occasion offers, they will for the sake of self rush into cruelty without mercy.
3708-1 The Latin here has "come down."