Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
Verses 64, 65. And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and saw Isaac, and she alighted from off the camel. And she said unto the servant, What man is this that walketh in the field to meet us? And the servant said, It is my lord. And she took a veil and covered herself. "Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and saw Isaac," signifies the reciprocal attention of the affection of truth; "and she alighted from off the camel," signifies the separation thereof from the memory-knowledges in the natural man at the perception of rational good; "and she said unto the servant," signifies exploration from the Divine natural; "what man is this that walketh in the field to meet us?" signifies concerning the rational which was in good alone; "and the servant said, It is my lord," signifies acknowledgment. "And she took a veil and covered herself," signifies the appearances of truth.3202.
Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and saw Isaac. That this signifies the reciprocal attention of the affection of truth, appears from the signification of "lifting up the eyes and seeing," as being attention (see n. 3198); here, reciprocal, because it was before said of Isaac that he "lifted up his eyes and saw," and here it is said of Rebekah, that she "lifted up her eyes, and saw Isaac;" and also from the representation of Rebekah, as being the affection of truth, concerning which see above in many places.3203.
And she alighted from off the camel. That this signifies the separation thereof from the memory-knowledges in the natural man at the perception of rational good, is evident from the signification of "alighting," as being to be separated; and from the signification of "camels," as being the memory-knowledges in the natural man (see n. 3048, 3071). That it was at the perception of the rational good which is represented by Isaac, is evident.  What it is to be separated from the natural man, was stated and shown above (n. 3161, 3175, 3182, 3188, 3190), namely, that the affection of truth is separated therefrom when it is no longer a matter of memory-knowledge, but becomes of the life; for when it becomes of the life, by habit the man becomes imbued with it like his disposition or nature; and when he is thus imbued with it, it then flows forth into act as it were spontaneously, and this without his thinking about it from any memory-knowledge; nay, when it becomes of the life it can then exercise command over the memory-knowledges, and draw from them innumerable things which confirm. Such is the case with all truth; in the first age it is a matter of memory-knowledge, but as the man advances in age it becomes of the life. The case herein is like that of children when they are learning to walk, to speak, to think, also to see from the understanding, and to conclude from the judgment; which things, when by habit they have become voluntary, and thus spontaneous, vanish from among matters of memory-knowledge, and flow forth of their own accord.  So also is it with those things which are of the knowledges of spiritual good and truth with men who from the Lord are being regenerated or born again; in the beginning such men are not unlike children, and at first spiritual truths are to them mere memory-knowledges; for doctrinal things, when being learned and inserted in the memory, are nothing else; but these are successively called forth thence by the Lord, and are implanted in the life, that is, in good; for good is life. When this has been effected there takes place as it were a turning round, namely, that the man begins to act from good, that is, from life, and no longer as before from memory-knowledge. Thus he who is being born anew is in this respect like a child (although the things imbibed are of the spiritual life); until he no longer acts from what is doctrinal, or truth; but from charity, or good; and when this is the case, he then for the first time is in a blessed state, and is in wisdom.  All this shows what it is to be separated from the memory-knowledges in the natural man, which is signified by Rebekah's alighting from off the camel; and this before she knew that it was Isaac; in which circumstances, as everyone can see, some arcana are involved.3204.
And she said unto the servant. That this signifies exploration from the Divine natural, appears from the signification here of "saying," as denoting to explore; for she asked, "What man is this that walketh in the field to meet us?" and from the signification of the "servant," as being the Divine natural (see above, n. 3191, 3192).3205.
What man is this that walketh in the field to meet us? That this signifies concerning the rational which was in good alone, namely, exploration respecting it, appears from what was said above concerning Isaac, that "he went out to meditate in the field," by which is signified the state of the rational in good (see n. 3196); here, the rational is signified by "this man;" and its being in good is signified by "walking" (that is, meditating) "in the field." "To meet us" denotes for conjunction.3206.
And the servant said, It is my lord. That this signifies acknowledgment, namely, by the Divine natural, which is here the "servant," is evident without explication. That initiation is effected by the Divine natural may be seen above (n. 3192); also that good recognizes its own truth; and truth its own good (n. 3179).3207.
And she took a veil and covered herself. That this signifies appearances of truth is evident from the signification of the veil with which brides covered the face when they first saw the bridegroom, as being appearances of truth; for among the ancients brides represented the affections of truth, and bridegrooms the affections of good; or what is the same, brides represented the church, which was called a "bride" from the affection of truth; the affection of good which is from the Lord being the bridegroom, and hence all through the Word the Lord Himself is called the "bridegroom." Brides veiled their faces on their first coming to the bridegroom, in order that they might represent appearances of truth. Appearances of truth are not truths in themselves, but they appear as truths; concerning which see below. The affection of truth cannot approach the affection of good except through appearances of truth; nor is it stripped of appearances until it is being conjoined; for then it becomes the truth of good, and becomes genuine insofar as the good is genuine.  Good itself is holy, because it is the Divine proceeding from the Lord, and flows in by the higher way or gate in man; but insofar as its origin is concerned, truth is not holy; because it flows in by a lower way or gate, and at first is of the natural man; but when it is elevated thence toward the rational man it is by degrees purified; and at the first sight of the affection of good it is separated from memory-knowledges, and puts on appearances of truth, and thus comes near to good; an indication that such is its origin, and that it could not endure the first sight of Divine good until it has entered into the bridegroom's chamber (that is, into the sanctuary of good), and the conjunction has been effected; for then truth no longer looks at good from appearances, or through appearances; but it is looked at from good apart from them.  Be it known, however, that neither with man, nor indeed with an angel, are any truths ever pure, that is, devoid of appearances; for all both in general and in particular are appearances of truth; nevertheless they are accepted by the Lord as truths, provided good is in them. To the Lord alone belong pure truths, because Divine; for as the Lord is Good itself, so He is Truth itself. But see what has been said concerning truths and their appearances; namely, that the coverings and veils of the tent signified appearances of truth (n. 2576); that truths with man are appearances tainted with fallacies (n. 2053); that the rational things of man are appearances of truth (n. 2516); that truths are in appearances (n. 2196, 2203, 2209, 2242); that Divine good flows into appearances, even into fallacies (n. 2554); that appearances of truth are adapted by the Lord as if they were truths (n. 1832); that the Word is written according to appearances (n. 1838).  But what appearances are may be clearly seen from those passages of the Word where it speaks according to appearances. There are however degrees of appearances of truth. Natural appearances of truth are mostly fallacies; but with those who are in good they are not to be called fallacies, but appearances, and even in some respects truths; for the good which is in them, and in which is the Divine, causes another essence to be in them. But rational appearances of truth are more and more interior; in them are the heavens, that is, the angels who are in the heavens (see n. 2576).  In order that some idea may be formed of what appearances of truth are, let the following examples serve for illustration. I. Man believes that he is reformed and regenerated through the truth of faith; but this is an appearance; he is reformed and regenerated through the good of faith, that is, through charity toward the neighbor and love to the Lord. II. Man believes that truth enables us to perceive what good is, because it teaches; but this is an appearance; it is good that enables truth to perceive, for good is the soul or life of truth. III. Man believes that truth introduces to good when he lives according to the truth which he has learned; but it is good which flows into truth, and introduces it to itself. IV. It appears to man that truth perfects good, when yet good perfects truth. V. Goods of life appear to man to be the fruits of faith; but they are the fruits of charity. From these few examples it may in some measure be known what appearances of truth are. Such appearances are innumerable.3208.
Verses 66, 67. And the servant told Isaac all the words that he had done. And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah's tent. And he took Rebekah, and she was to him for a woman, and he loved her; and Isaac was comforted after his mother. "The servant told Isaac all the words that he had done," signifies perception from the Divine natural, as to how the case was; "and Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah's tent," signifies the sanctuary of truth in the Divine Human; "and He took Rebekah, and she was to him for a woman, and he loved her," signifies conjunction; "and Isaac was comforted after his mother" signifies a new state.3209.
The servant told Isaac all the words that he had done. That this signifies perception from the Divine natural as to how the case was, appears from the signification of "telling" as being to perceive; for perception is a kind of internal telling; wherefore perceiving, in the historicals of the Word, is expressed by "telling," and also by "saying" (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2619, 2862); and also from the signification here of the "servant," as being the Divine natural (concerning which presently); and from the signification of "words," as being actual things (see n. 1785); from which considerations it is plain that "the servant told all the words that he had done," signifies that Divine good rational perceived from the Divine natural how the case was. The case herein is this: The rational is in a degree above the natural, and rational good in the Lord was Divine; but the truth which was to be elevated out of the natural was not Divine until it was conjoined with the Divine good of the rational. In order therefore that the good of the rational might flow into the natural, there must be a medium; this medium could be nothing else than something natural which should partake of the Divine; and this is represented by the "elder servant in Abraham's house, administering all things which he had" (n. 3019, 3020); and that this "servant" signifies the Divine natural, may be seen above (n. 3191, 3192, 3204, 3206).3210.
And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah's tent. That this signifies the sanctuary of truth in the Divine Human, is evident from the signification of "tent," as being what is holy (see n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 2576), and thus a sanctuary; and from the signification of "Sarah the mother," as being Divine truth (see n. 1468, 1901, 2063, 2065, 2904), of which was born the Divine Human, whose rational is represented by the son Isaac; whence it is evident that "Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah's tent," signifies that rational good brought with it the truth which is represented by Rebekah, into the sanctuary of truth.  What the sanctuary of truth is may be seen from what was said above (n. 3194) concerning the Lord's Divine Human; namely, that the veriest Divine has Good and Truth; and that the Lord, as to the Divine Human, came forth from the Divine good, and was born (namely, as to the Divine Human 3210-1 of the Divine truth; or what is the same, that the very esse of the Lord was Divine good, but the very existere was Divine truth: from this was the Divine good rational, with which He conjoined Divine truth from the Human. Concerning this very deep arcanum more cannot be said. We will only add that it is the veriest Divine good and truth in the Lord's Divine Human with which truth from the Human was conjoined, that was signified by the Sanctuary, or Holy of holies, in the tabernacle, and in the temple; and its quality was represented by the things therein contained, as by the golden altar, by the table on which were the showbreads [panes propositionis], by the candlestick, and still more internally by the propitiatory, and by the ark, and inmostly by the testimony, which was the law promulgated from Sinai, and which was the very Holy of Holies, or the Sanctuary of truth.3211.
And he took Rebekah, and she was to him for a woman, and he loved her. That this signifies the conjunction, namely, of good and truth, is evident without explication. The reason it is said that Rebekah was to him "for a woman," and not for a wife, is that between rational good and the truth called forth from the natural and made Divine, it is not marriage that takes place, but a covenant resembling a marriage covenant. The Divine marriage itself which is in the Lord is the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence, and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence (see n. 2803). This is the reason why Rebekah is called "woman," not wife.3212.
And Isaac was comforted after his mother. That this signifies a new state, is evident from the signification of "receiving comfort," as being a new state; for a state of consolation is new; and that it succeeded to the foregoing is signified by "after his mother." This new state is the state of glorification of the rational; as before in respect to good, so now in respect to truth. The rational was glorified when it was made Divine in respect to both.  That the Lord as to the human was made new, that is, glorified (or what is the same, was made Divine), no one can possibly conceive (thus neither believe) who is in worldly and corporeal loves; for he is altogether ignorant what the spiritual and celestial is, nor indeed is he willing to know. But he who is not in worldly and corporeal loves, is capable of perceiving this, for he believes that the Lord is one with the Father, and that from Him proceeds all that is holy; consequently that He is Divine even as to the Human; and whoever believes, perceives in his own way.  The state of the Lord's glorification may in some manner be conceived from the state of the regeneration of man, for the regeneration of man is an image of the glorification of the Lord (n. 3043, 3138). When man is being regenerated, he is then becoming altogether another, and is being made new; therefore also when he has been regenerated, he is called "born again," and "created anew." Then, although he has a similar face and a similar speech, yet his mind is not similar; his mind, when he is regenerate, is open toward heaven, and there dwells therein love to the Lord and charity toward his neighbor, together with faith. It is the mind that makes a man another, and a new man. This change of state cannot be perceived in the body of man, but in his spirit, the body being merely the covering of his spirit; and when it is put off, then his spirit appears, and this (provided he has been regenerated) in altogether another form, for it then has the form of love and charity in beauty inexpressible (n. 553), instead of its pristine form, which was that of hatred and cruelty with a deformity also inexpressible. This shows what a regenerate person is, or one who is born again, or created anew; namely, that he is altogether another, and is a new man.  From this image it may in some measure be conceived what the glorification of the Lord is. He was not regenerated as a man is; but became Divine, and this from the very Divine Love itself, for He was made the Divine Love itself. What his form then was, was made apparent to Peter, James, and John when it was given them to see Him, not with the eyes of the body but with the eyes of the spirit, namely-that His countenance shone like the sun (Matt. 17:2); and that this was His Divine Human is evident from the voice which then came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son" (verse 5). That the "Son" is the Divine Human, may be seen above (n. 2628).3213.
CONTINUATION CONCERNING REPRESENTATIONS AND CORRESPONDENCES. In the world of spirits there come forth innumerable and almost continual representatives, which are forms of actual things spiritual and celestial, not unlike those which are in the world. Whence these come it has been granted to me to know by daily interaction with spirits and angels. They inflow from heaven, and from the ideas and speech of the angels there; for the ideas of angels and their derivative speech, when they come down to spirits, are exhibited representatively in various ways. From these representations upright and well-disposed spirits are enabled to know what the angels are saying among themselves, for inwardly within the representatives there is something angelic, which, in consequence of its power to excite affection, is perceived even as to its quality. Angelic ideas and speech cannot be exhibited before spirits in any other way; for as compared with the idea of a spirit an angelic idea contains things illimitable; and unless it were formed and exhibited representatively, and thus visibly by images, a spirit would scarcely understand anything of its contents, which are for the most part unutterable. But when the ideas are represented by forms, then insofar as the more general things are concerned they become comprehensible to spirits. And wonderful to say there is not even the smallest thing in that which is represented which does not express something spiritual and celestial that is in the idea of the angelic society from which the representative flows down.3214.
Representatives of things spiritual and celestial sometimes come forth in a long series, continued for an hour or two, in such an order successively as is marvelous. There are societies in which these representatives take place; and it has been given me to be with them for many months. But these representations are of such a nature that it would take many pages to relate and describe a single one of them in its order. They are very delightful, for something new and unexpected continually follows in succession, and this until what is represented is being fully perfected; and when all things have been perfectly represented, it is possible to contemplate everything in one view; and then it is at the same time given to take note of what is signified by each detail. Moreover good spirits are in this way initiated into spiritual and celestial ideas.3215.
The representatives that come forth before spirits are of an incredible variety; yet they are for the most part similar to things which exist on the earth, in its three kingdoms. (For the better understanding of their nature, see what has been related above concerning them, n. 1521, 1532, 1619-1625, 1807, 1808, 1971, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1981, 2299, 2601, 2758.)3216.
In order that it may be still better known how the case is with representatives in the other life, that is, with those things which appear in the world of spirits, take some further examples. When the angels are speaking about the doctrinal things of charity and faith, then sometimes in a lower sphere, where there is a corresponding society of spirits, there appears the form or pattern of a city or cities, with palaces therein exhibiting such skill in architecture as is amazing, so that you would say that the very art itself was there in its native home; not to mention houses of varied aspect; and wonderful to say in all these objects both in general and in particular there is not the smallest point, or visible atom, that does not represent something of the angelic idea and speech: so that it is evident what innumerable things are contained in these; and also what is signified by the cities seen by the prophets in the Word; and likewise what by the holy city or New Jerusalem; and what by the cities in the prophetic Word; namely, the doctrinal things of charity and faith (n. 402, 2449).3217.
When the angels are discoursing of that which relates to the understanding, then in the world of spirits, beneath the angels, or in the corresponding societies, there appear horses; and these of a size, form, color, attitude, and varied equipment, in accordance with the ideas which the angels have concerning the understanding. There is also a place at some depth a little to the right, which is called the abode of the intelligent, where horses continually appear, and this by reason of those present being in thought about what is of the understanding; and when angels whose discourse is about this subject flow into their thoughts, there is a representation of horses. This shows what was signified by the horses seen by the prophets, and also by the horses mentioned elsewhere in the Word; namely, the things of the understanding (n. 2760-2762).3218.
When the angels are in affections, and are at the same time discoursing about them, then in the lower sphere among spirits such things fall into representative species of animals. When the discourse is about good affections, there are presented beautiful, tame, and useful animals, such as were used in sacrifice in the representative Divine worship in the Jewish Church-as lambs, sheep, kids, she-goats, rams, he-goats, calves, bullocks, oxen; and then whatever appears upon the animal presents some image of their thought, which it is given to upright and well-disposed spirits to perceive. This shows what was signified by the animals that were employed in the rites of the Jewish Church; and what by the same when mentioned in the Word; namely, affections (n. 1823, 2179, 2180). But the discourse of the angels about evil affections is represented by beasts that are repulsive, fierce, and useless, such as tigers, bears, wolves, scorpions, serpents, mice, and the like; and these affections are also signified by the same beasts in the Word.3219.
When the angels are conversing about knowledges, and ideas, and influx, there then appear in the world of spirits as it were birds, formed in accordance with the subject of their discourse. Hence it is that in the Word "birds" signify rational things, or those which are of thought (see n. 40, 745, 776, 991). There were once presented to my view birds, one dark and unsightly, but two noble and beautiful; and when I saw them, there then fell upon me some spirits with such violence as to strike a tremor into my nerves and bones. I imagined that then, as several times before, evil spirits were assaulting me, with intent to destroy me; but this was not the case; for when the tremor ceased, together with the emotion of the spirits who fell upon me, I spoke with them, asking what was the matter.  They said that they had fallen down from a certain angelic society in which there was discourse concerning thoughts and influx; and that they had held the opinion that things relating to thought flow in from without, that is, through the external senses, according to the appearance; whereas the heavenly society in which they were, held the opinion that they inflow from within; and as they (the speakers) were in falsity, they fell down-not that they were cast down, for the angels cast no one down from them, but being in falsity they fell down of themselves; and they said that this was the cause.  By this it was given to know that discourse in heaven concerning thoughts and influx is represented by birds; and that of those who are in falsity by dark and unsightly birds; but that of those who are in the truth, by birds noble and beautiful. I was at the same time instructed that all things of thought inflow from within, and not from without, although it appears so; and I was told that it is contrary to order for the posterior to flow into the prior, or the grosser into the purer; thus for the body to inflow into the soul.3220.
When the angels are discoursing about things of intelligence and wisdom, and about perceptions and knowledges, the influx from them into the corresponding societies of spirits falls into representations of such things as are in the vegetable kingdom; as into representations of paradises, of vine-yards, of forests, of meadows with flowers, and into many lovely forms that surpass all human imagination. Hence it is that things which are of wisdom and intelligence are described in the Word by paradises, vineyards, forests, meadows; and that where these are mentioned, such things are signified.3221.
The discourses of the angels are sometimes represented by clouds, and by their forms, colors, movements, and changes; things affirmative of truth by bright and ascending clouds; things negative by dark and descending clouds; things affirmative of falsity by dusky and black clouds; consent and dissent by the various gatherings together and partings asunder of the clouds, and these latter as in a sky like that of the heavens in the night.3222.
Moreover loves and their affections are represented by flames, and this with inexpressible variation; whereas truths are represented by lights, and by innumerable modifications of light. This shows whence it is that by "flames" in the Word are signified the goods which are of love; and by "lights" the truths which are of faith.3223.
There are two lights whereby man is enlightened-the light of the world, and the light of heaven. The light of the world is from the sun; the light of heaven is from the Lord. The light of the world is for the natural or external man, thus for those things which are in him, and although the things which are therein do not appear to be of this light, they nevertheless are so; for nothing can be comprehended by the natural man except by such things as come forth and appear in the solar world, thus except they have somewhat of form from the light and shade therein. All ideas of time and ideas of space, which are of so much account in the natural man that he cannot think without them, are also of the light of the world. But the light of heaven is for the spiritual or internal man. Man's interior mind, in which are his intellectual ideas that are called immaterial, is in this light. Man is unaware of this, although he calls his intellect sight, and ascribes light to it; the reason is that so long as he is in worldly and corporeal things he has a perception only of such things as are of the light of the world, but not of such things as are of the light of heaven; the light of heaven is from the Lord alone, and the universal heaven is in this light.  This light (namely, that of heaven) is immensely more perfect than the light of the world; the things which in the light of the world make one ray, in the light of heaven make myriads; within the light of heaven there are intelligence and wisdom. This light is that which flows into the light of the world which is in the external or natural man, and causes him to perceive sensuously the objects of actual things; and unless this light flowed in, man could not have any perception, for the things which are of the light of the world derive from it their life. Between these lights, or between the things which are in the light of heaven and those in the light of the world, there exists a correspondence when the external or natural man makes one with the internal or spiritual man, that is, when the former is subservient to the latter; and the things which then come forth in the light of the world are representative of such things as come forth in the light of heaven.3224.
It is surprising that man does not as yet know that his intellectual mind is in a certain light that is altogether different from the light of the world; but such is the condition that to those who are in the light of the world the light of heaven is as it were darkness, and to those who are in the light of heaven the light of the world is as it were darkness. This arises principally from the loves, which are the heats of the light. They who are in the loves of self and of the world, thus only in the heat of the light of the world, are affected solely by evils and falsities, and these are the things which extinguish truths, which are of the light of heaven. But they who are in love to the Lord and in love toward the neighbor, thus in spiritual heat, which is of the light of heaven, are affected with goods and truths, which extinguish falsities; but still with these persons there exists a correspondence.  Spirits who are only in the things which are of the light of the world, and are thence in falsities derived from evils, have indeed light from heaven in the other life, but such a light as is fatuous, or as that which issues from a lighted coal or firebrand; but on the approach of the light of heaven this light is at once extinguished, and becomes thick darkness. They who are in this light are in phantasies, and the things which they see in phantasies they believe to be truths, nor to them is anything else truth. Their phantasies are also closely bound to filthy and obscene objects, with which they are most especially delighted; thus they think like persons who are insane and delirious. In regard to falsities, they do not reason whether these be so or not, but they instantly affirm them; whereas in regard to goods and truths they carry on a continual ratiocination, which terminates in what is negative.  For truths and goods, which are from the light of heaven, flow into the interior mind, which with them is closed; wherefore the light flows in around and outside of this mind, and becomes such that it is modified solely by the falsities which appear to them as truths. Truths and goods cannot be acknowledged, except with those whose interior mind is open, into which the light from the Lord may inflow; and so far as this mind is open, truths and goods are acknowledged. This mind is open only with those who are in innocence, in love to the Lord, and in charity toward their neighbor; but not with those who are in the truths of faith, unless they are at the same time in the good of life.3225.
From all this then it is evident what correspondence is and whence it is, also what representation is and whence; namely, that there is correspondence between those things which are of the light of heaven and those which are of the light of the world, that is, between those things which are of the internal or spiritual man and those which are of the external or natural man; and that there is representation in regard to whatever comes forth in the things which are of the light of the world (that is, in regard to whatever comes forth in the external or natural man), relatively to those which are of the light of heaven, that is, which are from the internal or spiritual man.3226.
Among the eminent faculties which man possesses, although he is ignorant of it, and which he carries with him into the other life when he passes thither after his liberation from the body, is that he perceives what is signified by the representatives which appear in the other life; also that he is able by the sense of his mind to express fully in a moment of time what he could not express during hours in the body; and this by ideas from those things which are of the light of heaven, assisted and given as it were wings by suitable appearances representative of the subject of discourse, which are such as cannot be described; and whereas man after death comes into these faculties, and in the other life has no need to be instructed respecting them, it is evident that he is in them (that is, that they are in him) during his life in the body, although he does not know it.  The reason of this is that there is a continual influx with man through heaven from the Lord. This influx is an influx of spiritual and celestial things, which fall into his natural things and are there presented representatively. In heaven among the angels nothing else is thought of than the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom; but in the world, with man, scarcely anything else is thought of than the corporeal and natural things which belong to the kingdom in which he is, and to the necessaries of life. And since the spiritual and celestial things of heaven which flow in are presented representatively with man in his natural things, they therefore remain implanted, and when a man puts off the body and leaves the world behind, he is in them.3227.
The subject of Representations and Correspondences is continued at the end of the next chapter.3228.
CHAPTER 25 This chapter treats of the sons of Abraham by Keturah, and also of the sons of Ishmael, whose names are given; afterwards it treats of Isaac and Rebekah, in that Esau and Jacob were born to them, and finally that Esau sold his birthright to Jacob for a pottage of lentils. Everyone can see that these subjects are of such a nature as may indeed be of use for the church history of that time, but are of little value in regard to spiritual life, for the sake of which however the Word is given. What does it benefit a man to know who were the sons of Abraham by Keturah, and who were the sons of Ishmael? and that Esau, weary with hunting, craved the pottage of lentils, and that Jacob by means of it shrewdly procured the birthright for himself? And so in the following chapter, where it is said that the herdsmen of Abimelech quarreled with the herdsmen of Isaac concerning the wells they had dug, in about the same way as they had previously contended with the herdsmen of Abraham (chapter 21). Moreover in some places there are mere lists of names, as that of the posterity of Esau (chapter 26); and the same in other chapters. Insofar as these are historical matters there is so little of the Divine in them that you can in no wise say that that Word was Divinely inspired in regard to every expression, and even to every jot, that is, that it had been sent down from the Lord through heaven to the man who wrote it; for what has been sent down from the Lord is Divine in all things both in general and in particular. Thus there is nothing Divine in regard to historical things (since these are transactions of men) except from things contained deeply hidden in the historicals, all of which both in general and in particular treat of the Lord and His kingdom. The historicals of the Word are unlike all other historicals in the universe, in that they contain such things within them.3229.
If the Word were the Word in regard solely to its historicals, that is, in regard to its external or literal sense, then all the historicals in it would be holy; and, what is more, many persons there mentioned would be regarded as holy, and the result would be (as has actually happened with many of them) that they would be worshiped as gods because they are treated of in the holiest of writings; for example, those who are called the patriarchs, namely, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and after them the fathers of the tribes, the twelve sons of Jacob, and later David and many others; and yet all these were men, and some of them had but little regard for Divine worship; and I am able to testify that they enjoy nothing beyond the common lot of humanity, and also that in the heavens they are quite unknown. But of the Lord's Divine mercy more will be said elsewhere concerning them and their state in the other life. From all this it is clearly evident that the external or literal sense is the Word solely from the internal or spiritual sense within it, and from which it is. GENESIS 25 1. And Abraham added, and took a woman, and her name was Keturah. 2. And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. 3. And Jokshan begat Sheba and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim. 4. And the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah. 5. And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac. 6. And to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts; and he sent them away from Isaac his son, while he was yet living, eastward to the land of the east. 7. And these are the days of the years of the lives of Abraham which he lived; a hundred years, and seventy years, and five years. 8. And Abraham expired and died in a good old age, an old man and sated, and was gathered to his peoples. 9. And Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre; 10. The field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth: there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife. 11. And it came to pass after the death of Abraham that God blessed Isaac his son; and Isaac dwelt at Beer-lahai-roi. 12. And these are the births of Ishmael the son of Abraham, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bare unto Abraham. 13. And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, in their names, according to their births: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam; 14. And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa; 15. Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah: 16. These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, in their villages and in their castles; twelve princes of their peoples. 17. And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, a hundred years, and thirty years, and seven years; and he expired and died, and was gathered unto his peoples. 18. And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria: he fell upon the faces of all his brethren. 19. And these are the births of Isaac, the son of Abraham: Abraham begat Isaac. 20. And Isaac was a son of forty years when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean, of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean, to himself for a woman. 21. And Isaac entreated Jehovah for his woman, because she was barren, and Jehovah was entreated of him, and Rebekah his woman conceived. 22. And the sons struggled together within her; and she said, If so, why am I thus? And she went to inquire of Jehovah. 23. And Jehovah said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels, and the one people shall prevail over the other people, and the elder shall serve the younger. 24. And her days were fulfilled to bring forth, and behold twins were in her womb. 25. And the first came forth red all over like a hairy garment, and they called his name Esau. 26. And after that came forth his brother, and his hand laid hold on Esau's heel, and he called his name Jacob: and Isaac was a son of sixty years when she bare them. 27. And the boys grew up: and Esau was a man skillful in hunting, a man of the field; and Jacob was a perfect man, dwelling in tents. 28. And Isaac loved Esau, because his hunting was in his mouth; and Rebekah loved Jacob. 29. And Jacob boiled pottage, and Esau came from the field, and he was weary. 30. And Esau said to Jacob, Cause me to sup I pray of the red, this red, for I am weary; therefore he called his name Edom. 31. And Jacob said, Sell me as this day thy birthright. 32. And Esau said, Behold I am going to die, and for what is this birthright to me? 33. And Jacob said, Swear to me as this day; and he sware unto him, and he sold his birthright unto Jacob. 34. And Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentils; and he did eat and drink, and rose up and went away; and Esau despised the birthright.3230.
THE CONTENTS. In the internal sense this chapter treats, First, of the Lord's spiritual kingdom, and its derivations (verses 1-4). That it was separated from the Lord's celestial kingdom (verses 5-6). That the representative of the Lord by Abraham was ended (verses 7-8). And that the representative of the Lord by Isaac and Ishmael began (verses 9-11).3231.
Secondly, the spiritual church, which is represented by Ishmael, together with its derivations, is treated of (verses 12-18).3232.
Thirdly, the conception and birth of the Divine natural are treated of; as to good, which is meant by Esau; and as to truth, which is meant by Jacob (verses 19-25).3233.
Fourthly, the priority of good and of truth in the church is treated of (verses 26-34).3234.
THE INTERNAL SENSE. Verse 1. And Abraham added, and took a woman, and her name was Keturah. "And Abraham added, and took a woman," signifies another state of the Lord, whom Abraham represents; Abraham and Sarah represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial; Abraham and Keturah represented the Lord as to the Divine spiritual; thus Abraham here represents the Lord as to Divine good spiritual, and his woman as to Divine truth adjoined to this good; "and her name was Keturah," signifies the essence of this Divine truth.3235.
And Abraham added, and took a woman. That this signifies another state of the Lord, whom Abraham represents, and that Abraham and Sarah represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial, and Abraham and Keturah as to the Divine spiritual, is evident from the things hitherto said and shown concerning Abraham and Sarah his wife, and from those here related concerning Abraham and Keturah. But as it is said that Abraham here represents another state of the Lord, and that Abraham and Sarah represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial, but Abraham and Keturah the Lord as to the Divine spiritual, it should be known what the Divine celestial is, and what the Divine spiritual.  The Divine celestial and the Divine spiritual are such in respect to those who receive the Divine of the Lord, for the Lord appears to everyone according to the nature of him who receives, as may be seen from what has been said above (n. 1838, 1861), and is clearly manifest from the fact that the Lord appears in one way to the celestial, but in another to the spiritual; for to the celestial He appears as a sun, but to the spiritual as a moon (n. 1529-1531, 1838). The Lord appears to the celestial as a sun, because they are in celestial love, that is, in love to the Lord; but to the spiritual as a moon, because they are in spiritual love, that is, in charity toward the neighbor. The difference is like that between the light of the sun in the daytime and the light of the moon by night; it is also like the difference between the heat of the one and the heat of the other, from which springs vegetation. This is what is meant in the first chapter of Genesis by the words: And God made two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night (Gen. 1:16).  Speaking generally, the Lord's kingdom is both celestial and spiritual; that is, it consists of those who are celestial, and of those who are spiritual. And it is because the Divine of the Lord appears to the celestial as celestial, and to the spiritual as spiritual, that it is here said that Abraham and Sarah represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial, and that Abraham and Keturah represented Him as to the Divine spiritual. But as scarcely any know what the celestial is and what the spiritual, or who the celestial and the spiritual are, see what has already been said and shown concerning them, namely: What the celestial is, and what the spiritual (n. 1155, 1577, 1824, 2048, 2184, 2227, 2507): Who are celestial and who are spiritual (n. 2088, 2669, 2708, 2715): That the celestial man is a likeness of the Lord and does good from love, and the spiritual man is an image of the Lord and does good from faith (n. 50-52, 1013): That the celestial perceive truth from good, and that they never reason concerning truth (n. 202, 337, 607, 895, 1121, 2715): That in the celestial man good is implanted in his will part, but in the spiritual man it is implanted in his intellectual part, and that in this part a new will is created in those who are spiritual (n. 863, 875, 895, 897, 927, 1023, 1043, 1044, 2256): That the celestial from good itself see indefinite things, but that the spiritual, because they reason whether a thing is so, cannot attain to the first boundary of the light of the celestial (n. 2718): That the spiritual are in relative obscurity (n. 1043, 2708, 2715): That the Lord came into the world in order to save the spiritual (n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834).3236.
That Abraham here represents the Lord as to Divine good spiritual, and his woman as to Divine truth adjoined to this good, is evident from what has been said before concerning husbands and wives, namely, that the husband represents good and the wife truth (as Abraham and Sarah heretofore, n. 1468, 1901, 2063, 2065, 2172, 2173, 2198, 2904; and as Isaac and Rebekah in the preceding chapter, n. 3077). The reason why the husband represents good, and the wife truth, is that the church is compared to a marriage, and also is the marriage of good and truth. Good is what the husband represents, because it is in the first place; but truth is what the wife represents, because it is in the second place; therefore also in the Word the Lord is called a "bridegroom," a "man" [vir], a "husband"; and the church is called a "bride," a "woman," a "wife."  What spiritual good is, and what the spiritual truth adjoined to this good, may be seen from the passages cited immediately above (n. 3235). Spiritual good in man is in general what is called the good of faith, and this is no other than charity toward the neighbor; but in order that it may be charity, it must come from the new will with which the spiritual man is gifted by the Lord. The spiritual truth adjoined to this good is what is called the truth of faith, and this is no other than that which regards charity first as the end for the sake of which it exists; and afterwards as the beginning from which it proceeds; but in order that it may be the truth of faith to the spiritual man, or faith, it must come from the new understanding with which he is gifted by the Lord; and the new understanding must have its light from the new will.3237.
And her name was Keturah. That this signifies the essence of this Divine truth, is evident from the signification of "name," as being quality; and of "calling by name," as being to know of what quality one is (see n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009). But seeing that not quality, but being is predicated of the Divine, by "name" here is signified essence, and indeed the essence of the Divine truth which is signified here by "her," namely the woman. (That here the "woman" is Divine truth, may be seen immediately above, n. 3236.) From this it is evident what Keturah in general involves.3238.
Verses 2-4. And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. And Jokshan begat Sheba and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim. And the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah. "And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah," represents the general classes of the Lord's spiritual kingdom in the heavens and on earth; "and Jokshan begat Sheba and Dedan," signifies the derivations from the first class; "and the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim," signifies the derivations from the second class; "and the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah," signifies the derivations from the third class; "all these were the sons of Keturah," signifies as regards the doctrinal things and worships thence derived.3239.
And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. That these represent the general classes of the Lord's spiritual kingdom in the heavens and on earth, cannot so well be established from the Word, because none of these men are elsewhere mentioned, with the exception of Midian, of whom something will be said hereafter. Yet this may be seen from the fact that all persons named in the Word represent something; as is sufficiently evident from all those mentioned hitherto, from the first chapter of Genesis. (That in the internal sense of the Word names, both of persons and of kingdoms, provinces, and cities, signify actual things, may be seen above, n. 768, 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888, and in many other places where this is in particular confirmed from the Word.) The reason why none of these except Midian are mentioned elsewhere in the Word, is that they are of the sons of the east, who are sometimes mentioned in the Word. (That in general the "sons of the east" signify those who are of the Lord's spiritual kingdom, may be seen below, at verse 6 of this chapter.)  That these sons of Abraham by Keturah have this representation, is evident from the fact that Abraham and Keturah represent the Lord as to the Divine spiritual, namely, Abraham the Lord as to Divine good spiritual, and Keturah as to Divine truth spiritual conjoined with this good (concerning which see just above, n. 3235, 3236). From this it follows that their sons represent the general classes or lots of the kingdom which is from the Lord's Divine spiritual. They are called general classes or lots because the Lord's kingdom is represented by land, which is distributed by lots among those to whom it is given to be possessed as an inheritance, just as the land of Canaan was allotted to the sons of Israel. There are in general twelve classes, for by "twelve" are signified all the things of charity and of the derivative faith, which are of the Lord's kingdom (concerning which see below, at verse 16); but here there are six, thus one-half the number; but the half of a number involves the same as the whole, for provided a like thing is involved, multiplication and division do not vary the thing itself as to what is essential.3240.
And Jokshan begat Sheba and Dedan. That this signifies the derivations from the first class, is evident from the representation of Jokshan and of his sons Sheba and Dedan, concerning whom something will be said in what follows. As here there are mere names, and the states and derivations of the Lord's spiritual church are signified by them, the nature of such states and derivations in general must be declared. The celestial church differs from the spiritual church in this respect: Those who are of the celestial church, and are called celestial, are in love, that is to say they are in the good and truth of love; while those who are of the spiritual church, and are called spiritual, are in faith, that is, they are in the good and truth of faith. The good which the celestial have is that of love to the Lord, and their truth is that of love to the neighbor; whereas the good which the spiritual have is that of charity toward the neighbor, and their truth is that of faith, insofar as this truth is doctrine concerning charity. This shows that the Lord's spiritual kingdom, as well as His celestial kingdom, has good and truth, but with much difference.  Be it known moreover that they who are in each kingdom are distinguished among themselves by good and truth, for the reason that there are some who are more in good and others who are more in truth. From this then come the derivations, that is, the derivations of good and the derivations of truth. In the Lord's spiritual kingdom the derivations of good are what are represented by the sons of Jokshan who are named in this verse; but the derivations of truth in this kingdom are what are represented by the sons of Midian who are named in the following verse. Now as there are two classes of the spiritual (those who are more in good, and those who are more in truth), they have therefore two kinds of doctrinals, namely, those of charity and those of faith; doctrinals of charity for those who are in the good of faith and are here signified by the sons of Jokshan; but doctrinals of faith for those who are in the truth of faith and are signified by the sons of Midian.  Sheba and Dedan are those who constitute the first class, that is, those who in the Lord's spiritual kingdom are in the good of faith, and who have doctrinals of charity. From this it follows that by "Sheba and Dedan" are signified the knowledges of celestial things, or what is the same, those who are in these knowledges, that is, who are in the doctrinals of charity; for doctrinals are knowledges, and the celestial of the spiritual man is that of charity. That "Sheba" and "Dedan" have this signification was shown in volume 1 (n. 117, 1168, 1171, 1172); but there Sheba and Dedan are the great-grandsons of Ham, and are called sons of Raamah; but be it known that there were no such persons as Ham and Japheth and Shem, but that those who after the flood belonged to the church called "Noah" were distinguished as to goods and truths into three classes, and these were the names given to those classes (n. 736, 1062, 1065, 1140, 1141, 1162, and in other places). Nevertheless there were nations that were so called, but these nations were descended from others, as it is here plainly said that Sheba and Dedan were descended from Jokshan, the son of Abraham by Keturah.  That "Sheba" signifies those who are in the knowledges of celestial things, thus who are in the good of faith, is evident from the passages cited above (n 117, 1171); and that "Dedan" has a similar signification is also evident from the passages cited (n. 1172), and further from the following. In Isaiah: The prophecy concerning Arabia: in the forest in Arabia shall ye spend the night, ye companies of Dedan; bring ye waters to meet him that is thirsty, ye inhabitants of the land of Tema, with the bread thereof meet him that wandereth, for they shall wander before swords, before an outstretched sword (Isa. 21:13-15). "Spending the night in the forest," signifies being desolated as to good; for by "Arabia" are meant those who are in celestial things, that is, who are in the good of faith, and "spending the night there in the forest" is being no longer in goods, from which comes desolation, which is also described by "wandering before swords, before an outstretched sword." Celestial things, that is, the goods of faith, or what is the same, the works of charity in which they are, are signified by "bringing waters to meet him that is thirsty, and meeting with bread him that wandereth."  In Jeremiah: I took the cup from the hand of Jehovah, and made all the nations drink unto whom Jehovah sent me: Jerusalem, and the cities of Judah, and her kings and her princes, to give them up to desolation; Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and his servants, and his princes, and all his people; and all the kings of Tyre, and all the kings of Zidon; Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, and all that are clipped at the corner [of the beard]; all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of Media, and all the kings of the north (Jer. 25:17-19, 22-23, 25-26). Here also the desolation of the spiritual church is treated of, the different classes of which church are enumerated in order, and are signified by "Jerusalem," the "cities of Judah," "Egypt," "Tyre," "Zidon," "Dedan," "Tema," "Buz," "Zimri," "Elam," "Media."  In Ezekiel: Sheba and Dedan and the merchants of Tarshish and all the young lions thereof shall say to thee, Art thou come to take the spoil? Hast thou assembled thine assembly to take the prey? to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to take great spoil? (Ezek. 38:13); treating of Gog, by whom is signified external worship separate from internal, which is idolatrous (n. 1151); "Sheba and Dedan" denote the internal things of worship, namely, the goods of faith; "Tarshish" denotes a corresponding external worship; the "silver, gold, cattle, goods, spoil," which Gog, or the external of worship separate from the internal, desires to take away, are the knowledges of good and truth for which they fight, and which those defend who are signified by "Sheba and Dedan;" wherefore these are called "young lions." "Sheba" properly denotes those who are in the knowledges of good; "Dedan" those who are in the knowledges of truth from good.3241.
And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim. That this signifies the derivations from the second class, is evident from the representation of Dedan, as being those who are in the good of faith, properly those who are in the truth of faith from good (n. 3240, at the end). That the derivations are from a second class is manifest. By these three sons of Dedan are especially signified the truths of faith from good; but what is signified by each can indeed be told, but cannot be confirmed by other passages from the Word, because the names are not mentioned elsewhere.  In the kingdom of the Lord there are innumerable varieties as to goods and truths, and yet of these innumerable varieties one heaven is constituted; for the varieties are so many that no one society is exactly like another, that is, is never in the same good and truth (n. 684, 685, 690). The one heaven therein is constituted of the many varieties so disposed by the Lord that they agree, the agreement or harmony of the many being imparted by the Lord, by means of all referring themselves to Him (n. 551). The case herein is the same as with the organs, members, and viscera of the body, not one of which is exactly like another. They are all different and yet make a one, and this by reason of their all referring themselves to one soul, and through this to heaven, and thus to the Lord; for whatever is unconnected with the Lord is nothing. From this it is evident that the differences of truth and of good are innumerable in species; but their genera, and these the most general, which are spiritual churches, are signified by these sons and grandsons of Abraham.  As they who are of the spiritual church have no perception of what is good and true, like those of the celestial church, but acknowledge as truths the things they have learned, they are on this account continually in dispute concerning them, reasoning whether a thing is true; and each person abides in that doctrine (and calls it true) which is of his own church. This is the source of so many differences. Moreover very many form their conclusions concerning things good and true from appearances and fallacies-one in one way, another in another, but none from any perception; they do not even know what perception is; and as their understanding is thus in obscurity as to the goods and truths of faith, it is not surprising that dissensions should arise concerning the most essential of all the things of faith, namely, concerning the Divine, the Human, and the Holy Proceeding of the Lord. The celestial perceive that these are not three, but One; but the spiritual abide in the idea of three, although they desire to think that they are One. Seeing then that there are dissensions concerning that which is the most essential, it is evident that the varieties and differences of doctrinal things must be innumerable. From this all may know whence come the derivations signified by those who are here named. But granting the existence of so many varieties and differences of doctrinal things (that is, of so many derivations), they nevertheless together form one church when all acknowledge charity as essential to the church; or what is the same, when they regard life as the end of doctrine; that is, when they inquire how the man of the church lives, and not so much what his sentiments are; for in the other life everyone receives from the Lord a lot in accordance with his good of life, and not in accordance with his truth of doctrine separated from the good of life.3242.
And the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. That this signifies the derivations from the third class, can be seen from the representation of Midian, as being those who are in the truth of faith (concerning which below); and as those who are in the truth of faith are "Midian," it follows that his "sons" are the derivations therefrom. With those who are in the truth of faith the case is this: No one is admitted into the Lord's kingdom unless he is in the good of faith, for the good of faith is of the life, and the life of faith remains, but not the doctrine of faith, except insofar as it makes one with the life; nevertheless they who are in the truth of faith (that is, who profess faith and call it essential, because they have so learned) and yet are in the good of life (that is, who are Christians in heart and not in profession only), are in the Lord's spiritual kingdom. For anyone may easily be persuaded that faith is the essential when he has been so taught by his instructors and has imbibed this opinion in his childhood, and because they who are reputed most learned and the heads of the church say so, some of whom are afraid to speak of the good of life because their life condemns them; moreover the things that belong to faith flow in perceptibly, but not so those which belong to charity.  They therefore who are in the truth of faith and yet in the good of life, are they who are called Midian;" and the truths according to which they live are the "sons of Midian;" and as those who are in the truth of faith conjoined with its good are "Midian," so also in the opposite sense are those who are in falsity from not having the good of life, as can be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah: The abundance of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah, all they from Sheba shall come; they shall bring gold and frankincense, and they shall proclaim the praises of Jehovah (Isa. 60:6); where the Lord's spiritual kingdom is treated of. The "dromedaries of Midian and Ephah" denote doctrinal things; doctrinal things of good are "gold;" those of truth are "frankincense;" both are the "praises of Jehovah;" hence also it is manifest what "Ephah" signifies. (That by the "Midianites" who drew Joseph out of the pit, and sold him to the Ishmaelites, and into Egypt to Potiphar, Genesis 37:28, 36, are signified those who are in the truth of simple good, will be seen, of the Lord's Divine mercy, in the explication of these verses hereafter.)  That by "Midian" are also signified those who are in falsity because they have not the goods of life, can be seen from what is said concerning Midian in Moses: The elders of Moab and the elders of Midian, with the rewards of divination in their hand, went to Balaam, and spake to him the words of Balak (Num. 22:4, 7, etc.). In a good sense "Moab" denotes those who are in natural good and suffer themselves to be easily led astray; but in the opposite sense, those who adulterate goods (n. 2468). In a good sense "Midian" denotes those who are in the truth of simple good, as before said, and who thus allow themselves to be easily persuaded; in the opposite sense, as here, those who falsify truths. The falsifications are signified by "the rewards of divination in their hand;" and the deeds from these falsities, by their sending to Balaam in hostility to the sons of Israel, who denote the goods and derivative truths of faith.  The like was signified by the whoredoms of the sons of Israel with the women of the Midianites, resulting in a plague, which was stayed by Phinehas thrusting his spear through the Midianitish woman and the man of Israel in the brothel (Num. 25:6-8); for by whoredoms were represented the falsifications of truth (n. 2466, 2729). And because falsifications of truth are what in the internal sense are signified by whoredoms, therefore by command twelve thousand of the sons of Israel smote the Midianites, slew their kings, and every male, and the women whom they had led captive that had known a man, and divided the spoil among themselves (Num. 25:16, 17; 31:1 to the end). The reason why there were twelve thousand, was that "twelve" signified all things of faith (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130), by which falsities are destroyed; the "kings" whom they killed are falsities, and so is "every male;" the "women that had known a man" are the affections of falsity; the "spoil" (as gold, silver, cattle) are the truths that were falsified; from all which it is evident that each and all of the things there mentioned are representative of the punishment and destruction of what is false by means of truths.  It is similar in regard to what is said of the Midianites in the book of Judges, namely, that the sons of Israel, because they did evil in the eyes of Jehovah, were given into the hand of Midian seven years; and that the sons of Israel, by reason of Midian, made for themselves caves in the mountains, and also dens, and fortified places; and when Israel had sown, that Midian and Amalek and the sons of the east came up and ravaged the produce of their land; and afterwards that they were delivered by Gideon with three hundred men who lapped water with the tongue like a dog, and that those were sent home who bowed upon the knees and drank, besides other particulars (chapters 6, 7, 8). Here also the things mentioned each and all are representative of the falsification of truth, and of punishment on this account, even to their being destroyed by such things as are signified by lapping water with the tongue like a dog; but what each particular signifies in the internal sense it would be too tedious to unfold here; yet of the Lord's Divine mercy it shall be told in, its place. In Habakkuk: He beheld, and dispersed the nations; and the eternal mountains 3242-1 were scattered, the everlasting hills did bow. I saw the tents of Cushan under Aven, the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble (Hab. 3:6-7); where the advent of the Lord is treated of. The "tents of Cushan" denote a religiosity from evil; the "curtains of the land of Midian," one from falsity.3243.
All these were the sons of Keturah. That this signifies as regards the doctrinal things and worships thence derived, is evident from the signification of "sons," as being truths and doctrinal things (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623); and from the representation of Keturah, as being Divine truth spiritual conjoined with Divine good spiritual (n. 3236, 3237); thus those things which are of the Lord's spiritual kingdom; and because the worship of this kingdom is according to doctrinal things, it follows that the "sons of Keturah" denote these things, and also the derivative worships.3244.
Verses 5, 6. And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac. And to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts; and he sent them away from Isaac his son, while he was yet living, eastward to the land of the east. "And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac," signifies in the supreme sense all Divine things in the Divine rational; in the relative sense the celestial things of love in the Lord's celestial kingdom; "and to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts," signifies those who are spiritual adopted by the Lord's Divine Human, that they have allotted places in His spiritual kingdom; "and he sent them away from Isaac his son," signifies the distinction and separation of those who are spiritual from those who are celestial; "while he was yet living," signifies to whom he could give life; "eastward to the land of the east," signifies to the good of faith.3245.
And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac. That this signifies in the supreme sense all Divine things in the Divine rational, and in the relative sense the celestial things of love in the Lord's celestial kingdom, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord as to the Divine Itself (concerning which see above); and from the representation of Isaac, as being the Lord as to the Divine rational (concerning which also see above); and because in the internal sense the Lord is both "Abraham" and "Isaac," and the Lord made His rational Divine from His own Divine; hence it is that the words "Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac" signify all Divine things in the Divine rational. The things which precede and those which follow have regard to this fact-that in the Lord's rational all things were made Divine. For in the internal sense, where Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are treated of, the subject is the Lord's Human, and how it was made Divine.  There are two things which properly constitute the Human, namely, the rational and the natural; the Lord's rational was represented by Isaac, and His natural by Jacob; the Lord made them both Divine; how He made the rational Divine is contained in what was said of Isaac, but how He made the natural Divine is contained in what is said of Jacob in what follows. But this latter (that is, the natural) could not be made Divine until the rational had been made Divine, for by means of the rational the natural was made so; hence therefore it is that by the words before us are signified all Divine things in the Divine rational.  Moreover all and each of the things which in the internal sense treat of the Lord, treat also of His kingdom and church, for the reason that the Divine of the Lord makes His kingdom. Therefore where the Lord is treated of, His kingdom is treated of also (n. 1965); but the internal sense concerning the Lord is the supreme sense, while the internal sense concerning His kingdom is the relative sense. The relative sense of these words-that Abraham gave all to Isaac-is that the celestial things of love are given to the Lord's celestial kingdom. For in the relative sense by "Isaac" is signified the celestial kingdom, inasmuch as by the rest of Abraham's sons (that is, those whom he had by Keturah) is signified the Lord's spiritual kingdom, as shown above; and the same is signified by Ishmael, concerning whom hereafter.3246.
And to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts. That this signifies the spiritual adopted by the Lord's Divine Human, that they have allotted places in His spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of the "sons of the concubines," as denoting those who are spiritual (concerning whom in what follows); from the representation here of Abraham, as being the Lord's Divine Human; so that by the words "which Abraham had," is signified that they (namely, the spiritual) were adopted by the Lord's Divine Human; and from the signification of the "gifts" which Abraham gave them, as being allotted places in the Lord's spiritual kingdom.  From what has already been shown in several places (as n. 3235, and elsewhere) concerning those who constitute the Lord's spiritual kingdom and are called the spiritual, it can be seen that they are not sons born of the marriage itself of good and truth, but of a certain covenant not so conjugial; they are indeed from the same father, but not from the same mother; that is, they are from the same Divine good, but not from the same Divine truth. For as the celestial are from the very marriage of good and truth, they have good and thence truth; wherefore they never inquire what is true, but perceive it from good; and they discourse not about truth beyond affirming that it is so-according to what the Lord teaches in Matthew: Let your speech be, Yea, yea; Nay, Nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil (Matt. 5:37); whereas the spiritual, because they are from a covenant not so conjugial, do not know from any perception what truth is, but call that true which they have been told to be so by parents and masters; and therefore in them there is not the marriage of good and truth; but still the truth which they thus believe is adopted by the Lord for truth when they are in the good of life (concerning this see n. 1832). Therefore it is that those who are spiritual are here called the "sons of the concubines," and by these are meant all the sons of Keturah hitherto enumerated, and also the sons of Hagar, who will be named immediately below, from the twelfth to the eighteenth verse.  In former times, in order that both the celestial and the spiritual might be represented in marriages, it was permissible for a man to have a concubine in addition to a wife; such concubine being given to the husband by the wife, and she was then called his "woman," or was said to be "given to him for a woman," as when Hagar the Egyptian was given to Abraham by Sarah (Gen. 16:3); when Bilhah the handmaid was given by Rachel to Jacob (Gen. 30:4), and the handmaid Zilpah to Jacob by Leah (Gen. 30:9). They are there called "women," but elsewhere they are called "concubines," as Hagar the Egyptian in this verse, and Bilhah in Genesis 35:22, also Keturah herself in 1 Chronicles 1:32.  That those ancients had concubines besides a wife, as was the case not only with Abraham and Jacob, but also with their descendants, as Gideon (Judges 8:31), Saul (2 Sam. 3:7), David (2 Sam. 5:13; 15:16), and Solomon (1 Kings 11:3), was of permission, for the sake of the representation, namely, of the celestial church by a wife, and of the spiritual church by a concubine: this was of permission because they were such that they had no conjugial love, neither was marriage to them marriage, but only a carnal coupling for the sake of procreating offspring. To such there might be permissions without injury to conjugial love, and consequently to its covenant; but never to those who are in good and truth, and who are or can become internal men; for as soon as man is in good and truth, and in things internal, such things cease. For this reason it is not allowable for Christians, as it was for the Jews, to take to themselves a concubine together with a wife, for this is adultery. That the spiritual were adopted by the Lord's Divine Human, may be seen from what has been stated and shown before on the same subject (n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834).3247.
And he sent them away from Isaac his son. That this signifies the distinction and separation of those who are spiritual from those who are celestial, is evident from what has just been said, namely, that the sons of Abraham by Keturah and by Hagar the Egyptian, who are called the "sons of the concubines," represent the spiritual; and that Isaac, in the relative sense, represents the celestial (n. 3245); and that these two classes were separated.3248.
While he was yet living. That this signifies to whom he could give life, is evident from the signification of "while he was yet living," or "while he yet might live," as being to give life; for by Abraham is here represented the Lord as to the Divine Human. That the spiritual have life from the Lord's Divine Human may be seen above (n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834). When their life is from this source the Lord is said to "live" with them, even in common speech. Hence it is that in the internal sense by "while Abraham was yet living" is signified giving life. Life is given to those who are spiritual by means of the good of faith, which is meant by the words which now follow.3249.
Eastward to the land of the east. That this signifies to the good of faith, is evident from the signification of "the east" and the "land of the east," which will be treated of in what follows. The good of faith which is signified by the "land of the east," is no other than that which in the Word is called charity toward the neighbor; and charity toward the neighbor is nothing else than a life according to the Lord's commandments. That this is signified by the "land of the east" may be seen above (n. 1250); therefore they who were in the knowledges of the good of faith were called "sons of the east." The land of the sons of the east was Aram of Syria. (That Aram or Syria represents the knowledges of good, may be seen above, n. 1232, 1234; and that Aram Naharaim, or Syria of the rivers, represents the knowledges of truth, n. 3051.) And as by the "Syrians" or "sons of the east" were signified those who were in the knowledges of good and truth, they were preeminently called the "wise," as in the first book of Kings, where it is said of Solomon: The wisdom of Solomon was multiplied above the wisdom of all the sons of the east (1 Kings 4:30); and as in Matthew, where it is said of those who came to Jesus when He was born: Wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, Where is He that is born king of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the east, and are come to worship Him (Matt. 2:1-2). For in Syria were the last remains of the Ancient Church, and therefore in that land there still remained the knowledges of good and truth, as can also be seen from Balaam, who not only adored Jehovah, but also prophesied concerning the Lord, and called Him the "Star out of Jacob, and the Scepter out of Israel" (Num. 24:17). That Balaam was of the sons of the east in Syria is manifest, for he says this of himself when he utters the declaration: From Syria hath Balak brought me, the king of Moab, from the mountains of the east (Num. 33:7). That it was Aram or Syria where the sons of the east dwelt, is evident from the fact that when Jacob went into Syria he is said to have gone "to the land of the sons of the east" (Gen. 29:1).3250.
Verses 7-10. And these are the days of the years of the lives of Abraham, which he lived; a hundred years, and seventy years, and five years. And Abraham expired and died in a good old age, an old man and sated, and was gathered to his peoples. And Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre; the field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth: there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife. "And these are the days of the years of the lives of Abraham, which he lived," signifies the state representative by Abraham of the Lord as to the Divine Itself; "a hundred years, and seventy years, and five years," signifies the things that belong to this state; "and Abraham expired and died," signifies the end of the representation by Abraham; "in a good old age, an old man and sated," signifies something new in the representation; "and was gathered to his peoples," signifies that these things were concerning Abraham; "and Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him," signifies that the representative of the Lord was now taken up by Isaac and Ishmael; "in the cave of Machpelah," signifies resurrection as to truth; "in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre," signifies as to good; it also signifies the spiritual, as above, who receive truth and good from the Lord's Divine Human, and are saved; "the field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth," signifies the Lord's spiritual kingdom thence derived; "there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife," signifies resuscitation.
3210-1 The Latin is Ipsum Divinum, but that this is a slip of the pen or misprint seems to be clearly indicated by what is said a few lines above as to the maternal parentage of the Divine Human, [Reviser.]
3242-1 Literally, "the mountains of time."