Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
And thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies. That this signifies that charity and faith shall succeed in the place where evil and falsity were before, is evident from the signification of "inheriting," as being to receive the Lord's life (see n. 2658); here, to succeed in the place, because when charity and faith are in the place where evil and falsity were before, then the Lord's life succeeds there; from the signification of "seed," as being charity and faith (see n. 1025, 1447, 1610, 1941); from the signification of a "gate" (explained in what follows); and from the signification of "enemies," as being evils and falsities, or what is the same, those who are in evil and falsity: in the internal sense of the Word these are signified by "enemies" and "foes."  As regards the signification of a "gate," there are in general two gates with every man; the one opens toward hell, and is opened to the evils and falsities therefrom; in this gate are infernal genii and spirits; the other gate opens toward heaven, and is opened to good and the truths therefrom; in this gate are angels. There is thus a gate which leads to hell, and a gate which leads to heaven. The gate of hell is opened to those who are in evil and falsity, and only through chinks round about above does anything of the light from heaven enter, by means of which they are able to think and reason; but the gate of heaven is opened to those who are in good and the truth therefrom.  For there are two ways which lead into man's rational mind-a higher or internal one, through which good and truth from the Lord enter, and a lower or external one, through which evil and falsity come up from hell. The rational mind itself is in the middle, and to it these ways tend. That mind, from the goods and truths which are in it, is compared in the Word to a city, and is called a "city." And because it is compared to a city, and is called a "city," gates are attributed to it, and it is often described as being besieged and stormed by enemies, that is, by evil genii and spirits; and as being defended by angels from the Lord, that is by the Lord. The infernal genii and spirits, with their evils and falsities, cannot come further than to the lower or outer gate, and in no case into the city. If they could get into the city, or into the rational mind, all would be over with the man. But when they come so far as to seem to themselves to have taken that city by storm, it is then closed, so that good and truth no longer flow into it from heaven except as was said some little through chinks round about. From this it is that such persons no longer have anything of charity or anything of faith, but make good consist in evil, and truth in falsity. From this also it is that they are no longer truly rational, although they seem to themselves to be so (n. 1914, 1944). And it is from this that they are called dead men, although they believe that they are more alive than others (n. 81, 290 at the end). These things are so because the gate of heaven is closed to them. That it is closed to them manifestly appears and is perceived in the other life; as also on the other hand that the gate of heaven is open to those who are in good and truth.  As regards the "gate of enemies" in particular, which is treated of in this verse, it is with man in his natural mind. When man is wholly natural, or not regenerate, evils and falsities occupy the gate; or what is the same, evil genii and spirits flow into it with cupidities of evil and persuasions of falsity (see n. 687, 697, 1692); but when man becomes spiritual, or is being regenerated, then the evils and falsities, or what is the same, the evil genii and spirits, are driven away from the gate, or from the mind; then goods and truths, or charity and faith, take their place; which things are signified by its being said, "thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies." This takes place in particular with every man when he is being regenerated; and in like manner in the other life with those who come into the Lord's kingdom; and it also takes place in the general body, or in the church, which is composed of many.  This was represented by the sons of Israel expelling the nations from the land of Canaan. The latter is meant in the literal sense where it is said, "thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies;" but in the internal sense are signified the things which have been told. Hence in ancient times it became customary to speak thus when blessing those who were entering into marriage; as is also manifest from the benediction of Laban to his sister Rebekah, when she was going away betrothed to Isaac: Our sister, be thou thousands of ten thousands, and let thy seed inherit the gate of those that hate thee (Gen. 24:60).  That such things are signified in the Word by the "gate of enemies" or of "those that hate," may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah: I will kill thy root with famine, and I will slay them that remain of thee. Howl, O gate; cry, O city; thou art melted away, O Philistia, all of thee, for there cometh a smoke out of the north (Isa. 14:30-31); to "kill the root with famine, and to slay them that remain," denotes to take away the goods and truths which had been stored up interiorly by the Lord. That "they that remain" mean these, may be seen above (n. 468, 530, 560-562, 661, 798, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284). The "gate" denotes access to the interiors, or to the rational mind; the "city," that mind, or what is the same, the goods and truths in it (n. 402, 2268, 2450, 2451, 2712); "Philistia" denotes the memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith, or what is the same, those who are in the memory-knowledge of them, but not in the goods of faith (n. 1197, 1198); "a smoke out of the north" signifies that there is falsity from hell (that "smoke" is falsity from evil, may be seen above, n. 1861).  In the same: The city of emptiness shall be broken down, every house shall be shut up that no one may come in; there is a crying in the streets because of the wine; all gladness shall be desolated, the joy of the land shall be exiled, that which is left in the city shall be desolation, and the gate shall be smitten with devastation, for thus shall it be in the midst of the earth, among the people (Isa. 24:10-13); the "city of emptiness which shall be broken down" denotes the human mind as being deprived of truth; that "every house shall be shut up," denotes being without good (that a "house" is good, may be seen above, n. 2233, 2234; the "crying in the streets because of the wine" denotes a state of falsity (that a "cry" is predicated of falsities, may be seen above, n. 2240; also that "wine" is truth, of which the cry is that there is none, n. 1071, 1798; that "streets" are what lead to truths, n. 2336); "gladness which is desolated" is predicated of truth; the "joy of the land which is exiled" is predicated of good; hence it is manifest what is signified by "that which is left in the city shall be desolation," and by "the gate shall be smitten with devastation;" the gate is said to be "devastated" when nothing but evils and falsities reign.  In Jeremiah: The ways of Zion do mourn, because none come to the appointed feast; all her gates are desolate, her priests do sigh, her virgins are afflicted, and she herself is in bitterness; her adversaries have become the head, her enemies are secure, because Jehovah hath afflicted her for the multitude of her transgressions; her children are gone into captivity before the adversary (Lam. 1:4-5); "the ways of Zion mourning" denotes there being no longer truths from good (that "ways" are truths, may be seen above, n. 189, 627, 2333); "all the gates being desolated" denotes that all the approaches are occupied by falsities; "the enemies having become the head" denotes that evils reign.  In the same: Jehovah hath made the rampart and the wall of the daughter of Zion to lament; they languish together; her gates are sunk into the earth; He hath destroyed and broken her bars; her king and her princes are among the nations; the law is not; yea her prophets found no vision from Jehovah; all thine enemies have opened their mouth against thee; they hissed and gnashed the teeth; they said, We have swallowed her up; surely this is the day that we looked for; we have found, we have seen it (Lam. 2:8-9, 16); "the gates sunk down into the earth" denotes the natural mind occupied by evils and falsities; "her king and her princes being among the nations" denotes that truths are immersed in evils (that a "king" is truth in general, may be seen above, n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069; also that "princes" are primary truths, n. 1482, 1089; and that "nations" are evils, n. 1259, 1260, 1849, 1868, 2588).  In Moses: A nation from far, from the end of the earth, shall straiten thee in all thy gates, in all thy land; thus shall thine enemy straiten thee (Deut. 28:49, 52, 63). This is among the curses which Moses foretold to the people if they should not remain in the precepts and statutes: a "nation from far from the end of the earth," in the internal sense, denotes evils and falsities, or those who are in evil and falsity; to "besiege in all the gates" denotes cutting off all access to good and truth.  In Nahum: Behold, thy people in the midst of thee are women, the gates of thy land are set wide open to thine enemies, the fire hath devoured thy bars; draw thee water for the siege; strengthen thy fortresses; go into the clay and tread the mortar, make strong the brickkiln (Nahum 3:13-14); "the gates of thy land being set wide open to thine enemies" denotes that evils occupy the place where there should be goods. In the book of Judges: The highways ceased, and they walked through byways, they went through crooked ways, the villages ceased in Israel. He chose new gods; then was war against the gates; was there a shield seen or a spear in forty thousands of Israel? (Judg. 5:6-8); the prophecy of Deborah and Barak; there being "war against the gates" denotes against goods and truths.  In David: They that dwell in the gate plot against me, they that drink strong drink sing songs (Ps. 69:12); "they that dwell in the gate" denotes evils and falsities, and also the infernals. In Ezekiel: In the visions of God he brought me to the door of the inner gate that looketh toward the north. (He there saw the great abominations of the house of Israel.) He also brought me to the door of the gate of the house of Jehovah that looketh toward the north; he there also saw abominations (Ezek. 8:6, 14-15); "the door of the inner gate that looketh toward the north" denotes the place where interior falsities are; "the door of the gate of the house of Jehovah toward the north" denotes the place where interior evils are (that the falsities and evils are interior ones, and that it is an interior sphere in which such spirits and genii are, may be seen above, n. 2121-2124).  In David: Lo, sons are a possession of Jehovah, and the fruit of the womb is His reward; as arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are sons of the youth. Happy is the man that hath filled his quiver with them; they shall not be ashamed, for they shall speak with the enemies in the gate (Ps. 127:3-5); "to speak with the enemies in the gate" denotes to have no fear of evils and falsities, and thus not of hell. In Isaiah: In that day shall Jehovah Zebaoth be for a spirit of judgment to Him that sitteth in judgment, and for strength to them that turn back the battle to the gate; and these also are insane through wine, and through strong drink are gone astray (Isa. 28:5-7). In the same: They shall be cut off that make men to sin by a word, and lay a snare for him that reproveth in the gate; and make the just to turn aside to a thing of naught (Isa. 29:20-21). In the same: Elam bare the quiver in a chariot of a man, and horsemen; Kir uncovered the shield; and the choice of thy valleys was full of chariots and horsemen; placing they placed themselves at the gate, and he looked in that day to the armory of the house of the forest (Isa. 22:6-8). In Jeremiah: Judah hath mourned, and the gates thereof languished; they have mourned to the earth, and the cry of Jerusalem is gone up; their nobles have sent their little ones to the waters; they came to the pits, they found no waters (Jer. 14:2-3). In the same: The elders have ceased from the gate, the young men from their music (Lam. 5:14).  It may be seen from these passages what is signified by the "gate of enemies," namely, that it is hell, or infernal spirits, who are continually attacking goods and truths. Their seat with man as before said is in his natural mind. But when a man is of such a character as to admit goods and truths, and thus angels, the infernal spirits are then driven away by the Lord from that seat; and on their being driven away, the gate of heaven or heaven itself is opened. This gate is also mentioned in the Word in various places; as in Isaiah: A song in the land of Judah. We have a strong city, salvation will He appoint for walls and bulwarks; open ye the gates, and the righteous nation that keepeth fidelities shall enter in (Isa. 26:1-2). In the same: Thus said Jehovah to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open the doors before him, and the gates shall not be shut; I will go before thee, and will make the crooked places straight, and I will break in pieces the doors of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron (Isa. 45:1-2). In the same: The sons of the stranger shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee; they shall open thy gates continually, they shall not be shut day nor night; violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting and destruction within thy borders; and thou shalt call thy walls salvation, and thy gates praise (Isa. 60:10-11, 18). In the same: Go through, go through the gates; prepare ye the way for the people, level, make level the highway; say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold thy salvation cometh (Isa. 62:10-12). In Micah: They shall pass through the gate, and shall go out thereat, and their King shall pass on before them, and Jehovah in their beginning (Micah 2:13). In David: Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in. Who is this King of glory? Jehovah strong and mighty, Jehovah mighty in battle. Lift up your heads, O ye gates; lift them up, ye everlasting doors (Ps. 24:7-10). Praise Jehovah, O Jerusalem; praise thy God, O Zion: for He hath strengthened the bars of thy gates, He hath blessed thy children within thee (Ps. 147:12-13).  From these passages it is manifest that the "gate of heaven" is where angels are with man, that is, where there is an influx of good and truth from the Lord; and thus that as before said there are two gates. Concerning these two gates the Lord speaks thus in Matthew: Enter ye in by the strait gate; for wide is the gate and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many there be that go in thereat; because strait is the gate and narrow is the way that leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it (Matt. 7:12-14; Luke 13:23-24). Moreover the gates to the New Jerusalem and the gates to the new temple are much treated of in Ezekiel, and also by John in Revelation, by which nothing else is meant than the entrances to heaven (see Ezek. 40:6-49; 43:1-2, 4; 44:1-3; 46:1-9, 12; 48:31-34; Rev. 21:12-13, 21, 25; 22:14; Isa. 54:11-12). Hence Jerusalem is called the "gate of the people" (Micah 1:9; Obad. verse 13).2852.
Verse 18. And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast hearkened to My voice. "In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed," signifies the salvation of all who are in good; "because thou hast hearkened to My voice," signifies by the union of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence.2853.
In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. That this signifies the salvation of all who are in good, is evident from the signification of "being blessed," as being to be enriched with celestial and spiritual good (see n. 981, 1096, 1420, 1422); here, to be saved, because spoken of those who are saved (that "to be blessed" has a comprehensive meaning is well known); from the signification of "seed," as being the faith of charity (see n. 1025, 1447, 1610); and from the signification of the "nations of the earth," as being those who are in good (see n. 1159, 1258-1260, 1416, 1849).  Moreover in these words there is contained the following arcanum: that through the church (which is here the "earth," n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262) those are saved who are out of the church; for as just stated, "thy seed" denotes the faith of charity; and no others are in the faith of charity than those within the church, for the faith of charity is truth of doctrine adjoined to good of life. The case is this: The Lord's kingdom on earth consists of all those who are in good, who though scattered over the whole earth, are still one, and as members constitute one body. Such is the Lord's kingdom in the heavens, where the whole heaven represents one man, which is therefore also called the Grand Man (n. 684, 1276); and what is wonderful and hitherto unknown, all parts of the human body correspond to societies in heaven. And therefore it is sometimes said that some societies belong to the province of the head, some to the province of the eye, others to that of the chest, and so on, which correspondence will of the Lord's Divine mercy be spoken of by itself.  The case is the same with the Lord's church on earth, where the church is like the heart and lungs; while those outside the church answer to the parts of the body which are supported and live from the heart and lungs. Hence it is manifest that without a church somewhere on the earth the human race could not subsist, as the body could not without the heart and lungs (see n. 468, 637, 931, 2054). From this cause it is that whenever any church is consummated, that is, becomes no church because there is no longer any charity, a new one is of the Lord's providence always raised up; as when the Most Ancient Church called "Man" perished, a new one was created by the Lord, which was called "Noah," and was the Ancient Church that was after the flood; and when this degenerated and became none, the Jewish and Israelitish representative Church was instituted; and when this became altogether extinct, the Lord then came into the world, and set up again a new one; and this for the purpose that there might be conjunction of heaven with the human race through the church. This is also what is signified by "in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed."2854.
Because thou hast hearkened to My voice. That this signifies by the union of the Lord's Human Essence with His Divine Essence, is evident from all that precedes, of which this is the conclusion. To "hearken to the voice" signifies that He underwent the utmost of temptation, and thus united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence. That the Lord united His Human to His Divine and His Divine to His Human by continual temptations and victories, may be seen above (n. 1737, 1813); and that by this union He saved the human race (n. 1676 at the end, 1990, 2016, 2025). From this the human race has all its salvation. It is the common opinion that the Father sent the Son to suffer the hardest things even to the death of the cross; and thus that by looking upon the passion and merit of the Son, He has mercy upon the human race. But everyone can know that Jehovah does not have mercy by any looking upon the Son, for He is mercy itself; but that the arcanum of the Lord's coming into the world is that He united in Himself the Divine to the Human and the Human to the Divine; which could not be done except through the most grievous things of temptations; and thus that by that union it became possible for salvation to reach the human race, in which no celestial and spiritual, or even natural good, any longer remained; and it is this union which saves those who are in the faith of charity. It is the Lord Himself who shows the mercy.2855.
Verse 19. And Abraham returned unto his boys; and they rose up, and went together to Beersheba; and Abraham dwelt in Beersheba. "Abraham returned unto his boys," signifies conjunction again with His former rational; "and they rose up," signifies a greater degree of elevation; "and went together to Beersheba" signifies advancement in the doctrine of charity and faith, which is Divine, and to which human rational things were adjoined; "and Abraham dwelt in Beersheba," signifies that the Lord is that doctrine itself.2856.
Abraham returned unto his boys. That this signifies conjunction again with the former rational, is evident from the signification of the "boys," as being the former or merely human rational, which was to serve the Divine rational (see above n. 2782, 2792); and from the signification of "returning to them," as being to be conjoined (see also above, n. 2795). That the Lord separated the merely human rational from Himself when He underwent the most grievous temptations, is evident from the explication of verse 5 (n. 2791-2793, 2795); and that after the temptations He again conjoined Himself with that rational is evident from what has been said before (n. 2795), and from these things in this verse.2857.
And they rose up. That this signifies a greater degree of elevation, is evident from the signification of "rising up," as, when mentioned in the Word, being some elevation which is signified (n. 2401); here, the elevation of the rational after temptation; for after temptations the rational was always elevated, and this takes place also with man. Every temptation in which a man overcomes, elevates his mind and the things which belong to his mind; for it confirms his goods and truths and superadds new ones (n. 1692, 1717, 1740, 2272).2858.
And they went together to Beersheba. That this signifies advancement in the doctrine of charity and faith, which is Divine and to which human rational things were adjoined, is evident from the signification of "Beersheba," as being the doctrine of charity and faith which was Divine and to which human rational things were adjoined (see n. 2614, 2723). The human rational things are signified by the "boys" (n. 2782, 2792, 2856); and that the doctrine to which they were adjoined was Divine, is signified by their going together with Abraham (see n. 2767).2859.
And Abraham dwelt in Beersheba. That this signifies that the Lord is that doctrine itself, is evident from the signification of "dwelling;" from the representation of Abraham; from the signification of "Beersheba" (explained before); and at the same time from the things which just precede. To "dwell in Beersheba" is to be in doctrine, but when predicated of the Lord it is to be doctrine; just as to dwell in heaven, which is also said of the Lord, signifies not only that He is in heaven, but also that He Himself is heaven; for He is the all of heaven (n. 551, 552). That the Lord is the Word is known, and therefore the Lord is doctrine (n. 2531), for all doctrine is from the Word. The all of doctrine in the Word is from the Lord, and is concerning the Lord. In the internal sense of the Word nothing but the Lord and His kingdom is treated of, as has been shown many times. It is the Lord's Divine Human of which the internal sense of the Word especially treats; and the all of doctrine in the Word as regards man is to worship Him and love Him.2860.
Verses 20, 21, 22, 23. And it came to pass after these words that it was told Abraham, saying, Behold, Milcah, she also hath borne children unto Nahor, thy brother. Uz his first-born, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram. And Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel. And Bethuel begat Rebekah: these eight did Milcah bear to Nahor, Abraham's brother. "It came to pass after these words," signifies the things done relating to those who are within the church; "that it was told Abraham, saying," signifies the Lord's perception; "Behold, Milcah, she also hath borne children unto Nahor, thy brother" signifies those out of the church who are in brotherhood from good: "Uz his first-born, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram; and Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel," signify various religions and their modes of worship; "Bethuel begat Rebekah," signifies from good the affection of truth; "these eight did Milcah bear to Nahor, Abraham's brother," signifies a second class of those who are saved.2861.
It came to pass after these words. That this signifies the things done relating to those who are within the church, is evident from the signification of "words," as being actual things. In the original language things are called "words;" and thus "after these words" means after the things done. In what precedes, from verse 13 to this verse, the salvation of the spiritual by the Lord's Divine Human is treated of, and indeed those who are in good within the church. These are they who can be truly spiritual, because they have the Word, and thus the truths of faith. By truths of doctrine conjoined with good of life, man becomes spiritual. All spiritual quality is from this. But the nations without the church, because they have not the Word, and thus not the truths of faith, so long as they live in the world, although in the good of charity, are still not truly spiritual until they have been instructed in the truths of faith. And as most of these nations cannot be instructed in the world, those who have lived in mutual charity and in obedience are of the Lord's providence and mercy instructed in the other life, and then receive the truths of faith easily, and become spiritual. (That the state and lot of these nations is such in the other life, may be seen above, n. 2589-2604.)  As those within the church who are saved by the Lord's Divine Human are treated of in what precedes, in the things which follow to the end of this chapter those out of the church who are saved are treated of, and are signified by those who were born to Nahor, Abraham's brother, from Milcah his wife and Reumah his concubine: this also follows in the series. He who has not become acquainted with the internal sense of the Word would suppose that these things relate merely to the genealogy of the house of Terah, being given on account of Rebekah who became Isaac's wife, and also on account of Bethuel, whose two granddaughters, Leah and Rachel, became Jacob's wives. But as has been very often said and shown, all the names in the Word signify actual things (n. 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888); and unless they signified such things, the Word would not be Divine, but worldly. From this it is also evident that these things which follow relate in series to the Lord's spiritual church, but to that which is among the Gentiles; and this through Nahor, Abraham's brother, in order that those who are in brotherhood from good may be signified (as follows, n. 2863).2862.
And it was told Abraham, saying. That this signifies the Lord's perception, is evident from the signification of "telling," as being to think and reflect; and of "saying" as being to perceive-explained often before. The Lord's reflecting and perceiving, treated of in the internal sense of the Word, cannot be expressed in the historical form in any other way than by "telling and saying." In itself also reflection and perception is an internal telling and saying.2863.
Behold, Milcah, she also hath borne children unto Nahor thy brother. That this signifies those out of the church who are in brotherhood from good, is also evident from what was said before respecting Milcah and Nahor (n. 1363, 1369, 1370). For Terah had three sons, Abraham, Nahor, and Haran; and that they worshiped other gods may be seen above (n. 1356). Milcah was the daughter of Haran, who became Nahor's wife (n. 2369). And Haran died upon the faces of Terah in Ur of the Chaldees (n. 1365-1368). Hence it is evident what is signified by "Milcah" and "Nahor," namely, by "Milcah" the truth of those nations, and by "Nahor" their good.  That there were truths among the Gentiles is evident from many things, for it is known that formerly there was wisdom and intelligence among the nations, as that they acknowledged one God, and wrote concerning Him in a holy manner; also that they acknowledged the immortality of the soul, and the life after death, and also the happiness of the good and the unhappiness of the evil; and further that they had for their law the precepts of the Decalogue, namely, that God is to be worshiped, that parents are to be honored, that men must not kill, steal, commit adultery, nor covet the property of others; nor were they content to be of this character in externals, but were so in internals.  It is the same at this day; the better behaved Gentiles from all parts of the earth sometimes speak better on such subjects than Christians do; nor do they merely speak better things, but also live according to them. These and many other truths are among the Gentiles, and conjoin themselves with the good which they have from the Lord, from the conjunction of which they are in a state to receive still more truths, because one truth recognizes another, and truths easily consociate themselves together, for they are connected with and related to each other. Hence it is that they who have been in good in the world easily receive the truths of faith in the other life. The falsities that are with them do not conjoin themselves with their good, but only apply themselves to it in such manner as to be separable from it. The falsities which have been conjoined remain, but those which have been merely applied are separated; and they are separated at the time when the men learn the truths of faith and imbue themselves with them. Every truth of faith removes and separates what is false, so that at length the man is averse to it and shuns it. From all this we can see what kind of persons are signified by the sons whom Milcah bare to Nahor, Abraham's brother, namely, those out of the church who are in brotherhood from good.2864.
Uz his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram; and Chesed and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel. That these signify various religions and their modes of worship, is evident from the fact that, as before said, names signify actual things. The things which these names signify are religions and their modes of worship, as also are signified by the names which are found in Genesis 5 and 11. But what each name and each son here signifies, cannot so well be told, as they are merely named. Uz and Buz are also named in Jeremiah (25:20, 23), but among several other names. Uz is also found in Lamentations 4:21; Job 1:1; (concerning whom see Genesis 10:23, n. 1233, 1234).2865.
And Bethuel begat Rebekah. That this signifies from good their affection of truth, is evident from the representation of Bethuel and of Rebekah, treated of in chapter 24, which follows.2866.
These eight did Milcah bear to Nahor, Abraham's brother. That this signifies a second class of those who are saved, is evident from the signification of "eight;" and from its being again said that "Milcah bare to Nahor, Abraham's brother." Because the eighth day is the first day of the following week, therefore "eight" signifies something that is distinct from what has gone before (see n. 2044); here therefore it denotes another class, and the number was added for the sake of this signification. Milcah's "bearing them to Nahor, Abraham's brother," signifies those out of the church who are in brotherhood from good (as shown above, n. 2863, 2865). Here, being the conclusion, it signifies the same, and in addition the fact that they are saved.2867.
Verse 24. And his concubine, whose name was Reumah; she also bare Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah. "His concubine whose name was Reumah," signifies Gentiles who are in idolatrous worship and in good; "she also bare Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah," signifies their various religions: these constitute a third class of the spiritual who are saved.2868.
His concubine, whose name was Reumah. That this signifies Gentiles who are in idolatrous worship and in good, is evident from the things which precede; for in the former place are the Gentiles who are signified by the sons who were born to Nahor from his wife, and in this place are the Gentiles signified by those born from his concubine. By those from the wife were signified (as before shown) the Gentiles out of the church who are in brotherhood from good (n. 2863); those now signified are those out of the church who are in idolatrous worship and in good; thus these are not from so legitimate a stock as the former. Nevertheless they are as if legitimate; for at that time children who were born of maidservants were adopted as legitimate (as is evident from the sons of Jacob who were born of the maidservants Bilhah and Zilpah, Gen. 30:4-12; from whom tribes were derived equally as from those who were born of Leah and Rachel, and indeed without any difference). But that still there was a difference is evident from Genesis 33:1, 2, 6, 7. The maidservants who were at that time given to the husband by the wife for the sake of procreating children were called concubines; as is manifest from Bilhah, Rachel's maidservant, who is also called Jacob's concubine (Gen. 35:22). That men should procreate children from maidservants or concubines was tolerated at that time, in order that those who are out of the church might thus be represented, and also those who are in a lower degree within the church. The name of this concubine being said to be "Reumah" involves her quality (n. 1896, 2009); which here is exaltation, this being the meaning of the word "Reumah." (Concerning the state and lot of the nations and peoples who are out of the church, see above, n. 593, 932, 1032, 1059, 1327, 1328, 1366, 2049, 2051, 2284, 2589-2604.)2869.
She also bare Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah. That this signifies their various religions and the kinds of worship from them; and that these constitute a third class of the spiritual who are saved, is evident from what was said above (n. 2864, 2866, 2868).2870.
CONCERNING MAN'S FREEDOM. Few know what freedom is, and what non-freedom is. All that which is of any love and its delight appears to be freedom, and that which is contrary to these, non-freedom. What is of the love of self and the love of the world, and of their cupidities, appears to man as freedom, but it is infernal freedom; while what is of love to the Lord and of love toward the neighbor, consequently of the love of good and truth, is freedom itself, and is heavenly freedom.2871.
Infernal spirits do not know that there is any other freedom than that which is of the love of self and the love of the world; that is, of the cupidities of commanding, of persecuting and hating all who do not serve them, of tormenting everyone, of destroying the universe if they could for the sake of self; of taking away and claiming to themselves whatever is another's. When they are in these and similar things, they are in their freedom, because they are in their delight. Their life consists in this freedom to such a degree that if it were taken away from them, nothing more of life would remain to them than that of a newborn infant. This was also shown by living experience. A certain evil spirit was in the persuasion that such things could be taken away from him, and that in this way he could come into heaven; consequently that his life could be miraculously changed into heavenly life; on which account those loves together with their cupidities were taken away from him (which is done in the other life by dissociation), and he then appeared like an infant paddling with his hands, which he could scarcely move; and he was at the same time in such a state as to be less able to think than any infant, and unable to speak anything at all, or to know anything. But he was soon restored to his delight, and thus to his freedom. From this it is manifest that it is impossible for anyone to come into heaven who has procured a life for himself from the love of self and the world, and consequently who is in the freedom of these loves; for if that life were taken away from such a person, he would not have anything of thought and will remaining.2872.
But heavenly freedom is that which is from the Lord, and in it are all the angels in the heavens. As before said this is the freedom of love to the Lord and mutual love, and thus of the affection of good and truth. The quality of this freedom may be seen from the fact that everyone who is in it communicates his blessedness and happiness to another from inmost affection, and that it is a blessedness and happiness to him that he is able to communicate it. And because the universal heaven is such, it follows that everyone is a center of all forms of blessedness and happiness, and that all these belong at the same time to each angel. The communication itself is effected by the Lord, by wonderful inflowings in an incomprehensible form, which is the form of heaven. This shows what heavenly freedom is, and that it is from the Lord alone.2873.
How far distant heavenly freedom (which is from the affection of good and truth) is from infernal freedom (which is from the affection of evil and falsity), is evident from the fact that when the angels in heaven merely think about such freedom as is from the affection of evil and falsity, or what is the same, from the cupidities of the love of self and the world, they are immediately seized with internal pain; and on the other hand, when evil spirits merely think about the freedom which is from the affection of good and truth, or what is the same, from the desires of mutual love, they at once come into anguish; and what is wonderful, so opposite is the one freedom to the other, that the freedom of the love of self and the world is hell to good spirits; and on the other hand, the freedom of love to the Lord and mutual love is hell to evil spirits. Hence all in the other life are distinct according to their kinds of freedom, or what is the same, according to their loves and affections, consequently according to the delights of their life, which is the same as according to their lives; for lives are nothing else than delights, and these are nothing else than affections which are of the loves.2874.
From this it is now evident what freedom is, namely, that it is to think and will from affection, and that the freedom is such as is the affection; also that the one freedom is infernal, and the other freedom heavenly, and that infernal freedom is from hell, whereas heavenly freedom is from the Lord. It is also evident that they who are in infernal freedom cannot come into heavenly freedom (which would be coming from hell into heaven) unless the whole of their life is taken away from them; also that no one can come into heavenly freedom except by reformation from the Lord; and that he is then introduced into it by the affection of good and truth, that is, by the good of life in which the truth of doctrine is being implanted.2875.
The good of life, or the affection of good, is insinuated by the Lord by an internal way, without man's knowing anything about it; but the truth of doctrine, or faith, by an external way, into the memory, whence it is called forth by the Lord in His own time and according to His own order, and is conjoined with the affection of good. This is done in man's freedom; for as before said, man's freedom is from affection. Such is the insemination and inrooting of faith. Whatever is done in freedom is conjoined, but that which is done under compulsion is not conjoined; as may be seen from considering that by no possibility can anything be conjoined except that by which we are affected: affection is the very thing that receives; to receive anything contrary to the affection is to receive it contrary to the life. Hence it is manifest that truth of doctrine, or faith, cannot be received except by the affection of it. But such as is the affection, such is the reception. It is only the affection of truth and good that receives the truth of faith; for they agree, and because they agree, they conjoin themselves together.2876.
As no one can be reformed except in freedom, therefore freedom is never taken away from a man, insofar as the appearance is concerned; for it is an eternal law that everyone should be in freedom as to his interiors, that is, as to his affections and thoughts, in order that the affection of good and truth may be implanted in him.2877.
Whenever the affection of truth and the affection of good are insinuated by the Lord, which is done without man's knowledge, he then imbues himself with truth and does good in freedom, because from affection; for when anything is done from affection, then as before said there is freedom; and the truth of faith conjoins itself with the good of charity. Unless a man had freedom in everything he thinks and wills, the freedom of thinking truth and of willing good could never be insinuated by the Lord into anyone; for in order that a man may be reformed he must think truth as of himself, and do good as of himself; and what is done as of one's self is done in freedom. Unless this were so, there would never be any reformation or regeneration.2878.
There are innumerable causes from which and on account of which a man loves to learn truth and to will good (very many from the world, and also very many from the body); and sometimes these things are not done for the sake of heaven, and still less for the sake of the Lord. A man is thus introduced by the Lord into truth and good by affections, and one man altogether differently from another, each one according to his disposition, innate and acquired. And as he is continually being introduced into truth and good by affections, and thus continually by freedom, and at length into the affections of spiritual truth and spiritual good, the Lord alone knows the times and the states, and He alone arranges and governs them in application to each one's genius and life. This shows why man has freedom.2879.
The Lord flows in through man's inmost with good, and there conjoins truth with it: their root must be in the inmost. Unless a man is in freedom interiorly as to all his affections and as to all his thoughts, he can never be so disposed that good and truth may take any root.2880.
Nothing else appears to a man as his (or what is the same, as his own) except that which flows from freedom. The reason is that all affection which is of love is his veriest life; and to act from affection is to act from life, that is, from himself, and thus from what is his, or what is the same, from his own. In order therefore that man may receive an Own that is heavenly, such as have the angels in heaven, he is kept in freedom, and through freedom he is introduced into it, in the way already stated. It may be known to everyone that to worship the Lord from freedom appears as if it were from one's self, or from one's own; but that to worship Him under compulsion is not from one's self, but from a force from without, or from some other source, compelling him to do it; thus that worship from freedom is worship itself, and that worship under compulsion is no worship.2881.
If man could have been reformed by compulsion, there would not be any man in the universe who would not be saved; for nothing would be easier for the Lord than to compel man to fear Him, to worship Him, and indeed as it were to love Him; the means being innumerable. But as that which is done under compulsion is not conjoined, and thus is not appropriated, it is therefore the furthest possible from the Lord to compel anyone. So long as a man is in combats, or is one of the church militant, it appears as if the Lord compels the man, and thus that he has no freedom; for he is then continually combating against the love of self and of the world, thus against the freedom into which he was born and into which he has grown up; hence comes the appearance just referred to. But that in the combats in which he overcomes, the freedom is stronger than when out of combats (a freedom not from himself, but from the Lord, and still appearing as his), may be seen above (n. 1937, 1947).2882.
Most of all does man believe that he has no freedom from the fact that he has learned that he cannot do good and think truth of himself. But let him not believe that anyone ever has or ever had any freedom of thinking truth and doing good of himself, not even the man who, from the state of perfection in which he was, was called a "likeness and image of God;" for the freedom of thinking the truth of faith, and of doing the good of charity, all flows in from the Lord. The Lord is Good itself and Truth itself; and is hence their fountain. All the angels are in such freedom, and indeed in the very perception that what we have just stated is the truth. The inmost angels perceive how much is from the Lord, and how much from themselves; and so far as it is from the Lord, they are in happiness; but so far as it is from themselves, they are not in what is happy.2883.
In order therefore that a man may receive an Own that is heavenly, he must do good of himself, and think truth of himself; but still must know, and when reformed must think and believe, that all the good and all the truth are from the Lord, even as to the very least of all (and this because it is so); while its being given to man to think that it is from himself, is in order that the good and truth may become as his own.2884.
The freedom of the love of self and of the world, and of their cupidities, is anything but freedom, being complete slavery; but still it is called freedom, just as love, affection, and delight are so called in both senses; and yet the love of self and of the world is anything but love, being hatred; and so are its affection and delight. They are named according to what they appear; not according to what they are.2885.
No one can know what slavery is and what freedom is, unless he knows the origin of them (which no one can know except from the Word), and unless he knows how the case is with man in regard to his affections which are of his will, and his thoughts which are of his understanding.2886.
As to man's affections and thoughts, the case is this: No one, whoever he may be, whether man, spirit, or angel can will and think from himself; but from others; nor can these others will and think from themselves, but all again from others, and so on; and thus each one from the First of life, which is the Lord. That which is unconnected has no existence. Evils and falsities have connection with the hells; from the hells come the willing and thinking of those who are in evils and falsities; and also their love, affection, and delight, consequently their freedom. But goods and truths have connection with heaven, and the willing and thinking of those who are in them is from heaven, and so also are their love, affection, and delight, and therefore their freedom. From this we may see whence comes the one freedom, and whence the other. That the case is really so is most fully known in the other life, but is at this day altogether unknown in the world.2887.
With man there are evil spirits constantly, and also angels; by the spirits he communicates with the hells, and by the angels with the heavens. If these spirits and angels were to be taken away from him, he would in a moment be devoid of willing and thinking, thus of life. That this is so may seem a paradox; and yet it is most true. But concerning the spirits and angels who are with man, of the Lord's Divine mercy elsewhere.2888.
The truth is that the life of everyone, both of man, of spirit, and also of angel, flows in solely from the Lord, who is life itself; and diffuses itself through the whole heaven and also through hell, thus into everyone; and this in an order and series incomprehensible: but the life which flows in is received by each one according to his disposition. Good and truth are received as good and truth by the good; but good and truth are received as evil and falsity by the evil, and are also turned into evil and falsity in them. The case with this is comparatively like the light of the sun, which diffuses itself into all the objects of the earth, but is received according to the quality of each object, and becomes of a beautiful color in beautiful forms, and of a disagreeable color in disagreeable forms. In the world this is an arcanum, but nothing is better known in the other life. That I might know that influx is of such a nature, it has been given me to speak with the spirits and angels who were with me, and also to feel and perceive their influx; and this so often that I cannot number the times. But I know that the fallacy will prevail, the fallacy that is to say, that men will believe that they will from themselves, and think from themselves, and thus have life from themselves; whereas nothing is further from the truth.2889.
Evil spirits cannot possibly apprehend that they do not live from themselves, and that they are only organs of life; still less that there is no life except that which is from good and truth; and still less that they do not begin to live until the life of the cupidities of evil and of the persuasions of falsity, in which they are, is extinguished. They believe that if they were deprived of these there could be nothing of life remaining; whereas the truth is that when they have lost the life of the cupidities of evil and of the persuasions of falsity, they then first begin to live; and that the Lord, together with the good and truth in which life solely consists, is not till then received; and that intelligence and wisdom, and thus the veriest life, then flow in, and are afterwards immensely increased; and this with delight, blessedness, and happiness, and thus with inmost joy, and with ineffable variety, to eternity.2890.
The evil spirits who are with man, through whom he communicates with hell, regard him no otherwise than as a vile slave; for they infuse into him their cupidities and their persuasions, and thus lead him whithersoever they will. But the angels through whom man communicates with heaven, regard him as a brother, and insinuate into him affections of good and truth, and thus lead him by freedom, not whither they will, but whither it pleases the Lord. From this we can see of what kind the one freedom is, and of what kind the other; and that it is slavery to be led by the devil, and freedom to be led by the Lord.2891.
Spirits fresh from this world severely torment themselves by trying to comprehend how no one can do good of himself, or think truth of himself, except from the Lord; believing that thus they would be like machines, having no control of anything; and that if this is really so they should let their hands hang down, and suffer themselves to be acted upon. But they were told that they ought by all means to think, to will, and to do good of themselves; and that in no other way could they have an Own that is heavenly, and heavenly freedom; but that still they should acknowledge that the good and truth are not from them, but from the Lord: and they are instructed that all the angels are in such an acknowledgment, nay, in the perception that it is so; and the more exquisitely they perceive that they are led by the Lord, and thus are in the Lord, the more are they in freedom.2892.
He who lives in good, and believes that the Lord governs the universe, and that all the good which is of love and charity, and all the truth which is of faith, are from the Lord alone; nay, that life is from Him, and thus that from Him we live, move, and have our being, is in such a state that he can be gifted with heavenly freedom, and together with it with peace; for he then trusts solely in the Lord and has no care for other things, and is certain that all things are tending to his good, his blessedness, and his happiness to eternity. But he who believes that he governs himself is continually disquieted, being borne along into cupidities, and into solicitude respecting future things, and thus into manifold anxieties; and because he so believes, the cupidities of evil and the persuasions of falsity also adhere to him.2893.
Good spirits wondered exceedingly that the man of the church at this day does not believe that all the evils and falsities within him flow in from hell, and all the goods and truths from the Lord; when yet he has learned this from the Word, and also from the doctrine of faith; and, when anyone has done a grievous evil, everybody says that he has suffered himself to be led by the devil; and when anyone has done good, that he has suffered himself to be led by the Lord.2894.
PREFACE TO THE 23rd CHAPTER We read in John: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light appeareth in the darkness, but the darkness comprehended it not. And the Word was made flesh and dwelt within us; and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (1:1-5, 14). Few know what is here meant by the "Word." That it is the Lord, is evident from the several particulars; but the internal sense teaches that it is the Lord as to His Divine Human that is meant by the "Word," for it is said: "the Word was made flesh and dwelt within us, and we beheld His glory." And because the Divine Human is meant by the "Word," all that Truth also is meant which relates to Him, and is from Him, in His kingdom in the heavens, and in His church on the earth. Hence it is said that "in Him was life, and the life was the light of men, and the light appeareth in the darkness." And because Truth is meant by the "Word," all revelation is meant, and thus also the Word itself or Holy Scripture.2895.
As regards the Word specifically, it had existed in all times, but not the Word which we have at this day. There had been another Word in the Most Ancient Church which was before the flood, and another Word in the Ancient Church which was after the flood; then came the Word written by Moses and the prophets in the Jewish Church; and lastly the Word that was written by the Evangelists in the new church. The reason why there has been a Word at all times, is that by the Word there is communication of heaven with earth; and also because the Word treats of good and truth, from which man is to live happy forever; and on this account in the internal sense it treats of the Lord alone, because all good and truth are from Him.2896.
The Word in the Most Ancient Church which was before the flood was not a written Word, but was revealed to everyone who was of that church. For they were celestial men, and therefore were in the perception of good and truth, as the angels are (with whom moreover they were in company), so that they had the Word written on their hearts (concerning which things see n. 597, 607, 895, 920, 1114-1125). As they were celestial men, and had companionship with angels, all the things which they saw and apprehended by any of the senses were to them representative and significative of the celestial and spiritual things which are in the Lord's kingdom; so that they indeed saw worldly and earthly things with their eyes, or apprehended them by some other sense, but from them and by means of them they thought of celestial and spiritual things. In this way, and in no other, were they able to speak with angels; for the things with the angels are celestial and spiritual things, and when they come down to man they fall into such things as are with him in the world. That each one of the things in the world represents and signifies something in the heavens, has been shown from the first chapter of Genesis up to this point. Thence came the representatives and significatives which, when communication with angels began to cease, were collected by those meant by "Enoch," as was signified by the words (Gen. 5:24) "Enoch walked by himself with God, and was no more, for God took him" (see n. 521).2897.
From this source was the Word in the Ancient Church which was after the flood. As the man of this church was spiritual and not celestial, he knew but did not perceive what the representatives and significatives involved; and as they involved Divine things, they came to be in use among those men, and were employed in their Divine worship; and this in order that they might have communication with heaven; for as before said, all things in the world represent and signify such things as are in heaven. They also had a written Word, which consisted of Histories and Prophecies, like the Word of the Old Testament; but in process of time that Word was lost. The Histories were called "Wars of Jehovah," and the Prophecies were called "Enunciations," as is evident in Moses (see Num. 21:14, 27), where they are quoted. Their histories were written in the prophetic style, and were for the most part made up histories, like those in the first eleven chapters of Genesis; as is plain from the quotations from them in Moses, where are these words: Therefore it is said in the Book of the Wars of Jehovah, Vaheb in Suphah, and the rivers of Arnon, and the slope of the rivers that inclineth toward the dwelling of Ar, and leaneth upon the border of Moab (Num. 21:14-15).  Their prophecies were written like the prophecies of the Old Testament, as is likewise plain from the quotations made from them also in Moses, where are these words: Wherefore the Enunciations (or the Prophetic Enunciators) say, Come ye to Heshbon, let the city of Sihon be built and established; for a fire is gone out of Heshbon, a flame from the city of Sihon; it hath devoured Ar of Moab, the lords of the high places of Arnon. Woe to thee, Moab; thou hast perished, O people of Chemosh; he hath given his sons as escapers, and his daughters into captivity, unto Sihon king of the Amorite. And we have shot at them; Heshbon is perished even unto Dibon, and we have laid waste even unto Nophah, which reacheth unto Medeba (Num. 21:27-30). That these prophecies involve heavenly arcana, as do the prophecies of the Old Testament, is clearly manifest not only from their having been transcribed by Moses and applied to the state of things of which he was then writing, but also from the fact that nearly the same words are found in Jeremiah, inserted in the prophecies of that book; in which it is evident, from what has been said about the internal sense of the Word, that there are as many heavenly arcana as there are words. The words in Jeremiah are: A fire is gone forth out of Heshbon, and a flame from among Sihon, and hath devoured the corner of Moab, and the crown of the head of the sons of tumult. Woe unto thee, O Moab, the people of Chemosh has perished, for thy sons are taken into captivity, and thy daughters into captivity (Jer. 48:45-46). From this also it is plain that that Word also had an internal sense. (Concerning the Ancient Church which was after the flood, see above, n. 640, 641, 765, 1238, 1327, 2385.)2898.
That with them there were prophecies which in the internal sense treated of the Lord and of His kingdom, may be seen not only from what has been shown, but also from the prophecies of Balaam, who was from Syria, spoken of in Moses (Num. 23:7-10, 18-25; 24:3-10, 15-25), which are expressed in a style similar to the other prophecies of the Word, and plainly foretell the Lord's coming, in these words: I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not nigh; there shall come forth a Star out of Jacob, and a Scepter shall rise out of Israel and shall smite through the corners of Moab, and break down all the sons of Sheth (Num. 24:17). These prophecies, like the former, are called "Parables" [Enuntiata], for the same word is used (Num. 23:7, 18; 24:3, 15, 20).2899.
A Word afterwards followed in the Jewish Church that in like manner was written by representatives and significatives, so that it might have within it an internal sense understood in heaven, and that thus by the Word there might be communication, and the Lord's kingdom in the heavens be united to the Lord's kingdom on earth. Unless everything in the Word represents, and unless all the words by which everything therein is written, signify the Divine things pertaining to the Lord, thus the celestial and spiritual things belonging to His kingdom, the Word is not Divine; but being so it could not possibly be written in any other style; for by means of this style and not possibly by any other, human things and human words correspond to heavenly things and heavenly ideas, even to the least jot. From this it is that if the Word is read even by a little child, the Divine things therein are perceived by the angels (see n. 1776).2900.
In regard to the Word of the New Testament which is in the Evangelists, as the Lord spoke from the Divine itself, the several things spoken by Him were representative and significative of Divine things, thus of the heavenly things of His kingdom and church, as has been abundantly shown above. GENESIS 23 1. And the lives of Sarah were a hundred years and twenty years and seven years, the years of the lives of Sarah. 2. And Sarah died in Kiriath-arba, the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan; and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her. 3. And Abraham rose up from upon the faces of his dead, and spoke unto the sons of Heth, saying, 4. I am a sojourner and a dweller with you; give me a possession of a sepulcher with you, and I will bury my dead from before me. 5. And the sons of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him, 6. Hear us, my lord, thou art a prince of God in the midst of us; in the choice of our sepulchers bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulcher, from burying thy dead. 7. And Abraham rose up, and bowed himself to the people of the land, to the sons of Heth. 8. And he spoke with them, saying, If it is with your soul that I should bury my dead from before me, hear me, and intercede for me with Ephron the son of Zohar. 9. That he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field; in full silver let him give it to me, in the midst of you, for a possession of a sepulcher. 10. And Ephron was sitting in the midst of the sons of Heth; and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the ears of the sons of Heth, of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying, 11. Nay, my lord, hear me; the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein I give it thee; to the eyes of the sons of my people give I it thee; bury thy dead. 12. And Abraham bowed himself before the people of the land. 13. And he spoke unto Ephron in the ears of the people of the land, saying, But if thou wilt, I pray thee, hear me; I will give the silver of the field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there. 14. And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him, 15. My lord, hear me; land of four hundred shekels of silver, what is that between me and thee? Bury therefore thy dead. 16. And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver which he had spoken of in the ears of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver current with the merchant. 17. And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field and the cave which was therein, and every tree that was in the field, that was in all the border thereof round about, were made sure, 18. Unto Abraham for an acquisition to the eyes of the sons of Heth, of all that went in at the gate of his city. 19. And after this Abraham buried Sarah his wife, in the cave of the field of Machpelah, upon the faces of Mamre, the same is Hebron, in the land of Canaan. 20. And the field and the cave that is therein were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a sepulcher from the sons of Heth.