Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
Verse 7. Isaac said unto Abraham his father; and he said, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood; and where is the lamb for a burnt-offering? "Isaac said unto Abraham his father; and he said, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son," signifies a conference of the Lord from love - of the Divine Truth with the Divine Good; the Divine Truth is the "son," and the Divine Good is the "father;" "and he said, Behold the fire and the wood," signifies that love and righteousness are present; "where is the lamb for a burnt-offering?" signifies where are they of the human race who are to be sanctified?2802.
Isaac said unto Abraham his father; and he said, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son. That this signifies the Lord conference from love - of the Divine Truth with the Divine Good-is evident from the signification of "Isaac the son," as being the Divine Truth; and from the signification of "Abraham the father," as being the Divine Good; which are treated of in what presently follows; and from the affection that is in these words, as being from love on both sides. Hence it is manifest that it is a conference of the Lord with His Father. That more arcana lie hid in these words than can come to human perception, is evident from the fact that the words "he said" occur four times in this verse. It is usual in the Word, when any new thing is begun, to say, "and he said" (see n. 2061, 2238, 2260). The same is evident from the fact that the words are words of love; and when such come to the perception of the celestial angels who are in the inmost sense, they form for themselves from them most celestial ideas; for they form for themselves luminous ideas from the affections in the Word, whereas the spiritual angels do so from the significations of the words and of the things (n. 2157, 2275); and thus from these words, in which there are four distinct periods and affections of love, the celestial angels form such things as can in no wise come down to human apprehension, nor can be put into words; and this with ineffable abundance and variety. Hence we can see what the quality of the Word is in its internal sense, even where it appears simple in the letter, as in this verse.2803.
That the Divine Truth is the "son," and the Divine Good the "father," is evident from the signification of a "son," as being truth (see n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2633); and of a "father," as being good; and also from the conception and birth of truth, which is from good. Truth cannot be and come forth [existere] from any other source than good, as has been shown many times. That the "son" here is the Divine Truth, and the "father" the Divine Good, is because the union of the Divine Essence with the Human, and of the Human Essence with the Divine, is the Divine marriage of Good with Truth, and of Truth with Good, from which comes the heavenly marriage; for in Jehovah or the Lord there is nothing but what is infinite; and because infinite, it cannot be apprehended by any idea, except that it is the being and the coming forth [esse et existere] of all good and truth, or is Good itself and Truth itself. Good itself is the "Father," and Truth itself is the "Son." But because as before said there is a Divine marriage of Good and Truth, and of Truth and Good, the Father is in the Son, and the Son is in the Father, as the Lord Himself teaches in John: Jesus saith unto Philip, Believest thou not that I am in the Father and the Father in Me ? Believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father in me (John 14:10-11). And again in the same Evangelist: Jesus said to the Jews, Though ye believe not Me, believe the works; that ye may know and believe that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father (John 10:36, 38). And again: I pray for them for all Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine; and that they all may be one, as Thou Father art in Me, and I in Thee (John 17:9, 10, 21). And again: Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in Him; if God be glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself. Father, glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee (John 13:31-32; 17:1).  From this may be seen the nature of the union of the Divine and the Human in the Lord; namely, that it is mutual and alternate, or reciprocal; which union is that which is called the Divine Marriage, from which descends the heavenly marriage, which is the Lord's kingdom itself in the heavens -thus spoken of in John: In that day ye shall know that I am in My Father, and ye in Me, and I in you (John 14:20). And again: I pray for them, that they all may be one, as Thou Father art in Me and I in Thee, that they also may be one in us, I in them and Thou in Me; that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them (John 17:21-23, 26). That this heavenly marriage is that of good and truth, and of truth and good, may be seen above (n. 2508, 2618, 2728, 2729 and following numbers).  And because the Divine Good cannot be and come forth without the Divine Truth, nor the Divine Truth without the Divine Good, but the one in the other mutually and reciprocally, it is therefore manifest that the Divine Marriage was from eternity; that is, the Son in the Father, and the Father in the Son, as the Lord Himself teaches in John: And now O Father, glorify Thou Me with Thyself, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was (John 17:5, 24). But the Divine Human which was born from eternity was also born in time; and what was born in time, and glorified, is the same. Hence it is that the Lord so often said that He was going to the Father who sent Him; that is, that He was returning to the Father. And in John: In the beginning was the Word (the "Word" is the Divine Truth itself), and the Word was with God, and the Word was God; the same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, the glory as of the Only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:1-3, 14; see also John 3:13; 6:62).2804.
And he said, Behold the fire and the wood. That this signifies that love and righteousness were present, is evident from the signification of "fire," as being love (see n. 934); and from the signification of "wood for a burnt-offering," as being the merit of righteousness (see n. 2784).2805.
Where is the lamb [pecus] for a burnt-offering? That this signifies, Where are they from the human race who are to be sanctified? is evident from the representation of sacrifices, especially of burnt-offerings. That burnt-offerings and sacrifices were representative of internal worship, may be seen above (n. 922, 923); that they were made from the flock and from the herd; that when made from the flock, they consisted of lambs, sheep, she-goats, kids, rams, he-goats, and when from the herd, of oxen, bullocks, or calves; and that these signified various kinds of celestial and spiritual things (n. 922, 1823, 2180); also that by means of them sanctifications were to be effected (n. 2776). It may be seen from this, that by Isaac's inquiry, "Where is the lamb for a burnt-offering?" is signified, Where are they from the human race who are to be sanctified?-which is more plainly manifest from what follows, that is, from the answer of Abraham his father, "God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering" (verse 8); by which is signified that the Divine Human will provide those who are to be sanctified. This is also evident from the fact that a ram was afterwards seen behind them, held by the horns in a thicket, which was offered for a burnt-offering (verse 13), by which are signified those of the human race who are of the Lord's spiritual church. And the same is evident from what follows in verses 14 to 17.2806.
Verse 8. And Abraham said, God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son: and they went both of them together. "Abraham said, God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son," signifies the reply, that the Divine Human will provide those who are to be sanctified; "and they went both of them together," signifies unition still closer as far as possible.2807.
Abraham said, God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son. That this signifies the reply that the Divine Human will provide those who are to be sanctified, is evident from the signification of "seeing for Himself," when predicated of God, as being to foresee and provide; for "seeing," in the proximate internal sense, is to understand (n. 2150, 2325); in a still more internal sense it is having faith (n. 897, 2325); but in the supreme sense it is foreseeing and providing; and also from the signification of the "lamb for a burnt-offering," as being those from the human race who are to be sanctified (see just above, n. 2805). That the spiritual are here meant by the "lamb for a burnt-offering," is manifest from what follows. The beasts for the burnt-offering and sacrifice signified various things: a lamb one thing, a sheep another, a kid and a she-goat another, a ram and a he-goat another; so also an ox, a bullock, and a calf, and the young of doves, and turtledoves. That each signified a different thing is plainly evident from its being expressly defined which kind should be sacrificed on the several days, and at each festival; as at expiations, cleansings, inaugurations, and at other times. These kinds would by no means have been so expressly pointed out, unless each one had a special signification.  It is manifest that all the rites or external kinds of worship that existed in the Ancient Church, and afterwards in the Jewish, represented the Lord, and especially the burnt-offerings and sacrifices, because among the Hebrew nation these were the principal things of worship. And because they represented the Lord, they at the same time also represented those things which are the Lord's with men, namely, the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith, consequently the men themselves who are celestial or spiritual, or who ought to be. Hence it is that by the "lamb" here are signified the spiritual, that is, they who are of the Lord's spiritual church. That by "God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son," is signified that the Divine Human will provide, is evident from the fact that it is not here said that "Jehovah" will see, but that "God" will see. When both are named, as in this chapter, by "Jehovah" is then meant the same as by the "Father," and by "God" the same as by the "Son," and thus here the Divine Human; and this because the spiritual man is treated of, who has salvation from the Divine Human, as may be seen above (n. 2661, 2716).2808.
They went both of them together. That this signifies unition still closer as far as possible, is evident without explication. A closer unition is signified because it is said a second time.2809.
Verse 9. And they came to the place which God told him of; and Abraham built there the altar, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. "They came to the place which God told him of," signifies the state at that time according to perception from Divine Truth; "and Abraham built there the altar," signifies the preparation of the Lord's Human Divine; "and laid the wood in order," signifies the righteousness that was adjoined to it; "and bound Isaac his son," signifies the state of the Divine rational which was thus, as to truth, about to undergo the last degrees of temptation; "and laid him on the altar upon the wood," signifies in the Human Divine to which the righteousness belonged.2810.
They came to the place which God told him of. That this signifies the state at that time according to perception from Divine Truth, is evident from the signification of "place," as being state (see above, n. 2786); and from the signification of "saying," in the historical parts of the Word, as being to perceive-explained often before. Here "God saying" denotes perceiving from Divine Truth, because it is said "God," and not "Jehovah" (n. 2586, 2807 at the end).2811.
And Abraham built there the altar. That this signifies the preparation of the Lord's Human Divine, is evident from the signification of an "altar," and of "building an altar." "Altars" signified all worship in general, because they were the primary things of the worship of the representative church (n. 921); and as they signified all worship in general, they signified the Lord's Divine Human, for the Lord's Divine Human is all worship and all doctrine; so much so as to be worship itself and doctrine itself; as may be seen also from the Holy Supper, which succeeded to altars, or to burnt-offerings and sacrifices (n. 2165, 2187, 2343, 2359), and which is the primary thing of external worship, because it is the Lord's Divine Human which is there given. That to "build an altar" is to prepare the Human Divine, is evident from the above, and thus without explication. The final preparation of the Lord's Human Divine for undergoing the last degrees of temptation is treated of in this verse, and is described by Abraham laying the wood in order, binding Isaac his son, and placing him on the altar upon the wood.2812.
And he laid the wood in order. That this signifies the righteousness which was adjoined to it, is evident from the signification of the "wood of a burnt-offering," as being the merit of righteousness (see above, n. 2784, 2798); and from the signification of "laying the wood in order upon the altar," as being to adjoin that righteousness to the Human Divine. The merit of righteousness is adjoined when it is there, and when there is confidence from truth that it belongs to Him.2813.
And bound Isaac his son. That this signifies the state of the Divine rational thus about to undergo as to truth the last degrees of temptation, is evident from the signification of "binding," and also of "Isaac his son." That to "bind" is to put on the state for undergoing the last degrees of temptation, is evident from the fact that he who is in a state of temptation is no otherwise than as bound or chained. That "Isaac the son" is the Lord's Divine rational, here as to truth, may be seen above (n. 2802, 2803). All the genuine rational consists of good and truth. The Lord's Divine rational as to good could not suffer, or undergo temptations; for no genius or spirit inducing temptations can come near to Good Divine, as it is above all attempt at temptation. But Truth Divine bound was what could be tempted; for there are fallacies, and still more falsities, which break in upon and thus tempt it; for concerning Truth Divine some idea can be formed, but not concerning Good Divine except by those who have perception, and are celestial angels. It was Truth Divine which was no longer acknowledged when the Lord came into the world, and therefore it was that from which the Lord underwent and endured temptations. Truth Divine in the Lord is what is called the "Son of man," but Good Divine is what is called the "Son of God." Of the "Son of man" the Lord says many times that He was to suffer, but never of the Son of God. That He says this of the Son of man, or of Truth Divine, is evident in Matthew: Behold we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be delivered, unto the chief priests and scribes, and they shall condemn Him, and shall deliver Him unto the Gentiles to mock and to scourge, and to crucify (Matt. 20:18-19). Jesus said to His disciples, Behold the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is delivered into the hands of sinners (Matt. 26:45). In Mark: Jesus began to teach them that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, and the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again (Mark 8:31). It is written of the Son of man, that He shall suffer many things, and be set at nought. And the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill Him; but when He is killed He shall rise again on the third day (Mark 9:12, 31). Behold we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests and the scribes, and they shall condemn Him to death, and shall deliver Him unto the Gentiles, and they shall mock Him, and shall spit upon Him, and shall kill Him, and the third day He shall rise again (Mark 10:33-34). The hour is come; behold the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners (Mark 14:41). In Luke: The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and the third day rise again (Luke 9:22, 44). We go up to Jerusalem, where all the things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished; He shall be delivered up unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and shamefully entreated, and spit upon, and they shall scourge and kill Him, and the third day He shall rise again (Luke 18:31-33). The angel said to the women, Remember what He spake unto you when He was yet in Galilee, saying that the Son of man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again (Luke 24:6-7).  In all these places by the "son of man" is meant the Lord as to Truth Divine, or as to the Word in its internal sense, which was rejected by the chief priests and scribes, was shamefully entreated, scourged, spit upon, and crucified, as may be clearly evident from the fact that the Jews applied and arrogated everything to themselves according to the letter, and were not willing to know anything about the spiritual sense of the Word, and about the heavenly kingdom, believing that the Messiah was to come to raise up their kingdom above all the kingdoms of the earth, as they also believe at this day. Hence it is manifest that it was Truth Divine which was rejected by them, shamefully treated, scourged, and crucified. Whether you say Truth Divine, or the Lord as to Truth Divine, it is the same; for the Lord is the Truth itself, as He is the Word itself (n. 2011, 2016, 2533 at the end).  The Lord's rising again on the third day also involves that Truth Divine, or the Word as to the internal sense, as it was understood by the Ancient Church, will be revived in the consummation of the age, which is also the "third day" (n. 1825, 2788); on which account it is said that the Son of man (that is, Truth Divine) will then appear (Matt. 24:30, 37, 39, 44; Mark 13:26; Luke 17:22, 24-26, 30; 21:27, 36).  That the "Son of man" is the Lord as to Truth Divine, is evident from the passages adduced, and further from the following. In Matthew: He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man, the field is the world. In the consummation of the age the Son of man shall send forth His angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that offend (Matt. 13:37, 41-42); where the "good seed" is the truth; the "world" is men; "He that soweth the seed" is the Son of man; and the "things that offend" are falsities. In John: The multitude said, We have heard out of the Law that the Christ abideth forever; and how sayest Thou that the Son of man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of man ? Jesus answered them, A little while is the Light with you; walk while ye have the Light, that darkness overtake you not; for he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. While ye have the Light, believe in the Light, that ye may become the sons of Light (John 12:34-35); where, when they asked who the Son of man is, Jesus answered concerning the Light, which is the Truth, and that He is the Light or Truth in which they should believe. (As regards the Light which is from the Lord, and which is the Divine Truth, see above, n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531, 1619-1632.)  But that the Son of God, or the Lord as to Good in His Human Divine could not be tempted, as was said above, this is manifest also from the Lord's answer to the tempter, in the Evangelists: The tempter said, If Thou art the Son of God cast Thyself down; for it is written, He shall give His angels charge concerning Thee, lest haply Thou dash Thy foot against a stone. Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God (Matt. 4:6-7; Luke 4:9-12).2814.
And laid him on the altar upon the wood. That this signifies in the Human Divine to which righteousness belongs, is evident from the signification of an "altar," as being the Lord's Divine Human (see just above, n. 2811); and from the signification of the "wood of a burnt-offering," as being the merit of righteousness (see n. 2784, 2798, 2812). The Truth Divine in the Lord's Human Divine, which underwent the temptations, and which has been treated of, is not the Divine Truth itself, for this is above all temptation; but it is rational truth, such as the angels have, consisting in the appearances of truth, and is what is called the "Son of man," but before the glorification. But the Divine Truth in the Lord's glorified Divine Human is above appearances, nor can it possibly come to any understanding, and still less to the apprehension of man, nor even to that of angels, and thus not at all to anything of temptation. It appears in the heavens as light which is from the Lord. Concerning this Divine Truth, or the Son of man glorified, it is thus written in John: Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in Him: if God is glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself, and shall straightway glorify Him (John 13:31, 32). That a distinct idea may be had of this very deep arcanum, we may call the Truth with the Lord which could be tempted, and which underwent temptations, Truth Divine in the Lord's Human Divine; but the Truth which could not be tempted, or undergo any temptation, because it was glorified, the Divine Truth in the Lord's Divine Human; this distinction has also been observed here and there in what goes before.2815.
Verse 10. And Abraham put forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. "Abraham put forth his hand," signifies temptation even to the utmost of power; "and took the knife," signifies as to truth; "to slay his son," signifies until whatever was from the merely human was dead.2816.
Abraham put forth his hand. That this signifies temptation even to the utmost of power, is evident from the series of things; for the Lord's most grievous and inmost temptations are treated of. The verses which precede treat of the preparation of the Human Divine for admitting and enduring them: here the act is treated of, which is expressed in the sense of the letter by "Abraham put forth his hand." That power is signified by the "hand" may be seen above (n. 878); here the utmost of power, because nothing but the act was wanting. It is according to the internal sense, that the Lord's Divine led His Human into the most grievous temptations (for by "Abraham" is meant the Lord as to His Divine), and this even to the utmost of power. The truth is that the Lord admitted temptations into Himself in order that He might expel thence all that was merely human, and this until nothing but the Divine remained.  That the Lord admitted temptations into Himself, even the last, which was that of the cross, may be seen from the words of the Lord Himself, in Matthew: Jesus began to show the disciples that He must suffer many things, and be killed. Then Peter took Him, and began to rebuke Him, saying, Spare Thyself, Lord; let this not be done unto Thee. But He turned and said unto Peter, Get thee behind Me, Satan; thou art an offense unto Me; for thou savorest not the things that are of God, but those that are of men (Matt. 16:21-23). And more manifestly in John: No one taketh My life from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again (John 10:18). And in Luke: Behooved it not the Christ to suffer these things, and to enter into His glory? (Luke 24:26).2817.
And took the knife. That this signifies as to truth, is evident from the signification of a "knife," as being the truth of faith (explained above, n. 2799); and that the Lord's temptation was as to Truth Divine, see above (n. 2813, 2814).2818.
To slay his son. That this signifies until whatever was from the merely human was dead, is evident from the internal sense of these words; for they signify the Lord's most grievous and inmost temptations, the last of which was that of the cross, in which it is evident that what was merely human also died. This could not be represented by Abraham's son or Isaac, because to sacrifice sons was an abomination; but it was represented so far as it could be, namely, even to the attempt, but not to the act. Hence it is evident that by these words, "Abraham took the knife to slay his son," is signified until all that was merely human was dead.  That it was known from the most ancient time that the Lord was to come into the world, and was to suffer death, is evident from the fact that the custom prevailed among the Gentiles of sacrificing their sons, believing that they were thus purified, and propitiated to God; in which abominable custom they could not have placed their most important religious observance, unless they had learned from the ancients that the Son of God was to come, who would, as they believed, be made a sacrifice. To this abomination even the sons of Israel were inclined, and Abraham also; for no one is tempted except by that to which he is inclined. That the sons of Jacob were so inclined is evident in the Prophets; but lest they should rush into that abomination, it was permitted to institute burnt-offerings and sacrifices (see n. 922, 1128, 1241, 1343, 2180).2819.
As regards the Lord's temptations in general, some were more external and some more internal; and the more internal they were, the more grievous. The inmost ones are described by the Evangelists (Matt. 26:37-39, 42, 44; 27:46; Mark 14:33-36; 15:34; Luke 22:42-44); but see what has been said before respecting the Lord's temptations, namely: That the Lord first contended from goods and truths which appeared as goods and truths (n. 1661); That He contended against the evils of the love of self and the world from Divine Love toward the whole human race (n. 1690, 1691 at the end, 1789, 1812-1813, 1820); That He alone contended from the Divine Love (n. 1812, 1813): That all the hells fought against the Lord's love, which was for the salvation of the whole human race (n. 1820): That the Lord endured the most grievous temptations of all (n. 1663, 1668, 1787): That the Lord became righteousness from His own power by means of temptations and victories (n. 1813, 2025): That the union of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence was effected by the Lord by means of temptations and victories (n. 1737, 1813, 1921, 2025, 2026). See also what has been said before concerning temptations in general (n. 59, 63, 227, 847): That temptation is a combat concerning power, as to whether good or evil, truth or falsity, is to reign supreme (n. 1923): That in temptations there are indignations, and many other affections (n. 1917): That temptations are celestial, spiritual, and natural (n. 847): That in temptations the evil genii and spirits assail the things of the love, and thus the things of the man's life (n. 847, 1820): What temptations effect (n. 1692 at the beginning, 1717, 1740): That temptation is for the purpose that corporeal things may be subdued (n.857): That the evils and falsities in a man who is being regenerated are subdued by temptations, not abolished (n. 868): That truth has the first place in combat (n. 1685): That man combats from the goods and truths which he has acquired by knowledges, though they be not in themselves goods and truths (n. 1661): That evil spirits and genii excite the falsities and evils in a man, and hence come temptations (n. 741, 751, 761). That in temptations man thinks that the Lord is absent, whereas He is then more present (n. 840): That man can by no means sustain the combats of temptations of himself, because they are against all the hells (n. 1692 at the end): That the Lord alone combats in man (n. 1661, 1692): That by means of temptations evil genii and spirits are deprived of the power of doing evil and inspiring falsity in man (n. 1695, 1717): That temptations come with those who have conscience, and more acute ones with those who have perception (n. 1668): That temptations rarely exist at this day, but in their place anxieties, which are of another character and from another source (n. 762): That men spiritually dead cannot sustain the combats of temptations (n. 270): That all temptations are attended with despair respecting the end (n. 1787, 1820): That after temptations there is fluctuation (n. 848, 857): That the good learn by temptations that they are nothing but evil, and that all things are of mercy (n. 2334): That by temptations goods are conjoined more closely with truths (n. 2272): That men are not saved by temptations if they yield in them, nor if they think that they have merited by them (n. 2273): That in every temptation there is freedom, and stronger than out of temptations (n. 1937).2820.
Verse 11. And the angel of Jehovah called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Here am I. "The angel of Jehovah called unto him out of heaven," signifies consolation at that time from the Divine Itself; "and said, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Here am I," signifies a perception of consolation in the Divine Good of the rational after temptation.2821.
The angel of Jehovah called unto him out of heaven. That this signifies consolation from the Divine Itself at that time, is evident from the signification of "calling out of heaven," as being to console; as is also manifest from what immediately precedes and what next follows; and also from the signification of the "angel of Jehovah." (That when angels are mentioned in the Word, by them is meant something in the Lord, and that it appears from the series what of the Lord is meant, may be seen above, n. 1925.) We read in like manner concerning the Lord, that when He sustained the most grievous temptation in Gethsemane, an angel from heaven was seen by Him strengthening Him (Luke 22:43). By the "angel from heaven" here also in the internal sense is meant the Divine which was in Him.2822.
And said, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Here am I. That this signifies a perception of consolation in the Divine Good of the rational after temptation, is evident from the signification of "saying" in the historical parts of the Word, as being to perceive-explained often before. That it is here perception in the Divine Good of the rational, is because the Divine Good of the rational of the Lord's Human is here signified by "Abraham." What perception in the Divine Good of the rational is, cannot be unfolded to the apprehension; for before it is unfolded, an idea of the Lord's Divine Human must have been formed from knowledge of many things; and before this has been formed, all things belonging to the explication would fall into empty and obscure ideas, which would either pervert the truths or bring them into things incongruous. In this verse the Lord's first state after temptation is treated of, which is a state of consolation; on which account it is now no longer said "God," but "Jehovah;" for "God" is named when truth is treated of, but "Jehovah" when good is treated of, from which comes consolation (n. 2769). All consolation after temptation is insinuated into good, for from good is all joy; and from the good it passes into truth. On this account by "Abraham" is here signified the Divine good of the rational, as in other places also, and also whenever "Jehovah" is named in the same verse.2823.
Verse 12. And He said, Put not forth thine hand upon the boy, and do not anything unto him; for now I know that thou fearest God, and thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only one, from Me. "He said, Put not forth thine hand upon the boy," signifies that He should admit the temptation no further into the Truth Divine which belonged to the rational; "and do not anything unto him," signifies liberation; "for now I know that thou fearest God," signifies glorification from the Divine love; "and hast not withheld thy son, thine only one, from Me," signifies the unition of the Human with the Divine by means of the last of temptation.2824.
And He said, Put not forth thine hand upon the boy. That this signifies that He should admit the temptation no further into the Truth Divine which belonged to the rational, is evident from the signification of "putting forth the hand," as being temptation even to the utmost of power-explained just above (n. 2816); and from the signification of the "boy," that is, of Isaac, as being the rational as to Truth Divine, into which the temptations were admitted (see n. 2803, 2813, 2814, 2817).2825.
And do not anything unto him. That this signifies liberation, is evident without explication; for when it is said that he should do nothing to him, it means that the act should be interrupted, and thus that he will be liberated.2826.
For now I know that thou fearest God. That this signifies glorification from the Divine love, is evident from the signification of "knowing," when predicated of the Lord's Divine, as being nothing else than to be united, or what is the same, to be glorified; for it was being united to the Human Divine by means of temptations (n. 1737, 1813); and from the signification of "fearing God," or of the "fear of God," as being here the Divine love. And because this is predicated of the Lord's Divine rational as to truth, it is here said to fear "God," and not "Jehovah;" for when truth is treated of, it is said "God;" but when good, "Jehovah" (n. 2586,, 2769, 2822). That the Divine love is that by which the Lord united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence, and the Divine Essence to the Human, or what is the same, glorified Himself, may be seen above (n. 1812, 1813, 2253). What "fearing God" signifies in the Word, may be seen from a great many passages when understood as to the internal sense. The "fear of God" there signifies worship, and indeed worship either from fear, or from the good of faith, or from the good of love; worship from fear when the non-regenerate, worship from the good of faith when the spiritual regenerate, and worship from the good of love when the celestial regenerate are treated of.  I. That the "fear of God" in general signifies worship, is manifest in the book of Kings: The sons of Israel feared other gods, and walked in the statutes of the nations. The nations sent into Samaria feared not Jehovah in the beginning, therefore Jehovah sent lions among them; and one of the priests whom they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Bethel, and taught them how they should fear Jehovah. Jehovah made a covenant with the sons of Israel and commanded them, Ye shall not fear other gods, nor bow yourselves to them, nor serve them, nor sacrifice to them; but ye shall fear Jehovah, and bow yourselves down unto Him, and sacrifice to Him (2 Kings 17:7-8, 24-25, 28, 32-33, 35-37, 41); here "fearing" manifestly denotes worshiping. In Isaiah: Because this people have drawn nigh unto Me with their mouth, and have honored Me with their lips, and their heart hath removed itself far from Me, and their fear of Me is a commandment of men which hath been taught (Isa. 29:13); where their "fear of Me" denotes worship in general; for it is said that the fear was a commandment of men. In Luke: There was in a city a judge who feared not God and regarded not man (Luke 18:2); "fearing not God" means not worshiping Him.  II. That the "fear of God" signifies worship from fear when the nonregenerate are treated of, is manifest from the following passages in Moses: When the Law was promulgated upon Mount Sinai, the people said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die. And Moses said unto the people, God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not (Exod. 20:19-20). And again: Now why shall we die? for this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of Jehovah our God anymore, then we shall die. Go thou near, and hear all that Jehovah our God shall say; and speak thou unto us all that Jehovah our God shall say unto thee; and we will hear it, and do it. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Who will give them to have such a heart as this, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments always (Deut. 5:25, 27-29); here the "fear of God before you that ye sin not, and a heart to fear Me, and keep all My commandments," signifies worship from fear, in respect to them, because such was their quality; for they who are in external worship, and not in internal, are driven to the observance of the law and to obedience by fear; but still they do not come into internal worship or into holy fear [timor sanctus] unless they are in the good of life, and know what is internal, and believe it. In the same: If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, to fear this glorious and fearful name, Jehovah thy God, Jehovah will make thy plagues wonderful, and the plagues of thy seed, plagues great and sure, and sore diseases and sure, and He will bring upon thee again all the sickness of Egypt, which thou wast afraid of, and they shall cleave unto thee (Deut. 28:58-60); here also to "fear the glorious and fearful name of Jehovah God" is to worship from fear; and that this might exist among those of such a character, all evils even to cursings were attributed to Jehovah (n. 592, 2335, 2395, 2447). In Jeremiah: Thine own wickedness shall correct thee, and thy backslidings shall reprove thee; know therefore and see that it is an evil thing and a bitter that thou hast forsaken Jehovah thy God, and that My fear is not in thee (Jer. 2:19). In Luke: I say unto you, Be not afraid of them that kill the body, but after that have no more that they can do; but I will warn you whom ye shall fear; fear Him who after He hath killed, hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, fear Him (Luke 12:4-5; Matt. 10:28); here also "fearing God" involves worshiping from some fear, because fear drove them to obedience, as before said.  III. That to "fear God" or "Jehovah" signifies worship from the good of faith, where the spiritual regenerate are treated of, is manifest from the following passages. In Moses: The king shall write for himself a copy of this law in a book before the priests the Levites, and it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear Jehovah his God, to keep all the words of this law, and these statutes, to do them (Deut. 17:18-19). In the internal sense "king" denotes the truth of faith; for royalty represented the Lord's spiritual kingdom (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069). Hence to "fear Jehovah his God," is to worship Him from the truth of faith; and because this is inseparable from the good of charity, it is described by "keeping the words of the law and the statutes to do them." In Samuel: Behold Jehovah hath set a king over you. If ye will fear Jehovah and serve Him, and hearken unto His voice, then shall both ye and the king that reigneth over you be followers of Jehovah your God (1 Sam. 12:13-14); here also in the internal sense "fearing Jehovah" denotes worshiping from the good and truth of faith, as before, because a king or royalty is treated of.  In Joshua: Now fear Jehovah, and serve Him in integrity and in truth, and put away the gods which your fathers served (Josh. 24:14); where also to "fear Jehovah" denotes worshiping from good and truth, which is of the spiritual man; for "integrity" is predicated of the good of faith (n. 612), and "truth" of the truth of faith. In Jeremiah: They shall be My people, and I will be their God; and I will give them one heart, and one way, that they may fear Me forever, for the good of them and of their children after them; and I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not turn away from them, to do them good; and I will put My fear in their heart, that they shall not depart from Me (Jer. 32:38-40); that "fearing God" here is worshiping from the good and truth of faith, is evident from the series, and from the use of the words "people" and "God." (That those are called "people" who are in truth, may be seen above, n. 1259, 1260; and that "God" is named where truth is treated of, n. 2586, 2769, 2807 at the end.) In Isaiah: The strong people shall honor Thee, the city of the mighty nations shall fear Thee (Isa. 25:3); where "fearing God" also denotes worshiping from spiritual truth, for it is predicated of "people" and "city." (That a "city" is doctrinal truth may be seen above, n. 402, 2268, 2450, 2451.)  In David: What man is he that feareth Jehovah? Him shall He teach the way that He shall choose (Ps. 25:12); where the "man that feareth Jehovah" denotes him who worships Him; and that this is said of the spiritual man is manifest from its being said, "him shall He teach the way." (That a "way" is truth, may be seen above, n. 627, 2333.) And again with similar meaning: Blessed is every one that feareth Jehovah, that walketh in His ways (Ps. 128:1). In the same: They that fear Jehovah shall glorify Him; all the seed of Jacob shall glorify Him, and all the seed of Israel shall stand in awe of Him (Ps. 22:23); here to "stand in awe of him" means to worship from the truth of faith; for the "seed of Israel" is the spiritual of the church, or the good and truth of faith (n. 1025, 1447, 1610). In Moses: Now Israel, what doth Jehovah thy God require of thee, but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve Jehovah thy God, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, to keep the commandments of Jehovah, and His statutes (Deut. 10:12-13). Here is described what it is to "fear God," with the spiritual man, that is, "Israel;" namely, that it is to walk in the ways of Jehovah, to love Him, to serve Him, and to keep His precepts and His statutes. In John: I saw an angel flying in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting Gospel, saying with a great voice, Fear God, and give glory to Him, for the hour of His judgment is come (Rev. 14:6-7); here to "fear God" denotes holy worship from the good and truth of faith. In Luke: Jesus said to him that was palsied, Arise, take up thy couch, and go unto thy house; and amazement took hold upon them all; and they glorified God, and they were filled with fear (Luke 5:24-26); where "fear" denotes holy fear, such as is that of those who are being initiated into the good of love by the truth of faith.  IV. That to "fear God" or "Jehovah" signifies worship from the good of love, when the celestial regenerate are treated of. In Malachi: My covenant was with Levi, of lives and peace; and I gave them to him that he might fear, and he feared Me, and for My name was he broken. The law of truth was in his mouth, and unrighteousness was not in his lips; he walked with Me in peace and uprightness (Mal. 2:5-6); where the Lord is treated of, who here in the internal sense is "Levi;" "Levi" signifies the priesthood, and signifies love; "fear" here denotes the good of Divine love; the "law of truth," truth; and "peace and uprightness," both.  In Isaiah: There shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots; and the spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah, and of His scent in the fear of Jehovah (Isa. 11:1-3); where also the Lord is treated of. The "spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah" denotes the Divine love of truth; and His "scent in the fear of Jehovah," the Divine love of good.  In David: The precepts of Jehovah are right, rejoicing the heart; the commandment of Jehovah is pure, enlightening the eyes; the fear of Jehovah is clean, standing forever; the judgments of Jehovah are truth, made righteous together (Ps. 19:8-9); where "the fear of Jehovah is clean" denotes love; and "the judgments of Jehovah are truth" denotes faith. (That "righteousness" is predicated of the good of love, and "judgment" of the truth of faith, may be seen above, n. 2235) and these are said to be "made righteous together," when truth becomes good, or when faith becomes charity.  In the same: Behold the eye of Jehovah is upon them that fear Him, upon them that wait for His mercy (Ps. 33:18). And again: Jehovah delighteth not in the strength of the horse, He taketh not pleasure in the legs of a man. Jehovah taketh pleasure in them that fear Him, in those that wait for His mercy (Ps. 147:10-11); the "strength of the horse" denotes one's own power of thinking truth (that a "horse" denotes the intellectual faculty, may be seen above, 2760-2762); the "legs of a man" denote one's own power of doing good; "they that fear Jehovah" denote those who worship Him from the love of truth; and "they that wait for His mercy," those who worship from the love of good. Where good is spoken of in the Prophets, so also is truth; and where truth is spoken of, so also is good, on account of the heavenly marriage of good and truth in everything (see n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712, 2713).  In the same: Jehovah will bless the house of Israel, He will bless the house of Aaron, He will bless them that fear Jehovah, both small and great (Ps. 115:12-13); here "they that fear Jehovah" denote those who worship from the good of faith, which is the "house of Israel," and from the good of love, which is the "house of Aaron;" they are both named on account of the heavenly marriage, as said above, in everything in the Word.  In Isaiah: The truth of thy times shall be strength of salvations, wisdom, and knowledge; the fear of Jehovah itself a treasure (Isa. 33:6); where "wisdom and knowledge" denote the good of faith conjoined with its truth; and the "fear of Jehovah," the good of love. In the same: Who is among you that feareth Jehovah, hearkening to the voice of His servant (Isa. 50:10)? "he that feareth Jehovah" denotes him that worships from love; "he that hearkeneth to the voice of His servant," him that worships from faith. When the one is of the other, then there is the heavenly marriage.  From the passages which have been adduced from the Word it is evident that the "fear of God" is worship, either from fear, or from the good of faith, or from the good of love. But the more there is of fear in the worship, the less there is of faith, and the less still of love; and on the other hand, the more of faith there is in the worship, and especially the more there is of love, the less there is of fear. There is indeed a fear within all worship, but under another appearance and another condition, and this is holy fear. But holy fear is not so much the fear of hell and of damnation, as it is of doing or thinking anything against the Lord and against the neighbor, and thus anything against the good of love and the truth of faith. It is an aversion, which is the boundary of the holy of love and the holy of faith on the one side; and as it is not a fear of hell and damnation, as before said, those have it who are in the good of faith; but those have less of it who are in the good of love, that is, who are in the Lord.  V. Therefore to "fear" signifies also to distrust, or not to have faith and love, as in Isaiah: Thus saith thy Creator, O Jacob, and thy Former, O Israel, Fear not, for I have redeemed thee I have called thee by thy name, thou art Mine (Isa. 43:1, 5; 44:8). In Luke: The oath which He sware to our father Abraham, that He would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies, might serve Him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before Him (Luke 1:73-74). In the same: Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom (Luke 12:32). In Mark: Jesus said unto the ruler of the synagogue, Fear not, only believe (Mark 5:36; Luke 8:49-50). In the same: Jesus said, Why are ye so fearful? How is it that ye have no faith? (Mark 4:40). In Luke: The hairs of your head are all numbered; fear not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows (Luke 12:7). In these passages to "fear" is to distrust, or not to have faith and love.2827.
And thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only one, from Me. That this signifies the unition of the Human with the Divine by the utmost of temptation, is evident from the signification of "thy son," namely, Isaac, as being the Divine rational (explained before), or the Divine Human, for this begins in the rational (n. 2106, 2194); which is called the "only one," because it was the only-begotten (see n. 2772); and from the signification of "not withholding from me" as being to cause it to be united, namely, to the Divine Itself. That the unition was effected by the utmost of temptation, is manifest from all that precedes.2828.
Verse 13. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw, and behold a ram behind, caught in a thicket by his horns; and Abraham went, and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son. "Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw," signifies the Lord's thought and mental view from the Divine; "and behold a ram," signifies the spiritual from the human race; "behind, caught in a thicket," signifies entangled in natural knowledge; "by his horns," signifies with all power as to the truths of faith. "And Abraham went, and took the ram," signifies their liberation by the Lord's Divine Human; "and offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son," signifies their sanctification and adoption.2829.
Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw. That this signifies the Lord's thought and mental view from the Divine, may be seen above (n. 2789), where are the same words. The thought and mental view from the Divine is concerning all and each of the things that will take place to eternity, with the Divine Providence.2830.
And behold a ram. That this signifies the spiritual from the human race, is evident from the signification of a "ram," as explained in what follows. It is known within the church that the burnt-offerings and sacrifices in the representative Jewish and Israelitish Church signified the Lord's Divine Human; but the burnt-offerings and sacrifices from lambs signified one thing, those from sheep and she-goats another, and those also from kids, rams, and he-goats, and from oxen, bullocks, and calves, and from turtledoves and the young of pigeons, other things; and in like manner the meat-offerings and libations. In general they signified the Divine celestial, Divine spiritual, and Divine natural things which belong to the Lord; and hence they signified the celestial, spiritual, and natural things which are from Him in His kingdom, consequently in everyone who is a kingdom of the Lord; which may also be seen from the Holy Supper, which succeeded the burnt-offerings and sacrifices. The bread and wine therein signify the Lord's Divine Human; the bread His Divine celestial, and the wine His Divine spiritual; they consequently signify His love toward the universal human race; and on the other hand the love of the human race to the Lord (n. 2343, 2359). Hence it is manifest that the burnt-offerings and sacrifices involved celestial worship from love to the Lord, and spiritual worship from charity toward the neighbor and the derivative faith in the Lord (n. 922, 923, 1823, 2180). What the celestial is, and what the spiritual, or what are the celestial and the spiritual in the Lord's kingdom or in His church, has been frequently stated (see n. 1155, 1577, 1824, 2048, 2088, 2184, 2227, 2669, 2708, 2715).  That a "ram" therefore signifies the Lord's Divine spiritual, and consequently the spiritual with man, or what is the same, those of the human race who are spiritual, may be seen from the burnt-offerings and sacrifices made from rams; in that when Aaron and his sons were sanctified to perform the ministry, that is, when they were inaugurated, they were to offer one bullock for sin, the blood of which was to be sprinkled upon the horns of the altar, and the rest poured at the bottom of it; also that one ram was to be killed, and his blood sprinkled round the altar, and then the whole ram was to be burnt for a burnt-offering; and that the blood of the other ram that was killed was to be sprinkled upon the tip of Aaron's ear, and upon the thumb of his hand and the great toe of his foot; and that after it was waved, it was to be burnt upon the burnt-offering (Exod. 29:1-35; Lev. 8:1 to the end; 9:2 to the end). That all these rites were holy is evident; but they were holy from their representing and signifying holy things. Otherwise to slaughter a bullock and to sprinkle his blood upon the horns of the altar and pour the rest at its base, and to slaughter one ram and sprinkle his blood round the altar and then to burn him, and to sprinkle the blood of the other ram upon the tip of Aaron's ear and the thumb of his hand and the great toe of his foot, also to wave it, and to burn it upon the burnt-offering - all these things would have had no holiness and thus would have effected no worship unless they had represented holy things. But what each particular represented can be evident to no one except from the internal sense. That the bullock which was for sin signified the Lord's Divine natural, and the ram His Divine spiritual, and that it signified also those who are spiritual of the human race, may be seen from the signification of a "bullock" and a "ram" in the Word. Inaugurations into the priesthood were made by spiritual things, for by spiritual things a man is introduced into celestial things; or what is the same, by the truths of faith into the good of love. In like manner when Aaron entered into the holy place, he was to offer a bullock for sin, and a ram for a burnt-offering (Lev. 16:2, 3).  That the Nazirite, when the days of his Naziriteship were fulfilled, was to offer a whole lamb a son of a year, for a burnt-offering, and one ewe-lamb a daughter of a year, entire, for sin, and one whole ram for peace-offerings (Num. 6:13-17), was because the Nazirite represented the celestial man, who is a likeness of the Lord (n. 51, 52, 1013). The celestial man is such that he is in celestial love, that is, in love to the Lord, and thence in celestial truth (n. 202, 337, 2069, 2715, 2718); he was therefore to sacrifice a lamb and a ewe-lamb, by which the celestial was signified; and also a ram, by which the spiritual was signified. At the festivals, bullocks, rams, and lambs were sacrificed-as on the first day of the feast of the unleavened bread, two bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Num. 28:18-20). On the day of the firstfruits also, two bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Num. 28:26-25). On the new moons, two bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Num. 28:11, 12). In the seventh month, on the first of the month, one bullock, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering. On the fifteenth day of the seventh month, thirteen bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs. (See also Num. 29:1, 2, 12-14, 17, 18, 20-22, 24, 26-36.) The "bullocks" and the "rams" signified spiritual things, but the "lambs" celestial things; for at the feasts they had to be sanctified and introduced by spiritual things.  As "rams" signified the Divine spiritual of the Lord's Divine Human, as also the spiritual things with man, therefore where the new temple and New Jerusalem, that is, the Lord's spiritual kingdom, is spoken of, it is said in Ezekiel, that when they had made an end of cleansing the altar there, they were to offer a bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering, and were to offer the goat of the sin-offering every day for seven days, and a bullock and a ram (Ezek. 43:23-25); and that on this day the prince should prepare the bullock of the sin-offering for all the people, and on the seven days of the feast seven bullocks, and seven rams, with the meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Ezek. 45:22-24); and that on the day of the sabbath he should prepare six lambs and a ram (Ezek. 46:4, 6).  That by the new temple and the New Jerusalem in the universal sense is signified the Lord's kingdom, may be seen above (n. 402, 940); in particular the New Church (n. 2117). That there are not burnt-offerings and sacrifices there, may be known to everyone, which shows that by these are signified the celestial things of love, and the spiritual things of faith; for these are of the Lord's kingdom; and thus such things are here signified by "bullocks," "rams," and "lambs." That "bullocks" and "rams" signify spiritual things, is evident from the several particulars in the internal sense; in general from this, that by the "new temple" and the "New Jerusalem" the Lord's spiritual kingdom is specifically signified, but by "Zion" the celestial kingdom.  That a "ram" signifies that which is spiritual, or what is the same, those who are spiritual, is plain also in Daniel; in that a ram was seen by him standing before the river, which had two horns; afterwards a he-goat of the goats, which smote him, broke his horns, and trampled him down (Dan. 8:3, 4, and the following verses); where nothing else is meant by the "ram" than the spiritual church, and by the "he-goat of the goats" than those who are in faith separated from charity, or in truth separate from good, who by successive steps uplift themselves against good, and at length against the Lord-which is also described. In Samuel: Samuel said to Saul, Hath Jehovah as great pleasure in burnt-offerings and sacrifices as in hearkening to the voice of Jehovah? Behold to hearken is better than sacrifice, and to obey than the fat of rams (1 Sam. 15:22); where because obedience is treated of, so is truth, which is spiritual; and these words were said to the king, by whom also is signified truth (n. 1672, 2015, 2069). It is not therefore said, "better than the fat of oxen," or of "lambs," but "better than the fat of rams."  In David: When Israel went out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange language, Judah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominion. The sea saw it, and fled, and the Jordan turned back; the mountains leaped like rams, the hills like the sons of the flock. What aileth thee, O thou sea, that thou fleest? thou Jordan, that thou turnest back; ye mountains, that ye skip like rams? ye hills, like the sons of the flock? Thou travailest, O earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob, who turned the rock into a pool of waters, and the flint into a fountain of waters (Ps. 114:1 to the end); here in the internal sense the subject treated of is spiritual good after regeneration, and it is described in respect to its quality; its celestial spiritual by the "mountains leaping like rams;" and its celestial natural by the "hills like the sons of the flock." (That "mountains" are the celestial things of love, may be seen above, n. 795, 1430.) Everyone may know that in these, as in the rest of the words of David, there are holy things, but in the internal sense; and that something is signified by the mountains skipping like rams, and the hills like the sons of the flock, and by the earth travailing at the presence of the Lord; which things, without the internal sense, are words of no meaning.  So with these words in Moses: He maketh him ride on the high places of the earth, and to eat the increase of the earth, and He maketh him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flint of the rock; butter of kine and milk of the flock, with fat of lambs, and of rams the sons of Bashan, and he-goats with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and of the blood of grapes thou shalt drink unmixed wine (Deut. 32:13-14); "rams the sons of Bashan" denotes celestial spiritual things (what celestial spiritual things are, may be seen above, n. 1824). In David: I will offer unto Thee burnt-offerings of fatlings with the incense of rams, I will offer bullocks with goats (Ps. 66:15); "burnt-offerings of fatlings" denotes the celestial things of love; and the "incense of rams," the spiritual things of faith.  In Ezekiel: Arabia and all the princes of Kedar were the merchants of thy hand: in lambs, in rams, and he-goats (Ezek. 27:21); where Tyre is treated of, by which those are signified who are in the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201); "Arabia" denotes their wisdom; the "princes of Kedar," their intelligence; "lambs," celestial things; "rams," spiritual things; and "he-goats," natural things, which follow in order. In Isaiah: All the flock of Kedar shall be gathered together unto Thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto Thee; they shall come up with acceptance on Mine altar, and I will adorn the house of My adornment (Isa. 60:7); here the Lord's Divine Human is treated of; the "flock of Kedar" denotes Divine celestial things; and the "rams of Nebaioth," Divine spiritual things. From all this it is now evident that a "ram" in the internal sense signifies the Lord's Divine spiritual, and hence the spiritual in men, or what is the same, those of the human race who are spiritual.2831.
Behind, caught in a thicket. That this signifies entangled in natural knowledge, is evident from the signification of being "caught," as here being entangled; and from the signification of a "thicket" or "tangle" as being memory-knowledge-explained in what follows. That the spiritual are held entangled in natural knowledge in regard to the truths of faith, is as follows. The spiritual have not perception of good and truth, as the celestial have, but instead of it conscience formed from the goods and truths of faith which they have imbibed from infancy from their parents and masters, and afterwards from the doctrine of faith into which they were born. They who have no perception of good and truth have to be confirmed by knowledges. Everyone forms for himself some idea respecting the things he has learned, and also respecting the goods and truths of faith; for without an idea, nothing remains in the memory otherwise than as an empty thing. Confirmatory things are added thereto, and fill up the idea of the thing, from other knowledges, even from memory-knowledges. The confirmation of the idea itself by many things causes not only that it sticks in the memory, so that it can be called forth into the thought, but also that faith can be insinuated into it.  As regards perception in general, since few know what perception is, this must be declared. There is perception of what is good and true in celestial and spiritual things; there is perception of what is just and equitable in civil life; and there is perception of what is honorable in moral life. As regards the perception of what is good and true in celestial and spiritual things, the interior angels have this perception from the Lord, the men of the Most Ancient Church had it, and the celestial, who are in love to the Lord, have it. These know at once, from a kind of internal observation, whether a thing is good and whether it is true; for this is insinuated by the Lord, because they are conjoined with Him by love. Spiritual men, however, have no such perception of good and truth in celestial and spiritual things, but instead of it have conscience which dictates; but as before said, this conscience is formed from the knowledges of good and truth which they have imbibed from their parents and masters, and afterwards from their own study in doctrine and in the Word; and in these, even though not entirely good and true, they put their faith. Hence it is that men can have conscience from any doctrine whatever; even the Gentiles have something not unlike conscience from their religion.  That the spiritual have no perception of the good and truth of faith, but say and believe that to be true which they have learned and apprehended, is sufficiently evident from the fact that everyone says that his own dogma is true, heretics more than others; and that they are not able to see the truth itself, still less to acknowledge it, although thousands of things should declare it. Let everyone explore himself and see if he is able to perceive from any other source whether a thing is true; and if when a thing most true is made manifest to him he still does not fail to acknowledge it. As for example, one who makes faith the essential of salvation, and not love: even if all should be read before him which the Lord spoke concerning love and charity (see n. 2373), and if he should know from the Word that all the Law and the Prophets hang upon love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, he will nevertheless remain in the idea of faith, and will say that this alone saves. It is otherwise with those who are in celestial and spiritual perception.  As regards the perception of what is just and equitable in civil life, however, those in the world who are rational have this, and also the perception of what is honorable in moral life. These two perceptions distinguish one man from another, but by no means do such men for this reason have the perception of the good and truth of faith, because this perception is higher or more internal, and flows in from the Lord through the inmost of the rational.  The reason also why the spiritual have no perception of the good and truth of faith, is that good and truth are not implanted in their will part, as with celestial men, but in their intellectual part (see n. 863, 875, 927, 1023, 1043, 1044, 2256). Hence it is that the spiritual cannot arrive at the first degree of the light in which the celestial are (n. 2718), but have what is obscure in comparison (n. 1043, 2708 at the beginning, 2715). That the spiritual are entangled in natural memory-knowledge in respect to the truths of faith, follows from this.  That a "thicket" or "tangle" in the internal sense signifies natural memory-knowledge, that is, that knowledge which sticks fast in the exterior memory, may also be seen from other passages in the Word. In Ezekiel: Behold, Asshur was a cedar in Lebanon, with beautiful foliage, and a shady grove, and lofty in height, and his branch was among the tangled boughs (Ezek. 31:3); where Egypt, which is memory-knowledge, is treated of (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462); "Asshur" denotes the rational (n. 119, 1186); which is also the "cedar," and also "Lebanon," in the Word; "among the tangled boughs" means among memory-knowledges, for the human rational is founded on its memory-knowledges.  In the same: Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Because thou art exalted in stature, and he hath set his branch among the tangled boughs, and his heart is lifted up in its height, strangers, the violent of the nations, shall cut him down, and cast him out (Ezek. 31:10, 12); concerning Egypt; to "set the branch among the tangled boughs" denotes sticking fast in memory-knowledges, and regarding spiritual, celestial, and Divine things from them. In the same: To the end that none of all the trees by the waters exalt themselves in their stature, neither set their branch among the tangled boughs, nor that all that drink waters stand over them in their height, for they shall all be delivered unto death, to the lower earth in the midst of the sons of man, to them that go down to the pit (Ezek. 31:14); here those are treated of who by reasonings from memory-knowledges desire to enter into the mysteries of faith (that they are made altogether blind, may be seen above, n. 215, 232, 233, 1072, 1911, 2196, 2203, 2568, 2588). To reason from memory-knowledges is to "set the branch among the tangled boughs." In the same: She had plants of strength for the scepters of them that bare rule, and her height was exalted among the tangled boughs (Ezek. 19:11); this has a similar meaning.  In the same: The slain of Israel shall be among their idols, round about their altars, and under every green tree, and under every tangled oak (Ezek. 6:13); this treats of the worship which those form to themselves who have faith in themselves, and thus in the things which they hatch out from their memory-knowledges; the "tangled oak" denotes the memory-knowledges in such a state. (That "oaks" are apperceptions from memory-knowledges may be seen above, n. 1442, 1443, 2144.) The like is found elsewhere in the same Prophet: They saw every high hill, and every tangled tree, and there they sacrificed their sacrifices (Ezek. 20:28); a "tangled tree" denotes the things which are dictated not by the Word, but by one's own memory-knowledge. (That worship was performed in groves, and was significative according to the qualities of the trees, may be seen above, n. 2722.)  In Isaiah: Wickedness burneth as the fire; it devoureth the briars and thorns, and kindleth in the thickets of the forest (Isa. 9:18); the "briars and thorns" denote falsity and cupidity; the "thickets of the forest," memory-knowledges. In the same: Jehovah Zebaoth shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one (Isa. 10:34); the "thickets of the forest" denote memory-knowledges and "Lebanon," things rational. In Jeremiah: Set up a standard toward Zion, for I will bring evil from the north, and a great destruction; a lion is gone up from his thicket, and a destroyer of nations; he is on his way, he is gone forth from his place, to make thy land a waste; thy cities shall be destroyed, without inhabitant (Jer. 4:6-7); "from his thicket" denotes from memory-knowledge; and that which ascends into Divine arcana from this makes the "land a waste," that is, lays waste the church.  The reason why in the Word memory-knowledges are called "thickets," is that they are comparatively of such a character, especially when the cupidities of the love of self and of the world, and the principles of falsity, seek for them. Celestial and spiritual love is that which disposes into order the knowledges which are of the exterior memory; and the love of self and of the world is that which perverts the order, and disturbs all things in it. These things the man does not take notice of, because he places order in perverted order, good in evil, and truth in falsity. On this account these things are in entanglement; and also on this, that the things of the exterior memory, where these knowledges are, compared with those in the interior memory, where rational things are, are as in a thicket, or as in a dark forest. How shady, opaque, and dark it is there in comparison, a man cannot know so long as he is living in the body; for he then supposes that all wisdom and intelligence are from this source; but he will know in the other life, when he comes into the things of his interior memory. That in the exterior memory, which is proper to man while he is living in the world, nothing is less to be found than the light of intelligence and wisdom; but that all is relatively dark, disorderly, and entangled there, may be seen above (n. 2469-2494).2832.
By his horns. That this signifies with all power in regard to the truths of faith, is evident from the signification of "horns." "Horns" are mentioned in many places in the Word; and there signify the power of truth from good; and in the opposite sense the power of falsity from evil; here the meaning is that the spiritual who are signified by the "ram" are entangled in natural memory-knowledge with all their might in regard to truth, and hence that they are deprived of the power of perceiving truths. For the more anyone consults natural memory-knowledges, and sticks fast in them in his animus and mind in regard to the things which are truths of faith, the more does he lose the light of truth, and with the light, the life of truth. Everyone may know this from experience, if he attends and reflects, from those who say that they can believe nothing unless they comprehend that it is so by means of the things of sense, or of memory-knowledge. If you explore their quality, you will find that they believe nothing; and moreover that nothing seems to them more wise than to ascribe everything to nature. There are many also who say that they believe although they do not comprehend; when nevertheless, in secret with themselves, they reason equally as others do from the things of sense and memory-knowledge concerning the truths of faith, as to whether a thing is so. These either have a kind of persuasion breathed in from the love of self and the world, or they do not believe at all. Their quality is manifest from their life. Both classes are indeed in the Lord's spiritual church, but they are not of the church. They who are of the church are in a life of good, and have faith in truths; but the spiritual have faith in other truths besides those which have been impressed on them from infancy, and which they have afterwards confirmed to themselves from doctrine or from some other source. Such is the state of the spiritual, which state is here described by the "ram caught in the thicket by his horns" (see just above, n. 2831).  That a "horn" signifies the power of truth from good, is evident from the following passages. In David: Thou art the glory of their strength, and in Thy good pleasure wilt Thou exalt our horn; for our shield belongeth unto Jehovah, and our king to the Holy One of Israel. My truth and My mercy shall be with him, and in My name shall his horn be exalted; I will set his hand also in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers (Ps. 89:17-18, 24-25); where "our horn" and "his horn" manifestly denote the power of truth. The Lord's spiritual kingdom is there treated of; "our king belongs to the Holy One of Israel" denotes that Divine truth belongs to the Lord. (That a "king" is truth, and that the Lord's royalty is the Divine Truth, may be seen above, n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069); to "put his hand in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers" denotes that strength is in the memory-knowledges and the knowledges of truth. (That the "hand" and the "right hand" denote strength, see above, n. 878; and also that the "sea" and the "rivers" denote memory-knowledges and knowledges, n. 28, 2702.) In the same: I will love Thee, O Jehovah, my strength; Jehovah is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer, my God, my strong rock in whom I trust, my shield, and the horn of my salvation (Ps. 18:1-2; 2 Sam. 22:2-3); the "horn of salvation" denotes truth as to power; in this passage "strength," "rock," "fortress," "God," "strong rock," and "shield," are all significative of the power of truth.  In the same: In Zion will I make a horn to bud unto David, I will prepare a lamp for Mine anointed; His enemies will I clothe with shame (Ps. 132:17-18); where the Lord is treated of, who is "David" (n. 1888); a "horn" denotes the power of truth; a "lamp," the light of truth. In Samuel: My heart hath exulted in Jehovah, my horn is exalted in Jehovah, my mouth is enlarged against mine enemies, because I have been glad in Thy salvation. Jehovah will give strength unto His king, and will exalt the horn of His anointed (1 Sam. 2:1, 10); this is the prophecy of Hannah; the "horn" denotes the power of truth.  In Moses: The firstling of his ox, honor is his, and his horns are the horns of the unicorn; with them shall he push the peoples all of them, to the ends of the earth (Deut. 33:17); this is the prophecy of Moses concerning Joseph, where the "horns of the unicorn" denote the great power of truth, as is manifest also from its being said that he shall "push the peoples with them to the ends of the earth." So too in David: My horn shalt Thou exalt like the unicorn's (Ps. 92:10). And in the same: O Jehovah, save me from the mouth of the lion, and answer me from the horns of the unicorn (Ps. 22:21); Divine truths, from their height, are called the "horns of unicorns;" hence the "horn" is so often said to be "exalted," for exaltation signifies power from the interior. (That what is internal is represented by what is high, may be seen above, n. 1735, 2148.)  In Jeremiah: The Lord hath cut off in fierce anger all the horn of Israel, He hath drawn back His right hand from before the enemy (Lam. 2:3); to "cut off all the horn of Israel" denotes to deprive of truth which has power, which is also to "draw back the right hand from before the enemy." In Ezekiel: In that day will I make a horn to grow for the house of Israel, and I will give thee the opening of the mouth in the midst of them (Ezek. 29:21); to "make the horn to grow for the house of Israel," denotes to multiply the truths of the spiritual church, which is "Israel;" the "opening of the mouth" denotes the confession of them.  In Habakkuk: God will come from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran; His honor covered the heavens, and the earth was full of His praise and His brightness shall be as the light He; had horns out of His hand, and there was the hiding of His strength (Hab. 3:3-4); where the Lord is treated of; that "He had horns out of His hand, and there was the hiding of His strength," plainly denotes the power of truth; that "Mount Paran" is the Divine Spiritual or the Divine Truth of the Lord's Human, may be seen above (n. 2714), which also is the "brightness" and the "light."  The Divine Truth of the Lord's Human is thus described in John: I saw and behold in the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, a Lamb standing as if slain, having seven horns, which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth (Rev. 5:6); the "seven horns" denote holy or Divine truths. (That "seven" means holy, may be seen above, n. 716, 881.) The "seven spirits sent forth into all the earth," are the holy preachings of the same truths.  The "horns of the altars" signified nothing else than truth in which is power. Of these it is said in Moses: Thou shalt make horns upon the four corners of the altar; out of it shall its horns be (Exod. 27:2; 38:2). So too upon the altar of incense, out of which were to be horns (Exod. 30:2; 37:25). (That the altar was a principal representative of the Lord and of His worship, may be seen above, n. 921.) The altar was a representative of His Divine Good; the horns were the representatives of His Divine Truth; that truth was from good was represented by the horns being out of it, or out of the altar. (That there is no other truth than that which is from good, may be seen above, n. 654, 1162, 1176, 1608, 2063, 2261, 2429.) It is manifest from this that "horns" in the genuine sense signify the power of truth which is from good.  That Aaron and his sons, when initiated in the ministry, took of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with the finger (Exod. 29:12; Lev. 8:15); and that Aaron made expiation upon the horns of the altar once in the year (Exod. 30:10); and that when a priest sinned, he offered a bullock, and put of the blood upon the horns of the altar of incense (Lev. 4:3, 7); also that when a prince sinned, he offered a burnt-offering, and the blood was sprinkled upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering (Lev. 4:. 22, 25); and that it was the same when a soul sinned (verses 27, 30, 34, of the same chapter); as also when the altar was expiated (Lev. 16:18, 19)-all these things signified truths from good; for all sanctifications, inaugurations, and expiations were made by truths, because truths introduce to good (n. 2830). That the "horns of the altar" signified truths which are from good, may also be seen in John: The sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is before God (Rev. 9:13); the "horns of the golden altar" manifestly denote truths from good, for thence came the voice (that "gold" is good may be seen above, n. 113, 1551, 1552; and still more the "golden altar").  In Amos: In the day that I shall visit the transgressions of Israel upon him, I will visit upon the altars of Bethel, and the horns of the altar shall be cut off, and shall fall to the ground (Amos 3:14); that the "horns of the altar were to be cut off," was because truth from good was no longer represented there; "Bethel" is the Divine Good, and is therefore called the "king's sanctuary," and the "house of the kingdom" (Amos 7:13). The kings being "anointed with oil from a horn" (1 Sam. 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39) represented in like manner truth from good. (The "oil" was good, n. 886; but the "horn," truth; the "royalty" itself in the internal sense is such truth, n. 1728, 2015, in which is power.)  That a "horn" in the opposite sense signifies the power of falsity which is from evil, is evident from the following passages. In Amos: Ye who rejoice in a thing of naught, who say, Have we not taken to us horns by our own strength? (Amos 6:13); "horns" here denote the power of falsity. In Zechariah: I lifted up mine eyes and saw, and behold four horns; and I said unto the angel that talked with me, What are these? And he said to me, These are the horns which have scattered Judah; Israel, and Jerusalem. And Jehovah showed me four smiths; and I said, What come these to do? And He said, saying, These are the horns which scattered Judah, so that no man doth lift up his head; and these are come to terrify them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted up their horn against the land of Judah, to scatter it (Zech. 1:18-21); the "horns" denote the power of falsity, which vastates the church. In Ezekiel: Ye thrust with side and with shoulder, and push all the diseased with your horns, till ye have scattered them abroad (Ezek. 34:21); here the shepherds who seduce by falsities are treated of; the "horns" denote the power of falsity; the "shoulder," all power (n. 1085). In Jeremiah: Jehovah hath destroyed, and hath not pitied, and He hath caused the enemy to rejoice over thee; He hath exalted the horn of thine adversaries (Lam. 2:17). In the same: The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken (Jer. 48:25); "horn" here denotes powerful falsity.  In David: I said to them that were glorying, Glory ye not, and to the wicked, Lift not up the horn; lift not up your horn on high, speak not with a stiff neck. All the horns of the wicked will I cut off, the horns of the righteous shall be lifted up (Ps. 75:4-5, 10); the "horns of the wicked" denote the power of falsity from evil; the "horns of the righteous," the power of truth from good.  In Daniel: A fourth beast was seen, terrible and powerful and strong exceedingly, and it had iron teeth; it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet, and it had ten horns. I considered the horns, and behold another little horn came up among them, and three of the first horns were rooted up before it; and behold in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things. I held then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake; I desired certitude concerning the fourth beast, and concerning the ten horns that were on his head, and concerning the other which came up, and three fell before it; and concerning the same horn that had eyes, and a mouth speaking great things; I held, and the same horn made war with the saints. And he said, As for the fourth beast, it shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. And as for the ten horns, out of this kingdom shall ten kings arise, and another shall arise after them, and he shall be diverse from the former ones, and he shall humble three kings; he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints; afterwards the judgment shall sit (Dan. 7:7-8, 11, 19-26). Here in the internal sense the perverted state of the church is treated of. The things which were here seen by Daniel, as the beast, the teeth of iron, the horn in which were eyes, and the horns that spoke, and those which made war with the saints, and that which spoke against the Most High, signify the state of falsity and of heresies within the church. That "horns" signify falsity powerful and prevailing, is evident from the mere fact that eyes are attributed to them, that is, understanding (n. 2701); and that they spoke, even against the Most High. By the "kingdoms" and "kings" are not signified kingdoms and kings, but doctrinal things of falsity; as may be seen from their signification in the Word as being doctrinal things of truth, and in the opposite sense of falsity (see n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 2547).  Again in Daniel: A ram was seen by him standing before the river, which had two horns; and the horns were high, but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. I saw the ram pushing with his horn westward, and northward, and southward, so that no beasts could stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and magnified himself. As I was considering, behold a he-goat of the goats came from the west over the face of the whole earth; this he-goat had a horn between his two eyes; he came to the ram the lord of the horns, and ran upon him in the fury of his power, and smote him, and brake his two horns; and there was no power in the ram to stand before him. Afterwards the he-goat of the goats magnified himself exceedingly and when he was strong, his great horn was broken, and there came up four horns in place of it. Soon out of one of them went forth a little horn, and grew exceedingly toward the south, and toward the east, and toward beauty and it grew even to the army of the heavens, and some of the army and of the stars it cast down to the earth, and trampled upon them. The ram with the two horns, they are the kings of Media and Persia; the he-goat is the king of Greece; the four horns in place of one are four Kingdoms out of the nation (Dan. 8:1-27). Here in the spiritual sense the state of the spiritual church is treated of, which is the "ram" (n. 2830); and the state of that church is described, how it gradually declines and is perverted. The "he-goat of the goats" denotes those who are in faith separate from charity, or in truth separate from good, who begin to uplift themselves against good, and at length against the Lord. The "horns of the ram" are the truths of the spiritual church both internal and external; the "horns of the he-goat of the goats" are truths which have gradually degenerated into falsities; and by the "kingdoms" and "kings" here mentioned are not signified kingdoms and kings, but truths and falsities, as already said; for the Lord's Word in its essence does not treat of worldly and earthly, but of spiritual and heavenly things.  In John: And there was seen another sign in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads, and ten horns, and upon his heads seven diadems; his tail drew a third part of the stars of heaven, and cast them to the earth (Rev. 12:3, 4). And again: I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and on his horns ten diadems, and upon his heads names of blasphemy. It was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them. And then I saw another beast coming up out of the earth, and he had two horns like a lamb (Rev. 13:1-2, 7, 11). Again in the same: I saw a woman sitting upon a scarlet-colored beast, full of names of blasphemy; having seven heads and ten horns; it was the great Babylon. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth; and they are seven kings; the ten horns are ten kings (Rev. 17:3, 5, 7, 9, 12-13). That by the "horns" here in like manner as in Daniel are signified the powers of falsity, is evident.2833.
And Abraham went, and took the ram. That this signifies their liberation by the Lord's Divine Human, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being here the Lord as to His Divine Human (for when Jehovah, or the angel of Jehovah, speaks with Abraham, then "Jehovah," or the "angel of Jehovah," is the Divine Itself, and "Abraham" is the Divine Human); and also from the signification of a "ram," as being the spiritual (n. 2830). It is hence manifest that Abraham's going and taking the ram caught in the thicket by his horns, signifies the liberation of the spiritual by the Lord's Divine Human. (That without the Lord's coming into the world the spiritual could not possibly have been saved, may be seen above, n. 2661, 2716; and that they have salvation and liberation by the Lord's Divine Human, n. 2716.)2834.
And offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son. That this signifies their sanctification and adoration, is evident from the signification of "offering for a burnt-offering," as being to be sanctified (see n. 2776) and from the signification of "in the stead of his son," as being adoption, namely, by the Lord's Divine Human, which here is "Abraham" (n. 2833). The adoption of the spiritual is described in John: Jesus said, I am the vine, ye are the branches; he that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:5). (That a "vine" is the spiritual church may be seen above, n. 1069.)2835.
Verse 14. And Abraham called the name of that place, Jehovah-will-see, as it is said to this day, In the mountain Jehovah will see. "And Abraham called the name of that place," signifies the quality of their state from the Lord's Divine Human; "Jehovah-will-see," signifies the Lord's providence; "as it is said to this day," signifies what is perpetual; "in the mountain Jehovah will see," signifies charity, by means of which it was provided by the Lord that they should be saved.2836.
Abraham called the name of that place. That this signifies the quality of their state (namely, of the spiritual) from the Lord's Divine Human, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," as being to know what the thing is, that is, its quality (see n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009); from the signification of "place," as being state (see n. 1273-1277, 1376-1381, 2625); and from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord as to His Divine Human (see n. 2833). Hence it is manifest that "Abraham called the name of that place," signifies the quality of the state of the spiritual from the Lord's Divine Human. That the spiritual are saved by the Lord's coming into the world, was shown above (n. 2661, 2716); also that they have illumination from the Lord's Divine Human (n. 2716); and that it is provided that those should be saved who are in the faith of charity, that is, in charity, follows in this verse. This is the state which is signified by these words.2837.
Jehovah-will-see. That this signifies the Lord's providence, is evident from the signification of "seeing," when predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, as being to foresee and provide (see n. 2807). (That "Jehovah" is the Lord, may be seen above, n. 1343, 1736, 2156, 2329.) In the literal sense this is the naming of a place, but in the internal sense it is the quality of a state which is described; for times and spaces are merely of nature; and therefore when the sense of the letter of the Word passes from nature into heaven, the natural idea of those things altogether perishes, and becomes the spiritual idea that corresponds to them.2838.
As it is said to this day. That this signifies what is perpetual, is evident from the signification of "today" in the Word explained in what follows. We read in several places in the Word, "even to this day," or "to today;" as in what goes before, "He is the father of Moab even unto this day; and the father of Ammon unto this day" (Gen. 19:37, 38); and later in the same book, "The name of the city is Beersheba, even to this day" (Gen. 26:33). Also this, "The sons of Israel eat not the sinew of the part put out of place, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, even to this day" (Gen. 32:32). And also this, "This is the pillar of Rachel's grave even unto this day" (Gen. 35:20). "Joseph made it a statute even to this day" (Gen. 47:26). In the historical sense these things regard the time when Moses lived; but in the internal sense by "this day" and by "today" there is signified perpetuity and eternity of state. That "day" is state may be seen above (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893); and thus "today" also, which is time present. That which is of time in the world, is eternal in heaven. That this might be signified, "today" is added, or "to this day," although it appears to those who are in the historical sense as if it involved nothing further. The like is said elsewhere in the Word (as Josh. 4:9; 6:25; 7:26; Judges 1:21, 26; and in other places).  That "today" signifies perpetuity and eternity may be seen in David: I will tell of the decree: Jehovah hath said unto Me, Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee (Ps. 2:7); where "this day" manifestly denotes what is eternal. In the same: Forever O Jehovah Thy Word is settled in the heavens, Thy truth is unto generation and generation; Thou hast established the earth, and it abideth; they abide this day according to Thy judgments (Ps. 119:89-91); where also "this day" manifestly denotes what is eternal. In Jeremiah: Before I formed Thee in the belly, I knew Thee; and before Thou camest forth out of the womb, I sanctified Thee; I gave Thee for a prophet unto the nations; I have set Thee this day over the nations and over the kingdoms, and I have made Thee this day a defensed city, and an iron pillar, and walls of brass (Jer. 1:5, 10, 18); here in the sense of the letter Jeremiah is treated of, but in the internal sense the Lord is meant; "I have set Thee this day, or today, over the nations and over the kingdoms, and I have made Thee this day a defensed city" means that it was from eternity. Of the Lord nothing else than what is eternal can be predicated.  In Moses: Ye are standing this day all of you before Jehovah your God, to enter into the covenant of Jehovah thy God, and into His oath, which Jehovah thy God maketh with thee this day, that He may establish thee this day unto Himself for a people; and He will be a God unto thee; and not with you only, but with them who stand here with us this day before Jehovah our God, and with them who are not with us this day (Deut. 29:10, 12-14). In the sense of the letter here "this day" is the time present when Moses spoke to the people; but that it nevertheless involves the time to come and what is perpetual, is evident; for to make a covenant with anyone, and with those who were there, and not there, involves perpetuity, and the perpetuity itself is what is meant in the internal sense.  That "daily" and "this day" signify what is perpetual, is also evident from the sacrifice which was made every day. This, on account of the signification of "day," "daily," and "this day," was called the continual or perpetual sacrifice (Num. 28:3, 23; Deut. 8:13; 11:31; 12:11). This is still more plainly evident from the manna which rained from heaven, of which it is thus said in Moses: Behold I will rain bread from heaven; and the people shall go out and gather a portion day by day; and let no man leave of it till the morning. What they left till the morning bred worms, and putrefied, except what was kept the day before the Sabbath (Exod. 16:4, 19-20, 23). This was because the manna signified the Lord's Divine Human (John 6:31, 32, 49, 50, 58). And because it signified the Lord's Divine Human, it signified heavenly food, which is nothing else than love and charity together with the goods and truths of faith. This food is given by the Lord in the heavens to the angels every moment, and thus perpetually and to eternity (see n. 2493). This also is what is meant in the Lord's Prayer by "Give us this day our daily bread" (Matt. 6:11; Luke 11:3); that is, every instant to eternity.2839.
In the mountain Jehovah will see. That this signifies charity, by means of which it is provided by the Lord that they should be saved, namely, the spiritual, is evident from the signification of a "mountain," as being love and charity (see n. 795, 796, 1430). That "Jehovah will see" denotes the Lord's providence, or what is provided by the Lord, was said just above (n. 2837). Here charity is spoken of, and not love, on account of the difference between charity and love (see n. 2023). That the spiritual are saved by charity, and not by faith separate from charity, is evident from many passages in the Word. With charity and with faith the case is this: charity without faith is not genuine charity, and faith without charity is not faith. That there may be charity, there must be faith; and that there may be faith, there must be charity; but the essential itself is charity; for in no other ground can the seed which is faith be implanted. From the conjunction of the two mutually and reciprocally is the heavenly marriage, that is, the Lord's kingdom. Unless faith is implanted in charity it is mere memory-knowledge; for it goes no further than the memory; there is no affection of the heart which receives it; but when it is implanted in charity, that is, in the life, it becomes intelligence and wisdom. Charity without faith, such as is with children and with upright Gentiles, is only ground in which faith is implanted-if not in the life of the body, still in the other life (see n. 1802, 2280, 2290-2309, 2419, 2589-2604).2840.
Verses 15, 16. And the angel of Jehovah called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven, and said, By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only one. "The angel of Jehovah called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven," signifies still greater consolation of the Lord from the Divine; "and said, By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah," signifies irrevocable confirmation from the Divine; "because thou hast done this thing," signifies the thing accomplished; "and hast not kept back thy son, thine only one," signifies the unition of the Human with the Divine by the utmost of temptation.2841.
The Angel of Jehovah called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven. That this signifies still greater consolation of the Lord, is evident from the signification of "calling out of heaven," as being to console; and from the signification of the "angel of Jehovah," as being the Lord's Divine Itself (see above, n. 2821, where the same words occur). This is said a "second time," because there is greater consolation. The first consolation is contained in verses 12, 13, and 14, where the subject is the Lord's providence that those from the human race who are called the spiritual should be adopted. The second consolation, which is greater, is contained in the verses that follow (17, 18, etc., to the end), namely, that the spiritual should be multiplied as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand upon the sea shore; and that not they only should be saved, but also all who are in good. These were things of the Lord's love, and therefore He had consolation from them. No one has consolation except from the things which are of his love.2842.
And said, By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah. That this signifies irrevocable confirmation from the Divine, namely, concerning the things which follow, is evident from the signification of "saying by Myself have I sworn," and of "saith Jehovah;" all which involve confirmation, and indeed from the Divine, that is, from Himself. The Divine cannot confirm from any other source than from Itself; and what it confirms is irrevocable, because it is eternal truth. Whatever Jehovah or the Lord speaks is eternal truth (Matt. 24:35), for it comes from the very being of truth. But His confirming it as it were by an oath (as here and elsewhere in the Word) is not for the reason that it may be more true, but for the reason that it is said to such as do not receive truth Divine unless it is so confirmed; for they have no other idea of Jehovah or the Lord than as of a man, who can say, and change, as we frequently read in the Word; but in the internal sense it is very different. Everyone may know that Jehovah or the Lord never confirms anything by an oath; but when the Divine truth itself, and its confirmation, passes down to a man of such nature, it is turned into the semblance of an oath. The case herein is as it was with the devouring fire and smoke that appeared upon Mount Sinai before the eyes of the people, when Jehovah or the Lord came down (Exod. 19:18; Deut. 4:11-12; 5:19-21): His glory in heaven, even mercy itself, appeared in this manner before the people there, who were in evil and falsity (see n. 1861); and the case is the same with many things called the sayings and doings of Jehovah that are spoken of in the Word. It may be seen from this that the expression, "by Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah," is significative of irrevocable confirmation from the Divine.  That to "swear," when predicated of Jehovah, signifies to confirm with a man who is of such nature, may be seen from many other passages in the Word; as in David: Jehovah remembered His covenant forever, the word which He commanded to a thousand generations; which He made with Abraham, and His oath unto Isaac (Ps. 105:8-9). The case is the same with a covenant as with an oath, in that Jehovah or the Lord does not make a covenant with man, but when conjunction by love and charity is treated of, this is set forth in act as a covenant (see n. 1864). In the same: Jehovah hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a Priest forever, after the manner of Melchizedek 2842-1 (Ps. 110:4). This is said concerning the Lord, and "Jehovah hath sworn" denotes irrevocable confirmation from the Divine, that is, that it is eternal truth.  In the same: I have made a covenant with My chosen, I have sworn unto David My servant, Thy seed will I establish forever, and build up thy throne to generation and generation (Ps. 89:3-4). This also is concerning the Lord: to "make a covenant with the chosen," and to "swear unto David," denote irrevocable confirmation or eternal truth; "David" denotes the Lord (n. 1888); to "make a covenant" regards the Divine good; to "swear," the Divine truth. In the same: My covenant will I not profane nor alter the thing that is gone out of My lips; once have I sworn by My holiness, I will not lie unto David (Ps. 89:34-35); where also "David" denotes the Lord; the "covenant" here likewise has regard to the Divine good; and the "thing that has gone out of My lips," to the Divine truth, and this on account of the marriage of good and truth which is in everything in the Word (see n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712).  In the same: Jehovah hath sworn unto David in truth, He will not turn from it. Of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne, if thy sons will keep My covenant, and My testimony that I shall teach them (Ps. 132:11-12); "Jehovah hath sworn unto David in truth" manifestly denotes the confirmation of eternal truth; and therefore it is said, "He will not turn from it; "that by David is meant the Lord has been stated already; the oath was still "to David," because he was of such a character that he believed that the confirmation was concerning himself and his posterity; for David was in the love of himself and of his posterity, and hence believed that it was concerning him; that is, as said above, that his seed should be established forever, and his throne to generation and generation; but this was said of the Lord.  In Isaiah: This is as the waters of Noah unto Me; for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee (Isa. 54:9); where to "swear" denotes making a covenant and confirming it by an oath. That it was a covenant, and not an oath, may be seen in Genesis 9:11. In the same: Jehovah hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass (Isa. 14:24). In the same: Jehovah hath sworn by His right hand, and by the arm of His strength (Isa. 62:8). In Jeremiah: Hear ye the word of Jehovah, all Judah, that dwell in the land of Egypt; behold I have sworn by My great name, saith Jehovah, that My name shall no more be named in the mouth of any man of Judah, saying, As the Lord Jehovih liveth, in all the land of Egypt (Jer. 44:26). By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah, that Bozrah shall become a desolation (Jer. 49:13). In the same: Jehovah Zebaoth hath sworn by His soul, Surely I will fill thee with men as with the locust (Jer. 51:14). In Amos: The Lord Jehovih hath sworn by His holiness, that behold the days shall come (Amos 4:2). In the same: Jehovah hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob, Surely I will never forget any of their deeds (Amos 8:7).  In these passages, "Jehovah swearing by His right hand," "by His great name," by "Himself," by His "soul," by His "holiness," by the "excellency of Jacob," signifies the confirmation there is in Jehovah or the Lord. A confirmation by Jehovah can be given only from Himself. The "right hand of Jehovah," the "great name of Jehovah," the "soul of Jehovah," the "holiness of Jehovah," the "excellency of Jacob," signify the Lord's Divine Human: "swearing" thereby was confirmation.  Jehovah or the Lord "swearing" to give the land to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, or to their posterity, signifies in the internal sense the confirmation that He would give the heavenly kingdom to those who are in love to Him and faith in Him. It is they who are meant in the internal sense of the Word by the sons and the posterity of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, or of the fathers; which was also actually represented by the fact that the land of Canaan was given to their posterity, and that the church at that time with them represented the Lord's heavenly kingdom, as the land itself also did. (That "land" and the "land of Canaan" in the internal sense is the Lord's kingdom, may be seen above, n. 1413, 1437, 1607.) It is from this that it is said in Moses: That ye may prolong your days upon the ground which Jehovah sware unto your fathers, to give unto them, and to their seed, a land flowing with milk and honey; that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the ground which Jehovah sware unto your fathers, to give them, as the days of the heavens upon the earth (Deut. 11:9, 21). From these passages it must now be evident that Jehovah's "swearing" was representative of confirmation, and indeed of an irrevocable one. This is still more plainly manifest in Isaiah: By Myself have I sworn, the word of righteousness is gone forth from My mouth, and shall not return, that to Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear (Isa. 45:23).  Moreover it was enjoined upon those who were of the representative Jewish Church, that when they confirmed covenants by an oath, and likewise vows, also promises, and sureties, they should "swear by the name of Jehovah." The reason why this was enjoined upon them, although it was only permitted, was that the confirmation of the internal man also would thus be represented; so that oaths at that time in the name of Jehovah, were as other things were, namely, representative. That it was enjoined, that is, permitted, is evident in Moses: Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, and Him shall thou serve, and shalt swear by His name; ye shall not go after other gods (Deut. 6:13-14). Again in the same: Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, Him shalt thou serve and to Him shalt thou cleave, and shalt swear by His name (Deut. 10:20). In Isaiah: He who blesseth himself in the earth shall bless himself in the God of truth, and he that sweareth in the earth shall swear by the God of truth (Isa. 65:16). In Jeremiah: If thou wilt return, O Israel, saith Jehovah, unto Me shall thou return; and if thou wilt put away thine abominations from before Me, waver not; and thou shalt swear, Jehovah liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness (Jer. 4:1-2). In the same: If learning they will learn the ways of My people, to swear by My name, then they shall be built up in the midst of My people (Jer. 12:16). That they also swore "by the name of Jehovah," or swore "to Jehovah," may be seen in Isaiah: Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, that are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, that swear by the name of Jehovah, and have made mention of the God of Israel, not in truth, and not in righteousness (Isa. 48:1). In the same: In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to Jehovah Zebaoth (Isa 19:18). In Joshua: The princes of the congregation sware to the Gibeonites by Jehovah the God of Israel (Josh. 9:18-19).  From this it is evident that they were permitted to swear by the name of Jehovah, or by Jehovah; yet it is evident that this was nothing else than a representative of the confirmation of the internal man. But it is known that internal men, that is, those who have conscience, have no need to confirm anything by an oath; and that they do not thus confirm. To them oaths are a cause of shame. They can indeed say with some asseveration that a thing is so, and can also confirm the truth by reasons; but to swear that it is so, they cannot. They have an internal bond by which they are bound, namely, that of conscience. To superadd to this an external bond, which is an oath, is like imputing to them that they are not upright in heart. The internal man is also of such a character that he loves to speak and act from freedom, but not from compulsion; for with them the internal compels the external, but not the reverse. On this account they who have conscience do not swear; still less do they who have perception of good and truth, that is, celestial men. These do not even confirm themselves or one another by reasons, but merely say that a thing is so, or is not so (n. 202, 337, 2718); wherefore they are still further removed from taking an oath.  For these reasons, and because oaths were among the representatives which were to be abrogated, the Lord taught that we are not to swear at all, in these words in Matthew: Ye have heard that it has been said, Thou shalt not forswear thyself; but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths. But I say unto you, Swear not at all neither by the heaven, for it is God's throne; nor by the earth, for it is His footstool nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great king; neither shalt thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make one hair white or black. But let your speech be, Yea, yea; nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil (Matt. 5:33-37). By these words is meant that we are not to swear at all by Jehovah, nor by anything which is of Jehovah or the Lord.2843.
Because thou hast done this thing. That this signifies the thing accomplished, is evident without explication.2844.
And hast not withheld thy son, thine only one. That this signifies the unition of the Human with the Divine by the utmost of temptation, is evident from what was said above (n. 2827), where the same words occur, except that we do not here read "from Me," by which is signified that there will be a still further unition. That there was always a further unition of the Lord's Human Essence with His Divine Essence, even to a plenary unition, may be seen above (n. 1864, 2033).2845.
Verse 17. That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed, as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies. "That in blessing I will bless thee," signifies fructification from the affection of truth; "and in multiplying I will multiply," signifies derivations of truth therefrom; "thy seed," signifies the spiritual, who being in the good of faith are saved by the Lord's Divine Human; "as the stars of the heavens," signifies the multitude of the knowledges of good and truth; "and as the sand which is upon the sea shore," signifies the multitude of corresponding memory-knowledges; "and thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies," signifies that charity and faith shall come into the place where evil and falsity were before.2846.
That in blessing I will bless thee. That this signifies fructification from the affection of truth, is evident from the signification of "being blessed," as meaning to be enriched with celestial and spiritual good (see n. 981, 1096, 1420, 1422); here, to be made fruitful from the good of faith, or what is the same, from the affection of truth, because the spiritual are treated of. It is here said by Jehovah to Abraham, "in blessing I will bless thee," and by Abraham is represented the Lord as to His Divine Human, as before in this chapter; and yet the Lord Himself could not be blessed, because He is blessing itself; but He is said to be blessed, when in accordance with His love those abound who are saved; and therefore in the internal sense these are here signified, as is also evident from what immediately follows. Fructification is here spoken of, because this is predicated of affection; but multiplication, as next follows, is predicated of the truths which are therefrom.2847.
In multiplying I will multiply. That this signifies the derivations of truth therefrom, is evident from the predication of "being multiplied," as being concerning truth; here therefore as meaning the derivations of truth from affection, as was said just above. (That being "fructified" is predicated of good, and being "multiplied," of truth, may be seen above, n. 43, 55, 913, 983.)2848.
Thy seed. That this signifies the spiritual who are saved in the good of faith by the Lord's Divine Human, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being the faith of charity (concerning which see n. 1025, 1447, 1610, 1941); or what is the same, those of the human race who are in the faith of charity, that is, who are spiritual. They are also called by the Lord the "seed," and the "sons of the kingdom," in Matthew: He who soweth the good seed is the Son of man, but the seed are the sons of the kingdom (Matt. 8:37-38).2849.
As the stars of the heavens. That this signifies the multitude of the knowledges of good and truth, is evident from the signification of the "stars," as being the knowledges of good and truth (see n. 1808, 2495). The spiritual are they who in the Word are in various places compared to the stars, and this owing to the knowledges of good and truth which they have; but the celestial are not so compared, because they have not knowledges but perceptions; moreover the stars illumine the night, and the spiritual have a light of night (as from the moon and stars) in comparison with the light of day in which the celestial are. (That the spiritual have comparative obscurity may be seen above, 1043, 2708 at the beginning, 2715.)2850.
And as the sand which is upon the sea shore. That this signifies the multitude of corresponding memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of the "sea," as being memory-knowledges in general, or a gathering of them (see n. 28, 2120); and from the signification of "sand," as being memory- knowledges specifically or in particular. Memory-knowledges are compared to "sand," because the little stones of which sand is made, in the internal sense signify memory-knowledges (n. 643, 1298). It is here said that they shall be multiplied "as the stars of the heavens," and also "as the sand of the sea shore," because the stars or knowledges have relation to the rational, but the sand of the sea shore or memory-knowledges to the natural. When the things of the rational man, namely, the goods and truths of knowledges, agree with those of the natural man, namely, with memory-knowledges, so that they make a one, or mutually confirm each other, they then correspond. To this correspondence the Lord reduces the rational and natural things of man when he regenerates him, or makes him spiritual. From this cause it is that both the stars of the heavens and the sand of the sea shore are here mentioned; otherwise one would have been sufficient.
2842-1 Poenituit...juxta verbum meum, Malchizedech; but poenitebit...juxta modum Malchizedechi, n. 6148. [Rotch ed.]