Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
Above in front before the left eye were massed together such as in the life of the body had in secret and with great craftiness plotted against others. They were adulterers, and were still in the world of spirits, as they were among the newcomers. Their custom was to send forth from their troop this way and that some to plot intrigues, not only against conjugial love, but also against good and truth, and most of all against the Lord. They who are thus sent out return to them, and relate what they have heard; and so they take counsel. They also sent one to me, supposing that I was a spirit, because I spoke with the speech of spirits. When that emissary spoke, he uttered scandalous things, mostly against the Lord; so that he was as it were made up of mere scandals. But I answered that he should abstain from such things, as I knew from what band and what refuse he was; and that as regards the Lord, I knew beyond all doubt that He is one with the Father; that the universal heaven is His; that all innocence, peace, love, charity, and mercy are from Him, and all conjugial love also; and that from Him are all good and truth; all of which things are Divine; and that Moses and the Prophets, that is, all and everything in the Word, in the internal sense, treats of Him; and that all the rites of the Jewish Church represented Him; and as I was so certain of these things that I had no doubt, what more did he want? On hearing these things he withdrew with shame. These things were said, that he might tell them to the adulterers who constituted that wicked troop from which he was sent.2752.
In the other life they who have been eaten up with adulteries desire more than others to obsess men, and thus through them to return into the world; but they are kept back in hell by the Lord, lest they should come among the spirits who are with men. The most who are such are from the Christian world; rarely from elsewhere.2753.
There are some in the world who are carried away by the lust of seducing virgins to whoredom, wherever they may be: in nunneries, in families, or with their parents, and also wives; and they insinuate themselves by crafty modes and with flatteries. As they are accustomed to such things, and have formed their nature from them, they retain in the other life the ability to insinuate themselves into societies by flatteries and simulations; but as their thoughts lie plainly open, they are rejected. They thus pass from one society to another, but are everywhere rejected: they are also treated with severity, for they study to steal away the delights and blessedness of others. At length they are admitted into no societies, but after having endured severe punishments, are associated with their like in hell.2754.
The most deceitful sometimes appear high above the head, but their hell is deep under the heel of the foot. They are the modern antediluvians. They ensnare by pretense of innocence, of pity, and of various good affections, with persuasion. When they lived in the world they were adulterers beyond others. Where there was a wife beautiful and young, there they entered without conscience and by such means seduced her. They are invisible and are unwilling to be discovered, as they act in secret. They are also cruel, having cared for themselves alone, and reckoning it as nothing even if the whole world should perish for them. There are great numbers of such spirits at this day, and it was said that they are from Christendom. Their hell is the most grievous of all.2755.
The hells of adulterers are many. There they love nothing more than filth and excrement, in which they now find delight. This may also be evident from many of that sort in the life of the body, to whom it is delightful to think and talk of filthy things, abstaining only for decorum's sake. The delight of adultery is turned into such things in the other life. It is as when the heat of the sun, even that of spring, flows into excrement or into carrion.2756.
There are those who have held as a principle community of wives. These in the other life speak as if they were good, but they are malignant and deceitful. Their punishment is horrible. They are bound together as if into a bundle, and by representation a serpent appears wound around them, which binds them all as it were into a great ball, and thus they are cast out.2757.
When I was being conducted through several abodes, I came to one where heat seized my feet and loins, and it was said that those were there who have indulged in pleasures, but still have not extinguished the natural desire of procreating offspring.2758.
That genuine conjugial love is heaven, is represented in the kingdoms of nature; for there is nothing in all nature that does not in some way represent the Lord's kingdom in general, since the natural kingdom derives all its origin from the spiritual. What is without an origin prior to itself is nothing. Nothing exists that is unconnected with a cause, and thus with an end. What is unconnected falls away in a moment, and becomes nothing; from this then are the representatives of the Lord's kingdom in the kingdoms of nature. That conjugial love is heaven, is manifest from the transformation of little worms into nymphs and chrysalides, and thus into winged insects; for when their time of nuptials comes-which is when they put off their earthly form, or their worm-like form, and are embellished with wings and become flying creatures-they are then elevated into the air, which is their heaven; and there they sport with each other, perform their marriage rites, lay eggs, and nourish themselves on the juices of flowers. They are then also in their beauty; for they have wings decorated with golden, silver, and other elegantly marked colors. Such things does the marriage principle produce among such vile little worms.2759.
On the right side there rose up from the lower earth as it were a roll; and it was said that they were many spirits from the lower class of people, untaught but not depraved. They were peasants and other simple people. I spoke with them, and they said that they know the Lord, to whose name they commend themselves. Further than this they knew little of faith and its mysteries. Afterwards others rose up who knew some little more. It was perceived that their interiors were capable of being opened; for in the other life this can be manifestly perceived. They had conscience, which was communicated to me, that I might know it; and it was said that they lived in conjugial love in simplicity. They said that they loved their consorts and abstained from adulteries. That this was from conscience was evident from their saying that they could not do otherwise, because it was contrary to their will. Such persons are instructed in the other life and are perfected in the good of love and truth of faith, and are at length received among the angels. Preface [to volume 3 of the original Latin] How greatly they are deluded who remain in the sense of the letter alone, and do not search out the internal sense from other passages in the Word in which it is explained, is very evident from the many heresies, every one of which proves its dogmas from the literal sense of the Word; especially is this manifest from that great heresy which the insane and infernal love of self and the world has drawn from the Lord's words to Peter: I say unto thee that thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it; and I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth shall be bound in the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth shall be loosed in the heavens (Matt. 16:15-19).  They who press the sense of the letter think that these things were said of Peter, and that power so great was given him; although they are fully aware that Peter was a very simple man, and that he by no means exercised such power; and that to exercise it is contrary to the Divine. Nevertheless, as owing to the insane and infernal love of self and the world they desire to arrogate to themselves the highest power on earth and in heaven, and to make themselves gods, they explain this according to the letter, and vehemently defend it; whereas the internal sense of these words is, that Faith itself in the Lord, which exists solely with those who are in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor, has that power; and yet not faith, but the Lord from whom faith is. By "Peter" there is meant that faith, as everywhere else in the Word. Upon this is the Church built, and against it the gates of hell do not prevail. This faith has the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and it shuts heaven lest evils and falsities should enter in, and opens heaven for goods and truths. This is the internal sense of these words.  The twelve apostles, like the twelve tribes of Israel, represented nothing else than all the things of such faith (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130 at the end). Peter represented faith itself, James charity, and John the goods of charity (see the preface to Genesis 18); in like manner as did Reuben, Simeon, and Levi, the firstborn sons of Jacob, in the representative Jewish and Israelitish Church, which is plain from a thousand passages in the Word. And as Peter represented faith, the words in question were said to him. From this it is manifest into what darkness those cast themselves, and others with them, who explain all things according to the letter; as those who so explain these words to Peter, by which they derogate from the Lord and arrogate to themselves the power of saving the human race.2760.
CHAPTER 22 The Word as to its internal sense is thus described by John in Revelation: I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse, and He who sat upon him was called faithful and true; and in righteousness He doth judge and make war. His eyes were a flame of fire; and upon His head were many diadems; and He had a name written which no one knew but He Himself; and He was clothed in a garment dipped in blood; and His name is called The Word of God. And the armies which are in heaven followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen white and clean. And He hath upon His garment and upon His thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords (Rev. 19:11-14, 16). What each of these things involves no one can know except from the internal sense. It is manifest that every one of them is something representative and significative, as, that heaven was opened, that the horse was white, that He that sat upon him was faithful and true, and judgeth and maketh war in righteousness; that His eyes were a flame of fire, that upon His head were many diadems, that He had a name written which no one knew but He Himself, that He was clothed in a garment dipped in blood, that the armies which are in heaven followed Him upon white horses, that they were clothed in fine linen white and clean, and that He had upon His garment and upon His thigh a name written. It is said in plain words that it is the Word which is meant, and that it is the Lord who is the Word; for it is said, "His name is called the Word of God," and then, "He hath upon His garment and upon His thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords."  From the interpretation of each of the words it is manifest that the Word is here described as to its internal sense. "Heaven being opened," represents and signifies that the internal sense of the Word is not seen except in heaven, and by those to whom heaven is opened, that is, who are in love to the Lord and thence in faith in Him. The "horse which was white" represents and signifies the understanding of the Word as to its interiors; that a "white horse" is this will be manifest from what follows. That "He who sat upon him" is the Word, and the Lord who is the Word, is evident. He is called "faithful and judging from righteousness" on account of good, and "true and making war from righteousness" on account of truth. His "having upon His head many diadems," signifies all things of faith. His "having a name written which no one knew but He Himself," signifies that no one sees what the Word is in its internal sense but Himself, and he to whom He reveals it. "His being clothed in a garment dipped in blood," signifies the Word in the letter. The "armies in the heavens which followed Him upon white horses," signify those who are in the understanding of the Word as to its interiors. "Clothed in fine linen white and clean," signifies the same in love and thence in faith. The "name written upon His garment and upon His thigh," signifies truth and good. From all this, and from what there precedes and follows, it is manifest that toward the last period the internal sense of the Word will be opened; but what will then come to pass is also described there (verses 17-21).2761.
That the "white horse" is the understanding of the Word as to its interiors, or what is the same, the internal sense of the Word, is evident from the signification of a "horse," as being the intellectual faculty. In the prophetic parts of the Word a horse and a rider are often named; but no one has hitherto known that a "horse" signifies the faculty of understanding, and a "rider" one who is intelligent-as in the prophecy of Jacob, then Israel, respecting Dan: Dan shall be a serpent upon the way, an arrow-snake upon the path, biting the horse's heels, and his rider shall fall backward. I wait for Thy salvation, O Jehovah (Gen. 49:17-18). That a "serpent" is one who reasons concerning Divine arcana from the senses and from memory-knowledges, may be seen above (n. 195); also that a "way" and a "path" are truth (n. 627, 2333); and that the "heel" is the lowest of the natural (n. 259); a "horse" is the understanding of the Word; and a "rider" he that teaches. Hence it is manifest what these prophetic words signify, namely, that one who reasons concerning the truths of faith from the senses and from memory-knowledges, sticks fast in the lowest things of nature only, and thus believes nothing, which is to "fall backward;" wherefore it is added, "I wait for Thy salvation, O Jehovah."  In Habakkuk: O God, Thou dost ride upon Thy horses, Thy chariots are salvation, Thou hast made Thy horses to tread in the sea (Hab. 3:8, 15); where "horses" denote the Divine truths which are in the Word; "chariots," doctrine from them; the "sea," knowledges (n. 28, 2120); and because these are of the understanding of the Word from God, it is said, "Thou hast made Thy horses to tread in the sea." Horses are here attributed to God, as in Revelation, above; to whom they cannot be attributed unless they signify such things.  In David: Sing unto God, sing praises to His name, extol Him that rideth upon the clouds, by His name Jah (Ps. 68:4); to "ride upon the clouds" denotes the understanding of the Word as to its interiors, or in its internal sense. That a "cloud" is the Word in the letter, in which is the internal sense, may be seen in the Preface to Genesis 18, where it is explained what is signified when it is said that the Lord will come in the clouds of heaven with power and glory.  In the same: Jehovah bowed the heavens, and came down, and thick darkness was under His feet; and He rode upon a cherub (Ps. 18:9-10); "thick darkness" here denotes clouds; to "ride upon a cherub" represents the Lord's providence lest man should of himself enter into the mysteries of faith which are in the Word (n. 308). In Zechariah: In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, Holiness unto Jehovah (Zech. 14:20); the "bells of the horses" denote the understanding of the spiritual things of the Word, which are holy.  In Jeremiah: There shall enter in by the gates of this city kings and princes, sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariot and on horses, they, and their princes, the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and this city shall be inhabited forever (Jer. 17:25-26; 22:4); the "city Jerusalem" denotes the Lord's spiritual kingdom and church; "kings," truths (n. 1672, 2015, 2069); "princes," the primary precepts of truth (n. 1482, 2089); "David," the Lord (n. 1888); the "men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem," those who are in the good of love, of charity, and of faith (n. 2268, 2451, 2712); thus to "ride upon a chariot and upon horses" means to be instructed in the doctrine of truth from the internal understanding of the Word.  In Isaiah: Then shalt thou delight thyself in Jehovah, and I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob (Isa. 58:14); to "ride upon the high places of the earth" denotes intelligence. In David: A song of loves: Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O mighty one, Thy glory and Thy majesty; and in Thy majesty go forward, ride upon the word of truth, and of the gentleness of righteousness, and Thy right hand shall teach Thee wonderful things (Ps. 45: title, 3-4); to "ride upon the word of truth" manifestly denotes the understanding of truth; and "upon the word of the gentleness of righteousness," the wisdom of good.  In Zechariah: In that day, saith Jehovah, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness; and I will open Mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the peoples with blindness (Zech. 12:4-5); where also the "horse" manifestly denotes the understanding, which would be smitten with astonishment and blindness; and the "rider" him that understands, who would be smitten with madness. In Hosea: Take away all iniquity, and accept that which is good, and we will render the bullocks of our lips. Asshur shall not save us; we will not ride upon horses; and we will no more say to the work of our hands, Thou art our god (Hos. 14:2-3); "Asshur" denotes reasoning (n. 119, 1186); the "horse" one's own intelligence. Besides these there are many other passages.2762.
That a "horse" signifies the faculty of understanding is from no other source than the representatives in the other life. Often there, in the world of spirits, horses are seen, and this with great variety, and those also that sit on them; and whenever they are seen they signify the faculty of understanding. There are such representatives continually with spirits. It is from the representation of the horse, as being the understanding, that when horses are mentioned in the Word, the spirits and angels with man at once know that the understanding is what is treated of. It is also from this that when spirits from a certain distant world on being imbued with intelligence and wisdom are taken up from the world of spirits into heaven, there appear to them horses shining as with fire; which also I have seen when they were taken up.  From this I could see what is signified by the chariot of fire and horses of fire seen by Elisha when Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven; as also what is signified by the exclamation of Elisha then: "My Father, my Father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof" (2 Kings 2:11, 12); and by Joash king of Israel saying the same to Elisha when he was dying: "My Father, my Father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof" (2 Kings 13:14). That by Elijah and Elisha was represented the Lord as to the Word, will of the Lord's Divine mercy be told elsewhere; the doctrine of love and charity from the Word being meant by the "chariot of fire," and the doctrine of faith therefrom by the "horses of fire." The doctrine of faith is the same as the understanding of the Word as to its interiors, or as to its internal sense.  That chariots and horses are seen in the heavens with spirits and angels, is evident from the fact of their being seen by the prophets, as by Zechariah (chapter 1:8-10; 6:3-7), and by others, and also by Elisha's servant, as thus described in the book of Kings: Jehovah opened the eyes of Elisha's boy, and he saw; and behold the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha (2 Kings 6:17). Moreover, where the abode of the intelligent and wise is, in the world of spirits, chariots and horses appear continually; for the reason as said that by chariots and horses are represented the things of wisdom and of intelligence. Resuscitated persons after death, who are entering into the other life, see represented to them a young man sitting upon a horse, and then alighting from the horse; and by this is signified that they are to be instructed in the knowledge of good and truth before they can come into heaven (see volume 1, n. 187-188).  That chariots and horses signified these things, was well known in the Ancient Church, as also is evident from the book of Job, which is a book of that Church, where are these words: God hath made her to forget wisdom, and hath not imparted to her intelligence; what time she lifteth up herself on high she scorneth the horse and his rider (Job 39:17-19). From the Ancient Church the signification of the horse, as being the faculty of understanding, was extended to the wise round about, even into Greece. From this it came to pass that when they described the sun (by which was signified love, n. 2441, 2495), they placed in it the god of their wisdom and intelligence, and gave him a chariot and four horses of fire; and that when they described the god of the sea, because by the sea were signified knowledges in general (n. 28, 2120), they gave horses also to him; and that when they described the rise of knowledges from the understanding, they represented a flying horse which with his hoof broke open a fountain, where dwelt the virgins that were the sciences; and by the Trojan horse nothing else was signified than a contrivance of their understanding for destroying city walls. Even at this day the intellect is often described, according to the custom received from those ancient people, under the figure of a flying horse, or Pegasus; and learning is described as a fountain; but scarcely anyone knows that a horse, in the mystic sense, signifies the understanding, and a fountain truth; still less that these significatives were handed down to the Gentiles from the Ancient Church.2763.
From all this it is now manifest whence come the representatives and significatives in the Word, namely, from the representatives that exist in the other life. From this source they came to the men of the Most Ancient Church, who were celestial, and were in company with spirits and angels while living on earth. From them the representatives passed to their posterity, and at length to those who merely knew that they had such a signification; but because the representatives came from the most ancient times, and were in their Divine worship, they were venerated and held sacred.  Besides representatives, there are also correspondences which suggest and also signify something altogether different in the spiritual world from what they do in the natural world; as the heart, the affection of good; the eyes, the understanding; the ears, obedience; the hands, power; besides innumerable other correspondences. These are not represented in this way in the world of spirits; but they correspond, as what is natural to what is spiritual. Hence it is that every word, even to the smallest iota of all, in the Word, involves spiritual and heavenly things; and that the Word is in this manner inspired, so that when it is read by man, spirits and angels immediately perceive it spiritually according to the representations and correspondences. But this knowledge, which was so much cultivated and esteemed by the ancients after the flood, and by means of which they were able to think with spirits and angels, is at this day altogether obliterated, so much so that scarcely anyone is willing to believe that it exists; and they who believe in it merely call it a kind of mystical thing, of no use; and this for the reason that man has become altogether worldly and corporeal; to such a degree that when what is spiritual and heavenly is mentioned, he feels a repugnance, and sometimes a loathing, or even nausea. What then will he do in the other life, which lasts forever, and where there is nothing worldly and corporeal, but only what is spiritual and heavenly, which makes the life in heaven? GENESIS 22 1. And it came to pass after these words, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham; and he said, Here am I. 2. And He said, Take I pray thy son, thine only one, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee to the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. 3. And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his boys with him, and Isaac his son; and he clave the wood for the burnt-offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God told him. 4. On the third day, and Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off. 5. And Abraham said unto his boys, Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the boy will go yonder, and we will bow ourselves down, and will come again to you. 6. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together. 7. And Isaac said unto Abraham his father; and he said, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood; and where is the lamb for a burnt-offering? 8. And Abraham said, God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son: and they went both of them together. 9. And they came to the place which God told him of; and Abraham built there the altar, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. 10. And Abraham put forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. 11. And the angel of Jehovah called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Here am I. 12. And He said, Put not forth thine hand upon the boy, and do not anything unto him; for now I know that thou fearest God, and thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only one, from Me. 13. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw, and behold a ram behind, caught in a thicket by his horns; and Abraham went, and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son. 14. And Abraham called the name of that place, Jehovah-will-see, as it is said to this day, In the mountain Jehovah will see. 15. And the angel of Jehovah called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven. 16. And said, By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only one, 17. That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed, as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies. 18. And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast harkened to My voice. 19. And Abraham returned unto his boys; and they rose up, and went together to Beersheba; and Abraham dwelt in Beersheba. 20. And it came to pass after these words that it was told Abraham, saying, Behold, Milcah, she also hath borne children unto Nahor thy brother: 21. Uz his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram; 22. And Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel. 23. And Bethuel begat Rebekah; these eight did Milcah bear to Nahor, Abraham's brother. 24. And his concubine, whose name was Reumah, she also bare Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah.2764.
THE CONTENTS. In this chapter in the internal sense the Lord's most grievous and inmost temptations are treated of, by which He united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence; and also the salvation by this union of those who constitute the Lord's spiritual church.2765.
The Lord's most grievous and inmost temptations are treated of (verses 1, 3-6, 9-11). Concerning the unition of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence, or His glorification, by means of them (verses 2, 11, 12, 16). Concerning the salvation by the Lord's Divine Human of the spiritual, of those who are in charity and faith, within the church (verses 2, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19). And concerning the salvation of those who are in good, outside the church (verses 20, 21, 22, 23, 24).2766.
THE INTERNAL SENSE Verse 1. And it came to pass after these words that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham; and he said, Here am I. "It came to pass after these words," signifies after the things just accomplished; "that God did tempt Abraham," signifies the Lord's most grievous and inmost temptations; "and said unto him, Abraham," signifies the Lord's perception from Divine truth; "and he said, Here am I," signifies thought and reflection.2767.
It came to pass after these words. That this signifies after the things just accomplished, is evident without explication. The things which have been treated of are those respecting Abimelech and Abraham, that they made a covenant in Beersheba, and lastly that Abraham raised up a grove in Beersheba, by which was signified that human rational things were adjoined to the doctrine of faith, which is in itself Divine. Here now the Lord's temptation as to the rational, which is signified by Isaac, is treated of; for by temptations the Lord made His Human Divine, and thus His rational, in which the human commences (n. 2106, 2194), by chastising and expelling all in the rational that was merely human, or the maternal human. This is the connection of the things of the preceding chapter with those in this chapter; whence it is said, "It came to pass after these things that God did tempt Abraham."2768.
That God did tempt Abraham. That this signifies the Lord's most grievous and inmost temptations, is evident from what follows. That in the internal sense by "Abraham" is represented and meant the Lord, is manifest from all that precedes where Abraham is treated of. That the Lord suffered most grievous and inmost temptations, which are described in this chapter in the internal sense, will be made evident. But its being said that "God did tempt," is according to the sense of the letter, in which temptations and many other things are attributed to God; but it is according to the internal sense that God tempts no one; but in the time of temptations is continually liberating from them, as far as possible, or as far as the liberation does not do harm, and is continually looking to the good into which He is leading him who is in the temptations; for God never takes part in temptations in any other manner; and though it is predicated of Him that He permits, still it is not according to the idea which man has of permission, namely, that by permitting He concurs. Man cannot comprehend it in any other manner than that he who permits is also willing; but it is the evil within the man which causes, and even leads into the temptation; and no cause of this is in God-as the cause is not in the king or in the judge, when a man does evil and suffers punishment therefor. For he who separates himself from the laws of Divine order, all of which are the laws of good and thence of truth, casts himself into the laws that are opposite to Divine order, which are those of evil and falsity, and thence of punishments and torments.2769.
And said unto him, Abraham. That this signifies the Lord's perception from Divine truth, is evident from the signification of "saying" in the historical statements of the Word, as being to perceive (see n. 1898, 1919, 2080, 2619); and from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord. That the perception was from Divine truth, may be seen from the fact that "God" is named, and not "Jehovah;" for where truth is treated of in the Word, there "God" is named; but where good is treated of, there "Jehovah" is named (see n. 2586). Hence it is that it is said "God" in this verse and also in those which follow, to verse 11, for the reason that temptation is there treated of. And that it is said "Jehovah" in verse 11 and those that follow, is because liberation is then treated of; for all temptation and condemnation is from truth, but all liberation and salvation is from good. (That truth condemns and good saves may be seen above, n. 1685, 2258, 2335.)2770.
And he said, Here am I. That this signifies thought and reflection, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive (n. 2769), but here to think and reflect, because they are the words of an answer; for all thought and the reflection therefrom comes from perception (n. 1919, 2515, 2552).2771.
Verse 2. And He said, Take I pray thy son, thine only one, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee to the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. "He said, Take I pray thy son," signifies the Divine rational begotten by Him; "thine only one, whom thou lovest," signifies the sole one in the universe by which He was to save the human race; "even Isaac," signifies its quality; "and get thee to the land of Moriah," signifies a place and state of temptation; "and offer him there for a burnt- offering," signifies that He should sanctify Himself to the Divine; "upon one of the mountains," signifies the Divine Love; "which I will tell thee of," signifies as He should perceive.2772.
He said, Take I pray thy son. That this signifies the Divine rational begotten by Him, is evident from the signification of a "son," as being the rational (see n. 2623); here the Divine rational, because by the son is meant Isaac; and that he represents the Lord's Divine rational has been shown above (n. 1893, 2066, 2083, 2630). And as the Lord made His rational Divine by His own power, as has been often said, by "thy son" is also signified that it was begotten by Him (see n. 1893, 2093, 2625).2773.
Thine only one, whom thou lovest. That this signifies the only one in the universe by which He was to save the human race, is evident from the signification of the "only one," as being the sole and indeed the only one in the universe, because the Lord is treated of, who alone as to all His Human became God, or Divine.2774.
Even Isaac. That this signifies the quality of the rational, namely, as being the good of truth and the truth of good, that is, the Divine marriage as to the Lord's Human, is evident from the naming of Isaac (see the preceding chapter, 21, verses 6-7).2775.
And get thee to the land of Moriah. That this signifies a place and state of temptation may be seen from the signification of the "land of Moriah." That the "land of Moriah" means a place of temptation, is manifest from Abraham's being commanded to go thither and offer up his son as a burnt-offering, and thus to undergo the extremity of temptation. That Jerusalem, where the Lord Himself endured the extremity of temptation, was in the same land, is evident from the fact that an altar was built by David on Mount Moriah, and afterwards the temple by Solomon; as is manifest from the book of Chronicles: Solomon began to build the house of Jehovah in Jerusalem, on Mount Moriah, which was seen by David his father, in the place which David prepared in the threshing floor of Ornan [Araunah] the Jebusite (2 Chron. 3:1; compare 1 Chron. 21:16-28 with 2 Sam. 24:16-25). From this it is sufficiently evident that these things which are said respecting the sacrificing of Isaac are representative of the Lord; otherwise this might have been done where Abraham was then tarrying; and he would not have been commanded to proceed from thence a journey of nearly three days.2776.
And offer him there for a burnt-offering. That this signifies that He should sanctify Himself to the Divine, is evident from the representation of a burnt-offering among the Hebrew nation and in the Jewish church, as being the most holy thing of their worship. There were burnt-offerings and there were sacrifices, and what these represented may be seen above (n. 922, 923, 1823, 2180). Their sanctifications were made by means of them, and hence it is that by "offering up for a burnt-offering" is here signified to be sanctified to the Divine, for the Lord Himself sanctified Himself to the Divine, that is, united His Human to His Divine by the combats and victories of temptations (see n. 1663, 1690, 1691 at the end, 1692, 1737, 1787, 1812, 1813, 1820).  It is a common belief at this day that the burnt-offerings and sacrifices signified the Lord's passion, and that by this the Lord made expiation for the iniquities of all; indeed, that He took them upon Himself, and thus bore them; and that those who believe are in this manner justified and saved, provided they think, even though it were in the last hour before death, that the Lord suffered for them, no matter how they may have lived during the whole course of their life. But the case is not really so: the passion of the cross was the extremity of the Lord's temptation, by which He fully united His Human to His Divine and His Divine to His Human, and thus glorified Himself. This very union is the means by which those who have the faith in Him which is the faith of charity, can be saved. For the supreme Divine Itself could no longer reach to the human race, which had removed itself so far from the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith, that men no longer even acknowledged them, and still less perceived them. In order therefore that the supreme Divine might be able to come down to man in such a state, the Lord came into the world and united His Human to the Divine in Himself; which union could not be effected otherwise than by the most grievous combats of temptations and by victories, and at length by the last, which was that of the cross.  Hence it is that the Lord can from His Divine Human illumine minds, even those far removed from the celestial things of love, provided they are in the faith of charity. For the Lord in the other life appears to the celestial angels as a Sun, and to the spiritual as a Moon (n. 1053, 1521, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495), whence comes all the light of heaven. This light of heaven is of such a nature that when it illumines the sight of spirits and angels, it also illumines their understanding at the same time. This is inherent in that light, so that in heaven so much as anyone has of external light, so much has he of internal light, that is, so much of understanding; which shows wherein the light of heaven differs from the light of the world. It is the Lord's Divine Human which illuminates both the sight and the understanding of the spiritual; which would not take place if the Lord had not united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence; and if He had not united them, man in the world would no longer have had any capacity of understanding and perceiving what is good and true, nor indeed would a spiritual angel in heaven have had any; so that they would have had nothing of blessedness and happiness, consequently nothing of salvation. From this we can see that the human race could not have been saved unless the Lord had assumed the Human and glorified it.  Hence then anyone may infer what truth there is in the idea that men are saved if they only think from a kind of interior emotion that the Lord suffered for them, and took away their sins, however they may have lived; whereas the light of heaven from the Lord's Divine Human cannot reach to any but those who live in the good of faith, that is, in charity; or what is the same, those who have conscience. The very plane into which that light can operate, or the receptacle of that light, is the good of faith, or charity, and thus conscience. (That the spiritual have salvation from the Lord's Divine Human, may be seen above, n. 1043, 2661, 2716, 2718.)2777.
Upon one of the mountains. That this signifies the Divine Love, is evident from the signification of a "mountain," as being love (see n. 795, 796, 1430); here, the Divine Love, because it is predicated of the Lord; and what the quality of this love is, may be seen above (n. 1690, 1691 at the end, 1789, 1812, 1820, 2077, 2253, 2500, 2572). As it was the Divine Love from which the Lord fought in temptations and conquered, and by which He sanctified and glorified Himself, it is here said to Abraham that he should offer up Isaac for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains in the land of Moriah. This representative is elucidated by the fact that an altar was built by David, and the temple was built by Solomon, upon the mountain of Moriah (n. 2775); for the altar upon which burnt-offerings and sacrifices were offered, was the principal representative of the Lord, as was afterwards the temple. That the altar was so may be seen above (n. 921); and it is evident in David: Let them bring me to the mountain of Thy holiness, and to Thy tabernacles; and I will go unto the altar of God, unto God, the gladness of my joy (Ps. 43:3-4). That the temple was so too, is evident in John: Jesus said, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. He spake of the temple of His body (John 2:19, 21).2778.
Which I will tell thee of. That this signifies as He should perceive, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive (see above, n. 2769).2779.
Verse 3. And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his boys with him, and Isaac his son; and he clave the wood for the burnt-offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God told him. "And Abraham rose early in the morning," signifies a state of peace and innocence; "and saddled his ass," signifies the natural man which He prepared; "and took two of his boys," signifies the former rational which He had adjoined; "and Isaac his son," signifies the Divine rational begotten by Himself; "and he clave the wood for the burnt-offering," signifies the merit of righteousness; "and rose up," signifies elevation; "and went unto the place of which God told him," signifies the state at that time according to perception.2780.
And Abraham rose early in the morning. That this signifies a state of peace and innocence, is evident from the signification of "morning," and also of "rising early," when predicated of the Lord, who here is "Abraham." "Morning" in the universal sense signifies the Lord, and hence His kingdom; consequently the celestial of love in general and in particular (as was shown n. 2333); and as it signifies these, it signifies the state itself in which they are, which state is that of peace and innocence. The state of peace in the heavens is like that of the dawn on earth. In the state of peace in the heavens come forth all celestial and spiritual things, and derive therefrom all that is auspicious, blessed, and happy in them, as in the time of dawn on earth all things come forth before man as things of delight and gladness; for all the singulars derive their quality from the general affection (see n. 920, 2384). The case is the same with the state of innocence: this comes forth in the state of peace, and is a general thing affecting all the things of love and faith. Unless these have innocence in them, they lack their essential. Hence it is that no one can come into heaven unless he have something of innocence (see Mark 10:15). It is plain from this what "morning" signifies in the internal sense, and still more when it is said that he "rose early in the morning;" and as in the highest sense "morning" is the Lord, and as the state is from Him which effects and affects all things in His kingdom, "morning" and "rising in the morning" signify many other things which come forth in that state; and this as related to the things which follow in the internal sense.2781.
And saddled his ass. That this signifies the natural man which He prepared, is evident from the signification of an "ass," as explained in what now follows. There are in man things of the will and things of the understanding; to the former class belong the things of good, to the latter those of truth. There are various kinds of beasts by which the things of the will, or those of good, are signified; such as lambs, sheep, kids, goats, bullocks, oxen (see n. 1823, 2179, 2180); and there are likewise beasts by which intellectual things, or those of truth, are signified, namely, horses, mules, wild-asses, camels, asses, and also birds. That the intellectual faculty is signified by the "horse," has been shown above (n. 2761, 2762). That by the "wild-ass" truth separate from good is signified, see above (n. 1949). That by the "camel" there is signified memory-knowledge in general, and by the "ass" memory-knowledge in particular, may be seen above (n. 1486).  There are two things which constitute the natural with man, or what is the same, which constitute the natural man, namely, natural good and natural truth. Natural good is the delight flowing forth from charity and faith; natural truth is the memory-knowledge of them. That natural truth is what is signified by the "ass," and rational truth by the "mule," may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah: The prophecy of the beasts of the south. In a land of straightness and distress; the lion and the old lion, 2781-1 and from them the viper and the flying fire-serpent; they carry their riches upon the shoulder of young asses, and their treasures upon the hump of camels, to a people that shall not profit; and the Egyptians shall help in vain and to no purpose (Isa. 30:6-7); those are called the "beasts of the south" who are in the knowledges of good and truth, but who make them not of the life but of memory; of whom it is said that "they shall bring their riches upon the shoulder of young asses, and their treasures upon the hump of camels," for the reason that "young asses" signify memory-knowledges in particular, and "camels" memory-knowledges in general: that the "Egyptians" are memory-knowledges, may be seen above (n. 1164, 1165, 1186); of whom it is said that "they shall help in vain and to no purpose." That this prophecy has an internal sense, without which it is understood by nobody, is plain to everyone; for without the internal sense it cannot be known what the prophecy of the beasts of the south is, the lion and the old lion, the viper and the flying fire-serpent; and what is meant by these beasts bringing their riches upon the shoulder of young asses, and their treasures upon the hump of camels, and why it immediately follows that the Egyptians shall help in vain and to no purpose. The like is meant by the "ass" in the prophecy of Israel respecting Issachar, in Moses: Issachar is a bony ass, lying down between the burdens (Gen. 49:14).  In Zechariah: This shall be the plague wherewith Jehovah will smite all the peoples that shall fight against Jerusalem; there shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of every beast (Zech. 14:12, 15); that by the "horse," "mule," "camel," and "ass," are signified things of the understanding in man, which will be affected by the plague, is evident from all that precedes and follows there; for the plagues which precede the last judgment or consummation of the age are treated of, a subject also much treated of by John in Revelation, and by the rest of the prophets in many places. By these animals are meant those who will then fight against Jerusalem, that is, against the Lord's spiritual church and its truths, and who will be affected by such plagues as to the things of their understanding.  In Isaiah: Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters, that send forth the foot of the ox and the ass (Isa. 32:20); "they that sow beside all waters" denote those who suffer themselves to be instructed in spiritual things. (That "waters" are spiritual things, thus intellectual things of truth, may be seen above, n. 680, 739, 2702.) "They that send forth the foot of the ox and the ass" denote natural things which are to do service. The "ox" is the natural as to good (see n. 2180, 2566). The "ass" is the natural as to truth.  In Moses: Binding his young ass unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he hath washed his garments in wine, and his vesture in the blood of grapes (Gen. 49:11); this is the prophecy of Jacob, at that time Israel, concerning the Lord; the "vine" and the "choice vine" denote the spiritual church external and internal (n. 1069); the "young ass" denotes natural truth; the "ass's colt" rational truth. The reason an "ass's colt" denotes rational truth is that a "she-ass" signifies the affection of natural truth (n. 1486), the son of which is rational truth, as may be seen above (n. 1895, 1896, 1902, 1910).  In old times a judge rode upon a she-ass, and his sons upon young asses; for the reason that the judges represented the goods of the church, and their sons the truths thence derived. But a king rode upon a she-mule, and his sons upon mules, by reason that kings and their sons represented the truths of the church (see n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069). That a judge rode upon a she-ass is evident in the book of Judges: My heart is toward the lawgivers of Israel, that offered themselves willingly among the people; bless ye Jehovah, ye that ride upon white she-asses, ye that sit upon carpets (Judg. 5:9-10). That the sons of the judges rode upon young asses: Jair the judge over Israel had thirty sons, that rode on thirty young asses (Judges 10:3-4, and in other places). Abdon the judge of Israel had forty sons, and thirty sons' sons, that rode on seventy young asses (Judges 12:14). That a king rode upon a she-mule: David said unto them, Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon the she-mule which is mine. And they caused Solomon to ride upon king David's she-mule, and Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anointed him king in Gihon (1 Kings 1:33, 38, 44-45). That the sons of a king rode upon he-mules: All the sons of king David rose up, and rode each one upon his mule, and fled, because of Absalom (2 Sam. 13:29).  Hence it is manifest that to ride on a she-ass was the badge of a judge, and to ride on a she-mule, the badge of a king; and that to ride on a young ass was the badge of a judge's sons, and to ride on a mule was the badge of a king's sons; for the reason as already said that a she-ass represented and signified the affection of natural good and truth, a she-mule the affection of rational truth, an ass or a young ass natural truth itself, and a mule and also the son of a she-ass rational truth. Hence it is plain what is meant by the prophecy concerning the Lord in Zechariah: Rejoice, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold, thy King cometh unto thee. He is just and having salvation, lowly and riding upon an ass, and upon a young ass the son of she-asses. His dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth (Zech. 9:9-10). That the Lord, when He came to Jerusalem, willed to ride upon these animals, is known from the Evangelists, as in Matthew: Jesus sent two disciples, saying unto them, Go into the village that is over against you, and straightway ye shall find a she-ass tied, and a colt with her; loose them, and bring them unto Me. This was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Zion, Behold thy King cometh unto thee, meek, sitting upon a she-ass, and upon a colt the son of a beast of burden. And they brought the she-ass and the colt, and put their garments upon them, and set Him thereon (Matt. 21:1-2, 4-5, 7).  To "ride upon an ass" was a sign that the natural was made subordinate; and to "ride upon a colt the son of a she-ass" was a sign that the rational was made subordinate. (That the "son of a she-ass" signified the same as a "mule" has been shown above at the passage from Gen. 49:11.) From this their signification, and because it belonged to the highest judge and to a king to ride upon them, and at the same time that the representatives of the church might be fulfilled, it pleased the Lord to do this: as is thus described in John: On the next day a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took branches of palm trees, and went forth to meet Him, and cried, Hosanna, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel. And Jesus, having found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written, Fear not, daughter of Zion; behold thy King cometh sitting on the colt of a she-ass. These things understood not His disciples at the first; but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of Him, and that they had done these things unto Him (John 12:12-16; Mark 11:1-12; Luke 19:28-41).  From all this it is now evident that all and everything in the church of that period was representative of the Lord, and therefore of the celestial and spiritual things that are in His kingdom-even to the she-ass and the colt of a she-ass, by which the natural man as to good and truth was represented. The reason of the representation was that the natural man ought to serve the rational, and this the spiritual, this the celestial, and this the Lord: such is the order of subordination.  Since by an "ox and an ass" the natural man as to good and truth is signified, many laws were therefore given in which oxen and asses are mentioned, which laws at first sight do not appear to be worthy of mention in the Divine Word; but when unfolded as to their internal sense, the spiritual meaning in them appears to be of great moment-as the following in Moses: If a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall into it, the owner of the pit shall give money to the owner, and the dead shall be his (Exod. 21:33-34). If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again. If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to remove it, removing thou shalt remove it from him (Exod. 23:4-5; Deut. 22:1, 3). Thou shalt not see thy brother's ass or his ox falling down in the way, and hide thyself from them; lifting thou shalt lift them up again (Deut. 22:4). Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together. Thou shalt not wear a mixed web of wool and linen together (Deut. 22:10-11). Six days thou shalt do thy works, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest, that thine ox and thine ass may rest also, and the son of thy handmaid, and the sojourner (Exod. 23:12). Here the "ox and ass" signify nothing else in the spiritual sense than natural good and truth.2782.
And took two of his boys. That this signifies the former rational which He had adjoined, is evident from the signification of "boys." A "boy" and "boys" signify various things in the Word; because these terms are applied not only to the sons of the house but also to the sons of the stranger, and to servants also; here to servants. (That man's natural things which are to serve the rational are dignified by "servants" also in the Word, may be seen above, n. 1486, 1713, 2541, 2567.) As however they are not here called "servants," but "boys," the former or merely human rational, which was to serve the Divine rational, is signified; as may also be seen from the very series of the things.2783.
And Isaac his son. That this signifies the Divine rational begotten by Himself, is evident from the representation of Isaac, as being the Lord's Divine rational, often spoken of before. That it was begotten by Him is meant by its being called his "son" (as above, n. 2772).2784.
And he clave the wood for the burnt-offering. That this signifies the merit of righteousness, is evident from the signification of "wood" and of "cleaving wood." That "wood" signifies the goods that are of works, and of righteousness; and that "cleaving wood" signifies the placing of merit in the goods that are of works, but "cleaving wood for a burnt-offering" the merit of righteousness, appears too remote to be known without revelation. That "cleaving wood" denotes placing merit in the goods that are of works, was made clear to me by what I have seen and have described in volume 1 (n. 1110) respecting the hewers of wood, as being those who had desired to merit salvation by the goods which they had done. Moreover there are others also, in front, above, a little to the right, from a certain world, who in the same way had claimed all good to themselves, and appear in like manner to cut and cleave wood. When these seem to themselves to be laboring, they sometimes shine in the face from a kind of fatuous fire, which is the good of merit that they attribute to themselves. The reason of its appearing so is that wood is a representative of good; as was all the wood in the ark and in the temple, and also all the wood upon the altar when the burnt-offerings and sacrifices were made. But they who attribute good to themselves, and make it self-meritorious, these also are said in the Word to "worship wood," or a "graven image" of wood.2785.
And he rose up. That this signifies elevation, is evident from the signification of "rising up," as meaning where it occurs in the Word some elevation.2786.
And went unto the place of which God told him. That this signifies His state at that time according to perception, is evident from the signification of "place," as being state (see n. 1273-1277, 1376-1381, 2625); and from the signification of "God saying," as being to perceive from the Divine (n. 2769, 2778). As regards the state itself, it is described in this verse, that is, the state which the Lord assumed when He underwent temptations, and here that which He assumed when He underwent the most grievous and inmost temptations. His first preparation for that state was that He entered into a state of peace and innocence, and that He prepared the natural man in Himself, as also the rational, so that they should serve the Divine rational, and that He adjoined the merit of righteousness, and in this manner elevated Himself. These things cannot be explained at all to the comprehension, or be presented to the idea, of anyone who does not know that many states exist together, and these distinct from one another; and who does not also know what a state of peace and innocence is, what the natural man is, what the rational man, and also what the merit of righteousness is; for he must first have a distinct idea of all these, and must also know that the Lord from His Divine could induce upon Himself whatever states He pleased, and that He prepared Himself for temptations by inducing many states. Although these things are in obscurity as of night with men, they are nevertheless in clearness as of day with the angels, who being in the light of heaven from the Lord, see in these and similar things innumerable things distinctly, and from the affection flowing in at the time perceive ineffable joy. Hence it is evident how far human understanding and perception fall short of angelic understanding and perception.2787.
Verse 4. On the third day, and Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off. "On the third day," signifies completeness, and the beginning of sanctification; "and Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw," signifies thought and view from the Divine; "the place afar off," signifies the state which He foresaw.2788.
On the third day. That this signifies completeness, and the beginning of sanctification, is evident from the signification of the "third day." "Day" in the Word signifies state (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893); as also does "year," and in general all periods of time; as an "hour," a "day," a "week," a "month," a "year," an "age;" as also "morning," "noon," "evening," and "night;" and "spring," "summer," "autumn," and "winter;" and when "third" is added to these, they signify the end of that state, and at the same time the beginning of the following state. As the Lord's sanctification is here treated of, which was effected by temptations, the "third day" signifies completeness, and at the same time the beginning of sanctification, as also follows from what has been already said. The reason of this signification is that when the Lord had fulfilled all things He would rise again on the third day; for the things that were done, or that would be done by the Lord when He lived in the world, were in the representatives of the church as if already done (as also they were in the internal sense of the Word); for in God to be and to become are the same; indeed all eternity is present to Him.  Hence the number "three" was representative, not only in the Ancient Church and in the Jewish, but also among various nations. (See what is said concerning this number above, n. 720, 901, 1825.) That this was the origin of the signification of "three," is evident in Hosea: Let us return unto Jehovah, for He hath wounded, and He will heal us; He hath smitten, and He will bind us up; after two days He will revive us, on the third day He will raise us up, that we may live before Him (Hos. 6:1-2); where the "third day" denotes the Lord's coming, and His resurrection. And from Jonah, that he "was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights" (Jonah 1:17); concerning which the Lord thus speaks in Matthew: As Jonah was in the whale's belly three days and three nights, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth (Matt. 12:40).  Be it known that in the internal sense of the Word "three days" and the "third day" signify the same, as also do "three" and "third" in the passages which now follow. In John: Jesus said to the Jews, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. He spake of the temple of His body (John 2:19-21; Matt. 26:61; Mark 14:58; 15:29).  That the Lord rose again on the third day is known. For the same reason the Lord distinguished the periods of His life into three, as stated in Luke: Go ye and tell that fox, Behold I cast out demons, and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I am perfected (Luke 13:32). His last temptation also, that of the cross, the Lord endured at the "third hour" of the day (Mark 15:25); and after three hours there came darkness over the whole land, or at the "sixth hour" (Luke 23:44); and after three hours, or at the "ninth hour," the end (Mark 15:33-34, 37). But on the morning of the "third day" He rose again (Mark 16:1-4; Luke 24:7); (see Matt. 16:21; 17:22-23; 20:18-19; Mark 8:31; 9:31; 10:33-34; Luke 18:33; 24:46). From all this, and especially from the Lord's resurrection on the third day, the number "three" was representative and significative, as may be seen from the following passages in the Word: When Jehovah came down upon Mount Sinai, He told Moses to sanctify the people today and tomorrow, and that they should wash their garments, and be ready against the third day, for on the third day Jehovah would descend (Exod. 19:10-11, 15-16). When they set forth from the mount of Jehovah on a journey of three days, the ark of Jehovah went before them a three days' journey to seek out a resting place for them (Num. 10:33). There was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days, and they saw not one another for three days, but the sons of Israel had light (Exod. 10:22-23).  The flesh of the sacrifice of a vow, or of a freewill-offering, was to be eaten on the first and second day; nothing was to be left to the third day, but the remainder was to be burnt, because it was an abomination. So too with the flesh of the peace-offering; and if it should be eaten on the third day it would not propitiate, but the soul should carry its iniquity (Lev. 7:16-18; 19:6-7). He that touched one dead was to purify himself on the third day, and on the seventh day he should be clean; otherwise that soul should be cut off from Israel and one that was clean should sprinkle water upon him that was unclean on the third day and on the seventh day (Num. 19:12-13, 19). They who slew a person in battle, or touched one that was slain, were to purify themselves on the third day, and on the seventh day (Num. 31:19).  When they came into the land of Canaan the fruit was to be uncircumcised three years, and was not to be eaten (Lev. 19:23). At the end of three years they were to bring all the tithes of their increase in that year and lay it up in their gates, that the Levite, the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow might eat (Deut. 14:28-29; 24:12). Three times in the year they were to keep a feast to Jehovah, and three times in the year every male was to appear before the face of the Lord Jehovih (Exod. 23:14, 17; Deut. 16:16). Joshua told the people that in three days they should pass over the Jordan and inherit the land (Josh. 1:11; 3:2).  Jehovah called to Samuel three times, and he answered the third time (1 Sam. 3:8). When Saul wished to kill David, David hid himself in the field till the third evening. Jonathan said to David that he would sound his father on the third day. Jonathan shot three arrows by the side of the stone, and David then fell upon his face to the earth before Jonathan and bowed himself down three times (1 Sam. 20:5, 12, 19-20, 30, 36, 41). David was to choose one of three things: seven years of famine in the land; or that he should flee before his enemies three months; or a pestilence in the land three days (2 Sam. 24:12-13).  There was a famine in the days of David three years, year after year (2 Sam. 21:1). Elijah stretched himself upon the dead child three times and brought him to life (1 Kings 17:21). When Elijah had built the altar to Jehovah, he told them to pour water upon the burnt offering and upon the wood three times (1 Kings 18:34). The fire twice consumed the commanders over fifty, sent to Elijah, but not him that was sent the third time (2 Kings 1:13). It was a sign to king Hezekiah that they should eat that year what sprung up spontaneously, in the second year the aftergrowth, but in the third year they should sow, reap, plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them (2 Kings 19:29).  Daniel entered into his house and had the windows open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, and here three times a day he blessed upon his knees and prayed (Dan. 6:11, 14). Daniel mourned three weeks of days, eating no pleasant bread, nor drinking wine, nor anointing himself, until the three weeks of days were fulfilled (Dan. 10:2-3). Isaiah went naked and barefoot three years, for a sign and a wonder upon Egypt and upon Cush (Isa. 20:3). Out of the candlestick went forth three branches on each side, and three almond-shaped cups on each branch (Exod. 25:32-33). In the Urim and Thummim there were three precious stones in each row (Exod. 28:17-19).  In the new temple there were to be three chambers of the gate on this side and three on that side, and they three should have one measure; at the porch of the house the breadth of the gate should be three cubits on this side and three cubits on that side (Ezek. 40:10, 21, 48). In the new Jerusalem there were to be three gates to the north, three to the east, three to the south, and three to the west (Ezek. 48:31-34; Rev. 21:13). So in the following passages: Peter denied Jesus thrice (Matt. 26:34, 69 and following verses). The Lord said to Peter three times, "Lovest thou Me?" (John 21:17). Also in the parable, the man who planted the vineyard sent servants three times, and at length his son (Luke 20:12; Mark 12:2, 4-6). They who labored in the vineyard were hired at the third hour, the sixth hour, the ninth hour, and the eleventh hour (Matt. 20:1-17). Because the fig tree did not bear fruit for three years, it was to be cut down (Luke 13:6, 7).  As a trine and a third were representative, so also was a third part; as that in the meat offering of fine flour two tenths were mixed with a third part of a hin of oil and the wine for a libation was a third part of a hin (Num. 15:6, 7; Ezek. 46:14). The prophet Ezekiel was to pass a razor upon his head, and upon his beard, and then divide the hair and burn a third part in the fire, and smite a third with the sword, about it [the city], and scatter a third to the wind (Ezek. 5:1-2, 11). In the whole land, two parts were to be cut off and the third was to be left; but the third was to be brought through the fire and proved (Zech. 13:8-9).  When the first angel sounded there came hail and fire mingled with blood, and it fell upon the earth so that a third part of the trees were burnt up. The second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea, and a third part of the sea became blood; because of which a third part of the creatures in the sea having souls, died, and a third part of the ships were destroyed. The third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven burning like a lamp, and it fell upon a third part of the rivers; the name of the star was Wormwood. The fourth angel sounded, and a third part of the sun was smitten, and a third part of the moon, and a third part of the stars, so that a third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night in like manner (Rev. 8:7-12).  The four angels were loosed to kill a third part of men (Rev. 9:15). By these three were the third part of men killed, by the fire, and the smoke, and the brimstone, which proceeded out of the mouth of the horses (Rev. 9:18). The dragon drew with his tail a third part of the stars of heaven and cast them to the earth (Rev. 12:4). A "third part," however, signifies some, and what is not yet complete; but the "third," and a "trine," what is complete; and this, of evil to the evil, and of good to the good.2789.
And Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw. That this signifies thought and mental view from the Divine, is evident from the signification of the "eyes," as being intelligence (see n. 2701); hence to "lift up the eyes" denotes to elevate the intelligence, thus to think; and from the signification of "seeing," as being to view from the Divine, because it is predicated of the Lord.2790.
The place afar off. That this signifies into the state which He foresaw, is evident from the signification of "place," as being state (see n. 1273-1277, 1376-1381, 2625); and from the signification of "seeing afar off," as being to foresee.2791.
Verse 5. And Abraham said unto his boys, Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the boy will go yonder, and we will bow ourselves down, and will come again to you. "Abraham said unto his boys, Abide ye here with the ass," signifies the separation of the former rational together with the natural at that time; "and I and the boy will go yonder," signifies the Divine rational in a state of truth prepared for the most grievous and inmost combats of temptations; the "boy" is the Divine rational in such a state; "and we will bow ourselves down," signifies submission; "and will come again to you," signifies conjunction afterwards.2792.
Abraham said unto his boys, Abide ye here with the ass. That this signifies the separation of the former rational together with the natural at that time, is evident from the signification of "abiding here," as being to be separated so long; from the signification of the "boys," as being the former rational (explained above, n. 2782); and from the signification of the "ass," as being the natural man, or the natural (also explained above, n. 2781).2793.
And I and the boy will go yonder. That this signifies the Divine rational in a state of truth prepared for the most grievous and inmost combats of temptations, is evident; and that the "boy" is the Divine rational in such a state, is evident from the representation of Isaac, as being the Divine rational; but as he is not here called "Isaac," nor "my son," as before, but "the boy," it denotes the Divine rational in such a state, concerning which presently.2794.
And we will bow ourselves down. That this signifies submission, is evident without explication.2795.
And will come again to you. That this signifies conjunction afterwards, is also evident without explication. As the Lord's most grievous and inmost temptations are treated of in this chapter, all the states that He assumed when He underwent these temptations are described. The first state is described in the third verse, the second state in this verse, the third state in the verse next following, and the rest afterwards. But these states cannot be expounded to the common apprehension unless many things are first known, not only respecting the Lord's Divine, as here represented by Abraham, but also respecting His Divine Human as represented by Isaac, and respecting the state of this rational when He engaged in and underwent the combats of temptation (this being the "boy"); and also what and of what quality the former rational was, and also the natural which it had; and likewise what the state was when the one was adjoined to the other, and what the state was when they were more or less separated. Moreover many things concerning temptations must be known, as what exterior and interior temptations are, and hence what were the inmost and most grievous temptations the Lord had, and which are treated of in this chapter. So long as these things are unknown, the things contained in this verse cannot possibly be described to the comprehension; and if they should be described, even most clearly, they would still appear obscure. To the angels, who are in the light of heaven from the Lord, all these things are manifest and clear, indeed blessed, because they are most heavenly.  Here we will merely say that the Lord could not be tempted at all when He was in the Divine Itself, for the Divine is infinitely above all temptation; but He could be tempted as to His human. This is the reason why when He was to undergo the most grievous and inmost temptations, He adjoined to Himself the prior human, that is, the rational and the natural of it, as described in verse 3; and why He afterwards separated Himself from these, as is said in this verse; but nevertheless retaining something by means of which He could be tempted; which is the reason why it is not here said, "Isaac my son," but "the boy," by whom is meant the Divine rational in such a state, namely, in a state of truth, prepared for the most grievous and inmost combats of temptations (see n. 2793). That neither the Divine Itself nor the Divine Human could be tempted, must be evident to everyone simply from the fact that not even the angels can approach the Divine, much less the spirits who induce temptations, and still less the hells. Hence it is manifest why the Lord came into the world, and put on the human state itself with its infirmity; for thus He could be tempted as to the human, and by means of the temptations subjugate the hells, and reduce each and all things to obedience and into order, and save the human race which had removed itself so far away from the supreme Divine.2796.
As regards the putting on of the various states by the Lord which is here treated of, they cannot but be unknown to man, because he never reflects on his changes of state; which are nevertheless going on continually, both as to what is of the understanding or the thoughts, and as to what is of the will or the affections. The reason of his not reflecting upon them is that he believes that all things in him follow in natural order, and that there is nothing higher which directs; whereas the case is that all things are disposed by means of the spirits and angels with him; and all his states and changes of states are therefrom, and are thus to eternity directed by the Lord to ends which the Lord alone foresees. That the reality is so, has become most fully known to me now by the experience of many years. It has also been given to know and observe what spirits and angels were with me, and what states they induced; and this I can solemnly assert-that all states, even to the least particulars, come from this source and are thereby directed by the Lord. It has also been given to know and observe that in every state there are a great many others, which do not appear, and which together appear as one general state; and that these states are disposed in relation to the states which follow in order in their series. With a man these things are done by the Lord; but with the Lord Himself, when He lived in the world, they were done by Himself; because He was Divine, and the very being of His life was Jehovah.  The changes of state with man as to what is of the understanding and as to what is of the will, and the order in which they follow on, as also the series through which they pass, and thus how they are bent by the Lord as far as possible to good, it belongs to the angels to know. The wisdom of the angels is such that they perceive all these things most minutely. Hence it is that these things which are revealed in the internal sense concerning the changes of state with the Lord, are clearly and distinctly perceivable by the angels, because they are in the light of heaven from the Lord; and they are also in some degree intelligible to a man who lives in simple good; but they are merely obscure and as nothing to those who are in evil, and also to those who are in the deliriums of wisdom; for these have obscured and extinguished their natural and rational light by many things which have induced darkness, however much they may believe that they are preeminently in light.2797.
Verse 6. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together. "Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering," signifies the merit of righteousness; "and laid it upon Isaac," signifies that it was adjoined to the Divine rational; "and he took in his hand the fire and the knife," signifies the good of love and the truth of faith; "and they went both of them together," signifies unition as far as possible.2798.
Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son. That this signifies the merit of righteousness, is evident from what was said and shown above (n. 2784), thus without further explication. That he "laid it upon Isaac" signifies that the merit of righteousness was adjoined to the Divine rational, is evident from the representation of Isaac, as being the Lord's Divine rational (often shown before) and from the signification of "laying upon him," as being to adjoin. He is called his "son," because the Lord's Divine Human was not only conceived, but was also born of Jehovah. That the Lord was conceived of Jehovah is most fully known from the Word of the Lord; hence He is called the "Son of the Highest," the "Son of God," and the "Only-begotten of the Father," in many places (Matt. 2:15; 3:16-17; 16:13-17; 17:5; 27:43, 54; Mark 1:10; 9:7, 9; 14:61-62; Luke 1:31-32, 35; 3:21-22; 9:35; 10:22; John 1:14, 18, 50; 3:13, 16-18; 5:20-27; 6:69; 9:34-35, 38; 10:35-36; 20:30-31), and in many other places He calls Jehovah His "Father."  That He was born of the virgin Mary is known, yet as another man; but when He was born again, or became Divine, it was from Jehovah who was in Him, and who was Himself as to the very being of life. The unition of the Divine and the Human Essence was effected mutually and reciprocally, so that He united the Divine Essence to the Human and the Human to the Divine (see n. 1921, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2018, 2025, 2083, 2508, 2523, 2618, 2628, 2632, 2728, 2729). Hence it is evident that the Lord made the Human in Himself Divine by His own power, and thus became righteousness. The merit of righteousness was what was adjoined to the Divine rational when He underwent inmost temptations, and from it He then fought, and against this the evil genii fought, until He glorified this also. These are the things meant in the internal sense by Abraham laying the wood of the burnt-offering upon Isaac his son, and these are what are perceived by the angels when the words are read.2799.
And he took in his hand the fire and the knife. That this signifies the good of love and the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of "fire," as being the good of love (see n. 934); and from the signification of a "knife," as being the truth of faith. That the knife used upon the victims in the sacrifices signified the truth of faith, may be seen from the signification of a "sword" or "little sword" in the Word; for instead of "knife" it is said "little sword." Both have the same signification, but with the difference that the knife used for sacrifices signified the truth of faith, but a sword truth combating; and as a knife is rarely mentioned in the Word, for a secret reason to be mentioned presently, we may show what a "sword" signifies. A "sword" in the internal sense signifies the truth of faith combating, and also the vastation of truth; and in the opposite sense falsity combating, and the punishment of falsity.  I. That a "sword" signifies the truth of faith combating, may be seen from the following passages. In David: Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O mighty One, prosper in Thy glow and Thy majesty, ride upon the word of truth, and Thy right hand shall teach Thee wonderful things (Ps. 45:3-4); where the Lord is treated of, the "sword" denoting truth combating. In the same: Let the merciful exult in glory, let them sing upon their beds; let the high praises of God be in their throat, and a two-edged sword in their hand (Ps. 149:5-6). In Isaiah: Jehovah hath called Me from the womb; from the bowels of My mother hath He made mention of My name, and He hath made My mouth like a sharp sword, and hath made Me a polished arrow (Isa. 49:1-2); a "sharp sword" denotes truth combating; and a "polished arrow," the truth of doctrine (see n. 2686, 2709). In the same: Asshur shall fall by the sword not of a man; and the sword not of man shall devour him; and he shall flee before the sword, and his young men shall become tributary (Isa. 31:8); "Asshur" denotes reasoning in Divine things (n. 119, 1186); the "sword not of a man, and not of man," falsity; the "sword before which he shall flee," truth combating.  In Zechariah: Turn you to the stronghold, ye prisoners of hope; even today do I declare that I will render double unto thee; I who have bent Judah for Me as a bow, I have filled Ephraim, and have stirred up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons, O Javan, and I will make thee as the sword of a mighty man, and Jehovah shall be seen over them, and His arrows shall go forth as the lightning (Zech. 9:12-14); the "sword of a mighty man" denotes truth combating. In John: In the midst of the seven candlesticks was one like unto the Son of man; He had in His right hand seven stars; out of His mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword, and His countenance was as the sun shining in his strength (Rev. 1:13, 16). Again: These things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword; I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of My mouth (Rev. 2:12, 16); the "sharp two-edged sword" manifestly denotes truth combating, which was therefore represented as a "sword going out of the mouth."  In the same: Out of the mouth of Him that sat upon the white horse proceeded a sharp sword, that with it He should smite the nations; and they were slain by the sword of Him that sat upon the horse, which came forth out of His mouth (Rev. 19:15, 21); where it is manifest that the "sword out of His mouth" is truth combating. (That He who sat upon the white horse is the Word, and thus the Lord who is the Word, may be seen above, n. 2760-2763.) Hence it is that the Lord says in Matthew: Think not that I came to send peace on the earth; I came not to send peace, but a sword (Matt. 10:34). Also in Luke: Now he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet; and he that hath none, let him sell his garment, and buy a sword; they said, Lord, behold here are two swords; and Jesus said, It is enough (Luke 22:36-38); where nothing else is meant by a "sword" than the truth from which and for which they would combat.  In Hosea: In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field, and with the fowl of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the ground; and I will break the bow, and the sword, and the war out of the land; and will make them to lie down securely (Hos. 2:18); where the Lord's kingdom is treated of; by "breaking the how, the sword, and the war," is signified that there is no combat there respecting doctrine and truth. In Joshua: Joshua lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold there stood a man over against him, and his sword drawn in his hand; and he said to Joshua, I am prince of the army of Jehovah; and Joshua fell on his face to the earth (Josh. 5:13-14). This was when Joshua entered with the sons of Israel into the land of Canaan, by which is meant the entrance of the faithful into the Lord's kingdom. Truth combating, which is of the church, is the "drawn sword in the hand of the prince of the army of Jehovah."  But that by "little swords" or "knives" is signified the truth of faith, may be seen from the fact that they were used not only in the sacrifices, but also in circumcision. For use in circumcision they were of stone, and were called "little swords of flint," as is manifest in Joshua: Jehovah said unto Joshua, Make thee little swords of flint, and circumcise again the sons of Israel the second time. And Joshua made him little swords of flint, and circumcised the sons of Israel at the hill of the foreskins (Josh. 5:2-3). That circumcision was a representative of purification from the love of self and the world, may be seen above (n. 2039, 2632); and as this purification is effected by the truths of faith, therefore little swords of flint were used (n. 2039 at the end, 2046 at the end).  II. That a "sword" signifies the vastation of truth, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah: These two things are befallen thee; who shall bemoan thee? Desolation and destruction, and the famine and the sword; who will comfort thee? Thy sons have fainted, they lie at the head of all the streets (Isa. 51:19-20); "famine" denotes the vastation of good; and the "sword" the vastation of truth; to "lie at the head of all the streets," is to be deprived of all truth. (That a "street" is truth may be seen above, n. 2336; and what vastation is, at n. 301-304, 407-408, 410-411.) In the same: I will number you to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter; because I called, and ye did not answer; I spake, and ye did not hear (Isa. 65:12).  In the same: By fire and by the sword will Jehovah judge all flesh, and the slain of Jehovah shall be many (Isa. 66:16); the "slain of Jehovah" denote those who are vastated. In Jeremiah: Spoilers are come upon all the hillsides in the wilderness, for the sword of Jehovah devoureth from the one end of the land; even to the other end of the land no flesh hath peace; they have sown wheat, and have reaped thorns (Jer. 12:12-13); the "sword of Jehovah" plainly denotes the vastation of truth. In the same: They have lied against Jehovah, and said, It is not He, neither shall evil come upon us, neither shall we see sword nor famine; and the prophets shall become wind, and the word is not in them (Jer. 5:12-13).  In the same: I will visit upon them; the young men shall die by the sword, their sons and their daughters shall die by famine (Jer. 11:22). In the same: When they offer burnt-offering and meat-offering I will not accept them; for I will consume them by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence. And I said, Ah, Lord Jehovih, behold the prophets say unto them, Ye shall not see the sword, and ye shall not have famine (Jer. 14:12-13). In the same: The city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans that fight against it, because of the sword, and of the famine, and of the pestilence (Jer. 32:24, 36). In the same: I will send the sword, the famine, and the pestilence among them, until they be consumed from off the land that I gave unto them and to their fathers (Jer. 24:10).  In these passages by "the sword, the famine, and the pestilence" vastation is described; by the "sword" the vastation of truth, by the "famine" the vastation of good, and by the "pestilence" a wasting away even to consumption. In Ezekiel: Son of man, take thee a sharp sword, a barber's razor shalt thou take it unto thee, and shalt cause it to pass upon thy head, and upon thy beard; and take thee balances to weigh, and divide them. A third part shalt thou burn with fire in the midst of the city; a third part thou shalt smite with the sword round about it; and a third part thou shalt scatter to the wind; and I will draw out a sword after them. A third part shall die with the pestilence, and with famine shall they be consumed in the midst of thee; and a third part shall fall by the sword round about thee; and a third part I will scatter to every wind, and I will draw out a sword after them (Ezek. 5:1-2, 12, 17). Here the vastation of natural truth is treated of, which is thus described. In the same: The sword is without, and the pestilence and the famine within; he that is in the field shall die by the sword, and he that is in the city, famine and pestilence shall devour him (Ezek. 7:15).  In the same: Say to the land of Israel, Thus said Jehovah, Behold I am against thee, and will draw forth My sword out of its sheath, and will cut off from thee the just and the wicked. Because I will cut off from thee the just and the wicked, therefore shall My sword go forth out of its sheath, it shall not return any more. The word of Jehovah came unto me, saying, Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus said Jehovah, Say a sword, a sword, it Is sharpened and also furbished; it is sharpened to slaughter a slaughter; it Is furbished that it may be as lightning. Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus said the Lord Jehovih to the sons of Ammon, and to their reproach; and say thou, A sword, a sword is drawn for the slaughter, it is furbished to devour because of the lightning, whiles they see vanity unto thee, whiles they divine a lie unto thee (Ezek. 21:3-5, 8-10, 28-29). Nothing else is here signified by the "sword" than vastation, as is manifest from the particulars in the internal sense.  In the same: The king of Babel shall break down thy towers with his swords; by reason of the abundance of his horses their dust shall cover thee; by reason of the noise of the rider, and of the wheel, and of the chariot, thy walls shall shake; with the hoofs of his horses shall he tread down all thy streets (Ezek. 26:9-11). What Babel is, may be seen above (n. 1326); and that it vastates (n. 1327). In David: If he turn not, God will whet His sword, He will bend His bow, and make it ready (Ps. 7:12). In Jeremiah: I said, Ah Lord Jehovih surely deceiving Thou hath deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, Ye shall have peace; and the sword hath reached even to the soul (Jer. 4:10).  In the same: Declare ye in Egypt, and make it to be heard in Migdol, Stand forth and prepare thee, for the sword shall devour round about thee (Jer. 46:14). A sword is upon the Chaldeans, and upon the inhabitants of Babel, and upon her princes, and upon her wise men; a sword is upon her boasters, and they shall be foolish; a sword is upon her mighty men, and they shall be dismayed; a sword is upon her horses, and upon her chariots, and upon all the mixed multitude that is in the midst of her, and they shall become as women; a sword is upon her treasures, and they shall be robbed; a drought is upon her waters, and they shall be dried up (Jer. 50:35-38); a "sword" manifestly denotes the vastation of truth, for it is said, "a sword is upon the wise men, upon the boasters, upon the mighty men, upon the horses and the chariot, and upon the treasures," and that "drought is upon the waters, and they shall be dried up."  In the same: We have given the hand to Egypt, to Asshur, to be satisfied with bread. Servants have ruled over us, there is none to deliver us out of their hand; we got our bread with our lives, because of the sword of the wilderness (Lam. 5:6, 8-9). In Hosea: He shall not return into the land of Egypt, and Asshur he shall be his king, because they refused to return to Me, and the sword shall hang over his cities, and shall consume his bars, and shall devour them, because of their counsels (Hos. 11:5-6). In Amos: I have sent among you the pestilence in the way of Egypt, I have slain your young men with the sword, with the captivity of your horses (Amos 4:10); "in the way of Egypt" denotes the memory-knowledges which vastate, when they reason from them on Divine things; the "captivity of the horses" denotes the intellectual faculty deprived of its endowment.  III That a "sword" in the opposite sense signifies falsity combating, may be seen in David: My soul lieth in the midst of lions, the sons of men are set on fire; their teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword (Ps. 57:4). Behold they belch out with their mouth, swords are in their lips, for who doth hear? (Ps. 59:7). In Isaiah: Thou art cast forth out of thy sepulchre as an abominable branch, as the raiment of the slain, that are thrust through with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit, as a carcass trodden under foot (Isa. 14:19); where Lucifer is treated of. In Jeremiah: In vain have I smitten your sons, they received no correction; your own sword hath devoured your prophets, like a destroying lion. O generation, see ye the word of Jehovah: have I been a wilderness unto Israel? (Jer. 2:30-31).  In the same: Go not forth into the field, and walk not in the way, for there is the sword of the enemy, terror is on every side (Jer. 6:25-26). In the same: Take the cup of the wine of fury, and cause all the nations to whom I send thee to drink it; and they shall drink, and reel, and be mad because of the sword that I will send among you. Drink ye and be drunken, and spew and fall, and rise no more because of the sword (Jer. 25:15-16, 27). In the same: Go up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; let the mighty men go forth: Cush and Put that handle the shield, and the Ludim that handle and bend the bow. For that is a day of the Lord Jehovih of Armies, a day of vengeance; and the sword shall devour, and be satisfied, and shall be drunken with their blood (Jer. 46:9, 10).  In Ezekiel: They shall strip thee of thy garments, and take the jewels of thy glory, and shall leave thee naked and bare; and they shall bring up an assembly against thee; and they shall stone thee with stones, and thrust thee through with their swords (Ezek. 16:39-40); where the abominations of Jerusalem are treated of. In Zechariah: Woe to the worthless shepherd that leaveth the flock; the sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye; his arm shall be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened (Zech. 11:17). In Hosea: Against me have they thought evil; their princes shall fall by the sword, because of the rage of their tongue; this shall be their derision in the land of Egypt (Hos. 7:15-16).  In Luke: There shall be great distress upon the land, and wrath unto this people; for they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and be led captive among all the nations; and at length Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the nations (Luke 21:23-24); where the Lord is speaking of the consummation of the age; and in the sense of the letter, of the dispersion of the Jews and the destruction of Jerusalem; but in the internal sense, of the last state of the church. By "falling by the edge of the sword," is signified that there is no longer any truth, but mere falsity; by "all nations" are signified evils of every kind, among which they should be led captive; that "nations" are evils may be seen above (n. 1259, 1260, 1849, 1868); also that "Jerusalem" is the church (n. 2117), which is thus "trodden down."  IV. That a "sword" also signifies the punishment of falsity, is evident in Isaiah: In that day Jehovah with His hard, and great, and strong sword, will visit upon leviathan the long serpent, and upon leviathan the crooked serpent, and will slay the whales that are in the sea (Isa. 27:1); where those are treated of who by reasonings from sensuous things and from memory-knowledges enter into the mysteries of faith; the "hard and great and strong sword" denotes the punishments of the falsity therefrom.  Where we read that they were "given over to the edge of the sword and slain by it," sometimes both man and woman, boy and old man, ox and herd, and ass, in the internal sense the punishment of the condemnation of falsity is signified (as in Josh. 6:21; 8:24-25; 10:28, 30, 37, 39; 11:10-12, 14; 13:22; 19:47; Judges 1:8, 25; 4:15-16; 18:27; 20:37; 1 Sam. 15:8, 11; 2 Kings 10:25; and other places). Hence it was commanded that a city which should worship other gods should be smitten with the sword, be utterly destroyed, and be burnt up with fire, and be a heap forever (Deut. 13:13, 15-17); the "sword" denoting the punishment of falsity; and "fire" the punishment of evil. The angel of Jehovah standing in the way against Balaam with a drawn sword (Num. 22:31) signified the truth which resisted the falsity in which Balaam was; and for that reason also he was killed with a sword (Num. 31:8).  That a "sword" in the genuine sense signifies truth combating, and in the opposite sense falsity combating, also the vastation of truth, and the punishment of falsity, has its origin from the representatives in the other life; for when anyone there speaks what he knows to be false, there then immediately come down over his head as it were little swords, and strike terror; and besides, truth combating is represented by things that have a point, like swords; for indeed truth without good is of this nature, but when together with good it has a rounded form and is gentle. From this origin it comes to pass that whenever a "knife," or "spear," or "little sword," or "sword" is mentioned in the Word, to the angels there is suggested truth combating.  But the reason that a knife is seldom mentioned in the Word, is that there are evil spirits in the other life who are called "knifers," at whose side there appear knives hanging; for the reason that they have such a brutal nature that they wish to cut everyone's throat with the knife. Hence it is that "knives" are not mentioned, but "little swords" or "swords;" for as these are used in combats, they suggest the idea of war, and thus of truth combating.  As it was known to the ancients that a little sword, a little lance, and a knife signify truth, the nations to whom this came by tradition were accustomed to pierce and lacerate themselves with little swords, little lances, or knives, at the time of their sacrifices, even to blood; as we read of the priests of Baal: The priests of Baal cried with a loud voice, and cut themselves after their manner with swords and little lances, even till the blood gushed out (1 Kings 18:28). That all the weapons of war in the Word signify things which belong to spiritual combat, and each one something specific, may be seen above (n. 2686).2800.
And they went both of them together. That this signifies unition as far as possible, is evident without explication.
2781-1 Tigris; but leo vetus, n. 3048. [Rotch ed.]