Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
That the expression "God" is used for the reason that the Lord is represented by the God Shaddai whom Abram worshiped, and also because truth is treated of, which was to be united to good, is evident from what has been said before. In the Word the Lord is sometimes called "Jehovah," sometimes "Jehovah God," also the "Lord Jehovih," and sometimes "God," and always for a secret reason in the internal sense. Where love or good; and the celestial church, are treated of, He is called "JEHOVAH;" but when faith or truth, and the spiritual church, are treated of, He is called "God," and this constantly; and the reason is, that the Lord's very Being itself is of love, and the Being thence derived is of faith (n. 709, 732). Here therefore the Lord is called "God," because the truth which is to be united to good is treated of. Another reason is that the Lord willed to be represented by the God Shaddai that Abram worshiped, on which account the name God is retained in what follows; for in this chapter He is called "Jehovah" only once, and "God" several times (as in verses 7-8, 15, 18-19, 22-23).2002.
Verse 4. I, behold, My covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations. "I, behold, My covenant is with thee," signifies the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence; "and thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations," signifies the union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence; "father" signifies that it would be from the Lord Himself; "a multitude" signifies truth; "of nations" signifies the good thence derived.2003.
I, behold, My covenant is with thee. That this signifies the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction (see n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038). That here "covenant" signifies the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence, is evident from this signification, and also from the internal sense of what precedes, consequently from the very words, "My covenant is with thee."2004.
And thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations. That this signifies the union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence, cannot be seen so well from an unfolding of the several words in the internal sense, unless they are viewed in a kind of general idea, by which this sense is presented, for such is sometimes the nature of the internal sense, and when it is so, it may be called more universal, because more remote. From the explication of the several words there results this proximate sense: that all truth and all good come from the Lord, for, as we shall see presently, the expression "father" here signifies from Him, that is, from the Lord; "multitude" signifies truth; and "of nations" signifies the good thence derived. But because these-that is, truths and goods-are the means through which the Lord united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, there arises from this that more universal and more remote sense. The angels perceive these words in this way, and have at the same time a perception of reciprocal union, namely, that of the Lord's Divine Essence with the Human Essence and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence; for, as before said, "I, My covenant is with thee" signifies the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence; and consequently the words now under consideration signify the union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence.  That the union was effected reciprocally, is an arcanum which has not yet been disclosed, and it is such an arcanum as can scarcely be explained to the apprehension; for as yet no one knows what influx is, and without a knowledge of influx no idea can possibly be formed in regard to what is reciprocal union. Yet this may in some measure be illustrated from the influx in the case of man, for with man too there is a reciprocal conjunction. From the Lord, through man's internal (treated of just above, n. 1999), life continually flows into man's rational, and through this into his external, and in fact into his knowledges [scientifica et cognitiones], and this life not only adapts them to receive the life, but also disposes them into order, and so enables the man to think, and finally to be rational. Such is the conjunction of the Lord with man, without which man could not think at all, still less be rational, as everyone can see from the fact that there are in man's thoughts numberless arcana of science and analytical art-too numerous to render their exploration possible to all eternity-and which do by no means flow in through the senses or through the external man, but through the internal. Man however, on his part, by means of knowledges [scientifica et cognitiones], advances to meet this life which is from the Lord, and thereby reciprocally conjoins himself.  But as regards the union of the Lord's Divine Essence with His Human Essence, and of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence, this infinitely transcends the reciprocal conjunction between man and the Lord, for the Lord's internal was Jehovah Himself and therefore was life itself; whereas man's internal is not the Lord, and therefore is not life but a recipient of life. Between the Lord and Jehovah there was union, but between man and the Lord there is not union, but conjunction. The Lord united Himself to Jehovah by His own power, and He therefore also became Righteousness; whereas man by no means conjoins himself by his own power, but by the power of the Lord; so that the Lord conjoins man with Himself. It is this reciprocal union that is meant by the Lord, where He attributes what is His own to the Father, and what is the Father's to Himself, as in John: Jesus said, He that believeth on Me, believeth not on Me, but on Him that sent Me: I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth in Me may not abide in the darkness (John 12:44-46), in which words lie hidden the deepest arcana-arcana concerning the union of good with truth, and of truth with good; or what is the same, concerning the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence, and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence; and therefore the Lord says, "He that believeth on Me, believeth not on Me, but on Him that sent Me;" and then almost immediately adds, "He that believeth on Me;" with words between that refer to this union, namely, "he that seeth Me seeth Him that sent Me."  Again in the same gospel: The words that I speak unto you I speak not from Myself; the Father that abideth in Me, He doeth the works. Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me. Verily I say unto you, He that believeth in Me, the works that I do shall he do also (John 14:10-12). In these words are contained the same arcana, namely, those concerning the union of good with truth, and of truth with good; or what is the same, of the Lord's Divine Essence with His Human Essence, and of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence; and He therefore says, "The words that I speak unto you I speak not from Myself; the Father who is in Me doeth the works;" and then He almost immediately adds, "the works that I do;" and here, as before, there are intervening words concerning the union, which declare, "I am in the Father, and the Father in Me." This is the mystical union of which many speak.  From all this it is evident that the Lord was not another than the Father, although He spoke of the Father as of another, and this on account of the reciprocal unition that was to be effected and that was effected; for He so many times openly says that He is one with the Father, as in the passages just cited: "He that seeth Me seeth Him that sent Me" (John 12:45) also, "The Father that abideth in Me; believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me" (John 14:10, 11); and in the same, "If ye had known Me, ye would have known My Father also" (John 8:19); and again, "If ye have known Me, ye have known My Father also; and from henceforth ye have known Him, and have seen Him; Philip saith unto Him, Lord, show us the Father; Jesus saith unto him, Am I so long time with you, and hast thou not known Me, Philip? He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father; how sayest thou then, Show us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father and the Father in Me?" (John 14:7-10) and again, "I and the Father are one" (John 10:30). Hence it is that in heaven they know no other Father than the Lord, because the Father is in Him, and He is one with the Father; and when they see Him, they see the Father, as He Himself says (see n. 15).2005.
That "father" signifies that it would be from the Lord Himself, is evident from the signification of "father," as just explained, namely, that whatever was from the Father was from Him, because they were one. Every man's internal is from his father, and his external from his mother; or what is the same thing, the soul itself is from the father, and the body with which the soul is clothed is from the mother. The soul together with the body, although two, make a one; for the soul is the body's, and the body is the soul's; and therefore they are inseparable. The Lord's internal was from the Father, and therefore was the Father Himself, and hence it is that the Lord says that "the Father is in Him;" also, "I am in the Father and the Father in Me;" also, "He that seeth Me seeth the Father; I and the Father are one;" as may be seen in the passages cited above. In the Word of the Old Testament also the Lord is called "the Father," as in Isaiah: Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given and the government shall be upon His shoulder; and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, the Father of Eternity, the Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6). It is evident to everyone that the "Child" born to us and the "Son" given to us is the Lord, who is called the "Father of Eternity." Again in Isaiah: Thou art our Father, for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us. Thou, O Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer, from eternity is Thy name (Isa. 63:16); where also it is the Lord who is called "Jehovah our Father," for there is no other "Redeemer." In Malachi: Have we not all one Father? Hath not one God created us? (Mal. 2:10). To "create" denotes to regenerate (as shown in Part First, n. 16, 88, 472). Besides that everywhere in the Word of the Old Testament, by "Jehovah" is meant the Lord, because all the rites of the church represented Him; and in the internal sense all things in the Word regard Him.2006.
That "a multitude" signifies truth, is evident from the signification of "multitude" as being truth (explained before, n. 1941); and from the signification of "being multiplied," which is predicated of truth (see n. 43, 55, 913, 983).2007.
Of nations. That this signifies the good thence derived, is evident from the signification of "nations" as being good (explained in Part First, n. 1159, 1258-1260, 1416, 1849).2008.
Verse 5. And thy name shall no more be called Abram; and thy name shall be Abraham, for a father of a multitude of nations have I made thee. "Thy name shall no more be called Abram," signifies that He will put off the human; "and thy name shall be Abraham," signifies that He will put on the Divine; "for a father of a multitude of nations have I made thee," signifies here, as before, that all truth and the good thence derived come from Him.2009.
Thy name shall no more be called Abram, and thy name shall be Abraham. That "thy name shall no more be called Abram," signifies that He will put off the human; and that "thy name shall be Abraham," signifies that He will put on the Divine, is evident from the signification of "name;" also from the signification of "Abram;" and, afterwards, of "Abraham." The expression "this shall be thy name," when used in the Word, signifies the quality, that is, that the person will be of such a quality, as is evident from what has been adduced in Part First (n. 144, 145, 1754). And as the "name" signifies the quality, the name comprehends in one complex whatever is in the man. For in heaven no attention is paid to anyone's name; but when anyone is named, or when the word name is spoken, there is presented the idea of the person's quality, that is, of all things that are his, that are connected with him, and that are in him; hence in the Word "name" signifies quality. That this may be evident to the understanding we may adduce from the Word a number of additional confirmatory passages. As in the Benediction in Moses: Jehovah bless thee, and keep thee; Jehovah make His faces to shine upon thee and have compassion on thee; Jehovah lift up His faces upon thee and give thee peace. So shall they put My name upon the sons of Israel (Num. 6:24-27). From this it is evident what is denoted by "name," and by "putting the name" of Jehovah upon the sons of Israel, namely, that Jehovah blesses, guards, enlightens, is pitiful, gives peace; and thus that Jehovah or the Lord is such.  In the Decalogue: Thou shalt not take the name of thy God in vain; for Jehovah will not hold him guiltless who taketh His name in vain (Exod. 20:7; Deut. 5:11); where to "take the name of God in vain" does not signify the name, but all things in general and particular that are from Him, and therefore all things in general and particular that belong to the worship of Him, none of which are to be despised, still less blasphemed and contaminated with what is filthy. In the Lord's Prayer: Hallowed be Thy name; Thy kingdom come Thy will be done, as in heaven so also in the earth (Luke 11:2); where also by "name" is not meant the name, but all things of love and faith; for these are God's or the Lord's, and are from Him; and as these are holy, the Lord's kingdom comes and His will is done on earth as in the heavens when they are held to be so.  That "name" signifies such things is evident from all the passages in the Word of the Old and of the New Testament where "name" is mentioned. As in Isaiah: In that day shall ye say, Confess to Jehovah, call upon His name, make known His works among the peoples, make mention that His name is exalted (Isa. 12:4); where to "call upon the name of Jehovah," and to "make mention that His name is exalted," does not at all mean to place worship in the name, or to believe that Jehovah is invoked by using His name, but by knowing His quality, and thus by means of all things in general and particular that are from Him. In the same: Therefore honor ye Jehovah in the Urim the name of Jehovah the God of Israel in the isles of the sea (Isa. 24:15); where to "honor Jehovah in the Urim," is to honor Him from the holy things of love; and to "honor the name of Jehovah the God of Israel in the isles of the sea," is to honor Him from the holy things of faith.  In the same: O Jehovah our God, only in Thee will we make mention of Thy name (Isa. 26:13). I will raise up one from the north, and he shall come; from the rising of the sun, he shall call upon My name (Isa. 41:25); where to "make mention of the name of Jehovah," and to "call upon His name," means to worship from the goods of love and the truths of faith. They who are from the north are they who are outside the church and ignorant of the name of Jehovah, who nevertheless "call upon His name" when they live in mutual charity and adore as the Deity the Creator of the universe; for the "calling upon Jehovah" consists in worship and the quality of it, and not in the name. (That the Lord is present with the Gentiles also may be seen above, n. 932, 1032, 1059.)  In the same: The nations shall see 2009-1 thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory and thou shalt be called by a new name which the mouth of Jehovah shall name (Isa. 62:2); where "thou shalt be called by a new name," denotes to become another person, that is, to be created anew or regenerated, and thus to be such. In Micah: All the peoples will walk everyone in the name of his god, and we will walk in the name of Jehovah our God forever and to eternity (Micah 4:5); to "walk in the name of his god," plainly denotes profane worship; and to "walk in the name of Jehovah," true worship. In Malachi: From the rising of the sun and even to its going down, My name shall be great among the nations; and in every place incense is offered unto My name, and a clean offering for My name shall be great among the nations (Mal. 1:11); where by "name" is not signified the name, but the worship; which is the quality of Jehovah or the Lord, by reason of which He wills to be adored.  In Moses: The place which Jehovah your God shall choose out of all the tribes to put His name there, and to cause His name to dwell there, thither shall ye bring all that I command you (Deut. 12:5, 11, 14; 16:2, 6, 11); where also by "putting His name," and "making His name dwell there," is not signified the name, but the worship, and thus the quality of Jehovah or the Lord by reason of which He is to be worshiped. His quality is the good of love and the truth of faith; and "the name of Jehovah dwells" with those who are in these. In Jeremiah: Go ye unto My place which was in Shiloh, where I caused My name to dwell in the beginning (Jer. 7:12); where in like manner "name" denotes worship, and thereby the doctrine of true faith. Everyone can see that Jehovah does not dwell with him who merely knows and speaks His name, for the name alone, without any idea, knowledge, or faith concerning His quality is a mere word. Hence it is evident that the "name" is the quality, and the knowledge of the quality.  In Moses: At that time Jehovah separated the tribe of Levi, to minister unto Him, and to bless in His name (Deut. 10:8); where to "bless in the name" of Jehovah is not to do so through the name, but by means of the things which appertain to the name of Jehovah, spoken of above. In Jeremiah: This is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our righteousness (Jer. 23:6); where the "name" denotes righteousness, which is the quality of the Lord, of whom these words are said. In Isaiah: Jehovah hath called Me from the womb, from the bowels of My mother hath He made mention of 2009-2 My name (Isa. 49:1); also said of the Lord; to "make mention of His name," is to instruct in respect to His quality.  That "name" signifies quality, is still more clearly evident in John, in Revelation: Thou hast a few names in Sardis that did not defile their garments; and they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy. He that overcometh shall be clothed in white raiment, and I will not blot his name out of the book of life; and I will confess his name before My Father and before the angels. He that overcometh, I will write upon him the name of My God, and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from My God, and My new name (Rev. 3:4, 5, 12); where that the "name" is not the name, but the quality, is plainly evident; the "name in the book of life" is nothing else; and the quality is also meant by "confessing his name before the Father," and by "writing upon him the name of God, and of the city, and the new name;" and the same is true of the names which are said elsewhere to be written in the book of life, and in heaven (Rev. 13:8, 17:8; Luke 10:20).  In heaven it is solely by the quality that anyone is known from another; and in the sense of the letter this is expressed by the name, as everyone can see from the consideration that on earth whoever is named is presented in the listener's idea in accordance with his quality, and it is by this idea that he is known and distinguished from others. In the other life the ideas remain, but the names perish; and this is still more the case among the angels. Hence it is that in the internal sense the "name" is the quality, or to know the quality. Again: Upon the head of Him who sat upon the white horse were many diadems; and He hath a name written which no one knoweth but He Himself. He was clothed in a garment dipped in blood; and His name is called the Word of God (Rev. 19:12, 13); where that the "name" is the Word of God, and thus is the quality of Him who sat upon the white horse, is said in plain words.  That the "name of Jehovah" is to know His quality, namely, that He is all the good of love and all the truth of faith, is clearly evident from these words of the Lord: O righteous Father I have known Thee, and these also have known that Thou hast sent Me for I have made known unto them Thy name, and will make it known; that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them (John 17:25, 26).  And that the "name of God" or of the Lord is all the doctrine of faith concerning love and charity, which is signified by "believing in His name," is evident from these words in the same gospel: As many as received Him, to them gave He the power [potestas] to be sons of God, to them that believe in His name (John 1:12). If ye shall ask anything in My name, I will do it. If ye love Me, keep My commandments (John 14:13-15). Whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in My name, He giveth you. These things I command you, that ye love one another (John 15:16, 17). In Matthew: Where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them (John 18:20). By those who are "gathered together in the name of the Lord," are here signified those who are in the doctrine of faith concerning love and charity, and thus who are in love and charity. Again Ye shall be hated of all nations for My name's sake (Matt. 10:22 24:9, 10; Mark 13:10); where "for My names sake" plainly means for the sake of His doctrine.  That the name itself effects nothing, but that everything is effected by that which the name involves, namely, everything of charity and faith, is clearly evident from these words in Matthew: Have we not prophesied by Thy name, and by Thy name cast out demons, and in Thy name done many mighty works? But then will I profess unto them, I never dew you; depart from Me, ye that work iniquity (Matt. 7:22, 23); from which it is evident that they who place worship in a name, as did the Jews in the name of Jehovah, and as do Christians in the name of the Lord, are not on that account the more worthy, because the name avails nothing; but that which does avail is that they be of such a character as the Lord has commanded; for this is to "believe in His name;" and further, that its being said that there is no salvation in any other name than the Lord's, means that there is none in any other doctrine, that is, in no other than mutual love, which is the true doctrine of faith, and thus in no other than the Lord, because all love and the derivative faith are from Him alone.2010.
Since therefore the "name" signifies the quality and to know what the quality is, we can see what is signified by the words in this verse, "thy name shall no more be called Abram, and thy name shall be Abraham;" to wit, that he was not to be such in quality as in the past, but such as he was about to be. That Abram served other gods, and worshiped the god Shaddai, was shown above (n. 1992); but because he was to represent the Lord, and in fact His internal man, and thus the Celestial of His Love, his former quality was to be blotted out, that is, the name "Abram" was to be so changed in character that the Lord could be represented by it. Therefore the letter H was taken from the name of Jehovah-which letter is the only one in the name "Jehovah" that involves the Divine, and which signifies I AM or BEING (Esse)-and was inserted in his name, and he was called "Abraham." The case is similar with "Sarai," spoken of in what follows; to whose name the same letter was also added, and she was called "Sarah." From this also we can see that in the internal sense of the Word Abraham represents Jehovah or the Lord.  Be it known however that in representations it matters not what a man's quality is, for in them no attention is paid to the person, but to the thing which he represents (as was said and shown before, n. 665, 1097 at the end, 1361). Therefore in the internal sense the signification of these words is that the Lord will put off the human, and will put on the Divine; which also is in a series with what goes before, and likewise with what follows; for a promise is now made concerning the son Isaac, by whom was to be represented the Lord's Divine rational.2011.
For a father of a multitude of nations have I made thee. That this signifies, here as before, that all truth and the good thence derived come from Him, is evident from the signification of his being "a father," as denoting that they are from Him; from the signification of "a multitude," as being truth; and also from that of "nations," as being the good thence derived (concerning which see above, n. 2005-2007). That in a more universal or more remote sense these same words signify the union of the Lord's Human Essence with His Divine Essence, may be seen above (n. 2004); for the union of the Lord's Human Essence with His Divine Essence is circumstanced as is that of truth with good; and the union of His Divine Essence with His Human Essence as is that of good with truth, which is reciprocal. Nay, in the Lord it was Truth itself that united itself to Good, and Good that united itself to Truth; for the Infinite Divine can be spoken of in no other way than as being Good itself and Truth itself, and therefore the human mind is in no fallacy when it thinks that the Lord is Good itself and Truth itself.2012.
Verse 6. And I will make thee fruitful very exceedingly, and I will make thee nations, and kings shall go forth from thee. "I will make thee fruitful very exceedingly," signifies the fruitfulness of good to infinitude; "and I will make thee nations," signifies that all good is from Him; "and kings shall go forth from thee," signifies that from Him is all truth.2013.
I will make thee fruitful very exceedingly. That this signifies the fruitfulness of good to infinitude, is evident from the signification of being "made fruitful," as being predicated of good (explained before, n. 43, 55, 913, 983); and because it is said "very exceedingly," and the Lord is treated of, it signifies fruitfulness to infinitude.2014.
I will make thee nations. That this signifies that all good is from Him, is evident from the signification of "nations" in its genuine and primitive sense, as being good (spoken of in Part First, n. 1259, 1260, 1416, 1849).2015.
Kings shall go forth from thee. That this signifies that all truth is from Him, is evident from the signification of a "king," in both the historical and the prophetic Word, as being truth (stated above, n. 1672, but not yet fully shown). From the signification of "nations" as being goods, and from the signification of "kings" as being truths, we can see the nature of the internal sense of the Word, and also how remote it is from the sense of the letter. He who reads the Word, especially the historical portion, has no other belief than that the nations there are nations, and the kings kings, and thus that nations and kings are treated of in the very Word itself. But the idea of nations, as well as that of kings, altogether perishes when it is received by the angels, and in their place there succeed good and truth. This cannot but appear as strange and indeed as a paradox, but still it is really so, and the truth of it may appear to everyone from considering that if, in the Word, nations were signified by "nations," and kings by "kings," then the Word of the Lord would involve scarcely anything more than any other history, or any other writing, and thus would be a merely worldly affair, when yet there is nothing in the Word that is not Divine, and therefore celestial and spiritual.  Take as a single instance what is said in this verse, that Abraham should be made fruitful and should be made nations, and that kings should go forth from him-what is this but a merely worldly matter, and in no respect heavenly? For in these things there is only the glory of the world, which is nothing at all in heaven; but if this is the Word of the Lord, there must be in it the glory of heaven, and none of the world's glory. Therefore the sense of the letter is altogether obliterated and vanishes when it passes into heaven; and it is so purified that nothing that is worldly is intermingled. For by "Abraham" is not meant Abraham, but the Lord; by his being "made fruitful" is not meant that his posterity should increase exceedingly, but that the good of the Lord's Human Essence should increase to infinitude; by the "nations" are not meant nations, but goods; and by the "kings," not kings but truths. Still the history according to the sense of the letter remains true; for it is true that it was so said to Abraham; also that he was made fruitful, and that nations and kings came from him.  That "kings" signify truths, may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah: The sons of strangers shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee; thou shalt suck the milk of the nations, and the breast of kings shalt thou suck (Isa. 60:10, 16); what it is to "suck the milk of nations" and "the breast of kings," is by no means plain from the letter, but it is from the internal sense, in which it signifies to be gifted with goods, and instructed in truths. In Jeremiah: There shall enter in by the gates of this city kings and princes sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses (Jer. 17:25; 22:4); to "ride in chariots and on horses" is a prophetical saying which signifies an abundance of intellectual things, as may appear from very many passages in the Prophets; and thus by "kings entering in by the gates of the city" is signified in the internal sense that they should be imbued with truths of faith. This is the heavenly sense of the Word, into which the worldly literal sense passes.  Again, in the same Prophet: Jehovah hath despised in the indignation of His anger the king and the priest; the gates of Zion have sunk into the earth; He hath destroyed and broken her bars; her king and her princes are among the nations; the law is not (Lam. 2:6, 9); "the king" here denotes the truth of faith; "the priest" the good of charity; "Zion" the church which is being destroyed, and whose bars are being broken; hence "the king and the princes are among the nations," that is, truth and the things which are of truth will be banished to such an extent that there will be no "law," that is, nothing of the doctrine of faith. In Isaiah: Before the child shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good, the ground shall be forsaken, which thou loathest in the presence of her two kings (Isa. 7:16); where the Lord's coming is treated of; the "ground which shall be forsaken" denotes faith, of which there would then be none, and the truths of which are the "kings that would be loathed."  In the same Prophet: I will lift up My hand to the nations, and raise up My ensign to the peoples; and they shall bring thy sons in their bosom, and thy daughters shall be carried upon the shoulder; and kings shall be thy nourishers, and their queens those that give thee suck (Isa. 49:22, 23); "the nations" and "the daughters" denote goods; and "the peoples" and "the sons" truths (as shown in Part First, where it may be seen that "nations" denote goods, n. 1259, 1260, 1416, 1849; and that "daughters" have a similar signification, n. 489-491; also that "peoples" denote truths, n. 1259, 1260; and "sons" likewise, n. 489, 491, 533, 1147). "Kings" therefore denote truths in general, by which they will be nourished, and their "queens" the goods from which they will be "suckled." Whether you say goods and truths, or those who are in goods and truths, it is the same.  Again in the same Prophet: He shall sprinkle many nations, upon him kings shall shut their mouth-for that which was [not] told them have they seen; and that which they did not hear have they understood (Isa. 52:15), where the Lord's coming is spoken of; the "nations" denote those who are affected by goods, and "kings" those who are affected by truths. In David: Now, O ye kings, be intelligent; be instructed, ye judges of the earth; serve Jehovah with fear, and exult with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, and ye perish in the way (Ps. 2:10-12). "Kings" denote those who are in truths; who also from their truths are often called "king's sons;" "the Son" here denotes the Lord, who is here called "the Son" because He is the truth itself, and because all truth is from Him.  In John: They shall sing a new song, Worthy art Thou who takest the book, and openest the seals thereof; Thou hast made us unto our God kings and priests, that we may reign upon the earth (Rev. 5:9-10); where they who are in truths are called "kings." The Lord also calls such persons "the sons of the kingdom," in Matthew: He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man; the field is the world; the seed is the sons of the kingdom, and the tares are the sons of the evil one (Matt. 13:37-38). In John: The sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the Kings that are from the sun rising might be prepared (Rev. 16:12). That by the "Euphrates" is not meant the Euphrates, nor by "the kings from the sun-rising" any kings therefrom, is evident (what is meant by the "Euphrates" may be seen above, n. 120, 1585, 1866); so that "the way of the kings that are from the sun-rising" means the truths of faith that are from the goods of love.  In the same: The nations that are saved shall walk in the light of it, and the kings of the earth shall bring their glory and honor into it (Rev. 21:24); where "the nations" denote those who are in goods, and "the kings of the earth" those who are in truths, as may be inferred from the fact that these words are prophetic, and not historical. In the same: With the great harlot that sitteth upon many waters the kings of the earth have committed whoredom, and have been made drunken with the wine of her whoredom (Rev. 17:1-2). And again: Babylon hath made all the nations drink of the wine of her whoredom, and the kings of the earth have committed whoredom with her (Rev. 18:3, 9); where in like manner it is evident that kings are not meant by "the kings of the earth;" for the falsification and adulteration of the doctrine of faith, that is, of truth, is treated of, and this is the "whoredom;" " the kings of the earth" denote the truths that are falsified and adulterated.  In the same: The ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, that have received no kingdom as yet, but they receive authority [potestas] as kings with the beast for one hour. These shall have one mind, and shall give their power and authority to the beast (Rev. 17:12-13); that these "kings" are not kings, is evident to everyone; for if so it would be wholly unintelligible that the ten kings should receive authority as kings one hour. So too in another passage: I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war with him that sat upon the horse, and with his army (Rev. 19:19); that "he that sat upon the horse" is "the Word of God," is openly stated in verse 13; and it is against this that the kings of the earth are said to have been gathered together. "The beast" denotes the goods of love, profaned; and "the kings" denote the truths of faith, adulterated; these are called "the kings of the earth," because they are within the church. (That "the earth" is the church may be seen above, n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262.) The "white horse" denotes the understanding of truth; and "he that sat upon the horse," the Word. This meaning is still more manifest in Daniel (chapter 11), where the war between "the king of the south" and "the king of the north" is treated of; by which terms are signified the truths and falsities that had fought, the combats being described here also in an historical manner by this "war."  As "a king" signifies truth, it may be seen what is meant in the internal sense when the Lord is called a King and also a Priest; and also what it was in the Lord that was represented by kings, and what by priests. Kings represented His Divine truth, and priests His Divine good. All the laws of order by which the Lord governs the universe as King, are truths; but all the laws by which He governs the universe as and by which also He rules truths themselves, are goods; for government from truths alone would condemn everyone to hell; but government from goods lifts everyone out thence and uplifts him into heaven (see n. 1728). Because in the Lord's case these two are conjoined, they were anciently represented by kingship conjoined with priesthood; as with Melchizedek, who was king of Salem and at the same time priest to God Most High (Gen. 14:18); and afterwards with the Jews, among whom the representative church was instituted in its own form, by judges and priests, and afterwards by kings.  But as the kings represented truths, which ought not to have command, for the reason, as before said, that they condemn, therefore the desire to have kings was so displeasing as to call for rebuke, and the nature of truth as regarded in itself was described by the rights [jus] of the king (1 Sam. 8:11-18); and at an earlier day it was commanded by Moses (Deut. 17:14-18) that they should choose genuine truth which is from good, and not spurious; and that they should not defile it by reasonings and memory-knowledges [scientifica]. This is what is involved in the directions concerning a king, given in Moses in the place just cited; which no one can possibly see from the sense of the letter, but yet is evident from the several points contained in the internal sense; so that "king" and "kingship" evidently represented and signified nothing else than truth.2016.
As regards the fact that all good and the derivative truth are from the Lord: this is a constant verity. The angels are in the perception of it to such a degree that they perceive that insofar as anything is from the Lord, it is good and true, and that insofar as it is from themselves, it is evil and false. They also confess this before novitiate souls, and before spirits who are in doubt of it, nay, they go so far as to say that it is by the Lord that they are withheld from the evil and falsity that come from what is their own, and are kept in good and truth. Moreover the very withholding and the very influx are perceptible to them (see n. 1614). But as to man's supposing that he does good from himself and thinks truth from himself, this is an appearance, because he is in a state of no perception, and in a state of the greatest obscurity in respect to influx; and therefore he infers this from the appearance, nay, from the fallacy, from which he by no means suffers himself to be withdrawn so long as he has belief in nothing but the senses, and so long as he reasons from them whether it be so. But although the case is as stated, man nevertheless ought to do good and to think truth as from himself; for in no other way can he be reformed and regenerated (the reason of which may be seen above, n. 1937, 1947).  The verse now before us treats of the Lord's Human Essence that was to be united to the Divine Essence; and that all good and truth would thereby come to man from His Divine Essence through His Human Essence, is a Divine arcanum which few believe, because they do not apprehend it, for they suppose that the Divine good is able to reach to man without the Lord's Human united to the Divine; but that this cannot be done, has been already shown in a few words (n. 1676, 1990), to this effect, that man has removed himself so far from the Supreme Divine, by the cupidities in which he has immersed himself and by the falsities with which he has blinded himself, that there could not possibly be any influx of the Divine into the rational part of his mind except through the Human which the Lord united in Himself to the Divine. Through His Human, communication has been effected; for thereby the Supreme Divine has been able to come to man. This the Lord says openly in many places, for He says that He is "the way," and that "no one cometh to the Father but by Him." This then is what is here affirmed: that from Him, namely, from the Human united to the Divine, is all good and all truth.2017.
Verse 7. And I will set up My covenant between Me and thee and thy seed after thee unto their generations, for an eternal covenant, to be to thee for God, and to thy seed after thee. "I will set up My covenant between Me and thee," signifies union; "and thy seed after thee," signifies conjunction with those who have faith in Him; "unto their generations," signifies those things which are of faith; "for an eternal covenant," signifies conjunction with these; "to be to thee for God," signifies the Lord's Divine in Himself; "and to thy seed after thee," signifies the Divine thence derived with those who have faith in Him.2018.
I will set up My covenant between Me and thee. That this signifies union, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being union (explained before, n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038); which union has been treated of in this chapter, and many times before; and it has been shown that Jehovah, who here speaks, was in the Lord, because He was one with Him from first conception and from birth; for the Lord was conceived from Jehovah, and hence His internal was Jehovah. This has been further illustrated by what is similar in man (n. 1999), namely, that his soul is one with his body, or his internal with his external, although they are distinct from each other, and sometimes so distinct that the one fights with the other, as is wont to be the case in temptations, in which the internal reproves the external and desires to reject the evil that is in it; and still they are conjoined, or are a one, because both soul and body belong to the same man. Take for example one whose thought differs from what he shows in his looks, speaks with his mouth, and acts by his gesture. There is in him an interior which is at variance with the external, but still they are one; for the thought is the man's as much as are the external looks, mouth, and gestures; but there is a union when the look, the speech of the lips, and the gestures accord with the thought. So much for illustration.2019.
And thy seed after thee. That this signifies conjunction with those who have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being faith (treated of, n. 1025, 1447, 1610); and also from the signification of "after thee," as being to follow. To "walk after" someone is an expression that is often made use of in the Word (as in Jer. 7:6; 8:2; Ezek. 20:16; also Mark 8:34; Luke 9:23, 14:27). In this passage therefore "thy seed after thee," signifies those who are in faith and follow Him; in the internal sense, who are born of Him.2020.
Unto their generations. That this signifies the things that are of faith, is evident from the signification of "generations," as being the things which are generated and born of charity, that is, all the things of faith, or what is the same, all who are regenerated by the Lord, and thus in whom there is the faith of charity; concerning which, of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter. That in the internal sense "generations," and also "births," are such things, was shown in Part First (n. 613, 1041, 1145, 1330).2021.
For an eternal covenant. That this signifies conjunction with these, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction (explained before, n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038) and that it is with those who are called his "seed" is evident from its immediately following, and because a "covenant" is spoken of a second time in this verse. The "covenant" first spoken of refers to the union of Jehovah with the Human Essence, and the second mention of a "covenant" refers to the conjunction with those who are the seed. In order that a more distinct idea may be formed concerning the union of the Lord's Divine Essence with His Human Essence, and concerning the Lord's conjunction with the human race through the faith of charity, it may be well here and in what follows to call the former Union, but the latter Conjunction. Between the Lord's Divine Essence and His Human Essence there was a Union; but between the Lord and the human race there is a Conjunction, through the faith of charity, as is evident from the fact that Jehovah or the Lord is Life, and that His Human Essence also was made Life, as shown above, and between Life and Life there is Union. Whereas man is not Life, but a recipient of life, as also has been shown before; and when Life flows into a recipient of life, there is conjunction; for it is adapted to the recipient as is the active to the passive, or as that which is in itself alive to that which is in itself dead, and which lives therefrom. The principal and the instrumental-as they are termed-do indeed appear to be conjoined together as if they were a one, but still they are not a one; for the former is by itself, and the latter is by itself. Man does not live from himself, but the Lord in mercy adjoins man to Himself and thereby causes him to live to eternity; and because the Lord and man are thus distinct, it is called conjunction.2022.
To be to thee for God. That this signifies the Lord's Divine in Himself, is evident from what has been said above respecting the Lord's Divine Essence, that it was in Himself.2023.
And to thy seed after thee. That this signifies the Divine thence derived with those who have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being the faith of charity (see n. 1025, 1447, 1610); and also from the signification of "after thee," as being to follow Him (explained just above, n. 2019). The Divine with those who have faith in the Lord is love and charity. By Love is meant love to the Lord; by Charity,"," love toward the neighbor. Love to the Lord cannot possibly be separated from love toward the neighbor; for the Lord's love is toward the universal human race, which He wills to save eternally and to adjoin wholly to Himself, so that not one of them may perish. He therefore who has love to the Lord, has the Lord's love, and thereby can do no otherwise than love his neighbor.  But they who are in love toward the neighbor are not all for that reason in love to the Lord, as for example the well-disposed Gentiles who are in ignorance respecting the Lord, but with whom the Lord is nevertheless present in charity (as shown in Part First, n. 1032, 1059), and also others within the church; for love to the Lord is in a higher degree. They who have love to the Lord are celestial men, but they who have love toward the neighbor, or charity, are spiritual men. The Most Ancient Church, which was before the flood, and was celestial, was in love to the Lord, but the Ancient Church, which was after the flood, and was spiritual, was in love toward the neighbor, or in charity. This distinction between Love and Charity will be observed when they are mentioned hereafter.2024.
Verse 8. And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an eternal possession; and I will be to them for God. "I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings," signifies that the Lord acquired to Himself all things by His own forces or powers, which are "the land of the sojournings;" "I will give unto thee," signifies that the things which are in the heavens and on the earth are His; "and to thy seed after thee," signifies that He would give them to those who should have faith in Him; "all the land of Canaan," signifies the celestial or heavenly kingdom; "for an eternal possession," signifies to eternity; "and I will be to them for God," signifies that God is one.2025.
I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings. That this signifies that the Lord acquired to Himself all things by His own forces or powers, which are "the land of the sojournings," is evident from the signification of "sojourning," as being to be instructed (see n. 1463). And as a man acquires life to himself especially by means of instruction in memory-knowledges, doctrinal matters, and the knowledges of faith, therefore "sojourning," signifies the life so acquired. As applied to the Lord, "sojourning" signifies the life which He procured to Himself by means of knowledges, combats of temptations, and victories therein; and as He procured for Himself that life by His own forces, this is here signified by "the land of the sojournings."  That the Lord procured all things to Himself by His own forces, and by His own forces united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, and the Divine Essence to the Human Essence; and that He alone thus became righteousness, is clearly evident in the Prophets. As in Isaiah: Who is this that cometh from Edom, marching in the multitude of his strength? I have trodden the winepress alone, and of the peoples there was none with Me; I looked around, and there was no one helping; and I was amazed, and there was no one upholding; therefore Mine arm brought salvation unto Me (Isa. 63:1, 3, 5) "Edom" denotes the Lord's Human Essence; "strength," and "arm," power that this was from what was His own is clearly said, in that "there was no one helping," "no one upholding," and that "His own arm brought salvation unto Him."  In the same Prophet: He saw that there was not anyone, and He was amazed that there was none to intercede; and His arm achieved salvation unto Him, and His righteousness supported Him; and He put on righteousness as a coat of mail, and a helmet of salvation upon His head (Isa. 59:16, 17) meaning in like manner by His own power, and that thereby He became righteousness. That the Lord is righteousness is stated in Daniel: Seventy weeks are decreed to expiate iniquity, and to bring in the righteousness of the ages, and to seal up vision and prophet, and to anoint the holy of holies (Dan 9:24). And in Jeremiah: I will raise unto David a righteous offshoot, and He shall reign as King, and shall act intelligently, and shall do judgment and righteousness in the land. In His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell in confidence; and this is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our righteousness (Jer. 23:5, 6; 33:15, 16). For this reason He is also called "the Habitation of righteousness," in Jeremiah (31:23; 50:7); and in Isaiah (9:6), "Wonderful," and "Hero."  The reason why the Lord so often attributes to the Father that which is His own, has been explained above (n. 1999, 2004); for Jehovah was in Him, and consequently in everything that was His. This can be illustrated by what is similar, though not equal, in man. A man's soul is in him; and as it is in him, it is in the veriest singulars of him, that is in the veriest singulars of his thought, and of his action. Whatever has not his soul in it, is not his. The Lord's soul was Life itself, or Being [Esse] itself, which is Jehovah, for He was conceived from Jehovah; and consequently Jehovah or Life itself was in His veriest singulars; and as Life itself, or Being itself, which is Jehovah, was His, as the soul is man's, so that which was Jehovah's was His, which is what the Lord says: that He "is in the bosom of the Father" (John 1:18), and that "all things whatsoever that the Father hath are His" (John 16:15, 17:10, 11).  From good, which is Jehovah's, He united the Divine Essence to the Human Essence; and from truth He united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence; thus He did all things both in general and in particular from Himself; in fact His Human was left to itself, in order that He might fight of Himself against all the hells, and overcome them; and as He had life in Himself that was His own-as already said-He overcame them by His own power and by His own forces, as is also clearly stated in the Prophets, in the passages that have been cited. Consequently, as He acquired all things for Himself by His own forces, He became righteousness, emancipated the world of spirits from infernal genii and spirits, and thereby delivered the human race from destruction-for the human race is ruled by means of spirits-and so redeemed it. For this reason He is so often called in the Word of the Old Testament the Deliverer and the Redeemer, and the Saviour, which is the meaning of His name Jesus.2026.
That by "I will give unto thee" is meant that the things which are in the heavens and on the earth are His, follows from what has just been said. In the sense of the letter, the words "I will give unto thee" mean that God or Jehovah would give to the Lord; just as it is said in the Word of the Evangelists that the Father gave unto Him all things that are in heaven and on the earth. But in the internal sense, in which the truth itself is presented in its purity, it means that the Lord acquired them for Himself, because Jehovah was in Him, and in everything belonging to Him, as before said. This may be further illustrated by that which is like it; for it is as if the interior or rational man, or the thought, should say that the corporeal would have rest or tranquillity if it would desist from doing this or that: in this case he that speaks is the same man as he that is spoken to, for both the rational and the corporeal belong to the man, and therefore when mention is made of the former, the latter also is understood.  Moreover that the things in the heavens and on the earth are the Lord's, is evident from very many passages in the Word, both in the Old Testament, and also in the Evangelists (as Matt. 11:27; Luke 10:22; John 3:34, 35, 17:2; Matt. 28:18); and also from what has been shown in Part First (n. 458, 551, 552, 1607). And as the Lord rules the universal heaven, He also rules all things on earth; for they have been so connected together that He who rules the one rules all things; for on the heaven of angels depends the heaven of angelic spirits, on this the world of spirits, and on this again the human race. And in like manner on the heavens depend all things that are in the world and in nature, for without influx from the Lord through the heavens, nothing that is in nature and its three Kingdoms would come forth and endure (see n. 1632).2027.
That "to thy seed after thee" signifies that He would give all these things to those who should have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being faith (see n. 1025, 1447, 1610), and in fact the faith of charity (see n. 379, 389, 654, 724, 809, 916, 1017, 1162, 1176, 1258). They who place merit in the actions of their lives have not the faith of charity, and therefore are not the seed here meant; for thereby they desire to be saved, not because of the Lord's righteousness, but because of their own. That there is no faith of charity in them, that is, no charity, is evident from the fact, that they set themselves before others, and thus regard themselves and not others, except insofar as they are of service to them; and they either despise or hate those who are not willing to render them service. Thus by the love of self they dissociate, and never associate; and thus destroy what is heavenly, namely, mutual love, which gives heaven its stability; for heaven itself is in it, and all its consociation and unanimity subsist and consist in it; for in the other life whatever destroys unanimity is contrary to the order of heaven itself, and thus conspires to the destruction of the whole. Such are they who place merit in the actions of their lives, and claim righteousness for themselves. Of these there are many in the other life.  They sometimes shine in the face like little torches, but from an illusive fire that proceeds from self-justification, and in fact they are cold. They are sometimes seen running about and confirming self-merit from the literal sense of the Word, for they hate the truths which are of the internal sense (n. 1877). Their sphere is a sphere of self-regard, and is thus destructive of all ideas that do not regard self as a kind of deity. The sphere of many of this sort together is so conflicting that there is nothing there but enmity and hostility; for when everyone desires the same thing, namely, to be served, he murders others in his heart.  Some of them are among those who say that they have labored in the Lord's vineyard, whereas they have at the same time continually had in mind their own preeminence, glory, and honors, as well as gain; and even that they might become the greatest in heaven and be served by the angels, in heart despising others in comparison with themselves, and thus being imbued with no mutual love, in which heaven consists, but with the love of self, in which they place heaven; for they know not what heaven is. (Respecting such see above, n. 450-452, 1594, 1679.) These are of those who desire to be first, but become last (Matt. 19:30; 20:16; Mark 10:31); and who say that they have prophesied by the name of the Lord, and have done many wonderful works; but to whom it is said, "I know you not" (Matt. 7:22, 23).  Very different is the case with those who from simplicity of heart have supposed that they merit heaven, and have lived in charity; these have looked upon meriting heaven as something that is promised, and they easily acknowledge it to be of the Lord's mercy; for the life of charity is attended with this, because true charity loves all truth.2028.
All the land of Canaan. That this signifies the heavenly kingdom, is evident from the signification of the "land of Canaan," as being the heavenly kingdom, as explained before (n. 1413, 1437, 1607).2029.
For an eternal possession. That this signifies what is eternal, is evident without explication. They are called "possessors," and also "heirs," not from merit, but from mercy.2030.
And I will be to them for God. That this signifies that God is one, is evident from the fact that the subject here treated of is the Lord's Human Essence that was to be united to His Divine Essence, and thereby itself likewise become God. Thus "I will be to them for God," signifies in the internal sense that God is one.2031.
Verse 9. And God said unto Abraham, And thou shalt keep My covenant, thou and thy seed after thee, unto their generations. "God said unto Abraham," signifies perception; "and thou shalt keep My covenant," signifies still closer union; "thou and thy seed after thee," signifies that from Him there is conjunction with all who have faith in Him; "unto their generations," signifies the things which are of faith.2032.
God said unto Abraham. That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification of "God said," in the historic Word as being to perceive (explained before, n. 1602, 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822).2033.
Thou shalt keep My covenant. That this signifies still closer union, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being union and conjunction (treated of before, at verses 2, 4, and 7; also in Part First, n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038). The repeated mention here of "covenant," so frequently mentioned before, denotes a closer union. In the historical sense, which relates to Abraham, nothing else can be said than that he is to keep the covenant; but in the internal sense, in which the Lord is treated of, what is historical vanishes, and the things that can be predicated of Him succeed in its place, which relate to a closer union. The unition of the Lord's Human Essence with His Divine Essence was not effected all at once, but through the whole course of His life, from infancy to the last of His life in the world. Thus He ascended continuously to glorification, that is, to union; according to what is said in John: Jesus said, Father glorify Thy name; there came a voice from heaven: I have both glorified and will glorify it again (John 12:28). (See what was said above, n. 1690, 1864.)2034.
Thou and thy seed after thee. That this signifies that from Him there is conjunction with all who have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being faith, spoken of several times before; and from the signification of "after thee," as being to follow Him (explained above, n. 2019). The union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence, and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence, has already been treated of; and the subject here treated of is the conjunction of the Lord with those who believe in Him, and therefore there is a repetition of the word "thou;" for it is said, "Thou shalt keep My covenant, thou and thy seed;" and from this repetition of the words in connection with "seed" it is evident that in the internal sense conjunction is signified, and in fact with those who are the seed, by which is signified the faith of charity, as shown above (n. 1025, 1447, 1510; and that faith is charity itself may be seen in Part First, n. 30-38, 379, 389, 654, 724, 809, 916, 1017, 1076, 1077, 1162, 1176, 1258, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844).  Moreover when speaking of His union with the Father, the Lord speaks immediately and without a break of His conjunction with the human race; because this was the cause of the union, as is evident in John: That they all may be one, as Thou Father art in Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be one in us; the glory which Thou hast given Me I have given them, that they may be one, even as we are one, I in them, and Thou in Me, for I have made known unto them Thy name, and will make it known, that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them (John 17:21, 22, 26) from which it is evident that in the union of Himself with the Father the Lord had in view the conjunction of Himself with the human race, and that He had this at heart, because it was His love; for all conjunction is effected by means of love, love being conjunction itself.  Again in the same gospel: Because I live, ye shall live also in that day ye shall know that I am in the Father, and ye in Me, and I in you; he that hath My commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth Me (John 14:19-21); from which in like manner it is evident that in the union of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence the Lord had in view the conjunction of Himself with the human race, and that this was His end, and this His love, which was such that the salvation of the human race, as held in the union of Himself with His Father, was to Him the inmost joy. There is also here described that which unites, namely, to have and to do His commandments, and thereby to love the Lord.  Again: Father, glorify Thy name; there came therefore a voice from heaven, I have both glorified and will glorify it again. Jesus said, This voice hath not come for My sake, but for your sakes. But I, when I shall be lifted up from the earth, will draw all after Me (John 12:28, 30, 32) by "glorification" is meant union, as before said; and that in the union of Himself with the Father He regarded the conjunction of Himself with the human race, is openly said in the words, "when I shall be lifted up, I will draw all after Me."  That conjunction of the Infinite or Supreme Divine with the human race was effected through the Lord's Human made Divine, and that this conjunction was the cause of the Lord's coming into the world, is an arcanum into which many inquire in their own minds, and because they do not comprehend, they do not believe it; and as they do not believe for the reason that they do not comprehend, it becomes a scandal or stumbling-block to them. That this is so, I have learned from much experience from those who come into the other life. Very many of these-almost the greater part of those who had been men of talent in the world-when they merely think that the Lord became a man, and in external form was like other men, that He suffered, and that nevertheless He rules the universe, at once fill the sphere with scandals, because this had been a scandal or stumbling-block to them in the life of the body; although at that time they had divulged nothing about it, and had adored Him with outward sanctity. For in the other life the interiors are open, and are made manifest by the sphere diffused from them (treated of in Part First, n. 1048, 1053, 1316, 1504). In this way it is plainly perceived of what faith they had been, and what they had thought concerning the Lord.  Seeing that such is the case, it may be well to explain the matter a little further. After all the celestial in man had perished, that is, all love to God, so that there was no longer any will of good, the human race had then been separated from the Divine; for nothing effects conjunction except love, and when this had been annihilated, there was disjunction; and when there is disjunction, then destruction and extirpation follow. Therefore the promise was then made respecting the Lord's coming into the world, who should unite the Human to the Divine, and by this union should effect in Himself the conjunction of the human race by means of the faith of love and of charity.  From the time of the first promise (spoken of in Gen. 3:15) the faith of love in the Lord who was to come effected conjunction. But when there was no longer any faith of love remaining in the whole world, then the Lord came and united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, so that they were altogether one, as He Himself clearly says; and at the same time He taught the way of truth, that everyone who should believe in Him-that is, who should love Him and the things that are His, and who should be in His love which is love toward the universal human race, thus in love toward the neighbor-should be conjoined and saved.  When, in the Lord, the Human was made Divine, and the Divine Human, the result was an influx of the Infinite or Supreme Divine with man that otherwise could not possibly have existed; and an additional result was the dispersion of the direful persuasions of falsity and the direful cupidities of evil with which the world of spirits was brimful, and with which it was continually being filled full from the souls arriving from the world; and they who were in those persuasions and cupidities were cast into hell, and thereby were separated. Unless this had been done, the human race would have perished, for the Lord rules the human race by means of spirits. Nor could they have been dispersed in any other way, for no operation of the Divine was possible through man's rational things into those of internal sense, because these are far below the Supreme Divine when not so united; not to mention still deeper arcana that cannot be explained to the apprehension of any man. (See what was said above, n. 1676, 1990, that in the heaven of the celestial angels the Lord appears as a sun, and in the heaven of the spiritual angels as a moon; and that the Sun is the celestial of His love, and the Moon the spiritual of His love, n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531 and that all things both in general and in particular are under His view, n. 1274e, 1277e.)2035.
Unto their generations. That this signifies the things which are of faith, is evident from the signification of "generations," and of "births," as being the things that are of faith (concerning which see above, n. 613, 1145, 1255, 1330; and that those which are of love and faith are related as by blood and marriage, n. 685, 917).2036.
Verse 10. This is My covenant, which ye shall keep between Me and you, and thy seed after thee, that every male be circumcised unto you. "This is My covenant which ye shall keep between Me and you," signifies a token of the conjunction of all with the Lord; "and thy seed after thee," signifies those who have faith in Him; "that every male be circumcised unto you," signifies purity.2037.
This is My covenant, which ye shall keep between Me and you. That this signifies a token of the conjunction of all with the Lord, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction, as explained before. That it is here the token of conjunction, is evident from the next verse, where it is called "a sign of a covenant:" "Ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and you." All the external rites of the church were signs of the covenant, and were to be sacredly observed, because internal things were signified by them. Circumcision-which is treated of here-was nothing but a representative and significative rite, and as such is explained in what follows; nevertheless in various passages of the Word such rites are called the "covenant," for the reason that external things represented and thereby signified internal things. The internal things are what belong to the covenant, because they are effective of conjunction, and the external things are not so except by means of the internal ones. The external things were merely signs of the covenant, or tokens of the conjunction, by means of which they might call to mind the internal things and thereby be conjoined by means of these. (Respecting the signs of the covenant, see above, n. 1308.) All the internal things that belong to the covenant, or that are effective of conjunction, relate to love and charity, and proceed from love and charity; for on these two things, namely, loving God more than one's self, and loving the neighbor as one's self, "hang all the law and the prophets," that is, the universal doctrine of faith (Matt. 22:34-39; Mark 12:28-35).2038.
And thy seed after thee. That this signifies those who have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being the faith of charity, concerning which above.2039.
That every male be circumcised. That this signifies purity, is evident from the representation and derivative signification in the internal sense of "circumcising." Circumcision, or the cutting off of the foreskin, signified the removal and wiping away of those things that were impeding and defiling celestial love, and which are the evils of cupidities (especially the evils of the cupidities of the love of self) and the derivative falsities. The reason of this signification is that the organs of generation, in both sexes, represent celestial love. There are loves of three kinds that constitute the celestial things of the Lord's kingdom, namely, conjugial love, love for infants, and the love for society, or mutual love. Conjugial love is the principal love of all, because it has within it the end of greatest use, namely, the propagation of the human race, and thereby of the Lord's kingdom, of which it is the seminary. Love toward infants follows next, being derived from conjugial love; and then comes the love for society, or mutual love. Whatever covers up, obstructs, and defiles these loves, is signified by the foreskin; and the cutting off of this, or circumcision, was therefore made representative; for insofar as the evils of cupidities, and the falsities derived from them are removed, insofar the man is purified; and insofar celestial love can appear. How contrary to celestial love, and how filthy, is the love of self, has been stated and shown above (n. 760, 1307, 1308, 1321, 1594, 2045, 2057). From what has now been said, it is clear that in the internal sense "circumcision" signifies purity.  That circumcision is only a sign of covenant, or of conjunction, may be plainly seen from considering that the circumcision of the foreskin amounts to nothing at all without the circumcision of the heart; and that it is the circumcision of the heart, or purification from the filthy loves above referred to that is signified by it, as is plainly evident from the following passages in the Word. In Moses: Jehovah thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love Jehovah thy God in thy whole heart, and in thy whole soul, that thou mayest live (Deut. 30:6); from which it is evident that to "circumcise the heart" is to be purified from filthy loves, in order that Jehovah God, or the Lord, may be loved with all the heart and with all the soul.  In Jeremiah: Break up your fallow ground, and sow not among thorns; circumcise yourselves unto Jehovah, and take away the foreskin of your heart, O man of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem (Jer. 4:3-4); to "circumcise one's self to Jehovah, and remove the foreskin of the heart," is to remove such things as obstruct heavenly love; all which shows that the circumcision of the heart is an interior thing that is signified by the circumcision of the foreskin. In Moses: Ye shall circumcise the foreskin of your heart, and shall no longer harden your neck, doing the judgment of the orphan and the widow, and loving the stranger to give him bread and raiment (Deut. 10:16, 18); where also it is clear that to "circumcise the foreskin of the heart" is to be purified from the evils of filthy loves and from the falsities derived from them. The celestial things of love are described by these works of charity, namely, "doing the judgment of the orphan and the widow," and "loving the stranger to give him bread and raiment."  In Jeremiah: Behold, the days come in which I will visit upon everyone that is circumcised in the foreskin, upon Egypt, and upon Judah, and upon Edom, and upon the sons of Ammon, and upon Moab, and upon all that are cut off at the corner, that dwell in the wilderness; for all the nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in heart (Jer. 9:25-26); where it is evident that circumcision is significative of purification, for they are called the "circumcised in the foreskin," but still are reckoned among the uncircumcised nations, as are even the Jews; and Israel is said to be "uncircumcised in heart." And it is the same in Moses: If then their uncircumcised heart be humbled (Lev. 26:41).  That by the "foreskin" and by "one that is uncircumcised" is signified uncleanness, is evident in Isaiah: Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O Zion; put on the garments of thy beauty, O Jerusalem, the city of holiness; for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean (Isa. 52:1). By "Zion" is meant the celestial church, and by "Jerusalem" the spiritual church, into which what is "uncircumcised," that is, the "unclean," shall not enter.  That circumcision is a sign of a covenant, or a token of conjunction, is clearly evident from the fact that the like was represented by means of the fruits of trees, which also were to be circumcised, concerning which in Moses: When ye shall have come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees of food, ye shall circumcise the foreskin thereof, its fruit; three years shall they be unto you as uncircumcised, it shall not be eaten; and in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holiness for praises unto Jehovah (Lev. 19:23-24); "fruits," like the "heart," represent and signify charity, as may be seen from many passages in the Word; and thus their "foreskin" signifies the uncleanness which obstructs and contaminates charity.  Wonderful to say, when the angels who are in heaven have the idea of purification from natural defilements, with the utmost rapidity there is represented in the world of spirits something like circumcision; for the angelic ideas pass over into representatives in the world of spirits. In the Jewish Church some of the representative rites originated in this source, and some did not. Those with whom that quick circumcision was represented in the world of spirits, were in the desire to be admitted into heaven; and before they were admitted, there was this representation. This shows why Joshua was commanded to circumcise the people, when, having passed over Jordan, they were entering the land of Canaan; for the entrance of the people into the land of Canaan represented this very admission of the faithful into heaven.  For this reason circumcision was commanded a second time, concerning which in Joshua: Jehovah said unto Joshua, Make thee swords of rocks, and circumcise the sons of Israel the second time; and Joshua made him swords of rocks, and circumcised the sons of Israel at the hill of the foreskins; and Jehovah said unto Joshua, This day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you; and he called the name of that place Gilgal [Rolling off] (Joshua 5:2-3, 9); the "swords of rocks" signify the truths with which they were to be imbued, in order that thereby they might castigate and disperse filthy loves; for without the knowledges of truth no purification is possible. (That a "stone" or "rock" signifies truths, has been shown before, n. 643, 1298; and that a "sword" is predicated of the truths by which evils may be castigated, is evident from the Word.)2040.
Verse 11. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and you. "Ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin," signifies the removal of the love of self and of the world; "and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and you," signifies a representative and significative of purity.2041.
Ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin. That this signifies the removal of the love of self and of the world, is evident from the representation and signification of "circumcision," as being purification from filthy loves (explained above, n. 2039); and from the signification of "flesh," as being what is man's own (treated of before, n. 999). That which is man's own is nothing but the love of self and of the world, thus is all the derivative cupidity; and how filthy this is has been shown in Part First (n. 141, 150, 154, 210, 215, 694, 731, 874-876, 987, 1047). As this Own of man which is to be removed is signified, the expression "flesh of the foreskin" is made use of.  There are two so-called loves and their cupidities that obstruct the influx of heavenly love from the Lord; for when these loves reign in the interior and in the external man, and take possession thereof, they either reject or suffocate, and also pervert and contaminate, the inflowing heavenly love; for they are utterly contrary to heavenly love, as will of the Lord's Divine mercy be shown hereafter. But insofar as these loves are removed, so far the heavenly love flowing in from the Lord begins to appear, nay, to give light in the interior man; and so far he begins to see that he is in evil and falsity; next that he is actually in uncleanness and filthiness; and finally that this has been his Own. They who are becoming regenerate are those with whom these loves are being removed.  Observation of this removal is possible also with the unregenerate, for when the cupidities of these loves are quiescent in them, as sometimes occurs when they are in holy meditation, or when the cupidities are lulled, as happens when they are in misfortunes, in sicknesses, and diseases, and especially at the moment of death, then, because bodily and worldly things are lulled and as it were dead, they observe something of heavenly light and the consequent comfort. But with these persons there is not removal of the cupidities in question, but only a lulling of them, for when they return into their former state, they at once relapse into the same cupidities.  With the evil also, bodily and worldly things can be lulled, and they can then be as it were uplifted into a kind of heavenliness, as sometimes takes place with souls in the other life, especially those newly arrived, who intensely desire to see the glory of the Lord, because they had heard so much about heaven while they lived in the world. The external things above referred to are then lulled in them, and in this way they are carried into the first heaven and enjoy their desire. But they cannot remain long, because there is only a quiescence of the bodily and worldly things, and not a removal of them, as with the angels (concerning which, see n. 541, 542). Be it known that heavenly love is continually inflowing into man from the Lord, and that nothing else obstructs and impedes it, and causes its reception by the man impossible, except the cupidities of those loves and the falsities derived from them.2042.
And it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and you. That this signifies a representative and significative of purity, is evident from what has been shown just above (n. 2039), namely, that circumcision was nothing but a representative of purification from filthy loves. And as it was only an external rite which represented and signified something internal, it was not a covenant, but a sign of a covenant.2043.
Verse 12. And a son of eight days shall be circumcised unto you, every male in your generations, he that is born in the house, and he that is bought with silver from every son that is a stranger who is not of thy seed. "A son of eight days," signifies any beginning of purification whatever; "shall be circumcised unto you," signifies the purification; "every male," signifies those who are in the truth of faith "in your generations," signifies the things which are of faith; "he that is born in the house," signifies those who are celestial; "he that is bought with silver," signifies those who are spiritual, who are within the church; "from every son that is a stranger who is not of thy seed," signifies those who are outside the church.2044.
And a son of eight days. That this signifies any beginning of purification whatever, is evident from the signification of "the eighth day." A "week," which is seven days, signifies an entire period of any state or time, as of reformation, of regeneration, of temptation, whether of man in particular, or of the church in general; thus a period is called a "week," whether it be one of a thousand years, of a hundred, of ten, or of as many days, hours, minutes, and so on (as may be seen from the passages cited in Part First, n. 728). And as the eighth day is the first day of a new week, it signifies any beginning whatever. This shows also that, as circumcision was itself a representative of purification, so also was the time of it, namely, the eighth day; not that they then entered into a purer state, and were purified on that account, but for the reason that, as "circumcision" signified purification, so "the eighth day" signified that this ought to be effected at all times, and thus always, as from a new beginning.2045.
Shall be circumcised unto you. That this signifies purification, is evident from the representation and signification of "circumcision," as being purification from filthy loves (explained above, n. 2039). They who are in the loves of self and of the world cannot possibly believe that they are in things so filthy and unclean as they actually are in, for there is a certain pleasure and delight that soothes, favors, and allures, and causes them to love that life, to prefer it to all other life, and thereby to suppose that there is nothing of evil in it; for whatever favors anyone's love and the life thence derived is believed to be good. Hence also the rational consents, and suggests falsities which confirm and cause such blindness that they see nothing of the nature of heavenly love; and if they were to see it they would say in their hearts that it is a wretched affair, or a thing of naught, or something of the nature of a phantasy that takes hold of the mind, as in sickness.  But that the life of the love of self and of the world, together with its pleasures and delights, is filthy and unclean, may be seen by everyone who is willing to think from the rational faculty with which he is gifted. The love of self is the source of all the evils that destroy civic society. From it as from an unclean pit spring all hatreds, all revenges, all cruelties, nay, all adulteries; for he who loves himself, despises, vituperates, or hates, all others who do not serve him, or do him honor, or favor him; and when he hates, he breathes nothing but revenges and cruelties, and this in proportion to the degree in which he loves himself, so that this love is destructive of society and of the human race. (That such is its nature may be seen also from what is said of it in Part First, n. 693, 694, 760, 1307, 1308, 1321, 1506, 1594, 1691, 1862.) That in the other life the love of self is most filthy, and that it is diametrically opposite to the mutual love in which heaven consists, shall of the Lord's Divine mercy be told in what follows.  And as the love of self is the source of hatreds, revenges, cruelties, and adulteries, it is the source of all things that are called sins, wickednesses, abominations, and profanations, and therefore when this love is in the rational part of man, and is in the cupidities and phantasies of his external man, the influx of heavenly love from the Lord is continually repelled, perverted, and contaminated. It is like foul excrement, which dissipates, nay, defiles, all sweet odor; it is like an object that turns the continually inflowing rays of light into dark and repulsive colors; and it is like a tiger, or a serpent, which repels all fondling, and kills with bite and poison those who offer it food; or like a vicious man who turns even the best intentions of others, and their very kindnesses, into what is blameworthy and malicious. Hence it is evident that these loves-of self and of the world-are what are represented and signified by the foreskins that were to be cut off.2046.
Every male. That this signifies those who are in the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of a "male," as being truth (concerning which, see n. 672, 749). The "male:"," by which is signified the truth of faith, is named here because no one can be purified from those filthy loves except one who is in truth. From truth he knows [cognoscit] what is pure and what impure, and what is holy and what profane. Before he has learned this, there are no mediums into which and through which the heavenly love continually flowing in from the Lord can operate, as this cannot be received except in truths; and therefore man is reformed and regenerated by means of the knowledges of truth, and this not until he has been imbued with them. Conscience itself is formed by means of the truths of faith; for the conscience with which the regenerate man is gifted is a conscience of what is true and right (see n. 977, 986 at the end, 1033, 1076, 1077). This also is the reason why knives of stone, or "swords of rocks," as they are called, were employed in circumcising. (That these signify truths may be seen above, n. 2039, at the end.)2047.
Throughout your generations. That this signifies the things which are of faith, is evident from the signification of "generations" and of "births," as being the things that are of faith (see n. 613, 1145, 1255, 2020, 2035).2048.
That "he that is born in the house" signifies those who are celestial, and that "he that is bought with silver" signifies those who are spiritual, and that they thus signify those who are within the church, is evident from the signification of one "born in the house," as being those who are within the house. A "house," in the Word, signifies what is celestial, because this is the inmost; whence by the "house of God" in a universal sense is signified the Lord's kingdom; in a sense less universal, His church; and in a particular sense, the man himself in whom there is the Lord's kingdom or church. When man is called a "house," the celestial of faith in him is signified; and when he is called a "temple," the truth of faith in him is signified; thus here by one "born in the house" those who are celestial are signified. But that "he that is bought with silver" signifies those who are spiritual, is evident from the signification of "silver," as being truth, thus the spiritual of faith (see Part First, n. 1551).  Those are called celestial who are in love to the Lord; and as the Most Ancient Church, which was before the flood, was in this love, it was a celestial church. Those are called spiritual who are in love toward the neighbor and thereby in the truth of faith, as was the Ancient Church, which was after the flood. The distinction between the celestial and the spiritual has been treated of many times in Part First. Everyone can see that there are heavenly arcana in what is here said, namely, that those born in the house were to be circumcised, and those bought with silver, and also the sons that were strangers; and also from their being repeatedly mentioned (as in verses 13, 23, and 27, which follow); which arcana do not appear except from the internal sense, which shows that by those born in the house and those bought with silver are signified the celestial and the spiritual, thus those who are within the church; and that by "a son that is a stranger who is not of thy seed" are signified those who are outside the church.2049.
From every son that is a stranger who is not of thy seed. That this signifies those who are outside the church, is evident from the signification of "son that is a stranger," as being those who are not born within the church, thus are not in the goods and truths of faith, because not in the knowledges of them. "Sons that are strangers" also signify those who are in external worship (concerning whom, n. 1097); but where this is the meaning, those who are within the church are treated of, whereas in the passage before us the Lord's church in the universal is treated of, and therefore "sons that are strangers" signify those who are not born within the church, as is the case with the Gentiles. Gentiles, who are outside the church, may be in truths, but not in the truths of faith. Their truths, like the precepts of the Decalogue, are that parents are to be honored, that men are not to kill, steal, commit adultery, or covet things that belong to others; also that the Deity is to be worshiped. But the truths of faith are all doctrinal things concerning eternal life, the Lord's kingdom, and the Lord Himself, which cannot be known to the Gentiles because they have not the Word.  These are they who are signified by "sons that are strangers who are not of thy seed," and yet were to be circumcised, that is purified, together with them. This shows that they can be purified, equally with those within the church; as was represented by their being circumcised. They are purified when they reject filthy loves, and live with one another in charity; for then they live in truths, since all truths are of charity; but in the truths already mentioned. They who live in these truths readily imbibe the truths of faith, if not in the life of the body, yet in the other life, because the truths of faith are the interior truths of charity, and they then love nothing more than to be admitted into the interior truths of charity. The interior truths of charity are those in which the Lord's kingdom consists (see n. 932, 1032, 1059, 1327, 1328, 1366)  In the other life a memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith is of no avail, for the worst, nay, the infernals, can be in the memory-knowledge of them, sometimes more than others; but that which avails is a life according to the knowledges, for all knowledges have life as their end. Unless knowledges were learned for the sake of life, they would be of no use except that men might talk about them, and thereby be esteemed learned in the world, be exalted to honors, and gain reputation and wealth. From this it is evident that a life of the knowledges of faith is no other than a life of charity; for the Law and the Prophets, that is, the universal doctrine of faith together with all its knowledges, consists in love to the Lord and in love toward the neighbor; as is manifest to all from the Lord's words in Matthew 22:34-39 and Mark 12:28-35.  But still doctrinal things, that is, the knowledges of faith, are most necessary for forming the life of charity, which cannot be formed without them. This is the life that saves after death, and by no means any life of faith without it; for without charity there cannot be any life of faith. They who are in the life of love and charity are in the Lord's life, and by no other life can anyone be conjoined with Him. Hence also it is evident that the truths of faith can never be acknowledged as truths, that is, the acknowledgment of them so much talked of is impossible, except outwardly, and by the mouth, unless they are implanted in charity; for inwardly or in the heart they are denied, since, as already said, they all have charity as their end; and if this is not within them they are inwardly rejected. When the exteriors are taken away-as is done in the other life-the interiors are manifest in their true character, in that they are utterly contrary to all the truths of faith. When men have had no life of charity-that is, no mutual love-during their bodily life, it is utterly impossible to receive it in the other life, because they are averse to and hate it, for after death the same life remains with us that we have lived here. When such persons merely approach a society where there is the life of mutual love, they tremble, shudder, and feel torture.  Such persons, although born within the church, are called "sons that are strangers, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh," who are not to be admitted into the sanctuary, that is, into the Lord's kingdom; and who are also meant in Ezekiel: No son that is a stranger, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into My sanctuary (Ezek. 44:7, 9). Again: To whom art thou thus become like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? and thou shalt be brought down with the trees of Eden into the lower earth, thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that are slain by the sword (Ezek. 31:18); where Pharaoh is treated of, by whom are signified memory-knowledges in general (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462); by "the trees of Eden" with which they should go down into the lower earth, are also signified memory-knowledges, but those of the knowledges of faith. All this shows what "the uncircumcised" is in the internal sense, namely, one who is in filthy loves and the life of them.2050.
Verse 13. Circumcising he shall be circumcised that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy silver; and My covenant shall be in your flesh for an eternal covenant. "Circumcising he shall be circumcised" signifies that they must wholly remove from themselves the loves of self and of the world; "that is born in thy house, and that is bought with thy silver," signifies those within the church, of both kinds; "and My covenant shall be in your flesh," signifies the conjunction of the Lord with man in his impurity, and also a significative rite; "for an eternal covenant," signifies conjunction.
2009-1 Viderunt; probably a misprint for videbunt, as we find it read in the True Christian Religion, n. 782. [Rotch ed.]
2009-2 Et memorare fecit Nomen meum; but elsewhere, meminit Nominis mei; as n. 3305.