Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
He shall dwell against the faces of all his brethren. That this signifies that there will be continual contentions about matters of faith, but that nevertheless it will be a conqueror, is evident from what has just been said; which is yet more fully described where the Word tells of the posterity of Ishmael, in these words: They dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is toward the faces of Egypt, as one comes to Asshur, (his lot) fell toward the faces of all his brethren (Gen. 25:18), of which words the internal sense is evident from the signification of Havilah, Shur, Egypt, and Assyria. "Havilah" signifies that which is of intelligence (as appears from what has been shown in n. 115); "Shur" signifies truth proceeding from memory-knowledges (spoken of above, n. 1928); "Egypt," all that is of memory-knowledge (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462); and "Assyria," that which belongs to reason (n. 119, 1186); from the significations of all which, when reduced into one general meaning, it is evident that by Ishmael is represented such a rational. This very kind of truth is represented in the other life in various ways, and always as what is strong, powerful, and hard; insomuch that it cannot be resisted at all. When spirits merely think of such truth, something of terror comes over them, because it is its nature not to yield, and thus not to recede; from which also we may see what is meant by "dwelling against the faces of all his brethren." Anyone may know that an arcanum lies hidden in this description, but of what nature has hitherto been unknown.1952.
Verses 13, 14. And she called the name of Jehovah who was speaking unto her, Thou God seest me; for she said, Have I also here seen after Him that seeth me? Therefore she called the fountain, The fountain of the Living One who seeth me; behold it is between Kadesh and Bared. "And she called the name of Jehovah who was speaking unto her," signifies the state of the Lord's interior man when it thought about these things. "Thou God seest Me," signifies influx; "for she said, Have I also here seen after Him that seeth me?" signifies influx into the life of the exterior man without the rational as a medium; "therefore she called the fountain," signifies the derivative state of truth; "the fountain of the Living One who seeth me," signifies truth thus clearly seen; "behold it is between Kadesh and Bared," signifies its quality.1953.
And she called the name of Jehovah who was speaking unto her. That this signifies the state of the Lord's interior man when it thought about these things, is evident from what precedes and what follows, and also from the signification of "calling a name," which is to know what is the quality (explained before, n. 144, 145, 1754). This state is described in regard to its quality, or the state in which the Lord was when He thus thought about the rational. The rational could not think this, but the interior or higher man could (spoken of before, n. 1926). For the rational can by no means think about itself in regard to its quality, for nothing can look into itself; but it must be something more internal or higher that thinks about it, for this can look into it. For example: the ear cannot know, and still less perceive the speech that it receives into itself: this is done by a more interior hearing. The ear merely discerns articulate sounds or words: it is the interior hearing that apprehends what is said, and then it is an interior sight or mental view that perceives it, and in this way there is through the hearing a perception of the meaning of the speech. The case is similar with the things of sight: the first ideas received from the objects of sight are material, as they are also called; but there is a sight still more interior that views the objects mentally, and thereby thinks. And such is the case with man's rational. The rational can by no means look into itself, still less explore its own quality: there must be something more internal that does this; and therefore when a man is able to do it-that is, perceive anything false in his rational, or any truth that shines there, and especially if he is able to perceive anything that is battling and overcoming-he may know that his ability to do this comes from the Lord's influx through the internal man. The Lord's interior man, spoken of above (n. 1926) and meant here, was that which had been conjoined with His internal man, which was Jehovah, and was therefore far above that rational. From that interior man, as in celestial light, He saw and perceived of what quality the rational would become if it were in truth alone, and not in good.1954.
Thou God seest me. That this signifies influx, is evident from what has just been said. Mental view from the higher into the lower, or what is the same, from the interior into the exterior, is termed influx, for it takes place by influx; just as in the case of man's interior sight: unless this continually inflowed into his outer sight, which is that of the eye, this latter could not possibly apprehend and discern any object; for it is the interior sight which, through the eye, apprehends the things which the eye sees; and by no means is it the eye, although it so appears. From all this we may also see how much that man is in the fallacies of the senses who believes that the eye sees; when in fact it is the sight of his spirit, which is the interior sight, that sees through the eye.  Spirits who were with me have seen through my eyes things in the world as well as I did (concerning which see n. 1880); yet some of them who were still in the fallacies of the senses supposed that they had seen through their own eyes; but they were shown that it was not so, for when my eyes were closed they saw nothing in this atmospheric world. It is the very same with man: it is his spirit that sees, not his eye: the spirit sees through the eye. The same thing may be seen from dreams, in which a man sometimes sees as in the day. The case is the very same in regard to this interior sight, or that of the spirit; this again does not see from itself, but from a still more interior sight, or that of man's rational. Nay, neither does this see of itself, but does so from a still more internal sight, which is that of the internal man (concerning which, n. 1940). And even this does not see of itself, for it is the Lord who sees through the internal man, and He is the Only One who sees because He is the Only One who lives, and He it is who gives man the ability to see, and this in such a manner that it appears to him as if he saw of himself. Such is the case with influx.1955.
For she said, Have I also here seen after Him who seeth me? That this signifies influx into the life of the exterior man without the rational as a medium, is evident from the signification of "seeing after Him that seeth." "To see after Him that seeth" is to see from what is interior, or higher, for in the internal sense that which is within or above is expressed in the sense of the letter by "after," when that which is within or above appears in that which is without or below. It is Hagar who speaks here; and by Hagar, as before shown, is signified the life of memory-knowledges, which belongs to the exterior man. As the first rational originated from this life, the Lord saw the reason for its so doing, and He saw it from His interior man in His exterior man, and did so without the rational as a medium. That the words before us involve arcana, everyone can see from the single consideration that no one can know what it is to "see after Him that seeth me," except from an internal sense, in which also there must be such things as cannot be explained to the apprehension, except by means of ideas like those of angels, which do not fall into words, but only into the sense of the words; and this quite apart from the material ideas out of which come the ideas of the sense of the words. Concerning the things before us, which appear so obscure to man, the angels have ideas so clear and distinct, and enriched with so many representations, that were only a small part of them described, they would fill a volume.1956.
Therefore she called the fountain. That this signifies the derivative state of truth, is evident from what has been said; and also from the signification of a fountain," as being truth (explained above, n. 1927). As this truth was not seen in the rational, but below the rational, the word in the original language that is here rendered "fountain" is a different word from that rendered "fountain" above, and from the common word for fountain.1957.
The fountain of the Living One who seeth me. That this signifies truth thus clearly seen, is also evident from what has been already said, namely, that the Lord clearly saw how the case was with the truth of this rational-that it was not good. The Lord's interior man, from which He saw this, is called "The Living One who seeth," because it was conjoined with the internal man, which was Jehovah, who alone lives and alone sees (as shown just above, n. 1954).1958.
Behold it is between Kadesh and Bared. That this signifies the quality-that is that He saw of what quality this truth was, and thus what the quality of the rational was-is evident from the signification of "Kadesh" and of "Bared." That "Kadesh" signifies truth, and also contentions about truths, has been shown before (n. 1678); but "Bared" signifies what is below, and thus truth in the form of memory-knowledge, 1958-1 from which also comes the rational. (That names in the Word signify actual things, may be seen above, n. 1876, 1888, 1889; also n. 1224, 1264.)1959.
Verse 15. And Hagar bare Abram a son; and Abram called the name of his son that Hagar bare, Ishmael. "Hagar bare Abram a son," signifies the rational man born from this conjunction and conception; "and Abram called the name of his son that Hagar bare, Ishmael," signifies the quality of it.1960.
Hagar bare Abram a son. That this signifies the rational man born from this conception and conjunction, is evident from the representation and signification of "Hagar," of "Abram," and of "a son." That "Hagar" signifies the life of the affection of memory-knowledges in the exterior man, has been said above (n. 1895, 1896); also that "Abram" signifies the Lord's internal man (n. 1893, 1950); and that "a son" signifies truth, and thus the truth that was of this rational (n. 264, 489, 491, 533, 1147). Hence that "Hagar bare a son to Abram," signifies the rational man that was born from this conception and conjunction. Into this sense is the sense of the letter changed when it reaches the angels, or is in the presence of the angels.1961.
And Abram called the name of his son that Hagar bare, Ishmael. That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," as being to know what is the quality of the thing in question (explained n. 144, 145, 1754); and also from the representation and signification of "Ishmael," as being rational truth, which is described in verses 11 and 12 in the words: "Thou shalt call his name Ishmael, because Jehovah hath heard thine affliction; and he will be a wild-ass man; his hand against all, and the hand of all against him; and he shall dwell against the faces of all his brethren;" and for the meaning of these words, see the explication of the verses that contain them. It is the quality of this rational that is there described.1962.
Verse 16. And Abram was a son of eighty years and six years, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram. "Abram was a son of eighty years and six years," signifies the Lord's state in respect to the celestial good acquired by combats of temptations; "when Hagar bare Ishmael," signifies when the life of the affection of memory-knowledges brought forth the rational.1963.
Abram was a son of eighty years and six years. That this signifies the Lord's state in respect to the celestial good acquired by means of the combats of temptations, is evident from the signification of "eighty," in which number is involved much the same as in "forty;" and that these numbers signify temptations has been already shown (n. 730, 862); and from the signification of "six," as being combat, also explained before (n. 720, 737, 900); and further from the signification of "ten," as being remains (treated of, n. 576); which remains in the Lord's case were the possessions of celestial goods by which He united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence (n. 1906, at the end). These three numbers are components of the number eighty-six, in which such things are involved, and which thus signifies the Lord's state in regard to the celestial good acquired by means of the combats of temptations; for all numbers in the Word signify actual things (as before shown, n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813). As in this case the numbers mentioned are numbers of years, and as they are also mentioned in historical connection with Abram, it appears as if they were not significative of such things. But there is nothing written in the Word which does not pass into a spiritual and a celestial sense when it passes over to the angels; for angels are in none other than spiritual and celestial ideas, and when the Word is being read by a man, the angels neither know nor perceive what "eighty-six" is, nor do they care of what age Abram was when Hagar bare Ishmael to him; but from such a number, when read, the things involved in the numbers immediately come to them; and the same is the case with all the other expressions, as they have been explained in the internal sense.1964.
When Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram. That this signifies when the life of the affection of memory-knowledges brought forth the rational, is evident from the signification of "Hagar" as being the life of the affection of memory-knowledges; and from the signification of "Ishmael," as being the rational first conceived, treated of above. As in this chapter the subject treated of is man's rational, and as there is described the quality of the rational when constituted solely of truths, and also when of goods and of truths derived from goods, be it known that the rational cannot possibly be conceived and born, that is, formed, apart from knowledges [scientifica et cognitiones] but these knowledges must have use as their end, and when they have use, they have life as their end, for all life belongs to uses, because it belongs to ends, and therefore unless knowledges are learned for the sake of a life of uses, they are of no moment, because of no use.  From these knowledges alone, without a life of use, the rational becomes as here described, resembling a wild-ass, morose, pugnacious, and characterized by a parched and dry life, from a kind of love of truth that is defiled with the love of self. But when these knowledges have use as their end, they receive life from uses, yet life of such a quality as is that of the uses. They who learn knowledges in order that they may be perfected in the faith of love-for true and real faith is love to the Lord and toward the neighbor-are in the use of all uses, and receive spiritual and celestial life from the Lord; and when they are in this life, they have a capacity to perceive all things of the Lord's kingdom. In this life are all angels; and because they are in this life they are in intelligence itself and wisdom itself.1965.
This then is the internal sense of the things contained in this chapter concerning Abram, Hagar, and Ishmael. But how copious this sense is, that is, what illimitable things it contains, may be seen from the mere consideration that as in the internal sense all things in the Word both in general and in particular regard the Lord, and treat of the Lord-for the life of the Word, because the Word itself, is from this-they also, in the internal sense, treat at the same time of His kingdom in the heavens, and of His kingdom on earth, which is the church; and in the same way they treat of everyone in whom is the Lord's kingdom; and besides this they treat in general of all that is celestial and spiritual, for all these are from the Lord. Hence it is that by Abram is also represented the celestial church, the celestial man, and the celestial itself, and so on. But to extend the explication to all these would make it too tedious.1966.
CONCERNING VISIONS AND DREAMS, INCLUDING THE PROPHETIC ONES CONTAINED IN THE WORD. Few know how the case is with visions, and what visions are genuine; but as for some years I have been almost continually with those who are in the other life-as may be sufficiently evident from Part First 1966-1-and have there seen amazing things, I have in this way been informed by experience itself in regard to visions and dreams, concerning which I may relate what follows.1967.
Much has been said about the visions of certain persons who have declared that they have seen many things, and who did see them, but in phantasy. I have been instructed about them, and it was likewise shown how they take place. There are spirits who by means of phantasies induce appearances that seem to be real. For example, if anything is seen in shadow, or in moonlight, or even in daylight, if the object be in a dark place, these spirits keep the mind of the beholder fixedly and continually in the thought of someone thing, be it an animal, a monster, a forest, or any other thing; and so long as the mind is held in this thought, the phantasy is increased, and it grows to such a degree that the person is persuaded, and sees just as if the things themselves were there, whereas they are nothing but illusions. Such things befall those who indulge much in fancies, and are subject to infirmity of mind, and have thereby become credulous. These are visionaries.1968.
Enthusiastic spirits are similar, but these have visions about things to be believed, of which they are persuaded and persuade others so strongly as to be ready to swear that what is false is true, and that a fallacy is a reality. Concerning this nature of spirits, many things might be related from experience; but of the Lord's Divine mercy they will be treated of specifically. They have contracted this nature from persuasions and false principles, while they lived in the world.1969.
Evil spirits in the other life are scarcely anything but cupidities and phantasies. They have acquired to themselves no other life. Their phantasies are such that they have no perception whatever but that the case is so. Men's phantasies cannot be compared with theirs, for their state surpasses that of men even in regard to such things. Such phantasies are perpetual with the infernals, among whom one miserably torments another by means of phantasies.1970.
By genuine visions are meant visions or sights of such things in the other life as have real existence, and are nothing but actual things that can be seen by the eyes of the spirit and not by the eyes of the body, and that appear to a man when his interior sight is opened by the Lord (that is, the sight which his spirit has), and into which he comes when, separated from the body, he passes into the other life; for a man is a spirit clothed with a body. Such were the visions of the prophets. When this sight is opened, then those things which have actual existence with spirits are seen in clearer day than that of noon in this world, not only the representatives, but also the spirits themselves, together with a perception of who they are, also what they are, where they are, whence they come, whither they are going; also of what affection, what persuasion, nay of what faith they are (n. 1388, 1394), all confirmed by living speech, exactly as if it were human speech, and this free from all fallacy.1971.
The visions that come forth before good spirits are representatives of the things that are in heaven; for when that which exists in heaven before the angels passes down into the world of spirits, it is turned into representatives, from which and in which it may be plainly seen what they signify. Such things are perpetual with good spirits, and are attended with a beauty and pleasantness than can hardly be expressed.1972.
As regards the visions, or rather sights, that appear before the eyes of the spirit, not before the eyes of the body, they are more and more interior. Those which I have seen in the world of spirits I have seen in clear light, but those in the heaven of angelic spirits I have seen more obscurely, and still more obscurely those in the heaven of angels, for the sight of my spirit has rarely been opened to me so far, but it has been given me to know what they were saying, by a certain perception, the nature of which cannot be described, and frequently through intermediate spirits; the things which are there have sometimes appeared in the shade of the light of heaven, which is not like the shade of the light of the world, for it is light growing thin and faint from its incomprehensibility equally as discerned by the understanding and by the sight.1973.
To describe all the kinds of visions would be too tedious, for there are many. For the sake of illustration, I may describe two visions, from which their character may be seen; and also at the same time how spirits are affected by the things which they see, and how evil spirits are tormented when the ability to see the things that others are seeing and hearing is stolen away from them, for they cannot bear to have any such thing taken away from them; for spirits have not the sense of taste, but in place of it they have a desire, or a kind of appetite, for knowing and learning. This is as it were their food by which they are nourished (see n. 1480). The nature of their distress, therefore, when this food is taken away may be seen from the example that follows.1974.
After a troubled sleep, about the first watch, a very pleasant sight was presented. There were wreaths as of laurel, quite fresh, in most beautiful order, with motion as if alive: of such form and elegance of arrangement that description fails to express their beauty and harmony, and the affection of bliss that flowed forth from them. They were in a double series, at a little distance from each other, and running on together to a considerable length, and constantly varying the state of their beauty. This was plainly seen by spirits, even by evil ones. This was afterwards followed by another sight still more beautiful, in which there was heavenly happiness, but it was only dimly visible: there were infants in their heavenly sports, that affected the mind in a manner inexpressible.  I afterwards spoke with spirits concerning these sights, who confessed that they saw the first as much as I did, but the second only so dimly that they could not tell what it was. This caused them to feel indignation, and afterwards by degrees envy, from the fact that it was said that angels and little children had seen it; and this envy of theirs it was given me to perceive sensibly, so that nothing escaped me so far as concerned my instruction. The envy was of such a nature as to cause in them not merely the utmost annoyance, but also a feeling of anguish and interior pain and this merely because they did not see the second vision also, and the consequence was that they were led through varieties of envy until they were in pain in the region of the heart.  While they were in this state I spoke with them about the envy, telling them that they might be content with having seen the first vision, and that they would have been able to see the second also if they had been good; but this excited in them a feeling of indignation which intensified their envy, causing it to increase further to such a degree that they could not afterwards bear the least recollection of the matter without being affected with pain. The states and progressions of the envy, together with its degrees, aggravations, and varied and mingled distresses of mind and heart, cannot be described. It was thus shown how much the wicked are tormented by envy merely, when they see from afar the blessedness of the good, and even when they merely think of it.1975.
As regards dreams, it is known that the Lord revealed the arcana of heaven to the prophets, not only by visions, but also by dreams, and that the dreams were as fully representative and significative as the visions, being almost of the same class; and that to others also as well as the prophets things to come were disclosed by dreams; as by the dreams of Joseph, and of those who were in prison with him, and by those of Pharaoh, of Nebuchadnezzar, and others, from which it may be seen that dreams of this kind, equally with visions, flow in from heaven; with this difference, that dreams occur when the corporeal is asleep, and visions when it is not asleep. How prophetic dreams, and such as are found in the Word, flow in, nay, descend from heaven, has been shown me to the life; concerning which I may relate the following particulars, from experience.1976.
There are three kinds of dreams. The first kind come from the Lord mediately through heaven; such were the prophetic dreams that are treated of in the Word. The second kind come through angelic spirits, especially those who are in front above at the right, where there are paradisal scenes; from this source the men of the Most Ancient Church had their dreams, which were instructive (see n. 1122). The third kind come through the spirits who are near when man is sleeping, which are likewise significative. But fantastic dreams come from a different source.1977.
In order that I might fully know how dreams flow in, I was put to sleep, and I dreamed that a ship came laden with delicacies and savory food of every kind. The things in the ship were not seen, but were stowed away. Upon the ship stood two armed guards, besides a third who was its captain. The ship passed into a kind of arched dock. So I awoke and thought about the dream. The angelic spirits, who were above in front to the right, then addressed me, and told me that they had introduced this dream; and in order that I might know with certainty that it was from them, I was put into a state as of sleep and at the same time of wakefulness; and they introduced in the same way various things that were pleasant and delightful; for instance, an unknown little animal which was dispersed in a likeness of blackish and shining rays, that darted with marvelous quickness into my left eye. They also presented men and also little children adorned in various ways; and other things besides, with inexpressible pleasantness, about which I also spoke with them. This was done, not once, but many times, and each time I was instructed by them with the living voice.  The angelic spirits who are at the entrance to the paradisal scenes, are they who insinuate such dreams; and to them is also intrusted the duty of watching over certain men when they sleep, lest they should then be infested by evil spirits. They perform this duty with the greatest delight, so that there is rivalry among them as to who shall be present, and they love to affect the man with the enjoyable and delightful things which they see in his affection and genius. They who have become angelic spirits are from those who in the life of the body had delighted and had loved in every way and with the utmost pains, to make the life of others delightful. When the hearing is opened sufficiently far, there is heard from them, as from a distance, a sweetly modulated sound, as it were of singing. They said that they do not know whence such things, and representatives so beautiful and pleasant, come to them in a moment; but it was said that it was from heaven. They belong to the province of the cerebellum; for, as I have been informed, the cerebellum is awake in time of sleep, when the cerebrum sleeps. From this source the men of the Most Ancient Church had their dreams, together with a perception of what they signified; from whom in great part came the representatives and significatives of the ancients, under which were set forth things that are deeply hidden.1978.
Moreover there are other spirits, who belong to the province of the left side of the chest, by whom they are often interfered with; as well as by others whom they disregard.1979.
After such dreams I have very frequently been permitted to speak with the spirits and angels who had introduced them; and they told what they had introduced, and I what I had seen. But it would be too tedious to relate all my experience of these matters.1980.
It is worthy of mention that when after waking I related what I had seen in a dream, and this in a long series, certain angelic spirits (not of those spoken of above) then said that what I related wholly coincided, and was identical, with the subjects they had been conversing about, and that there was absolutely no difference; but still that they were not the very things they had discoursed about, but were representatives of the same things, into which their ideas were thus turned and changed in the world of spirits; for in the world of spirits the ideas of the angels are turned into representatives; and therefore each and all things they had conversed about were so represented in the dream. They said, further, that the same discourse could be turned into other representatives, nay, into both similar and dissimilar ones, with unlimited variety. The reason they were turned into such as have been described, was that it took place in accordance with the state of the spirits around me, and thus in accordance with my own state at the time. In a word, very many dissimilar dreams might come down and be presented from the same discourse, and thus from one origin; because, as has been said, the things that are in a man's memory and affection are recipient vessels, in which ideas are varied and received representatively in accordance with their variations of form and changes of state.1981.
I may relate one more instance of a similar kind. I dreamed a dream, but a common one. When I awoke, I related it all from beginning to end. The angels said that it coincided exactly with what they had spoken of together; not that the things seen in the dream were the same, for they were wholly different, being things into which the thoughts of their conversation were turned, but in such a way that they were representative and correspondent; and this in every particular, so that nothing was wanting. I then spoke with them about influx, as to how such things flow in and are varied. There was a person of whom I had the idea that he was in natural truth, which idea I had gathered from the acts of his life. There was a conversation among the angels about natural truth, and on this account that person was represented to me; and the things he said to me, and did, in my dream, followed in order representatively and correspondently from the discourse of the angels with one another. But still there was nothing precisely alike, or the same.1982.
Some souls recently from the world who long to see the glory of the Lord before they are qualified to be admitted, are lulled in regard to the exterior senses and lower faculties in a kind of sweet sleep, and then their interior senses and faculties are aroused into a high degree of wakefulness, and thereby they are admitted into the glory of heaven, but when wakefulness is restored to their exterior senses and faculties, they return into their former state.1983.
Evil spirits most vehemently desire and burn to infest and attack man when he is sleeping, but man is then especially guarded by the Lord, for love does not sleep. The spirits who infest are miserably punished. I have heard their punishments oftener than I can tell; they consist in rendings (spoken of, n. 829, 957, 959), under the heel of the left foot, and this sometimes for hours together. Sirens, who are interior enchantresses, are they who are especially insidious in the night time, and then try to insinuate themselves into a man's interior thoughts and affections, but are as often driven away by the Lord by means of angels, and are at last deterred by the severest punishments. They have also spoken with others in the night time, exactly as if they spoke from me, and as it were with my speech, so like that it could not be distinguished, pouring in filthy things, and persuading false ones.  I was once in a very sweet sleep, in which I had nothing but soft repose. When I awoke, some good spirits began to chide me for having (as they said) infested them so atrociously that they supposed they were in hell-throwing the blame upon me. I answered them that I knew nothing whatever about the matter, but had been sleeping most quietly, so that by no possibility could I have been troublesome to them. Astonished at this, they at last had a perception that it had been done by the magic arts of sirens. The like was also shown afterwards, in order that I might know the quality of the crew of sirens.  They are chiefly of the female sex, who in the life of the body had studied to allure male companions to themselves by interior artifices; insinuating themselves by means of outward things, captivating their lower minds in every possible way, entering into each one's affections and delights, but with an evil end, especially that of exercising command. Hence they have such a nature in the other life that they seem able of themselves to do all things, imbibing and inventing various arts, which they absorb as easily as sponges do waters, whether clean or filthy. So do they imbibe and put into act things profane as well as holy, with the end, as before said, of exercising command. It has been granted me to perceive their interiors, and to see how foul they are, being defiled by adulteries and hatreds. It has also been granted me to perceive how powerful in its effects is their sphere. They reduce their interiors into a state of persuasion, in order that these may conspire with their exteriors toward such things as they intend. They thus compel and violently draw spirits to think exactly as they do.  No reasonings appear in connection with them, but they make use of a kind of simultaneous rush of reasonings that are breathed into the person's evil affections and so they work by applying themselves to the natural inclinations, and thereby they get into the lower minds of others, whom they lead on, and by persuasion either overwhelm or captivate them. They study nothing more than to destroy the conscience, and when it is destroyed they get possession of men's interiors, and even obsess the men, although these are ignorant of it. At this day there are not as formerly external obsessions, but there are internal ones, by spirits of this class. They who have no conscience have become obsessed in this way. The interiors of their thoughts are insane in a manner not unlike this, but are concealed and veiled over by an external decorum and a pretended honorableness, for the sake of their own honor, gain, and reputation. And this such men may know, if they pay attention to their thoughts.1984.
Chapter 17 Few persons can bring themselves to believe that the Word has within it an internal sense that from the letter is not apparent, because it is so remote from the sense of the letter that it is as it were distant from it as heaven is from earth. But that the sense of the letter contains such things within itself, and that it is representative and significative of arcana that no one sees except the Lord, and angels from Him, is evident from what has been stated in various places in the first Part of this work. The sense of the letter bears a relation to the internal sense like that of the human body to the soul. While a man is in the body, and thinks from bodily things, he knows almost nothing about the soul; for the functions of the body are different from those of the soul, so different that if the functions of the soul were disclosed, they would not be acknowledged as such. The case is the same with the internals of the Word: its soul, that is, its life, is in its internals, and these have regard solely to the Lord, His kingdom, the church, and to those things in man that belong to His kingdom and church; and when these are regarded, it is the Word of the Lord, for in this case there is life itself therein. That this is really the case has been confirmed by many things in the first Part, and has been given me to know as a certainty; for no ideas concerning bodily and worldly things can by any possibility pass to the angels, but they are put off and altogether removed at the first threshold, as they leave man; as may be seen in the first Part, from experience itself (n. 1769-1772 inclusive), and also how they are changed (n. 1872-1876).  This may also be sufficiently evident from very many things in the Word that are not at all intelligible in the sense of the letter, and that would not be acknowledged as the Word of the Lord if there were not such a soul and life in them; nor would they appear as Divine to anyone who has not been imbued from infancy with the belief that the Word is inspired and thereby holy. Who would know from the sense of the letter what those things signify which Jacob spoke to his sons just before his death (Gen. 49): That Dan shall be a serpent upon the way, an adder upon the path, biting the horse's heels, and his rider shall fall backward (verse 17); that a troop shall ravage Gad, and he shall ravage the heel (verse 19); that Naphtali is a hind let loose, giving discourses of elegance (verse 21); that Judah shall bind his young ass to the vine, and the son of his she-ass to the noble vine; he shall wash his garment in wine, and his vesture in the blood of grapes; his eyes are redder than wine, and his teeth are whiter than milk (Gen. 49:11-12); and the case is the same with very many passages in the Prophets. But what these things signify cannot possibly appear except in the internal sense, in which all things both in general and in particular are coherent in the most beauty order.  The case is the same again with all that the Lord said concerning the last times: In the consummation of the age, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken; and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man, and then shall all the tribes of the earth wail (Matt. 24:29-30). These words by no means signify the darkening of the sun and moon, nor the falling of the stars from heaven, nor the wailing of the tribes; but they signify charity and faith, for in the internal sense these are "the sun and the moon," and these will be darkened; and they also signify the knowledges of good and truth, for these are "the stars," which are here called "the powers of the heavens," and which will thus fall down and vanish; and that so also will all things of faith, which are "the tribes of the earth." This was shown also in Part First (n. 31, 32, 1053, 1529-1531, 1808). From these few things the nature of the internal sense of the Word may be seen, and also that it is remote, and in some places very remote, from the sense of the letter. But still the sense of the letter represents truths; and sets forth appearances of truth, in which a man can be when not in the light of truth. GENESIS 17 1. And Abram was a son of ninety years and nine years; and Jehovah appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am God Shaddai; walk thou before Me, and be thou perfect. 2. And I will give My covenant between Me and thee, and will multiply thee very exceedingly. 3. And Abram fell upon his faces; and God spoke with him saying: 4. I, behold, My covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations. 5. And thy name shall no more be called Abram; and thy name shall be Abraham, for a father of a multitude of nations have I made thee. 6. And I will make thee fruitful very exceedingly, and I will make thee nations, and kings shall go forth from thee. 7. And I will set up My covenant between Me and thee and thy seed after thee, unto their generations, for an eternal covenant, to be to thee for God, and to thy seed after thee. 8. And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be to them for God. 9. And God said unto Abraham, And thou shalt keep My covenant, thou and thy seed after thee, unto their generations. 10. This is My covenant, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee, that every male be circumcised unto you. 11. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and you. 12. And a son of eight days shall be circumcised unto you, every male in your generations, he that is born in the house, and he that is bought with silver from every son that is a stranger, who is not of thy seed. 13. Circumcising he shall be circumcised that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy silver; and My covenant shall be in your flesh for an eternal covenant. 14. And the uncircumcised male, who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his peoples, he hath made vain My covenant. 15. And God said unto Abraham, Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, for Sarah is her name. 16. And I will bless her, and will also give thee a son from her; and I will bless her, and she shall be for nations; kings of peoples shall be from her. 17. And Abraham fell upon his faces, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall there be born to a son of a hundred years? And shall Sarah, that is a daughter of ninety years, bear? 18. And Abraham said unto God, Would that Ishmael might live before Thee! 19. And God said, Truly Sarah, thy wife, shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name Isaac; and I will set up My covenant with him for an eternal covenant, to his seed after him. 20. And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee; behold I will bless him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him very exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. 21. And My covenant will I set up with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the following year. 22. And He left off speaking with him; and God went up from over Abraham. 23. And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his silver, every male among the men of Abraham's house, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God spoke with him. 24. And Abraham was a son of ninety and nine years, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25. And Ishmael his son was a son of thirteen years, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 26. In the self-same day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son. 27. And all the men of his house, he that was born in the house, and he that was bought with silver from the stranger, were circumcised with him.1985.
THE CONTENTS The subject here treated of is the union of the Lord's Divine Essence with the Human Essence, and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence; and also the conjunction of the Lord, through the Human Essence, with the human race.1986.
Jehovah was manifested to the Lord in His Human (verse 1). Foretelling the union (verses 2, 3); namely, of the Divine with the Human, and of the Human with the Divine (verses 4, 5). And that all good and truth is from Him (verse 6). The conjunction of the Divine with the human race would thus be effected through Him (verse 7). And the heavenly kingdom would be His, which He would give to those who should have faith in Him (verses 8, 9). But man must first remove his loves and their foul cupidities, and so be purified; this is what was represented and is signified by circumcision (verses 10, 11). Thus conjunction would be effected, both with those who are within the church, and with those who are without it (verse 12).  Purification must by all means precede; otherwise there is no conjunction, but condemnation; and yet after all the conjunction cannot take place except in man's impurity (verses 13, 14). The union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence, or of truth with good, is foretold (verses 15-17). Also conjunction with those who are in the truths of faith, namely, as with those who are of the celestial church, so with those who are of the spiritual church (verses 18, 19). And that the latter also would be imbued with the goods of faith (verse 20). In conclusion, these things will be effected through the union in the Lord of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence (verse 21). The end of the prediction (verse 22). It was so to be done, and it was so done (verses 23-27).1987.
THE INTERNAL SENSE Verse 1. And Abram was a son of ninety years and nine years; and Jehovah appeared unto Abram, and said unto him, I am God Shaddai; walk thou before Me and be thou perfect [integer]. "Abram was a son of ninety years and nine years," signifies the time before the Lord had fully conjoined the internal man with the rational; "Abram" signifies the Lord in that state and in that age; "and Jehovah appeared to Abram," signifies manifestation; "and said unto him," signifies perception; "I am God Shaddai," in the sense of the letter signifies the name of Abram's God, by which name the Lord was first represented before them; "walk thou before Me," signifies the truth of faith; "and be thou perfect," signifies good.1988.
Abram was a son of ninety years and nine years. That this signifies the time before the Lord had fully conjoined the internal man with the rational, is evident from the signification of "nine" when regarded as coming before ten; or what is the same, of "ninety-nine" before a hundred, for Abram was a hundred years old when Isaac was born to him. The nature of the internal sense of the Word may be seen in an especial manner from the numbers, as well as from the names, that occur in the Word; for the numbers therein, whatever they may be, signify actual things, as do the names also; for there is absolutely nothing in the Word that has not what is Divine within it, or that does not possess an internal sense; and how remote this is from the sense of the letter is especially manifest from the numbers and the names; for in heaven no attention is given to these, but to the things that are signified by them. For example, whenever the number "seven" occurs, instead of seven there at once comes to the angels what is holy, for "seven" signifies what is holy, and this from the fact that the celestial man is the "seventh day," or "Sabbath," and thus the Lord's "rest" (n. 84-87, 395, 433, 716, 881). The case is similar with the other numbers, as for example with twelve. Whenever "twelve" occurs, there comes to the angels the idea of all things that belong to faith, for the reason that these were signified by the "twelve tribes" (n. 577). That in the Word numbers signify actual things, may be seen demonstrated in Part First (n. 482, 487, 488, 493, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 893).  The case is the same with the number "ninety-nine;" and that this number signifies the time before the Lord had fully conjoined the internal man with the rational, is evident from the signification of a "hundred years," which was Abram's age when Isaac was born to him; for by Isaac is represented and signified the Lord's rational man that is conjoined with His internal man, that is, with the Divine. In the Word, a "hundred" signifies the same as "ten," for it is formed by the multiplication of ten into ten and "ten" signifies remains (as shown in Part First, n. 576). What the remains in man are, may be seen above (n. 468, 530, 561, 660, 1050), also what the remains in the Lord were (n. 1906). These arcana cannot be set forth further, but everyone may form a conclusion on the subject after he has first made himself acquainted with what remains are (for what they are is at this day unknown), provided it be known that in the Lord's case remains mean the Divine goods that He procured for Himself by His own power, and by means of which He united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence.  From all this we may see what is signified by "ninety-nine," for this number, because it precedes a hundred, signifies the time before the Lord had fully conjoined the internal man with the rational. In the Lord's case, the first rational was represented by Ishmael; and the nature of this rational has been sufficiently shown above (in the preceding chapter 16). But by Isaac is represented the Lord's Divine rational, as will appear in what follows. From Abram's staying so long in the land of Canaan (now twenty-four years, that is, ten years before Ishmael was born, and thirteen years after that) without his as yet having a son by his wife Sarai, and from the promise of a son being first given when he was ninety-nine years old, everyone can see that some arcanum is involved. The arcanum was, that he might thereby represent the union of the Lord's Divine Essence with His Human Essence; and in fact the union of His internal man, which is Jehovah, with His rational.1989.
That "Abram" signifies the Lord in that state and at that age, is evident from what has already been said concerning Abram. In the internal sense Abram represents the Lord, for when he is mentioned in the Word no other Abram is understood in heaven. Those who have been born within the church, and have heard about Abram from the Word, on their entrance into the other life do indeed have some knowledge of him; but as he is like any other man, and cannot render them any aid, they no longer care about him; and they are informed that by "Abram" in the Word there is meant no other than the Lord. But the angels, who are in heavenly ideas and do not fix them on any man, know nothing about Abram; and therefore when the Word is being read by man and Abram is mentioned they perceive no other than the Lord; and when the words now before us are read, they perceive the Lord in that state and at that age; for Jehovah here speaks with Abram, that is, with the Lord.1990.
Jehovah appeared unto Abram. That this signifies manifestation, is evident without explication, for as before said the Lord is represented by Abram. No man in the whole world has seen Jehovah, the Father of the Lord; but the Lord alone saw Him, as He Himself has said in John: No one hath seen God at any time the Only-Begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth (John 1:18). Again: Ye have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His shape (John 5:37). And again: Not that anyone hath seen the Father save He that is with the Father; He hath seen the Father (John 6:46).  The Infinite Itself, which is above all the heavens, and is over the inmost things that appertain to man, cannot be made manifest, except through the Divine Human which appertains to the Lord alone. No communication of the Infinite with those who are finite is possible from any other source, and this is also the reason that when Jehovah appeared to the men of the Most Ancient Church, and afterwards to the Ancient Church that was after the flood, and then again to Abraham and the prophets, He was manifested to them as a man. That this was the Lord, He teaches openly in John: Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it, and was glad; verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am (John 8:56, 58). Also in the Prophets-as in Daniel, by whom He was seen as the Son of man (Dan. 7:13).  From these passages it may be seen that the Infinite Esse, which is Jehovah, could not possibly be manifested to man except through the Human Essence, thus except through the Lord; and therefore that it has been manifested to no one save the Lord alone. That He might also be present and be conjoined with man, after man had completely removed himself from the Divine, and had immersed himself in foul cupidities, and thereby in mere bodily and earthly things, He assumed in actuality the Human Essence itself by birth, that so He might still adjoin the Infinite Divine to man now so far removed; otherwise men would have perished to eternity with the death of the damned. The other arcana concerning the manifestation of Jehovah in the Lord's Human, when He was in a state of humiliation, before He had fully united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, and had glorified it, will of the Lord's Divine mercy be set forth in what follows, so far as they can be comprehended.1991.
And said unto him. That this signifies perception, is evident from the Lord's perception, which was from Jehovah, spoken of before (n. 1919); also because in the internal sense "Jehovah's saying," or "God's saying," signifies to perceive (n. 1602, 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822).1992.
I am God Shaddai. That in the sense of the letter this signifies the name of Abram's God, by which name the Lord was first represented before them, is evident from the things contained in the Word concerning Abram, and concerning the house of his father, in that they adored other gods. In Syria, whence Abram came, there still existed remains of the Ancient Church, and many families there retained its worship-as is evident from Eber who was of that country, from whom came the Hebrew nation-and they in like manner retained the name "Jehovah," as is evident from what has been shown in Part First (n. 1343), and also from the case of Balaam, who was from Syria and offered sacrifices and called Jehovah his God. That Balaam was from Syria may be seen in Numbers 23:7; that he offered sacrifices, Num. 22:39-40; 23:1-3, 14, 29; that he called Jehovah his God, Num. 22:8, 13, 18, 31; 23:8, 12, 16.  But this was not the case with the house of Terah, the father of Abram and Nahor, for this was one of the families of the nations there that had not only lost the name "Jehovah" but had also served other gods, and instead of Jehovah had worshiped Shaddai, whom they called their god. That they had lost the name "Jehovah," is evident from the things adduced in Part First (n. 1343). And that they served other gods is openly stated in Joshua: Joshua said unto all the people, Thus hath said Jehovah, the God of Israel, Your fathers dwelt of old time beyond the River, Terah the father of Abraham and the father of Nahor, and they served other gods; now fear Jehovah, and serve Him in entirety and in truth; and put away the gods that your fathers served beyond the River, and in Egypt, and serve ye Jehovah. And if it be evil in your eyes to serve Jehovah, choose ye this day whom ye will serve, whether the gods that your fathers served that were beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites (Josh. 24:2, 14-15). That Nahor also, the brother of Abram, and the nation descended from him, served other gods, is evident from Laban the Syrian, who was in the city of Nahor and worshiped images or teraphim, which Rachel carried away (Gen. 24:10; 31:19, 26, 32, 34). See also what is said on this subject in Part First (n. 1356). That instead of Jehovah they worshiped Shaddai, whom they called their god, is distinctly stated in Moses: I (Jehovah) appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, as God Shaddai; and by My name Jehovah was I not known to them (Exod. 6:3).  From all this we may see that in his early manhood, Abram, like other Gentiles, was an idolater, and that up to this time, while living in the land of Canaan, he had not rejected from his mind the god Shaddai-by which is meant in the sense of the letter the name of Abram's god-and that by this name the Lord was first represented before them (that is, before Abram, Isaac, and Jacob), as is evident from the passage just quoted.  The reason why the Lord was willing to be first represented before them by the name "Shaddai" is that the Lord by no means desires to destroy suddenly (still less in a single moment) the worship that has been inseminated in anyone from his infancy; for this would be to tear up the root, and thereby destroy the holy state of adoration and of worship that has been deeply implanted, and which the Lord never breaks, but bends. The holy state of worship, that has been rooted in from infancy is of such a nature that it cannot endure violence, but only a gentle and kindly bending. The case is the same with those Gentiles who in their bodily life had worshiped idols, and yet had lived in mutual charity. As the holy state of their worship has been inrooted from their infancy, in the other life it is not taken away in a moment, but successively; for in those who have lived in mutual charity, the goods and truths of faith can be easily implanted, and they receive them afterwards with joy; for charity is the very soil. And such also was the case with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in that the Lord suffered them to retain the name "God Shaddai," insomuch that He said He was God Shaddai; and this from the meaning of the name.  Some translators render Shaddai "the Almighty;" others, "the Thunderer;" but it properly signifies "the Tempter" or "Tester," and "the Benefactor," after the temptations" or "trials," as is evident from the book of Job, which mentions "Shaddai" so frequently because Job was in trials or temptations; as may be seen from the following passages: Behold, happy is the man whom God chastiseth; and reject not thou the chastening of Shaddai (Job 5:17). The arrows of Shaddai are with me, the terrors of God do set themselves in array against me (Job 6:4). He shall forsake the fear of Shaddai (Job 6:14). I will speak to Shaddai, and I desire to contend with God (Job 13:3). He hath stretched out his hand against God, and strengtheneth himself against Shaddai His eyes shall see his destruction, and he shall drink of the fury of Shaddai (Job 21:20). Shaddai, thou shalt not find Him out; He is great in power, and in judgment, and in the greatness of righteousness. He will not afflict (Job 37:23). Also in Joel: Alas for the day! for the day of Jehovah is near, and as devastation from Shaddai shall it come (Joel 1:15). The same may also be seen from the word shaddai itself, which signifies vastation, and thus temptation, for temptation is a kind of vastation. But as this name took its rise from nations in Syria, He is not called "Elohim Shaddai," but "El Shaddai;" and in Job simply "Shaddai," and "El" or "God" is named separately.  As after temptations there is consolation, those people also attributed the good resulting from them to the same Shaddai (as in Job 22:17, 23, 25-26); as well as the understanding of truth, which also results from temptations (Job 32:8; 33:4). And as Shaddai was thus esteemed as the god of truth-for vastation, temptation, chastening, and rebuking, are not of good, but of truth-and because the Lord was represented by him before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the name was retained even in the Prophets; but in them by "Shaddai" is meant truth. As in Ezekiel: I heard the voice of the wings of the cherubim, like the voice of many waters, like the voice of Shaddai, when they went; the voice of tumult, like the voice of a camp (Ezek. 1:24). And again: The court was filled with the brightness of the glory of Jehovah; and the voice of the wings of the cherubim was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Shaddai when He speaketh (Ezek. 10:4-5); where "Jehovah" denotes good, and "Shaddai" truth. In the internal sense of the Word "wings" in like manner signify things that belong to truth.  Moreover Isaac and Jacob also make mention of the God Shaddai in a similar sense, that is, as of one who tempts, and delivers from temptation, and afterwards confers benefits. When Jacob was fleeing because of Esau, Isaac said to him, God Shaddai bless thee, and make thee fruitful and multiply thee (Gen. 28:3). And when the sons of Jacob were about to go into Egypt to buy corn, and when they feared Joseph so greatly, Jacob said to them, God Shaddai give you mercies before the man, that he may release unto you your other brother, and Benjamin (Gen. 43:14). Jacob, then called Israel, blessing Joseph, who had been in the evils of temptations, or trials, more than his brethren, and had been delivered from them, said, By the God of thy father, and He shall help thee, and with Shaddai, and he shall bless thee (Gen. 49:25). All this shows why the Lord was at first willing to be represented by the god Shaddai whom Abram worshiped, and why He said "I am God Shaddai;" as in like manner He afterwards said to Jacob, "I am God Shaddai; be fruitful and multiply" (Gen. 35:11); and a further reason was that in what goes before, temptations were treated of in the internal sense.  The worship of Shaddai among those people originated from the fact that, as was the case with a certain nation that of the Lord's Divine mercy will be spoken of in what follows, so with those who were of the Ancient Church, there were often heard spirits who reproved them and who also afterwards comforted them. The spirits who reproved them were perceived at the left side, beneath the arm. Angels were present at such times, at the head, who governed the spirits and moderated the reproof. And as there was nothing that was said to them by the spirits which they did not regard as Divine, they named the reproving spirit "Shaddai;" and because he afterwards administered consolation, they called him "the god Shaddai." The men at that time, as also the Jews, because they did not understand the internal sense of the Word, were in the religious belief that all evil and thus all temptation, like all good and thus all consolation, come from God; but that it is not so, may be seen in Part First (n. 245, 592, 696, 1093, 1874, 1875).1993.
Walk thou before Me. That this signifies the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of "walking," as being to live according to the truth of faith (see n. 519); and also from the signification of a "way" in relation to which walking is predicated, as being truth (see n. 627).1994.
And be thou perfect. That this signifies the good of charity, is evident from the signification of "being perfect" [integer], which is from truth to do what is good, that is, to do what is good from a conscience of truth, and thus from charity, for charity makes conscience (concerning which signification, see n. 612). But as the Lord is here treated of in the internal sense, by "perfect" is signified the good of charity, for good proceeds from charity, insomuch that the truth which is derived from charity is itself good.1995.
Verse 2. And I will give My covenant between Me and thee, and will multiply thee very exceedingly. "I will give My covenant between Me and thee," signifies the union of the internal man, which was Jehovah, with the interior man; "and will multiply thee very exceedingly," signifies the fruitfulness to infinity of the affection of truth.1996.
I will give My covenant between Me and thee. That this signifies the union of the internal man, which was Jehovah, with the interior man, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction; for whenever a covenant between Jehovah and man is mentioned in the Word, in the internal sense nothing else is signified by the "covenant" than the conjunction of the Lord with man. The covenants so often made between Jehovah and the descendants of Jacob represented nothing else; but as this was confirmed in Part First (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864), it would be superfluous to confirm it again here. The Lord's internal man was Jehovah, because conceived of Him; but the interior man is here represented by Abram; and therefore the "covenant between Me and thee" signifies the union of the internal man, or Jehovah, with the interior man, and thus with the Lord's Human Essence.1997.
I will multiply thee very exceedingly. That this signifies the fruitfulness to infinity of the affection of truth, may be seen from the signification of "to be multiplied," as being predicated of truth (explained, n. 43, 55, 913, 983); and as the Lord is treated of, it signifies the fruitfulness to infinity of the truth that is from good (as before, n. 1940). There are two affections, namely, the affection of good, and the affection of truth. The affection of good is to do what is good from the love of good, and the affection of truth is to do what is good from the love of truth. At the first view these two affections appear to be the same; but in reality they are distinct from each other both as to essence and as to origin. The affection of good, or doing what is good from the love of good, is properly of the will; but the affection of truth, or doing what is good from the love of truth, is properly of the understanding. Thus these two affections are distinct from each other in the same way as are the will and the understanding. The affection of good is from celestial love, but the affection of truth is from spiritual love.  The affection of good can be predicated solely of the celestial man, but the affection of truth, of the spiritual man. What the celestial or the celestial man is, and what the spiritual or the spiritual man, has been sufficiently shown in Part First. The Most Ancient Church, which existed before the flood, was in the affection of good; but the Ancient Church, which existed after the flood, was in the affection of truth; for the former was a celestial church, but the latter a spiritual church. All the angels in the heavens are distinguished into the celestial and the spiritual. The celestial are they who are in the affection of good, the spiritual are they who are in the affection of truth; to the former the Lord appears as a sun, but to the latter as a moon (n. 1529-1531, 1838). This latter affection, of truth, the Lord united to the affection of good, which is to do what is good from the love of good, when He united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence. Hence by "multiplying very exceedingly," is signified the fruitfulness to infinity of the truth that is from good.1998.
Verse 3. And Abram fell upon his faces, and God spoke with him, saying. "Abram fell upon his faces," signifies adoration; "and God spoke with him, saying," signifies a degree of perception; the expression "God" is used for the reason that the Lord is represented by the God Shaddai whom Abram worshiped; also because truth is treated of, which was to be united to good.1999.
Abram fell upon his faces. 1999-1 That this signifies adoration, is evident without explication. To fall upon the face was a rite of adoration in the Most Ancient Church, and thence in that of the Ancients, for the reason that the face signified the interiors, and the state of their humiliation was represented by falling upon the face; hence in the Jewish representative church it became a customary ceremonial. True adoration, or humiliation of heart, carries with it prostration to the earth upon the face before the Lord, as a gesture naturally flowing from it. For in humiliation of heart there is the acknowledgment of self as being nothing but filthiness, and at the same time the acknowledgment of the Lord's infinite mercy toward that which is such; and when the mind is kept in these two acknowledgments, the very mind droops in lowliness toward hell, and prostrates the body; nor does it uplift itself until it is uplifted by the Lord. This takes place in all true humiliation, with a perception of being uplifted by the Lord's mercy. Such was the humiliation of the men of the Most Ancient Church; but very different is the case with that adoration which comes not from humiliation of the heart. (See n. 1153.)  That the Lord adored and prayed to Jehovah His Father, is known from the Word of the Gospels; and also that He did so as if to one different from Himself, although Jehovah was in Him. But the state in which the Lord was at these times was His state of humiliation, the nature of which has been stated in Part First, namely, that He was then in the infirm human that was from the mother; but insofar as He put this off, and put on the Divine, He was in another state, which is called His state of glorification. In the former state He adored Jehovah as one different from Himself, although in Himself; for, as has been said, His internal was Jehovah; but in the latter, that is, in His state of glorification, He spoke with Jehovah as with Himself, for He was Jehovah Himself.  But how the case is with these matters cannot be apprehended unless it is known what the internal is, and how the internal acts into the external; and further, in what manner the internal and the external are distinct from each other, and yet are conjoined. This, however, may be illustrated by something that is similar, namely, by the internal in man, and by its influx and operation into the external. That man has an internal, an interior or rational, and an external, may be seen above (n. 1889, 1940). Man's internal is that from which he is man, and by which he is distinguished from brute animals. By means of this internal he lives after death, and to eternity a man, and by means of it he can be uplifted by the Lord among the angels. This internal is the very first form from which a man becomes and is man, and by means of it the Lord is united to man. The very heaven that is nearest the Lord is composed of these human internals; but this is above even the inmost angelic heaven, and therefore these internals belong to the Lord Himself. By this means the whole human race is most present under the Lord's eyes, for there is no distance in heaven, such as appears in the sublunary world, and still less is there any distance above heaven. (See what is said from experience, n. 1275, 1277.)  These internals of men have no life in themselves, but are forms recipient of the Lord's life. Insofar therefore as a man is in evil, whether actual or hereditary, so far has he been as it were separated from this internal which is the Lord's and with the Lord, and thereby so far has he been separated from the Lord; for although this internal has been adjoined to man, and is inseparable from him, nevertheless insofar as he recedes from the Lord, so far he as it were separates himself from it. (See n. 1594.) But the separation is not an absolute sundering from it, for then the man could no longer live after death; but it is a dissent and disagreement on the part of those faculties of his which are below, that is, of his rational and of his external man. Insofar as there is dissent and disagreement, there is disjunction from the Lord; but insofar as there is not dissent and disagreement, the man is conjoined with the Lord through the internal, which takes place insofar as the man is in love and charity, for love and charity conjoin. Such is the case with man.  But the Lord's internal was Jehovah Himself, because He was conceived from Jehovah, who cannot be divided and become another's, as is the case with a son who is conceived from a human father; for the Divine is not divisible, like the human, but is and remains one and the same. To this internal the Lord united the Human Essence; and because the Lord's internal was Jehovah, it was not a form recipient of life, like the internal of man, but was life itself. His Human Essence also in like manner was made life by the unition, on which account the Lord so often said that He is Life, as in John: As the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself (John 5:26); besides other passages in the same gospel (John 1:4; 5:21; 6:33, 35, 48; 11:25). Insofar therefore as the Lord was in the human which He received by inheritance from the mother, so far did He appear distinct from Jehovah and adore Jehovah as one different from Himself. But insofar as the Lord put off this human, He was not distinct from Jehovah, but was one with Him. The former state, as before said, was the Lord's state of humiliation; but the latter was His state of glorification.2000.
And God spake with him, saying. That this signifies a degree of perception, is evident from the signification of Jehovah's "saying," which is to perceive (n. 1898, 1899). Here it signifies a degree of perception, because He was in a state of humiliation or of adoration, in which He was conjoined and united to Jehovah in proportion to the degree of the humiliation; for humiliation carries this with it. (That perceptions are more and more interior may be seen above, n. 1616.)
1958-1 Verum scientificum - that is, truth in the external memory [REVISER.]
1966-1 See note to 419.
1999-1 "Faces" is in the plural in both the Hebrew and the Latin because man has really as many faces as affections and it is the same with the Lord, and with a country, and the sea and sky. All these have many faces. Even in English we speak of a person having two faces, or being double-faced, and of "making faces" [Reviser.]