Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
That "Zidon" signifies exterior knowledges of spiritual things, is evident from the fact that it is called the "first-born of Canaan;" for the firstborn of every church, in the internal sense, is faith (n. 352, 367). But here, where there is no faith, because no internal things, there are nothing but exterior knowledges of spiritual things which are in the place of faith; thus knowledges such as existed among the Jews, which are knowledges not only of the rites of external worship, but also of many things, such as doctrinals, which belong to that worship. That this is the signification of "Zidon" is also evident from the fact that Tyre and Zidon were extreme borders of Philistia, and were moreover by the sea; and therefore by "Tyre" interior knowledges are signified, and by "Zidon" exterior knowledges, that is, of spiritual things-which is also evident from the Word. In Jeremiah: On the day that cometh to lay waste all the Philistines, to cut off from Tyre and Zidon every helper that remaineth; for Jehovah will lay waste the Philistines, the remnant of the isle of Caphtor (Jer. 47:4). Here "the Philistines" denote the mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith and charity; "Tyre" denotes the interior knowledges, and "Zidon" the exterior knowledges, of spiritual things.  In Joel: What are ye to Me, O Tyre and Zidon, and all the borders of Philistia? Forasmuch as ye have taken My silver and gold, and have carried into your temples My desirable good things (Joel 3:4-5). Here "Tyre and Zidon" evidently denote knowledges, and are called "the borders of Philistia;" "silver and gold," and "desirable good things," are knowledges. In Ezekiel: The princes of the north, all of them, and every Zidonian who has gone down with the slain into the pit. When he has been made to lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, with them that are slain with the sword; Pharaoh and all his crowd (Ezek. 32:30, 32). "The Zidonians" here denote exterior knowledges, which without internal things are nothing but memory-knowledges and therefore they are named in connection with Pharaoh, or Egypt, by whom memory-knowledges are signified. In Zechariah: Hamath also shall be bordered thereon; Tyre and Zidon, because she was very wise (Zech. 9:2). The subject here is Damascus; "Tyre and Zidon" denote knowledges.  In Ezekiel: The inhabitants of Zidon and of Arvad were thy rowers; thy wise men, O Tyre, were in thee, they were thy pilots (Ezek. 27:8). Here "Tyre" denotes interior knowledges; wherefore her wise men are called "pilots;" and "Zidon" denotes exterior knowledges, and therefore her inhabitants are called "rowers;" for such is the relation of interior knowledges to exterior. In Isaiah: Let the inhabitants of the isle be silent, the merchant of Zidon, that passes over the sea, they have replenished thee. And in great waters the seed of Sihor, the harvest of the river was her revenue, and she was the mart of nations. Be ashamed, O Zidon, for the sea hath spoken, the stronghold of the sea, saying, I have not travailed, nor brought forth, nor have I brought up young men, nor caused virgins to grow up (Isa. 23:2-4). "Zidon" here denotes exterior knowledges, which, because there is nothing internal in them, are called "the seed of Sihor, the harvest of the river her revenue, the mart of the nations," and also "the sea," and "the stronghold of the sea;" and it is said that she doth not "travail and bring forth"-which could not be comprehended in the literal sense, but is all perfectly clear in the internal sense; as is the case with other passages in the Prophets. Because "Zidon" signifies exterior knowledges, it is said to be "a circuit about Israel," that is, around the spiritual church (Ezek. 28:24, 26); for exterior knowledges are like a circuit round about.1202.
That Zidon is called "the firstborn of Canaan" because these knowledges are the foremost things of such external worship, wherein is no internal worship, has just been explained, in the preceding paragraph.1203.
That "Heth" signifies exterior knowledges of celestial things is consequently evident. It is customary in the Prophets for spiritual and celestial things to be joined together, that is, where spiritual things are treated of, celestial things are also treated of; for the reason that the one is from the other, and there is a certain want of perfection if they are not conjoined; so that there is an image of the heavenly marriage in each and all things of the Word. It is also evident from this, as well as from the Word in other places, that by "Zidon" are signified exterior knowledges of spiritual things, and by "Heth" exterior knowledges of celestial things, in both senses-that is to say, without internal things, and with internal things-and also simply exterior knowledges. Spiritual things, as has often been said before, are those which are of faith; and celestial things are those which are of love; and again, spiritual things are those which are of the understanding, and celestial things are those which are of the will. That "Heth" signifies exterior knowledges without internal, is evident in Ezekiel: Thus saith the Lord Jehovih unto Jerusalem, Thy tradings and thy nativity are of the land of Canaan; thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother a Hittite. Thou art thy mother's daughter, that loatheth her man [vir] and her sons; and the sister of thy sisters, that loathed their husbands and their sons. Your mother was a Hittite, and your father an Amorite (Ezek. 16:3, 45). Here external worship without internal is "Canaan;" to "loathe husbands and sons," is to reject goods and truths. Hence her mother is called "a Hittite." But "Heth" is also taken in the Word for exterior knowledges of celestial things in a good sense, as are nearly all names of countries, cities, nations, and persons, for a reason already explained. Concerning this signification of "Heth," by the Divine mercy of the Lord hereafter. Knowledges of spiritual things are those which have regard to faith, consequently to doctrine; and knowledges of celestial things are those which have regard to love, and thus to life.1204.
Verses 16-18. And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite. And afterwards were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. "The Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite" were so many nations, by which are signified also so many different idolatries. "And afterwards were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad," signifies that all other forms of idolatrous worship are derived from these.1205.
The Jebusite, Amorite, Girgashite, Hivite, Arkite, Sinite, Arvadite, Zemarite, and Hamathite, were so many nations, and they also signify so many different idolatries. That idolatries were signified by these nations, is evident from many places in the Word, for they were the inhabitants of the land of Canaan who on account of their idolatries were cast out, and in part extirpated. But in the internal sense of the Word these nations are not signified, but the idolatries themselves in general, with whomsoever and wheresoever they are; specifically, among the Jews. For they who make worship consist merely in externals, and are entirely unwilling to know internal things, and when instructed reject them, are very prone to all these idolatries, as is clearly manifest from the Jews. In internal worship alone is there a bond that withholds man from idolatry; and when this ceases, there is nothing that restrains. There are however interior idolatries, as well as external ones. They who have external worship without internal rush into external idolatries; they who have external worship whose interiors are unclean rush into interior idolatries; and both these kinds of idolatries are signified by these nations. Interior idolatries are so many falsities and cupidities which men love and adore, and which are thus in place of the gods and idols that existed among the Gentiles. But what particular kinds of falsities and cupidities are those which are adored, and which are signified by these nations-the Jebusite, Amorite, Girgashite, Hivite, Arkite, Sinite, Arvadite, Zemarite, and Hamathite-it would take too long to explain here; but of the Lord's Divine mercy it will be told in the places where their names occur.1206.
Afterwards were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. That this signifies that all other forms of idolatrous worship are derived from these, is evident without explication.1207.
Verse 19. And the border of the Canaanite was from Zidon, in coming to Gerar, even unto Gaza, in coming to Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboiim, even unto Lasha. By "Zidon," here as before, exterior knowledges are signified; by "Gerar" are signified the things that are revealed concerning faith; by "Gaza" the things that are revealed concerning charity; "the border of the Canaanites was from Zidon, in coming to Gerar, even unto Gaza," signifies the extension of knowledges to truth and good, with those who have external worship without internal; "in coming to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, even unto Lasha," signifies the falsities and evils in which they terminate.1208.
That by "Zidon" are signified exterior knowledges, is evident from what was shown above, at verse 15.1209.
That by "Gerar" are signified the things that have been revealed concerning faith, and thus in general faith itself, is evident from the passages where Gerar is mentioned (as Gen. 20:1; 26:1, 17), concerning which signification of "Gerar," of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter.1210.
That by "Gaza" are signified the things that have been revealed concerning charity, is evident from the fact that where spiritual things are treated of in the Word, celestial things also are treated of, conjointly (that is to say, when things of faith are treated of, so also are those of charity); and the same is also evident from the Word where "Gaza" is mentioned; and still further from the consideration that knowledges extend to faith, and even to charity, which is their furthest limit.1211.
The border of the Canaanites was from Zidon, in coming to Gerar, even unto Gaza. That this signifies the extension of knowledges with those who have external worship without internal, is evident from the signification of "Gerar" and of "Gaza." Thus far do the boundaries of all knowledges that relate to worship extend, whether that worship be external or internal; for all worship is from faith and charity. What is not from these is not worship, but is idolatry. As Canaan, that is, external worship and its derivations, is the subject here treated of, the boundaries and extensions meant are those not of worship, but of knowledges.1212.
In coming to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, even unto Lasha. That these signify the falsities and evils in which they terminate, can be seen from the signification of the same in the historical and prophetical parts of the Word. There are, in general, two origins of falsities; one is the cupidities that belong to the love of self and of the world; the other is knowledges [cognitiones et scientifica], through reasonings; and the falsities which thus originate, when they would domineer over truths, are signified by "Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim." That falsities and evils from them are the boundaries of external worship which is without internal, anyone may see. In such worship there is nothing but what is dead; and therefore whichever way the man who is in such worship turns, he sinks into falsities. There is nothing internal that leads and keeps him in the way of truth, but only what is external, which carries him whithersoever cupidity and phantasy lead. As Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim are mentioned in both the historical and prophetical parts of the Word, what each specifically signifies, will of the Lord's Divine mercy be there explained.1213.
Verse 20. These are the sons of Ham, according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, in their nations. "The sons of Ham" signify derivations of doctrinals and of worships from the corrupt internal worship which is "Ham;" "according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, in their nations," signifies according to the genius of each, in particular and in general; "according to their families," is according to their morals; "according to their tongues," is according to their opinions; "in their lands," is in general relatively to their opinions; "in their nations," is in general relatively to their morals.1214.
That "the sons of Ham" signify derivations of doctrinals and of worships from the corrupt internal worship which is "Ham," is evident from the signification of "sons," as being doctrinals; and from the signification of "Ham," as being corrupt internal worship; concerning which before.1215.
According to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, in their nations. That this signifies according to the genius of each, in particular and in general, was explained above (at verse 5), where the same words occur, but in another order. The subject there was the sons of Japheth, that "From these were dispersed the isles of the nations, in their lands, everyone according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations," signified external worships in which there was internal. In that passage therefore the things that belong to doctrine take precedence; but here those which belong to morals, or to life.1216.
That "according to their families" is according to their morals; that "according to their tongues" is according to their opinions; that "in their lands" is in general relatively to their opinions; and that "in their nations" is in general relatively to their morals, can be seen from the signification of each term in the Word-that is, of "family," "tongue," "land," and "nation"-concerning which see what was said above, at verse 5.1217.
Verse 21. And there was born to Shem also; he is the father of all the sons of Eber; the elder brother of Japheth. By "Shem" is here signified the Ancient Church in general; "there was born to Shem," signifies that a new church sprang from the Ancient Church; by "Eber" is signified this new church, which is to be called the Second Ancient Church; "he is the father of all the sons of Eber," signifies that this second Ancient Church, and what belonged to this church, sprang from the prior Ancient Church as from its father; "the elder brother of Japheth," signifies that its worship was external.1218.
That by "Shem" is here signified the Ancient Church in general, is evident from the fact that the subject here treated of is Eber, whom Shem now bears reference to; and from his being called in this verse "the elder brother of Japheth."1219.
That "there was born to Shem" here signifies that a new church sprang from the Ancient Church, is evident from the contents of this verse, which treat of Eber, by whom that new church is meant, of which hereafter.1220.
That by "Eber" a new church is signified, which is to be called the Second Ancient Church, is evident from what follows, where Eber is specifically treated of. Eber is mentioned here because that new church was from him. How the case was with Eber and with this second church, will of the Lord's Divine mercy be told hereafter.1221.
He is the father of all the sons of Eber. That this signifies that this second Ancient Church, and what belonged to this church, sprang from the prior Ancient Church, as from its father, will likewise be seen from what follows concerning Eber, and concerning this church; for Eber is treated of from verses 24 to 30 of this chapter, and from verse 11 to the end of the following chapter.1222.
The elder brother of Japheth. That this signifies that its worship was external, is evident from the signification of "Japheth," as being the external church, concerning which in the preceding chapter, in the 18th and following verses; and above, in this chapter, verses 1 to 5. Here "Shem, the elder brother of Japheth" signifies specifically that the internal church and the external church are brothers; for such is the relation of internal worship to external worship in which there is internal. It is a blood-relationship, for in each the principal is charity. But the internal church is the elder brother, because it is prior and interior. "The elder brother of Japheth" here involves also that the second Ancient Church, called "Eber," was as a brother to the first Ancient Church. For by "Japheth," in the internal sense, nothing else is signified than external worship in which there is internal, in whatever church; thus also the worship of this new Ancient Church, which was chiefly external. Such is the internal sense of the Word that the historicals of the literal sense are not attended to when universals, which are abstract from the literal sense, are regarded; for they look toward one another in a contrary manner. 1222-1 Hence "the elder brother of Japheth" here signifies, in the internal sense, the worship of the new Ancient Church, that it was external. Unless this were signified, it would be needless to say here that he was the elder brother of Japheth.1223.
Verse 22. The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram. By "Shem" is signified here as before, an internal church; by "the sons of Shem," the things that are of wisdom; "Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram" were so many nations, by which are signified things that are of wisdom-by "Elam" faith from charity, by "Asshur" the derivative reason, by "Arpachshad" the derivative memory-knowledge, by "Lud" the knowledges of truth, by "Aram" the knowledges of good.1224.
From all this it is evident what these names signify in the internal sense, namely, that the Ancient Church, which was internal, was endowed with wisdom, intelligence, memory-knowledge, and the knowledges of truth and of good. Such things are contained in the internal sense, although here are only names from which nothing else appears in the literal sense than that there were so many origins or fathers of nations, thus nothing doctrinal, much less anything spiritual and celestial. Such is the case also in the Prophets, where, whenever a series of names occurs, which in the internal sense signify actual things, they follow one another in a beautiful order.1225.
That by "Shem" is signified an internal church, has been stated and shown in the preceding chapter, at the 18th and following verses.1226.
That by "the sons of Shem" are signified the things that are of wisdom, is evident merely from Shem's being an internal church, the sons of which are none other than things of wisdom. Everything is called wisdom that is begotten of charity, because it comes by means of charity from the Lord, from whom is all wisdom, for He is wisdom itself. Hence comes true intelligence, and hence comes true memory-knowledge, and hence comes true knowledge, which are all sons of charity, that is, sons of the Lord through charity. And because they are sons of the Lord through charity, wisdom is predicated of each of them, for wisdom is in each of them, and they draw their life from it, and this in such a manner that neither intelligence, nor memory-knowledge, nor knowledge, has life except from the wisdom which is of charity, which is of the Lord.1227.
That "Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram" were so many nations, is evident from the historical and prophetical parts of the Word where they are mentioned. And that they signify things that are of wisdom, is evident from what has been said just above, and from what follows. Among these nations there was an internal church; with others, who were called sons of Japheth, there was an external church; with those who were called sons of Ham there was a corrupted internal church; and with those who were sons of Canaan there was a corrupted external church. Whether it be said internal and external worship, or an internal and an external church, it is quite the same.1228.
That by "Elam" is signified faith from charity, is evident from the essence of an internal church. A church is internal when charity is the principal of it, from which it thinks and acts. The first offspring of charity is none other than faith; for faith is from it, and from no other source. That "Elam" is faith from charity, or the faith itself which constitutes an internal church, is evident also in Jeremiah: The Word of Jehovah that came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning Elam: Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might. And upon Elam will I bring the four winds from the four ends of the heavens, and will scatter them toward all those winds; and there shall be no nation whither the outcasts of Elam shall not come. And I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies, and before them that seek their soul; and I will bring evil upon them, My fierce anger, and I will send the sword after them till I have consumed them. And I will set My throne in Elam, and will destroy from thence the king and the princes. But it shall come to pass in the latter days that I will bring back the captivity of Elam (Jer. 49:34-39).  In this passage "Elam" denotes faith, or what is the same thing, an internal church, become perverted and corrupt; and then the same restored. Just as in the Word, Judah, Israel, and Jacob, are frequently spoken of-by whom churches are signified-by "Judah" a celestial church, by "Israel" a spiritual church, by "Jacob" an external church; of which become perverted it is said in like manner that they should be scattered, and then, being scattered by their enemies, they should be gathered again and brought back from their captivity, by which is meant the creation of a new church. So here it is said of Elam, or the internal church perverted and corrupt, that it should be scattered, and afterwards that it should be brought back; and then that Jehovah should set His throne in Elam, that is in the internal church, or in the internals of the church, which are nothing else than the things of faith from charity.  In Isaiah: The burden of the desert of the sea. It cometh from the desert, from a terrible land. A grievous vision is declared unto Me; the treacherous one dealeth treacherously: and the waster layeth waste. Go up, O Elam, besiege, O Madai; all the sighing thereof I will make to cease (Isa. 21:1-2). Here the laying waste of the church by Babel is spoken of; "Elam" is the internal church; "Madai" is the external church, or external worship in which is internal. That Madai is such a church, or such worship, is shown at verse 2 of this chapter, where Madai is said to be a son of Japheth.1229.
That by "Asshur" is signified reason, is evident from what was shown above, at verse 11 of this chapter.1230.
That by "Arpachshad" is signified memory-knowledge, cannot be so well confirmed from the Word, but is evident from the series of things that precede and that follow.1231.
That by "Lud" are signified the knowledges of truth, is evident from the fact that the knowledges of truth are from that source, that is, from the Lord through charity, and thus through faith, by means of reason and of memory-knowledge. So also in Ezekiel: Persia and Lud and Put were in thine army, thy men of war; they hanged the shield and helmet in thee; they set forth thine honor (Ezek. 27:10). This is said of Tyre. "Lud and Put" denote knowledges, which are said to be in her army and to be her men of war, because they serve in defending truths with the aid of reason. This also is to "hang the shield and helmet." That "Put" signifies the exterior knowledges of the Word, may be seen above, at verse 6 of this chapter.1232.
That by "Aram," or Syria, are signified the knowledges of good, follows; and is seen also from the Word, as in Ezekiel: Aram was thy trader, in the multitude of thy works; in chrysoprase, crimson, and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and carbuncle; they gave them in thy tradings (Ezek. 27:16), where Tyre is treated of, or the possession of knowledges; and "works, chrysoprase, crimson, broidered work, fine linen, coral, and carbuncle," here signify nothing else than the knowledges of good. In Hosea: Jacob fled into the field of Aram, and Israel served for a wife, and for a wife he kept guard; and by a prophet Jehovah brought Israel up out of Egypt, and by a prophet was he kept. Ephraim hath provoked to anger with bitternesses (Hos. 12:12-14). "Jacob" here denotes the external church, and "Israel," the internal spiritual church; "Aram," the knowledges of good; "Egypt," memory-knowledge that perverts; "Ephraim," intelligence perverted. What these signify in series cannot be seen from the literal sense, but only from the internal sense, where names signify actual things of the church, as has been said. In Isaiah: Behold Damascus is rejected from being a city, and is become a ruinous heap. The fortress also shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus, and the remnant of Aram shall be as the glory of the sons of Israel (Isa. 17:1, 3). "The remnant of Aram" here denotes the knowledges of good, which are called "the glory of Israel." "Aram," or Syria, in the opposite sense, denotes the knowledges of good perverted; for it is a usual thing in the Word that the expressions are used in both senses (Isa. 7:4-6; 9:11-12; Deut. 26:5).1233.
Verse 23. And the sons of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. "Aram" here, as before, signifies the knowledges of good; "the sons of Aram" are the derivative knowledges, and that which comes of these knowledges; "Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash," signify so many kinds of these knowledges.1234.
That "Aram" signifies the knowledges of good, has been shown just above. That "the sons of Aram" are the derivative knowledges, and the things which are of knowledges, follows. These derivative knowledges are natural truths; and the things which are of knowledges are the things done according to them. That these things are signified cannot be so well confirmed from the Word, because these are not among the names that are frequently mentioned. Only Uz is mentioned, in Jeremiah 25:20, and Lam. 4:21. It follows then that "Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash" signify so many kinds of these knowledges, and of deeds according thereto.1235.
Verse 24. And Arpachshad begat Shelah; and Shelah begat Eber. "Arpachshad" was a nation so called, by which is signified memory-knowledge; "Shelah" likewise was a nation so called, by which is signified that which is derived from this memory-knowledge; by "Eber" also a nation is signified, the father of which was Eber, one who was called by this name, by whom there is signified a second Ancient Church, which was separate from the former one.1236.
That "Arpachshad" was a nation so called, and that by it is signified memory-knowledge, is evident from what was said of it just above, at verse 22.1237.
That "Shelah" likewise was a nation, and that by it is signified that which is derived from this memory-knowledge, follows, because it is said that "Arpachshad begat Shelah."1238.
That by "Eber" is signified a nation also, whose father was Eber, one who was called by this name, is to be understood in this way. Those mentioned hitherto were the nations among whom the Ancient Church existed, and were all called sons of Shem, of Ham, of Japheth, and of Canaan, because by Shem, Ham, Japheth, and Canaan are signified the various worships of the church. Noah, Shem, Ham, Japheth, and Canaan never existed as men; but because the Ancient Church specifically, and in general every church, is such that it is true internal, corrupt internal, true external, and corrupt external, therefore the above-mentioned names were given in order that all the differences in general might be referred to them and their sons, as to their heads. Moreover the nations here named originally had such worship; and therefore are called the sons of one of the sons of Noah. And for the same reason also, such worships themselves are signified by the names of these nations in the Word.  This first Ancient Church, signified by Noah and his sons, was not confined to a few, but extended over many kingdoms, as is evident from the nations mentioned, namely, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Syria, Ethiopia, Arabia, Lybia, Egypt, Philistia as far as Tyre and Sidon, and the whole land of Canaan, on this side and beyond Jordan. But afterwards in Syria a kind of external worship began, which from thence spread itself widely around, over many countries, especially over Canaan, and which was different from the worship of the Ancient Church. And as something of a church thus arose that was separate from the Ancient Church, there sprang up thence as it were a new church, which may therefore be called the Second Ancient Church. The first institutor of this was Eber, and therefore this church is called after Eber. At that time, as has been said before, all were distinguished into households, families, and nations. Each nation acknowledged one father, from whom also it was named, as is seen in various places in the Word. Thus the nation which acknowledged Eber as its father was called the Hebrew nation.1239.
That by "Eber" is signified a second Ancient Church that was separate from the former, is evident from what has just been said.1240.
Verse 25. And unto Eber were born two sons; the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. Eber was the first institutor of the second Ancient Church, and by him this church is signified; unto him "were born two sons," by whom are signified the two kinds of worship, namely, internal and external. His two sons were called "Peleg" and "Joktan;" by "Peleg" is signified the internal worship of that church, and by "Joktan" its external worship; "for in his days was the earth divided," signifies that a new church then arose, "the earth" here as before signifying the church; "his brother's name was Joktan" signifies the external worship of that church.1241.
As to Eber being the first institutor of the second Ancient Church, by whom this church is signified, the case is this. The first Ancient Church, so widely spread as has been stated, especially through the Asiatic world, in process of time degenerated-as is usual with all churches everywhere-and was adulterated by innovators, as to both its external and its internal worship, and this in various places; and especially by the fact that all things significative and representative which the Ancient Church had from the mouth of the Most Ancient Church-which all bore reference to the Lord and His Kingdom-were turned into things idolatrous, and by some of the nations into things magical. That the whole church might not go to ruin, it was permitted by the Lord that significative and representative worship should be somewhere reestablished, which was done by Eber. This worship consisted chiefly in externals. The externals of worship, in addition to the priestly offices and what pertained to them, were high places, groves, statues, anointings, and many other things called statutes. The internals of worship were doctrinal things handed down from the time before the flood, especially from those who were called "Enoch," who collected the perceptive findings of the Most Ancient Church, and made doctrinal things therefrom. These were their Word; and from these internals and those externals came the worship of this church, a worship set up anew by Eber, but added to, and also changed. Especially did they begin to exalt sacrifices above other rites. In the true Ancient Church sacrifices had been unknown, except among some of the descendants of Ham and Canaan, who were idolaters, and with whom they were permitted to prevent them from sacrificing their sons and daughters. From all this the quality of this second Ancient Church, instituted by Eber and continued among his posterity who were called the Hebrew nation, is manifest.1242.
That by the two sons of Eber, who were named Peleg and Joktan, the two kinds of worship of that church, internal and external, are signified-by Peleg the internal worship and by Joktan the external worship-is evident especially from this, that in the internal sense this second Ancient Church is signified by Eber and the Hebrew nation, and that in every church there is an internal and an external. For without the internal it is not and cannot be called a church, but an idolatry. Therefore, "sons" being here predicated of the church, it is evident that by one son the internal of the church is signified, and by the other the external; as in various other places in the Word; and as is signified by Adah and Zillah, the two wives of Lamech (see n. 409); by Leah and Rachel; by Jacob and Israel, of whom hereafter; and by others. The posterity of Joktan is treated of in this chapter; that of Peleg in the following chapter.1243.
For in his days was the earth divided. That this signifies that a new church then arose, is now consequently evident; for by "the earth" nothing else than the church is signified, which has been clearly shown above (n. 662, 1066).1244.
And his brother's name was Joktan. That this signifies the external worship of that church, has been shown just above. That external worship is called a "brother" may be seen above, at verse 21 of this chapter, where it is said of Shem that he was the elder brother of Japheth. This is why the name "brother" is here added.1245.
Verses 26-29. And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah. And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah. And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba. And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan. These were so many nations of the family of Eber, by which are signified so many rituals.1246.
That these were so many nations, of the families of Eber, may be seen from the state in which they lived at that period. In the most ancient time, as has been said before, nations were distinguished into families, and these into households. Each nation acknowledged one father, from whom it was named. As they were multiplied, the sons of the one father in like manner constituted households, families, and nations; and so on. So it was with these sons of Joktan, as we may see it was with the sons of Jacob, who afterwards when multiplied constituted tribes, each one of which acknowledged one of the sons of Jacob, from whom it was named, as its father; and yet all taken together were from Jacob, and were called Jacob. Just so these nations were from Eber, and were called Hebrews.1247.
That by these nations are signified so many rituals, is evident from the fact that in the Word names never signify anything else than actual things; for in its internal sense the Word relates only to the Lord, to His Kingdom in the heavens and on earth, and consequently to the church and the things of the church. Such is the case with these names. And as Joktan, a son of Eber, signifies the external worship of this new church, as was said before, so his sons can signify nothing else than things of external worship, which are rituals, and in fact so many kinds of rituals. But what these kinds of rituals are, it is impossible to say, because they are determined by their relation to the worship itself, and until this is known nothing can be said about its rituals; nor would it be of any use to know them. Neither do the names recur in the Word, except Sheba, Ophir, and Havilah; and they are not of this stock; for the Sheba and Havilah elsewhere spoken of in the Word were of those who are called sons of Ham, as is evident at verse 7 of this chapter; and the case is the same with Ophir.1248.
Verse 30. And their dwelling was from Mesha, in coming unto Sephar, a mountain of the east. By these words is signified the extension of the worship, even from the truths of faith to the good of charity. "Mesha" signifies truth; "Sephar," good; "a mountain of the east," charity.1249.
That by these words is signified the extension of the worship, even from the truths of faith to the good of charity; and that "Mesha" signifies truth, and "Sephar" good, cannot indeed be confirmed from the Word, because no mention is made of Mesha and Sephar in the Prophets. Still, this may be seen from its being the conclusion from what goes before, and especially from the fact that "a mountain of the east" is the final thing to which the words that go before bear reference, and in the Word by "a mountain of the east" is signified charity from the Lord-as will be shown in what follows-and the same may be seen from the fact that all things of the church have charity in view, as their finality or end. From all which it follows that "Mesha" signifies truth, or the terminus from which the progression commences [terminus a quo]; and that "Sephar" signifies good, and thereby charity, which is "a mountain of the east," or the terminus to which the progression tends [terminus ad quem].1250.
That "a mountain of the east" signifies charity, and in fact charity from the Lord, is evident from the signification of a "mountain" in the Word, as being love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, as has been shown before (n. 795). And that "the east" signifies the Lord, and things celestial from Him, which are of love and charity, may be seen above (n. 101), as well as from the following passages. In Ezekiel: The cherubim lifted up their wings, and the glory of Jehovah went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain which is on the east of the city (Ezek. 11:22-23). Here "the mountain which is on the east" signifies nothing else than what is celestial, which is of love and charity, and which is of the Lord, for it is said that "the glory of Jehovah stood" thereon. Again: He brought me to the gate, even the gate that looketh to the way of the east; and behold the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east (Ezek. 43:1-2), where "the east" has a like signification.  Again: He brought me back by the way of the outer gate of the sanctuary which looketh toward the east, and it was shut. And Jehovah said unto me, This gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, neither shall any man enter in by it, but Jehovah the God of Israel shall enter in by it (Ezek. 44:1-2). Here likewise "the east" denotes what is celestial, which is of love, which is of the Lord alone. And again: When the prince shall make a freewill offering, a burnt-offering, and peace-offerings, a freewill offering unto Jehovah, one shall open for Him the gate that looketh toward the east, and he shall make his burnt-offering and his peace-offerings, as he shall do on the Sabbath day (Ezek. 46:12), in like manner denoting what is celestial, which is of love to the Lord.  And in another place: He brought me back unto the door of the house, and behold waters issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward, for the face of the house was toward the east (Ezek. 47:1, 8), speaking of the New Jerusalem "the east" denotes the Lord, and thus the celestial, which is of love; "waters" are things spiritual. The same is signified in the passage before us by "a mountain of the east." Moreover they who dwelt in Syria were called "sons of the east," concerning which, of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter.
1222-1 That is, when we look at the historicals we lose sight of the universals, and when we look at the universals we lose sight of the historicals. [Reviser.]