Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. That these were so many nations among whom such worship existed, and that in the internal sense they signify so many doctrinals, which were the same as rituals, which they devoutly observed, is very evident from the Word, where these nations are frequently mentioned; for they everywhere signify external worship-sometimes external worship corresponding to internal, sometimes the opposite. The reason why they signify the opposite is that all churches, wherever they were, in process of time have been changed, even to their opposites. That the nations here named signify nothing but external worship, consequently their doctrinals which were rituals, can be established, as was said, from the Word in other places, especially in the Prophets.  Thus, of Magog, Meshech, Tubal, and Gomer, it is written in Ezekiel: Son of man, set thy face toward Gog, the land of Magog, the prince, head of Meshech and Tubal; and prophesy against him and say, Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Behold I am against thee, O Gog, prince, head of Meshech and Tubal, and I will turn thee about, and put hooks, into thy jaws, and I will bring thee forth, and all thine army, horses and horsemen, all of them clothed in full, a great company with buckler and shield, all of them handling swords; Persia, Cush, and Put with them; with them Gomer and all his hordes; the house of Togarmah in the sides of the north, and all his hordes. In the latter years thou shalt come into the land that is brought back from the sword, that is gathered out of many peoples, upon the mountains of Israel, which have been made a waste (Ezek. 38:2-6, 8). This whole chapter treats of the church, which became perverted, and at length made all worship consist in externals, or rituals; charity, which is signified by "the mountains of Israel," being extinguished. Here "Gog, and the land of Magog the prince and head of Meshech and Tubal," is worship in externals. Anyone may see that it is not Gog and Magog that are treated of, for the Word of the Lord does not treat of worldly things, but enfolds within it Divine things.  In the same: Prophesy upon Gog, and say, Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Behold I am against thee, O Gog, prince, head of Meshech and Tubal; and I will turn thee about, and take a sixth part of thee, I will cause thee to come up from the sides of the north, and will bring thee upon the mountains of Israel; upon the mountains of Israel thou shalt fall, thou and all thy hordes, and the people that are with thee (Ezek. 39:1-2, 4). The whole of this chapter, likewise, treats of external worship separated from internal, and become idolatrous, which is here signified by Gog, Meshech, and Tubal, by whom also are meant the doctrinals which they receive and afterwards confirm by the literal sense of the Word, and thus falsify truths and destroy internal worship. For, as was said, the opposite also are signified by the same nations.  In John: When the thousand years are finished, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, and shall go forth to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to war. They went up over the plain of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city (Rev. 20:7-9); where "Gog and Magog" have a similar signification. External worship separate from internal, that is, separate from love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor, is nothing else than idolatrous, which encompasses the camp of the saints, and the beloved city.  Of Meshech and Tubal it is said in Ezekiel: There is Meshech, Tubal, and all her multitude; her graves are round about her; all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword; for they caused their terror in the land of the living (Ezek. 32:26). The subject here is Egypt, or the memory-knowledges wherewith men desire to explore spiritual things. "Meshech and Tubal" denote doctrinals which are rituals, and which, when there is no love, are called "uncircumcised." Hence they are slain with the sword, and a terror in the land of the living.  Of Javan it is said in Joel: The sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem ye have sold unto the sons of the Javanites that ye might remove them far from their border (Joel 3:6). "The sons of Judah" denote celestial things of faith; "the sons of Jerusalem," spiritual things of faith-thus things internal; and "the sons of the Javanites," worship in externals separate from what is internal. Because this worship is so widely remote from what is internal, it is said that they have "removed them far from their border."  Javan and Tubal denote true external worship itself in Isaiah: It shall come that I will gather all nations and tongues, and they shall come, and shall see My glow. And I will set a sign among them, and I will send such as escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the Isles afar off, that have not heard My fame, neither have seen My glory; and they shall declare My glory among the nations (Isa. 66:18-19). The subject here is the kingdom of the Lord and His coming. "Tubal and Javan" denote those who are in external worship corresponding to internal, who are to be instructed concerning internal things.1152.
Verses 3, 4. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. By the "sons of Gomer" also are signified those who had external worship, but derived from that which existed in the nation Gomer. "Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah" were so many nations, among whom there was such worship, by whom also are signified so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Gomer; by the "sons of Javan" are signified still others with whom external worship existed, derived from the worship which was in the nation Javan; "Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim" were so many nations among whom such worship existed, by whom also are signified so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Javan.1153.
And the sons of Gomer. That by these also are signified those who had external worship, but derived from that which existed in the nation Gomer, follows from what has been said and shown before concerning the signification of "sons;" and also from the fact that Gomer was one of those nations that had external worship corresponding to internal. There were seven nations named in the foregoing verse which were in such worship. Here again are seven nations, which are called "sons of Gomer" and "of Javan;" but what were the specific differences between them cannot be told, because here they are merely mentioned. But in the Prophets, where this and that worship of the church is treated of specifically, the differences can be distinguished. In general, all the diversities of external, as also of internal worship, are according to the adoration of the Lord in the worship; and the adoration is according to the love to the Lord and the love toward the neighbor. For the Lord is present in love, and thereby in worship; the differences of worship therefore among the nations here mentioned were of this nature.  That it may be still more clearly explained how the case is in respect to diversities of worship, and how it was with the various nations in the Ancient Church, let it be known that all true worship consists in adoration of the Lord, adoration of the Lord in humiliation, and humiliation in one's acknowledgment that in himself there is nothing living, and nothing good, but that all within him is dead, yea, cadaverous; and in the acknowledgment that everything living and everything good is from the Lord. The more a man acknowledges these things, not with the mouth, but with the heart, the more he is in humiliation; and consequently the more he is in adoration, that is, in true worship, and the more he is in love and charity, and the more in happiness. The one is in the other, so conjoined as to be inseparable. From this it is evident what and of what nature are these differences of worship.  Those here spoken of, called "sons of Gomer and Javan," are those who also had external worship corresponding to internal, but somewhat more remote than those who were named in the preceding verse. For this reason they are called "sons." The generations successively descending, or the derivations, here proceed from the interior toward the exterior. The more sensuous a man becomes, the more exterior his worship becomes, and consequently the more remote from the true worship of the Lord; for it partakes more of the world, of the body, and of the earth, and less of the spirit; and therefore it is more remote. These, who are called "sons of Gomer and Javan," being more sensuous, made worship still more to consist in externals than did their so-called parents and kindred. They therefore here constitute a second class.1154.
Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. That these were so many nations among whom there was such worship, and that they signify so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Gomer, is evident from the Prophets, where the same nations are also mentioned, and by them are everywhere signified doctrinals or rituals-as usual, in each sense, sometimes in the genuine sense, sometimes in the opposite one. "Ashkenaz," in Jeremiah: Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, consecrate the nations against her, make to hearken against her the kingdoms of Ararath, Minni, and Ashkenaz (Jer. 51:27). The subject here is the destruction of Babel, where "Ashkenaz" denotes its idolatrous worship, or external worship separate from internal, which destroys Babel. Specifically, it denotes false doctrinals, and therefore is mentioned in the opposite sense. "Togarmah," in Ezekiel: Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, these were thy traders in the soul of man, and furnished vessels of brass in thy commerce. They of the house of Togarmah furnished for thine aids, horses, and horsemen, and mules (Ezek. 27:13-14). This is said concerning Tyre, by which they were represented who possessed the knowledges of celestial and spiritual things. "Javan, Tubal, and Meshech," denote, as before, various representative or correspondent rites; "the house of Togarmah" likewise. The external rites of the former have reference to celestial things; and those of the latter, or "the house of Togarmah," to spiritual things, as is evident from the signification of the things in which they traded. Here they are in the genuine sense. In the same: Gomer and all his hordes, the house of Togarmah the sides of the north, and with all his hordes (Ezek. 38:6); denoting perverted doctrinals, which are meant also by "the sides of the north." Here the names of these nations are used in the opposite sense.1155.
And the sons of Javan. That by these are signified still others with whom there was external worship, derived from the worship which prevailed in the nation Javan, can in the same way be seen in the Prophets, where they are named in connection with the actual things [res] themselves, and therein signify nothing different from them. The reason why the sons of Gomer and the sons of Javan only are mentioned, and not the sons of the others mentioned in the second verse-where there are seven-is that the sons of the one relate to the class of spiritual things, and the sons of the other to the class of celestial things. It is evident that the sons of Gomer relate to the class of spiritual things, from the passages in the Prophets cited just above; and that the sons of Javan relate to the class of celestial things, will appear from what follows. The class of spiritual things is distinguished from the class of celestial things by this, that the former relate to truths of faith, and the latter to goods of faith, which are those of charity. Although these distinctions are entirely unknown in the world, yet they are most perfectly known in heaven, not merely as to the generic differences, but as to the specific differences also; for in heaven there is not the least difference that is not distinguished according to the most perfect order. In the world no more is known than that there are varieties of worship, and that in externals-for nothing beyond these is known-they differ from each other. But in heaven the differences, which are innumerable, themselves appear to the life, and indeed such as they are in internals.1156.
Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. That these were so many nations, with whom there was such worship, and that they signify so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Javan, may be seen from the following passages in the Prophets. Of "Elishah" it is written in Ezekiel: Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was thy spreading forth, that it might be to thee for an ensign; blue and crimson from the Isles of Elishah were thy covering (Ezek. 27:7). The subject here treated of is Tyre, by which they are signified who possess celestial and spiritual riches, or knowledges; "embroidered work from Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges, and thus rituals representative of spiritual things; "blue and crimson from the isles of Elishah," rituals corresponding to internal worship, thus representatives of celestial things. The words are here used in the genuine sense. Of "Tarshish" in Isaiah: I will send such as escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the Isles afar off (Isa. 66:19). Howl, ye ships of Tarshish, for Tyre is laid waste, so that there is no house for entering in; from the land of Kittim it is revealed to them (Isa. 23:1, 14). And further concerning Tarshish in Isa. 40:9; Jer. 10:9; Ezek. 27:12; Ps. 48:7-where it denotes rituals, that is, doctrinals. Of "Kittim" in Jeremiah: Pass over to the isles of Kittim and see; and to Arabia, and consider diligently, whether there hath been such a thing (Jer. 2:10). And in Isaiah: Thou shalt no more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin daughter of Zidon; arise, pass over to Kittim; even there shalt thou have no rest (Isa. 33:12), where "Kittim" denotes rituals. In Ezekiel: Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars; they have made thy planks of ivory, the daughter of steps, from the isles of Kittim (Ezek. 27:6). This is said of Tyre; "the planks of a ship from the isles of Kittim" denotes externals of worship-thus rituals-which have reference to the class of celestial things. In Moses: Ships shall come from the coast of Kittim, and they shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict Eber (Num. 24:24), where also "Kittim" denotes external worship, or rituals. Hence it is evident that in the internal sense by all these names are signified actual things [res], which actual things stand in their own regular order and connection.1157.
Verse 5. From these were dispersed the isles of the nations in their lands, everyone according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations. "From these were dispersed the isles of the nations in their lands" signifies that the worships of many nations sprang from these; "isles" are particular regions and thus particular worships which were still more remote from internal worship; "lands" are their generals; "everyone according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations," signifies that these were according to the genius of each; "according to his tongue," is according to the opinion of each; "according to their families," is according to their uprightness; "as to their nations," is with respect to both in general.1158.
From these were dispersed the isles 1158-1 of the nations in their lands. That this signifies that the worships of many nations originated from these, that "isles" are particular regions and thus particular worships which were still more remote, and that "lands" are their generals, is evident from the signification of "isles" in the Word. Thus far they have been treated of who had external worship corresponding to internal. By the seven sons of Japheth were signified those who approached nearer to true internal worship; by the seven sons of Gomer and at the same time of Javan, those who were more remote from true internal worship. By "the isles of the nations" are signified those who are still more remote, and properly those who lived in mutual charity with one another, but yet in ignorance, knowing nothing about the Lord, about the doctrinals of faith of the church, and about internal worship; but who yet had a certain external worship which they religiously observed. Such are called "isles" in the Word, and therefore by "isles," in the internal sense, there is signified worship which is more remote from internal worship.  They who are in the internal sense of the Word, as the angels are, have no knowledge of isles, for they no longer have any idea of such things; 1158-2 but instead of them they perceive a remoter worship, such as is that of the nations out of the church. And in like manner by "isles" they perceive those things within the church itself which are somewhat remote from charity, as are friendships and civilities. Friendship is not charity, and still less is politeness charity-these are degrees below charity; and the more they derive from charity the more sincere they are.  That such things are signified by "islands" may be seen from the following passages from the Word. In Isaiah: Keep silence before Me, O Islands; and let the peoples renew their strength, let them come near. The isles saw, and feared; the ends of the earth trembled; they drew near, and came (Isa. 41:1, 5). Here "islands" denote upright nations out of the church who have religiously observed their external worship. The furthest limits of the region where the church is are called "the ends of the earth." In the same: He shall not be dark, and shall not break in pieces till He has set judgment in the earth, and the isles shall wait for His law. Sing unto Jehovah a new song, His praise from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and the fullness thereof, the isles and the inhabitants thereof. Let them give glory to Jehovah, and declare His praise in the islands (Isa. 42:4, 10, 12). Here also "islands" denote nations out of the church, who have lived in ignorance, simplicity, and uprightness.  In the same: Listen, O Isles, unto Me, and hearken, ye peoples from far (Isa. 49:1), likewise denoting those nations which are more remote from the worship of the Lord, and from the knowledges of faith; wherefore it is said "from far." Again: The Isles shall hope in Me, and on Mine arm shall they wait (Isa. 51:5), denoting the same. Because they are such as live in uprightness, it is said, "they shall hope in Me, and on Mine arm shall they wait." In Jeremiah: Hear the word of Jehovah, O ye nations, and declare it in the Isles afar off (Jer. 31:10), Jehovah will be terrible unto them, for with leanness He will consume all the gods of the earth and they shall bow themselves down to Him, everyone from his place, even all the isles of the nations (Jer. 2:11). "The isles of the nations" denote nations more remote from the knowledges of faith.  In David: Jehovah reigneth; let the earth rejoice let the multitude of isles be glad. Clouds and darkness are round about Him (Ps. 97:1, 2). denoting the same. Their ignorance is here representatively expressed by "clouds and darkness;" but because they are in simplicity and uprightness it is said "round about Him." Because by "islands" are signified those things which are more remote, Tarshish, Pul, Lud, Tubal, and Javan also-by whom were signified external worships-are called "islands" (Isa. 66:19). So also Kittim (Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6). When contrasted with "lands," or with "mountains," "islands" signify also the truths of faith, from being in the sea; thus they signify doctrinals which are rituals.1159.
Everyone according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations. That this signifies that these were according to the genius of each; "according to their tongue," according to the opinion of each; "according to their families," according to their uprightness; and "as to their nations," as regards both in general, may be seen from the signification of "tongue," of "families," and of "nations," in the Word; concerning which of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter. That "tongue," or "language," in the internal sense, signifies opinion, thus principles and persuasions, is because there is a correspondence of the tongue with the intellectual part of man, or with his thought, like that of an effect with its cause. Such also is not only the influx of a man's thoughts into the movements of the tongue in speaking, but also the influx of heaven, concerning which some things from experience, by the Divine mercy of the Lord, will be told elsewhere.  That "families" in the internal sense signify uprightness, and also charity and love, comes from the fact that in the heavens all things which are of mutual love are circumstanced as are relationships by blood and by marriage, thus as families (see n. 685). In the Word therefore the things which pertain to love or charity are expressed by "houses," and also by "families," which it is unnecessary here to stop to confirm. (That such is the signification of a "house" may be seen at n. 710.)  That "nations" here signify both, in general, is evident from the signification of a nation, or nations, in the Word. In a good sense "nations" signify things of the new will and understanding, consequently the goods of love and truths of faith; but in the opposite sense they signify evils and falsities; and in like manner so also do "houses," "families," and "tongues," as may be confirmed by very many passages from the Word. The reason is that the Most Ancient Church was distinguished into houses, families, and nations. A married pair with their children, and their menservants and maidservants, constituted a house; a number of houses that were not far distant from one another constituted a family; and a number of families, a nation. Hence "nations" signified all the families taken together in the aggregate. It is much the same in heaven; but the relation of all there is according to love and faith toward the Lord (see n. 685).  From this then comes the signification of "nations" in the internal sense, as a general term comprising things of both the will and the understanding, or what is the same of both love and faith; but relatively to the families and houses of which they are composed. (See also what has been said before concerning this subject, n. 470, 471, 483.) It is evident from these considerations that "nations" signify both [opinion and uprightness] in general; and that "everyone according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations," signifies according to the genius of each man, family, and nation, to whom worship was derived from the Ancient Church.1160.
Verse 6. And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan. By "Ham" is signified, here as before, faith separated from charity; by "the sons of Ham," the things that belong to this separated faith; "Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan" were so many nations, by which are signified, in the internal sense, the knowledges, the memory-knowledges, and the worships that are of faith separated from charity.1161.
That by "Ham" is signified faith separated from charity, is evident from what was said and shown concerning Ham in the preceding chapter.1162.
That by "the sons of Ham" are signified the things that belong to this separated faith, follows from this. In order that it may be known what is meant by "Ham," and therefore by "the sons of Ham," it must first be known what faith separated from charity is. Faith separated from charity is no faith. Where there is no faith, there is no worship, neither internal nor external. If there be any worship at all, it is corrupt worship, and therefore by "Ham" is likewise signified internal worship corrupted. They hold a false opinion who call the mere memory-knowledge of things celestial and spiritual, separated from charity, faith. For sometimes the worst of men have this knowledge more than others-as those who live in continual hatred and vindictiveness, and in adultery, and are therefore infernal, and after the life of the body become devils. It may be seen from this that memory-knowledge is not faith. But faith is the acknowledgment of the things which are of faith; and this acknowledgment is by no means external, but internal, and is the working of the Lord alone through the charity in a man. And this acknowledgment is by no means a thing of the mouth, but of the life. From the life of everyone it may be known what his acknowledgment is. All they are called "sons of Ham" who have a memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith, and have not charity, whether it be a memory-knowledge of the interior knowledges of the Word, and of its veriest mysteries, or a memory-knowledge of all things in the literal sense of the Word, or a memory-knowledge of other truths, whatever their name, from which these may be regarded, or a knowledge of all the rituals of external worship-if they have not charity, they are "sons of Ham." That they who are called "sons of Ham" are of this character, is evident from the nations now treated of.1163.
That "Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan," were so many nations, by which in the internal sense are signified knowledges, memory-knowledges, and rituals that are of faith separated from charity, may be seen from the Word, where these nations are frequently mentioned; for such things are there signified by them; that is to say, by "Cush," or "Ethiopia," are signified the interior knowledges of the Word, whereby such men confirm false principles; by "Mizraim," or "Egypt," memory-knowledges or various matters of memory, whereby men desire to explore the mysteries of faith, and from them confirm principles of falsity; by "Put," or "Lybia," knowledges from the literal sense of the Word, by which in like manner they confirm false principles; and by "Canaan," or "the Canaanites," rituals, or the things of external worship separated from internal. All these, when separated from charity, are called "sons of Ham." By the same nations are also signified simply knowledges and memory-knowledges; by "Cush," the interior knowledges of the Word; by "Egypt," memory-knowledges; by "Put," knowledges from the literal sense of the Word. This is the reason why they are taken-as may be seen from the following passages-in both a bad and a good sense.1164.
That by "Cush" or "Ethiopia" are signified the interior knowledges of the Word, by which such men confirm false principles, may be seen in Jeremiah: Egypt riseth up like a stream, whose waters toss themselves like the rivers, and he hath said, I will go up, I will cover the earth, I will destroy the city and the inhabitants thereof. Go up ye horses, and rage ye chariots; and let the mighty men go forth, Cush and Put that handle the shield (Jer. 46:8-9). "Egypt" here denotes those who believe nothing unless they apprehend it from memory-knowledges, whereby everything becomes involved in doubt, denial, and falsity, which is to "go up, cover the earth, and destroy the city." "Cush" here denotes more universal and more interior knowledges of the Word, whereby men confirm received principles of falsity. "Put" denotes knowledges from the literal sense of the Word which are according to the appearances of the senses.  In Ezekiel: A sword shall come upon Egypt, and there shall be grief in Cush, when the slain shall fall in Egypt; and they shall take her multitude, and her foundations shall be destroyed. Cush, and Put, and Lud, and all Ereb and Cub, and the sons of the land of the covenant shall fall with them by the sword (Ezek. 30:4-5). No one could at all know what these things mean except from the internal sense; and if the names did not signify actual things [res], there would be scarcely any sense. But here by "Egypt" are signified memory-knowledges, whereby men desire to enter into the mysteries of faith. "Cush and Put" are called "the foundations thereof" because they signify knowledges from the Word.  In the same: In that day shall messengers go forth from before Me in ships, to make confident Cush afraid; and there shall be grief upon them, as in the day of Egypt (Ezek. 30:9). "Cush" denotes those knowledges from the Word that confirm falsities which are hatched from memory-knowledges. In the same: I will make the land of Egypt into wastes, a waste of desolation, from the tower of Seveneh, even unto the border of Cush (Ezek. 29:10). Here "Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges; and "Cush" the knowledges of the interior things of the Word, which are the boundaries as far as memory-knowledges go.  In Isaiah: The king of Assyria shall lead the captivity of Egypt and the captivity of Cush, boys and old men, naked and barefoot, and with buttocks uncovered, the nakedness of Egypt; and they shall be dismayed and ashamed because of Cush their hope, and of Egypt their glory (Isa. 20:4-5). "Cush" here denotes knowledges from the Word, whereby falsities acquired through memory-knowledges are confirmed; "Asshur" is reasoning which leads men "captive." In Nahum: Cush and Egypt were her strength, and there was no end; Put and Lubim were thy helpers (Nahum 3:9). This is said of the church vastated, and here in like manner "Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges, and "Cush" knowledges.  "Cush and Egypt" here denote simply knowledges and memory-knowledges, which are truths, useful to those who are in the faith of charity; thus they are here used in a good sense. In Isaiah: Thus said Jehovah, The labor of Egypt, and the merchandise of Cush, and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall pass over unto thee, and they shall be thine; they shall go after thee in fetters, they shall pass over and shall bow down unto thee; they shall pray unto thee; God is in thee only, and there is no other God besides (Isa. 45:14). "The labor of Egypt" denotes memory-knowledge; and "the merchandise of Cush and of the Sabeans," knowledges of spiritual things which are serviceable to those who acknowledge the Lord; for all memory-knowledge and knowledge are for them.  In Daniel: The king of the north shall have dominion over the hidden stores of gold and silver, and over all the desirable things of Egypt; and the Lubim (Put) and Cushim shall be at thy steps (Dan. 11:43). "Put and Cush" here denote knowledges from the Word; and "Egypt," memory-knowledges. In Zephaniah: From the crossing of the rivers of Cush, My worshipers (Zeph. 3:10), denoting those who are without knowledges, that is, the Gentiles. In David: Great ones shall come out of Egypt; Cush shall hasten his hands unto God (Ps. 68:31). "Egypt" here denotes memory-knowledges and "Cush" knowledges.  In the same: I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon as among them that know Me behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Cush; this one was born there (in the city of God) (Ps. 87:4). "Cush" denotes knowledges from the Word; and therefore it is said that he "was born in the city of God." It is because "Cush" signifies the interior knowledges of the Word and the intelligence thence derived, that it is said that the second river that went forth from the garden of Eden "encompassed the whole land of Cush" (concerning which see n. 117).1165.
That by "Mizraim," or "Egypt," in the Word, are signified the memory-knowledges (that is, the various matters of memory) wherewith men desire to explore the secrets of faith, and to confirm the principles of falsity thereby conceived; and that it also signifies simply memory-knowledges, thus such as are useful, is evident not only from the passages already adduced, but from very many others also, which, if all cited, would fill pages. (See Isa. 19:1 to the end; 30:1-3; 31:1-3; Jer. 2:18, 36; 42:14 to the end; 46:1 to the end; Ezek. 16:26; 23:3, 8; 29:1 to the end; 30:1 to the end; Hos. 7:11; 9:3, 6; 11:1, 5, 11; Micah 7:5; Zech. 10:10-11; Ps. 80:8 and following verses.)1166.
That by "Put," or "Lybia," in the Word, are signified the knowledges from the literal sense by which in like manner false principles are confirmed, and also simply such knowledges, is evident from the passages cited above where "Cush" is spoken of. Because by him there are in like manner signified those knowledges which are more interior, "Put" and "Cush" are mentioned together in the Word, as may be seen in the passages above cited (Jer. 46:8, 9; Ezek. 30:4, 5; Nahum 3:9; Dan. 11:43).1167.
That by "Canaan," or "the Canaanite," when mentioned in the Word, are signified rituals, that is, the things of external worship separated from internal, is evident from very many passages, especially in the historicals. Because the Canaanites were of this character at the time when the sons of Jacob were introduced into their land, it was permitted that they should be exterminated. But in the internal sense of the Word, all those are meant by "Canaanites" who have external worship separated from internal. And as the Jews and Israelites more than others were of this nature, they specifically are signified by "Canaanites" in the prophetical Word, as may be seen from these two passages only: They have shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan; and the land was profaned with bloods, and they were defiled with their works, and went a whoring in their doings. (Ps. 106:38-39). "To shed the blood of sons and daughters," here signifies in the internal sense that they extinguished all truths of faith and goods of charity; "to sacrifice sons and daughters to the idols of Canaan" signifies to profane the things which are of faith and charity by external worship separate from internal, which is nothing else than idolatrous. Thus were they defiled with their works, and went a whoring in their doings. In Ezekiel: Thus saith the Lord Jehovih unto Jerusalem, Thy tradings and thy nativity is of the land of Canaan; thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother a Hittite (Ezek. 16:3). Here they are plainly said to be of the land of Canaan. (That "Canaan" signifies external worship separated from internal may be seen above, n. 1078, 1094.)1168.
Verse 7. And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca. And the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan. By "the sons of Cush" are signified those who had not internal worship, but who had the knowledges of faith, in the possession of which they made religion to consist. "Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca" are so many nations with whom there were such knowledges. By the same in the internal sense the knowledges themselves are signified. By "the sons of Raamah," likewise, are signified those who had not internal worship, but had knowledges of faith, in the possession of which they made religion to consist. "Sheba and Dedan" are nations who had such knowledges. By the same in the internal sense are signified the knowledges themselves; but with the difference that by "the sons of Cush" are signified knowledges of spiritual things, and by "the sons of Raamah," knowledges of celestial things.1169.
That by "the sons of Cush" are signified those who had no internal worship, but had knowledges of faith, in the possession of which they made religion to consist, is evident from "Cush," whose sons they were, and by whom are signified interior knowledges of spiritual things, as shown above, as well as from the Word where these nations are mentioned.1170.
That "Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca" are so many nations with whom there were such knowledges, and that in the internal sense the knowledges themselves are signified by the same, may be seen from passages from the Word which will be adduced below.1171.
That by "the sons of Raamah" are in like manner signified those who had no internal worship, but knowledges of faith, in the possession of which they made religion to consist; and that "Sheba and Dedan" are nations who had such knowledges; and that in the internal sense they signify the knowledges themselves, is evident from the following passages in the Prophets. Concerning Seba, Sheba, and Raamah, from these passages-in David: The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring gifts; the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer a present; yea, all kings shall bow themselves down unto Him (Ps. 72:10-11). This is said concerning the Lord, His kingdom, and the celestial church. Anyone may see that here by "gifts" and "a present" are signified worships; but what these worships were, and of what quality, cannot be known unless it be understood what is meant by "Tarshish and the isles," and by "Sheba and Seba." It has been shown already that by "Tarshish and the isles" are meant external worships that correspond to internal. From this it follows that by "Sheba and Seba" are meant internal worships, namely, by "Sheba" celestial things of worship, and by "Seba" spiritual things of worship.  In Isaiah: I have given Egypt for thy ransom, Cush and Seba for thee (Isa. 43:3). "Cush and Seba" denote here the spiritual things of faith. In the same: The labor of Egypt, and the merchandise of Cush, and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee (Isa. 45:14). "The labor of Egypt" denotes the memory-knowledge, and "the merchandise of Cush and of the Sabeans," the knowledges of spiritual things, which are of service to those who believe in the Lord.  In the same: The multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah, all they from Sheba shall come; they shall bring gold and frankincense, and shall proclaim the praises of Jehovah. All the flocks of Arabia shall be gathered together unto thee (Isa. 60:6-7). By " Sheba" are here meant celestial things and the derivative spiritual ones, which are "gold and frankincense;" and it is explained that these are "the praises of Jehovah," that is, they are internal worship.  In Ezekiel: The traders of Sheba and Raamah, these were thy traders in the chief of every spice, and in every precious stone, and they gave gold for thine aids (Ezek. 27:22-23). This is said of Tyre. What is signified here by "Sheba and Raamah" is evident from their merchandise, which is said to be spice, the precious stone, and gold. "Spice" in the internal sense is charity; "the precious stone" is faith from charity; and "gold" is love to the Lord, all which are celestial things signified by "Sheba." Properly the knowledges of such things are "Sheba" (and therefore they are here called "merchandise"), wherewith all who are becoming men of the church are imbued; for no one can become a man of the church without knowledges.  Similar things were represented by the queen of Sheba, who came to Solomon and brought him spices, gold, and precious stones (1 Kings 10:1-3); and also by the wise men from the east who came to Jesus when He was born, and fell down and worshiped Him, and opening their treasures, they offered Him gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh (Matt. 2:1, 11), by which was signified good, celestial, spiritual, and natural. In Jeremiah: To what purpose cometh there to Me frankincense from Sheba, and the sweet calamus from a far country? Your burnt-offerings are not acceptable (Jer. 6:20). Here too it is evident that by " Sheba" are signified knowledges and adorations, which are "incense" and "calamus;" but in this instance such as are devoid of charity, which are not grateful.1172.
That by "Dedan" are signified the knowledges of the lower celestial things that are in rituals, is evident from the following passages in the Word. In Ezekiel: The sons of Dedan were thy traders; many isles were the mart of thy hand; they brought thee for a present horns of ivory, and ebony (Ezek. 27:15). "Horns of ivory, and ebony" are in the internal sense exterior goods, which are of worship, or of rituals. In the same: Dedan was thy trader in garments of freedom for the chariot; Arabia and all the princes of Kedar (Ezek. 27:20-21). Here in like manner "garments of freedom for the chariot" are exterior goods, or goods of rituals. In Jeremiah: Their wisdom is become stinking; flee ye, they have turned themselves away, they have let themselves down to dwell in the deep, O inhabitants of Dedan (Jer. 49:7-8). Here "Dedan" in the proper sense denotes rituals in which there is no internal worship or adoration of the Lord from the heart, of which it is said that they "turn themselves away and let themselves down to dwell in the deep." From these passages it is now evident that knowledges of spiritual things are signified by "the sons of Cush;" and knowledges of celestial things by "the sons of Raamah."1173.
Verses 8, 9. And Cush begat Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was mighty in hunting before Jehovah; wherefore it was said, As Nimrod mighty in hunting before Jehovah. By "Cush" are signified here as before, interior knowledges of things spiritual and celestial; by "Nimrod" are signified those who made internal worship external; thus by "Nimrod" is signified such external worship. "Cush begat Nimrod," means that they who had knowledges of interior things instituted such worship. He was "a mighty one in the earth," signifies that such a religion prevailed in the church, "the earth" being the church, as before. "He was mighty in hunting before Jehovah," signifies that he persuaded many; "wherefore it was said, As Nimrod mighty in hunting before Jehovah," signifies that because so many were persuaded, such a form of speech became proverbial; and further, it signifies that such a religion easily captivates the minds of men.1174.
That by "Cush" are signified interior knowledges of spiritual and celestial things, is evident from what has been said and shown before concerning Cush.1175.
That by "Nimrod" are signified those who made internal worship external, and that "Nimrod" thus signifies such external worship, may be seen from what follows. It must be here stated, beforehand, what is meant by making internal worship external. It was said and shown above that internal worship, which is from love and charity, is worship itself; and that external worship without this internal worship is no worship. To make internal worship external is to make external worship essential, rather than internal, which is the reverse of the former, being as if it was said that internal worship without external is no worship, while the truth is that external worship without internal is no worship. Such is the religion of those who separate faith from charity, in that they set the things which are of faith before those which are of charity, or the things which are of the knowledges of faith before those which are of the life, thus formal things before essential ones. All external worship is a formality of internal worship, for internal worship is the very essential; and to make worship consist of that which is formal, without that which is essential, is to make internal worship external. As for example, to hold that if one should live where there is no church, no preaching, no sacraments, no priesthood, he could not be saved, or could have no worship; when yet he can worship the Lord from what is internal. But it does not follow from this that there ought not to be external worship.  To make the matter yet more clear, take as a further example the setting up as the essential itself of worship the frequenting of churches, going to the sacraments, hearing sermons, praying, observing feasts, and many other things which are external and ceremonial, while, talking about faith, men persuade themselves that these are sufficient-all of which are formal things of worship. It is quite true that those who make worship from love and charity the essential, act in the same way, that is, they frequent churches, go to the sacraments, hear sermons, pray, observe feasts, and the like, and this very earnestly and diligently; but they do not make the essential of worship consist in these things. In the external worship of these men there is what is holy and living, because there is internal worship in it; but in the external worship of those referred to before there is not what is holy and not what is living. For the very essential itself is what sanctifies and vivifies the formal or ceremonial; but faith separated from charity cannot sanctify and vivify worship, because the essence and life are absent. Such worship is called "Nimrod;" and it is born of the knowledges which are "Cush," as these are born from faith separated from charity, which faith is "Ham." From "Ham," or faith separated, through the knowledges which belong to faith separated, no other worship can possibly be born. These are the things that are signified by "Nimrod."1176.
Cush begat Nimrod. That this signifies that they who had knowledges of interior things instituted such worship, is evident from what has just been said. Knowledges of interior things are what they call doctrinals, which they also distinguish from rituals. For example, their chief doctrinal is that faith alone saves; but they do not know that love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor are faith itself; and that the knowledges which they call faith exist for no other end than that by means of them men may receive from the Lord love to Him and love toward the neighbor; and that this is the faith which saves. It is those who make faith consist in knowledges alone, who beget and institute such worship as is spoken of above.1177.
He was a mighty one in the earth. That this signifies that such a religion prevailed in the church, may be seen from what presently follows. That the "earth" is the church has been shown before (n. 620, 636, 662, and elsewhere).1178.
He was mighty in hunting before Jehovah. That this signifies that he persuaded many, is evident from its being so with faith separated from charity; and also from the signification of "hunting" in the Word. Faith separated from charity is of such a nature that men are easily persuaded. The greater part of mankind do not know what internal things are, but only external things; and most men abide in things of sense, in pleasures and in cupidities, and have in view themselves and the world; and therefore they are easily captivated by such a religion. From the signification of "hunting:" in the Word "hunting" signifies in general persuading; specifically, captivating the minds of men by favoring their sensuous inclinations, pleasures, and cupidities, by using doctrinals which they explain at their own pleasure in accordance with their temper and that of the other, and with a view to their own self-exaltation and enrichment, thus by persuading.  As is made evident in Ezekiel: Woe to them that sew cushions upon all the joints of My hands, and that make veils upon the head, of every stature, to hunt souls. Do ye hunt souls for My people, and make souls alive for yourselves? And ye have profaned Me among My people for handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread, to slay the souls that should not die, and to make the souls alive that should not live, by your lying to My people that listen unto a lie. Behold, I am against your cushions wherewith ye there hunt souls to make them fly, and I will tear them from your arms, and I will let the souls go, the souls that ye hunt to make them fly, and your veils also will I tear, and deliver My people out of your hand, and they shall be no more in your hand, to be hunted (Ezek. 13:18-21). What is meant by "hunting" is here explained, that it is captivating by persuasions, and by knowledges which they pervert, and interpret in favor of themselves, and in accommodation to the temper of another.  In Micah: The merciful man is perished out of the earth, and there is none upright among man; they all lie in wait for bloods; they hunt every man his brother with a net, when they do evil with the hands instead of doing good, the prince asketh and judgeth for the sake of reward, and the great man, he uttereth the perversity of his soul, and they wrest it (Micah 7:2-3). Here likewise what is meant by "hunting" is explained, that it is to lie in wait for the sake of self, or to call the false true, and utter perversity, and distort, and thereby to persuade. In David: A man of tongue shall not be established in the earth; evil shall hunt the violent man to overthrow him (Ps. 140:11). This is said of the wicked who persuade by means of falsities, think evilly and talk blandly for the purpose of deceiving; "tongue" here denotes falsehood.1179.
Wherefore it was said, As Nimrod mighty in hunting before Jehovah. That this signifies that, because so many were persuaded, such a form of speech became proverbial and that it further signifies that such a religion easily captivates the minds of men, may be seen from all that has been said, and from the very sense of the letter. Moreover, as in ancient times they gave names to actual things, they gave this name to this worship, saying that "Nimrod"-that is, this worship-"was mighty in hunting," that is, was one that captivates the minds of men. It is said "before Jehovah," because they who were in such worship called faith separated "Jehovah," or "the man Jehovah," as is evident from what has been said before (n. 340) concerning Cain, by whom in like manner there is signified faith separated from charity. But the difference between "Cain" and "Ham" is that the former was in the celestial church which had perception, and the latter in the spiritual church which had no perception; and therefore the former was more heinous than the latter. In ancient times such were called "mighty," as in Isaiah: All the glory of Kedar shall be consumed, and the residue of the number, the bows of the mighty men of the sons of Kedar shall be diminished (Isa. 21:16-17). And in Hosea: Ye have plowed wickedness, ye have reaped iniquity, ye have eaten the fruit of a lie, for thou didst trust in thy way, in the multitude of thy mighty men (Hos. 10:13); and in other places. They called themselves "men" [viri], and "mighty," from faith; for there is a term in the original language which expresses the idea of might and at the same time of a man [vir], which term in the Word is predicated of faith, and that in both senses.1180.
Verse 10. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. "The beginning of his kingdom," signifies that thus such worship began; "Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar," signify that there were such worships in that region; and at the same time they signify the worships themselves, the externals of which appear holy, but the interiors are profane.1181.
The beginning of his kingdom. That this signifies that thus such worship began, is evident from the signification of "Babel in the land of Shinar," of which hereafter.1182.
Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. That these signify that such worships were in that region, and that at the same time they signify the worships themselves, the externals of which appear holy while the interiors are profane, is evident from the signification of "Babel," and of "the land of Shinar." Babel is much treated of in the Word, and everywhere such worship is signified by it, that is to say that the externals appear holy while the interiors are profane. But as the following chapter treats of Babel, it will be shown there that such things are signified by Babel; and that in the beginning such worship was not so profane as it became afterwards. For the quality of external worship is precisely in accordance with the interiors; the more innocent the interiors are, the more innocent is the external worship; but the more foul the interiors are, the more foul is the external worship; and the more profane the interiors are, the more profane is the external worship. In a word, the more of the love of the world and of self there is in a man who is in this external worship, the less there is that is living and holy in his worship; the more hatred toward the neighbor there is in his love of himself and of the world, the more profanity there is in his worship; the more malice in his hatred, the more still of profanity there is in his worship; and the more deceit in his malice, the more profanity yet is there in his worship. Those loves and these evils are the interiors of the external worship which is signified by "Babel," concerning which in the following chapter.1183.
What is signified in particular by "Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar," cannot so well be seen, because they are not mentioned in other parts of the Word, except Calneh (in Amos 6:2) but they are varieties of such worship. But as regards the land of Shinar in which these worships were, that external worship wherein is what is profane is signified by it in the Word is evident from its signification in the following chapter (Gen. 11:2), and also in Zechariah 5:11; and, especially in Daniel, where these words occur: The Lord gave Jehoiakim, king of Judah, into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babel, with part of the vessels of the house of God, and he carried them into the land of Shinar, into the house of his god and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god (Dan. 1:2), by which is signified that holy things were profaned: "the vessels of the house of God," are holy things; "the house of the god of Babel, in the land of Shinar," is profane things, into which the holy things were brought. Although these incidents are historical, yet they involve these arcana, as do all the historical facts of the Word. The same is further evident from the profanation of the same vessels (Dan. 5:3-5). If sacred things had not been represented by them, no such events would have taken place.1184.
Verses 11, 12. Out of that land went forth Asshur, and built Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resen, between Nineveh and Calah; this is that great city. "Out of that land went forth Asshur," signifies that they who were in such external worship began to reason about the internals of worship; "Asshur" denotes reasoning; "and built Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah," signifies that thereby they formed doctrinals of faith for themselves; by "Nineveh" are signified the falsities of these doctrinals; by "Rehoboth and Calah," the same from another origin; "Resen, between Nineveh and Calah," signifies that they also formed for themselves doctrinals of life. By "Resen" are signified falsities of doctrinals thence derived; "Nineveh" is falsity from reasonings; "Calah" is falsity from cupidities; "between Nineveh and Calah," is falsity from both; "this is that great city," signifies doctrinals, that these increased and prevailed.1185.
Out of that land went forth Asshur. 1185-1 That this signifies that they who were in such external worship began to reason about the internals of worship, may be seen from the signification of "Asshur" in the Word, as being reason and reasoning, concerning which in what presently follows. There is a twofold meaning in these words, namely, that Asshur went forth out of that land, and that Nimrod went forth from that land into Asshur, or Assyria. It is so expressed because both are signified, namely, that reasoning concerning spiritual and celestial things arises from such worship-which is that Asshur went forth out of the land of Shinar-and that such worship reasons about spiritual and celestial things-which is that Nimrod went forth from that land into Asshur, or Assyria.1186.
That "Asshur" is reasoning, is evident from the signification of Asshur or Assyria in the Word, where it is constantly taken for the things which pertain to reason, in both senses; namely, for what is of reason, and for reasonings. By reason and rational things are properly meant things that are true; and by reasoning and reasonings, those which are false. Because "Asshur" signifies reason and reasoning, it is very frequently connected with "Egypt," which signifies memory-knowledges; for reason and reasoning are from such knowledges. That "Asshur" signifies reasoning is evident in Isaiah: Woe unto Asshur, the rod of Mine anger, he thinketh not right, neither doth his heart meditate right, he hath said, By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my Wisdom, because I am intelligent (Isa. 10:5, 7, 13), where "Asshur" denotes reasoning, of whom it is therefore predicated that he neither thinketh nor doth meditate right; and it is said, "by his own wisdom, because he is intelligent."  In Ezekiel: Two women, the daughters of one mother, committed whoredom in Egypt; they committed whoredom in their youth. The one committed whoredom, and doted on her lovers, on Asshur (the Assyrians) her neighbors, who were clothed in blue, captains and rulers, all of them desirable young men, horsemen riding upon horses. The sons of Babel came to her, and they defiled her with their whoredom (Ezek. 23:2-3, 5-6, 17). Here "Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges; "Asshur," reasoning; and "the sons of Babel," falsities from cupidities.  In the same: O Jerusalem, thou hast also committed whoredom with the sons of Egypt, thou hast committed whoredom also with the sons of Asshur, and thou hast multiplied thy whoredom even into the land of Canaan unto Chaldea (Ezek. 16:26, 28-29), where "Egypt" in like manner denotes memory-knowledges; "Asshur," reasoning. Reasoning from memory-knowledges concerning spiritual and celestial things is called "whoredom," both here and elsewhere in the Word. That whoredom with the Egyptians and the Assyrians is not meant, anyone can see.  In Jeremiah: Israel, what hast thou to do with the way of Egypt, to drink the waters of Shihor? and what hast thou to do with the way of Asshur, to drink the waters of the river [Euphrates]? (Jer. 2:18, 36). Here likewise "Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges; and "Asshur," reasoning. In the same: Israel is a scattered sheep, the lions have driven him away, first the king of Asshur hath devoured him, and after that this king of Babel hath broken his bones (Jer. 50:17-18). "Asshur" here is reasoning concerning spiritual things.  In Micah: This shall be the peace, when Asshur shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, we will even set over him seven shepherds, and eight princes of men, and they shall feed down the land of Asshur with the sword, and the land of Nimrod, In the gates thereof, and he shall deliver from Asshur, when he shall come into our land, and when he shall tread upon our border (Micah 5:5-6). The subject here is Israel, or the spiritual church, of which it is said that "Asshur shall not enter in," that is, that reasoning shall not; "the land of Nimrod" denotes such worship as is signified by Nimrod, in which the interiors are evil and false.  That "Asshur" in the Word is also reason, which is in the man of the church, whereby he discerns truth and good, is evident in Hosea: They shall tremble as a bird out of Egypt, and as a dove out of the land of Asshur (Hos. 11:11). "Egypt" here denotes the memory-knowledge of the man of the church; and "Asshur," his reason. That a "bird" is the intellectual of the memory [scientificum intellectuale], and "a dove" rational good, has been shown before.  In Isaiah: In that day shall there be a path from Egypt to Asshur, and Asshur shall come into Egypt, and Egypt into Asshur, and the Egyptians shall serve Asshur. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Asshur, a blessing in the midst of the land, which Jehovah Zebaoth shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt My people, and Asshur the work of My hands, and Israel Mine inheritance (Isa. 19:23-25). The subject here is the spiritual church, which is "Israel," whose reason is "Asshur," and memory-knowledge "Egypt." These three constitute the intellectual things of the man of the spiritual church, which follow one another in this order. In other places also where Asshur is named, it signifies the rational, either true or false, as in Isaiah 20:1 to the end; 23:13; 27:13; 30:31; 31:8, 36-37; 52:4; Ezek. 27:23-24; 31:3 to the end; 32:22; Micah 7:12; Zeph. 2:13; Zech. 10:11; Ps. 83:8. "Asshur" denotes reasoning in Hosea 5:13; 7:11; 10:6; 11:5; 12:1; 14:3; and in Zechariah 10:10, where Ephraim is spoken of, by whom is signified the intellectual, but here, perverted.1187.
He built Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah. That this signifies that they thus formed doctrinals of faith for themselves, is evident from the signification of Nineveh, and Rehoboth, and Calah (concerning which in what immediately follows), and from the signification of a "city," in the Word, as being doctrine, either true or heretical (as has been shown before, n. 402).1188.
That falsities of doctrine are signified by "Nineveh," and such things also from another origin by "Rehoboth and Calah," is evident from the signification of Nineveh in the Word, concerning which presently. Falsities of this kind are from three origins. The first is from the fallacies of the senses in the obscurity of an unenlightened understanding, and from ignorance; hence comes the falsity which is "Nineveh." The second origin is from the same cause, but with a predominant cupidity, such as that for innovation, or for pre-eminence: the falsities from this origin are "Rehoboth." The third origin is from the will and thus from cupidities, in that men are unwilling to acknowledge anything as truth that does not favor their cupidities; hence come the falsities which are called "Calah." All these falsities arise through Asshur, or reasonings concerning the truths and goods of faith.  That "Nineveh" signifies falsities from the fallacies of the senses in the obscurity of an unenlightened understanding, and from ignorance, is evident in Jonah, who was sent to Nineveh, which city was pardoned because they were such, and from the particulars in Jonah concerning Nineveh, of which by the Divine mercy of the Lord in another place. The particulars there are historical, and yet prophetical, involving and representing such arcana, as do all the other historicals of the Word.  Likewise in Isaiah, where it is said of the king of Asshur that he remained in Nineveh, and that when he bowed himself in the house of Nisroch his god, his sons slew him with the sword (37:37, 38). Although these things are historical, yet they are prophetical, involving and representing similar arcana; and here by "Nineveh" is signified external worship in which there are falsities; and because this was idolatrous he was slain by his sons with the sword. "Sons" are falsities, as has been shown before; "the sword" is the punishment of falsity, as everywhere in the Word.  In Zephaniah also: Jehovah will stretch forth His hand upon the north, and will destroy Asshur, and will make Nineveh a desolation, a dryness like the wilderness. And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, every wild beast of his kind, the cormorant and the bittern also shall pass the night in the pomegranates thereof, a voice shall sing in the windows, wasteness upon the threshold, for he hath laid bare its cedar (Zeph. 2:13-14). Nineveh is here described, but in the prophetic style, and the falsity itself which is signified by Nineveh. This falsity, because it is worshiped, is called "the north, the wild beast of his kind, the cormorant and the bittern in the pomegranates," and is described by "a voice singing in the windows," and by "laying bare the cedar," which is intellectual truth. All these expressions are significative of such falsity.1189.
That falsities originating from cupidities are signified by "Calah," cannot be confirmed from the prophetical, but only from the historical parts of the Word, in that the king of Asshur carried the sons of Israel into Asshur, or Assyria, and made them dwell in Calah, and in Habor, by the river Gozan, and in the cities of Media (2 Kings 17:6; 18:11). The historical facts here involve nothing else, for, as was said before, all the historicals of the Word are significative and representative. Thus "Israel" here is the perverted spiritual church; "Asshur" is reasoning; and "Calah" is such falsity.1190.
And Resen, between Nineveh and Calah. That this signifies that they also formed for themselves doctrinals of life; and that the false doctrinals thence derived are signified by "Resen," may be seen from what has just been shown respecting Nineveh and Calah; and also from the connection, in that in the preceding verse falsities of doctrine, and here falsities of life are treated of. For such is the style of the Word, especially the prophetical style, that when it treats of things of the understanding it treats also of those of the will. In the preceding verse things of the understanding, or falsities of doctrine, are treated of; but here falsities of life, which are signified by "Resen." As no further mention is made of Resen in the Word, this cannot so well be confirmed, except from the fact of Resen's being built between Nineveh and Calah, that is, between falsity from reasonings and falsity from cupidities, which produces falsity of life; and from its being called the "great city," because it is from falsities both of the understanding and of the will.1191.
This is that great city. That this signifies doctrinals, and that these increased and prevailed, is evident from the signification of a "city," as being a true doctrinal, or a false doctrinal (as was shown at n. 402). And it is called the "great city" because all falsity of doctrine, and of the worship therefrom, is derived into falsity of life.1192.
In verse 10, just above, the evils in worship, signified by "Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar," were treated of; in these two verses the falsities in worship, signified by "Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen," are treated of. Falsities belong to principles from reasonings; evils to cupidities from the love of the world and of self.1193.
Verses 13, 14. And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, and Pathrusim, and Casluhim, from whom went forth the Philistines, and Caphtorim. "Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim," signifies so many nations, by which so many kinds of rituals are signified; "Mizraim" is memory-knowledge; "Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, and Naphtuhim" are so many rituals which are mere matters of memory-knowledge [scientifica]; "Pathrusim and Casluhim" are nations so called, by which are signified the doctrinals of rituals from a similar origin, which were only matters of memory-knowledge; "from whom went forth the Philistines," signifies a nation thence derived, by which is signified the mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith and charity. Its being said that they "went forth" signifies that with them knowledges are mere memory-knowledges.1194.
Mizraim begat Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, and Naphtuhim. That these signify so many nations, by which so many rituals are signified, may be seen from what was shown above respecting Mizraim or Egypt (at verse 6, of this chapter), namely, that "Egypt" signifies memory-knowledge or matters of memory [scientiam seu scientifica]. They who are said to be begotten thereof could be no other or nothing else than rituals, and in fact rituals of external worship. For the Word of the Lord in its bosom and recess, that is, in its internal sense, never treats of other things than those which belong to His kingdom, and thus to the church; so that here the things that were born from memory-knowledges by reasonings are nothing else than rituals.1195.
That "Mizraim" or "Egypt" is memory-knowledge, was shown at verse 6 of this chapter. That "Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, and Naphtuhim" are so many rituals which are merely memory-knowledges, is evident from what has just been stated. Those are said to have rituals which are merely memory-knowledges, who explore spiritual and celestial things by means of reasonings, and thereby devise a worship for themselves. The rituals of this worship, being from reasonings and memory-knowledges, are called rituals of memory-knowledge [ritualia scientifica], 1195-1 wherein there was nothing spiritual and celestial, because they were from themselves. Hence came the idols of Egypt, and its magic. And because their rituals were from this origin, they totally rejected, nay, loathed and hated, the rites of the Ancient Church, as is evident from what is said in Gen. 43:32, 46:34; Exod. 8:22. Because these things are signified, they are said to be begotten of Mizraim, or of Egypt, that is, of memory-knowledges; and as their memory-knowledges were diverse, the derivative rituals also became different. These diversities, in general, are signified by so many nations. That such things are meant by the Ludim, or Lydians, appears in Jeremiah: Egypt riseth up like the river, and like the rivers the waters are troubled; and he saith, I will rise up, I will cover the earth, I will destroy the city and the inhabitants thereof. Come up, ye horses, and rage, ye chariots, and let the mighty come forth, Cush and Put, that handle the shield, and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow (Jer. 46:8-9). The "rivers of Egypt" here are diverse memory-knowledges which are false; "to go up and cover the earth" is to enter into the things that pertain to the church or to faith by means of memory-knowledges; "to destroy the city" is to destroy truths; "Cush and Put" are knowledges; "the Lydians" are the rituals of memory-knowledge spoken of above; "to handle and bend the bow" is to reason.1196.
That "the Pathrusim and Casluhim" are nations so called, and that they signify doctrinals of rituals from a similar origin, which were only matters of memory-knowledge, is evident from what has been stated; and from their following in this manner in the series. Concerning the Pathrusim see in Isa. 11:11-12; Ezek. 29:13-15; 30:13-14; Jer. 44:1, 15.1197.
From whom went forth the Pelistim [Philistines]. That this signifies a nation thence derived, and that by this nation is signified a mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith and charity, is evident from the Word, where the Philistines are frequently mentioned. In the Ancient Church all those were called Philistines who talked much about faith, and declared that salvation is in faith, and yet had no life of faith. Therefore they preeminently were called "the uncircumcised," which means those who are devoid of charity. That they were called "the uncircumcised" may be seen in 1 Sam. 14:6; 17:26, 36; 31:4; 2 Sam. 1:20, and in other places. Because they were such, they could not but make the knowledges of faith matters of memory; for the knowledges of spiritual and celestial things and the very mysteries of faith themselves become nothing but matters of memory, when the man who is skilled in them is devoid of charity. The things of the memory are like things dead unless the man is such that from conscience he lives according to them. When he does this, then at the same time as they are things of memory they are also things of life; and only then do they remain with him for his use and salvation after the life of the body. Knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones] are nothing to a man in the other life, even though he may have known all the arcana that have ever been revealed, unless they have affected his life.  Such [as those described above] are everywhere signified by "Philistines" in the prophetical parts of the Word, and also in the historical, as for example, when Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines, and made a covenant with Abimelech, the king of the Philistines (Gen. 20:1 to the end; 21:22 to the end; 26:1-34). As the knowledges of faith are here signified by the Philistines, Abraham, because he represented the celestial things of faith, sojourned there, and entered into a covenant with them; and likewise Isaac, by whom were represented the spiritual things of faith; but not Jacob, because by him the externals of the church were represented.  That the "Philistines" signify in general a mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith, and specifically those who make faith and salvation consist in knowledges alone, which they make matters of memory, may be seen in Isaiah: Rejoice not thou whole Philistia, because the rod that smote thee is broken; for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a basilisk, and his fruit shall be like a fiery flying serpent (Isa. 14:29). Here "the root of the serpent" denotes memory-knowledges; "the basilisk," evil from the derivative falsity; and "the fruit of a fiery flying serpent," is their works, which are called "a fiery flying serpent" because they come of cupidities.  In Joel: What are ye to Me, O Tyre, and Zidon, and all the borders of Philistia? Will ye render a recompense upon Me? very speedily will I return your recompense upon your own head. Inasmuch as ye have taken My silver and My gold, and have carried into your temples My desirable good things; the sons also of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the sons of the Javanites, that ye might cause them to remove far from their border (Joel 3:4-6). Here it is evident what is meant by the Philistines, and by "all Philistia," or all "the borders" of it. "Silver and gold" here are the spiritual and celestial things of faith; "desirable good things" are the knowledges of them. That they "carried them into their temples," is that they possessed and proclaimed them; and that they "sold the sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem," signifies that they had no love and no faith; "Judah" in the Word is the celestial of faith, and "Jerusalem" is the spiritual of faith thence derived, which were "removed far from their borders." So also in other places in the Prophets, as in Jer. 25:20; 47:1 to the end; Ezek. 16:27, 57; 25:15-16; Amos 1:8; Obad. 19; Zeph. 2:5; Ps. 83:7; 87:4. And concerning the Caphtorim in Deut. 2:23; Jer. 47:4; Amos 9:7.1198.
That they "went forth" signifies that with them knowledges are mere memory-knowledges is evident from what has been stated. They are not said to have been "begotten" by those who were of Egypt, but to have "gone forth" from them, because they are not such as reason from natural memory-knowledges concerning spiritual and celestial things, and thereby frame doctrinals for themselves-like those treated of before-but they are such as learn the knowledges of faith from others, and know and retain them in the memory, with no other end in view than such as they have in learning other things which they care nothing about except merely to know them, and except for the reason that they may thereby be advanced to honors, or some other such reason. So distinct is this mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith from the memory-knowledge of natural things, that they have scarcely anything in common; and therefore it is said, not that they were "born," but that they "went forth" from them. Such being the character of the "Philistines," they cannot but pervert even the knowledges of faith by reasonings from them, and thence form for themselves false doctrinals; and therefore they are among those who can with difficulty be regenerated and receive charity, both because they are uncircumcised in heart, and because principles of falsity, and consequently the life of their understanding, prevent and oppose.1199.
Verse 15. And Canaan begat Zidon, his firstborn, and Heth. "Canaan," here as before, signifies external worship in which there is nothing internal. "Zidon" signifies the exterior knowledges of spiritual things; and because they are the first things of such external worship, it is said that Zidon was "the firstborn of Canaan;" "Heth" signifies the exterior knowledges of celestial things.1200.
That "Canaan" signifies external worship in which there is nothing internal, was shown before where Canaan was treated of. The external worship which is called "Canaan" is such as was that of the Jews, both before and after the coming of the Lord. They had an external worship which they strictly observed, but yet were so ignorant of what is internal that they supposed that they lived only with the body. Of the nature of the soul, of faith, of the Lord, of spiritual and celestial life, of the life after death, they were entirely ignorant. And therefore in the time of the Lord very many of them denied the resurrection-as is evident in Matthew 22:22-33; Mark 12:18-28; Luke 20:27-41. When a man is such that he does not believe that he will live after death, he also disbelieves that there is anything internal which is spiritual and celestial; and such are they who live in mere cupidities, because they live a mere life of the body and of the world; especially those who are immersed in loathsome avarice. They nevertheless have worship, attend their synagogues, or their churches, and observe the ceremonies, some very strictly; but as they do not believe that there is a life after death, their worship cannot be other than external worship wherein is nothing internal-like a shell without a kernel, or a tree whereon is no fruit, and not even leaves. It is such external worship that is signified by "Canaan." The other kinds of external worship, 1200-1 treated of above, were worships that had internal things within.
1158-1 In Scripture language every country is called an "isle," or "island," that is approached from canal by crossing the sea. [REVISER.]
1158-2 That is, of course, in this connection. [REVISER.]
1185-1 Or, he went forth into Assyria.
1195-1 These Ritualia scientifica were evidently sacred rites that were so framed as to be the formal expressions of the learning of the nations in question, which learning consisted in a mere memory-knowledge of the correspondences and spiritual truths known in the Ancient Church. It is impossible to render the phrase into satisfactory English without a circumlocution. "Scientific rituals," the usual rendering, is ludicrously misleading. [Reviser.]
1200-1 The Latin here, by a manifest slip, says "internal worship." [Reviser.]