Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at sacred-texts.com
And the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. That this signifies that man's intellectual part should no more be able to put on such a persuasion for its destruction as did the last posterity of the Most Ancient Church, is evident from what has been frequently said and shown before in regard to the waters of the flood, and also in regard to those before the flood who perished; namely, that with them not only the will part was destroyed and made infernal, but also the intellectual part; so that they could not be regenerated, that is, have a new will formed in their intellectual part.1052.
Verse 16. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will see it, that I may remember the eternal covenant between God and every living soul of all flesh that is upon the earth. "And the bow shall be in the cloud" signifies man's state; "and I will see it" signifies that it is such that he can be regenerated; "that I may remember the eternal covenant" signifies that the Lord can be present with him in charity; "between God and every living soul of all flesh that is upon the earth" signifies with every man with whom this is possible. These things specifically regard the man who can be regenerated.1053.
And the bow shall be in the cloud. That this signifies man's state, is evident from what has been said and shown above concerning the bow in the cloud, namely, that a man or a soul in the other life is known among angels from his sphere, and that this sphere, whenever it pleases the Lord, is represented by colors, like those of the rainbow, in variety according to the state of each person relatively to faith in the Lord, thus relatively to the goods and truths of faith. In the other life colors are presented to view which from their brightness and resplendence immeasurably surpass the beauty of the colors seen on earth; and each color represents something celestial and spiritual. These colors are from the light of heaven, and from the variegation of spiritual light, as said above. For angels live in light so great that the light of the world is nothing in comparison. The light of heaven in which angels live, in comparison with the light of the world, is as the noonday light of the sun in comparison with candlelight, which is extinguished and becomes a nullity on the rising of the sun. In heaven there are both celestial light and spiritual light. Celestial light-to speak comparatively-is like the light of the sun, and spiritual light is like the light of the moon, but with every difference according to the state of the angel who receives the light. It is the same with the colors, because they are from the light. The Lord Himself is to the heaven of the celestial angels a Sun, and to the heaven of the spiritual angels, a Moon. These things will not be credited by those who have no conception of the life which souls live after death, and yet they are most true.1054.
And I will see it. That this signifies that he is such that he can be regenerated, is evident from the fact that to "see" anyone, when predicated of the Lord, means to know his quality. For the Lord knows all from eternity, and has no need to see what anyone is. When anyone is such that he can be regenerated, then it is said of the Lord that He "sees" him, as also that He "lifts up His countenance" upon him. But when he cannot be regenerated, it is not said that the Lord sees him, or lifts up His countenance upon him, but that He "turns away His eyes" or "His face" from him, although it is not the Lord who turns them away, but the man. Hence in the fourteenth verse, where the whole human race was treated of, in which there are many who cannot be regenerated, it is not said, when "I" see the bow in the cloud, but when the bow "shall be seen" in the cloud. As regards the Lord, the case is the same with "seeing" as it is with "remembering" which in the internal sense signifies to have mercy. (Concerning this see above, n. 840, 1049; and also n. 626.)1055.
That I may remember the eternal covenant. That this signifies that the Lord can be present with him in charity, is evident from what has been said and shown about the signification of a "covenant" namely, that there is no other "eternal covenant" than love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor. This is eternal, because from eternity to eternity. The universal heaven is founded in love, and so is universal nature; for in nature nothing whatever is possible-in which there is any union and conjunction, whether it be animate or inanimate-that does not derive its origin from love. For every natural thing comes into existence from something spiritual, and the spiritual from the celestial, as said above. Hence love, or a semblance of love, has been implanted in all things in general and in particular; with man alone there is not love, but the contrary, because man has destroyed in himself the order of nature. When however he can be regenerated, or restored again to order, and can receive mutual love, then there is "the covenant" or conjunction by charity, that is here treated of.1056.
Between God and every living soul of all flesh that is upon the earth. That this signifies with every man with whom this is possible, is evident from what has been said, namely, that the subject here treated of is those who can be regenerated. No others, therefore, are signified by "every living soul of all flesh."1057.
Verse 17. And God said unto Noah, This is the sign of the covenant which I have established between Me and all flesh that is upon the earth. "And God said unto Noah" signifies that the church should know this; "this is the sign of the covenant which I have established between Me and all flesh that is upon the earth" signifies that the indication of the presence of the Lord in charity was not only with the man of the church, but also with the man who is outside the church.1058.
And God said unto Noah. That this signifies that the church should know this, is evident from the series of things treated of, which does not appear except from the internal sense, in which these things are thus connected: first, the regenerated spiritual man within the church is treated of; second, every man, universally; third, every man who can be regenerated; and this is the conclusion, namely, that the church should know this. That "Noah" is the church was shown before, and here indeed he is the spiritual church in general, because Noah alone is named. What the church should know, now follows.1059.
This is the sign of the covenant which I have established between Me and all flesh that is upon the earth. That this signifies that the indication of the Lord's presence in charity was not only with the man of the church, but also with the man outside the church, is evident from the signification of "all flesh" as being every man, and consequently the whole human race. That the whole human race is meant, both within the church and without the church, is evident not only from its being said "all flesh" but also from its not being said as before, "every living soul of all flesh;" and this is made still plainer from its being added, "that is upon the earth." That with those who are outside the church, and are called Gentiles, the Lord is equally present in charity as with those who are within the church, you may see stated above (n. 932, 1032). He is even more present, for there is not so great a cloud in their intellectual part as there is in general with those who are called Christians. For the Gentiles are ignorant of the Word, nor do they know what the Lord is, consequently not what the truth of faith is; and therefore they cannot be against the Lord and against the truth of faith. Hence their "cloud" is not against the Lord and the truth of faith; and such a cloud may be easily dispersed when they are enlightened. But the cloud of Christians is against the Lord and against the truths of faith, and this cloud is so dense as to be darkness. And when there is hatred in place of charity, then it is thick darkness. Still darker is it with those who profane the truths of faith, which the Gentiles cannot do because they live in ignorance of the truth of faith. No one can profane that of which he does not know the nature or the existence. This is why more of the Gentiles are saved than of Christians, in accordance with what the Lord also said in Luke (13:23, 28-30), besides that their children all belong to the Lord's kingdom (Matt. 18:10, 14; 19:14; Luke 18:16).1060.
Verse 18. And the sons of Noah, that went forth from the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth; and Ham is the father of Canaan. "The sons of Noah, that went forth from the ark" signify those who constituted the Ancient Church; "that went forth from the ark" signifies those who are regenerate; "Shem" signifies the internal church; "Ham" signifies the church corrupted; "Japheth" signifies the external church; "and Ham is the father of Canaan" signifies that from the corrupted church sprang worship in externals without internals, which worship is signified by "Canaan."1061.
And the sons of Noah, that went forth from the ark. That these signify those who constituted the Ancient Church, and that they "that went forth from the ark" are those who are regenerate, is evident from all that follows; from which it will be plain how the case is.1062.
That "Shem" signifies the internal church, "Ham" the church corrupted, and "Japheth" the external church, is also evident from what follows, where their quality is described. As in every church, so in the Ancient there were men who were internal, men who were internal and corrupted, and men who were external. Those who are internal are those who make charity the principal 1062-1 of their faith; those who are internal and corrupted make faith without charity the principal of their faith; and those who are external think little about the internal man, but still perform works of charity and sacredly observe the rites of the church. Besides these three kinds of men there are no others who are to be called men of the spiritual church; and because they were all men of the church, they are said to have "gone forth from the ark." Those in the Ancient Church who were internal men, that is, who made charity the principal of their faith, were called "Shem"; those who were internal and corrupted, who made faith without charity the principal, were called "Ham"; while those who were external and thought little about the internal man, but still performed works of charity and sacredly observed the rites of the church, were called "Japheth." The nature of each will be seen from the particulars in what follows.1063.
And Ham is the father of Canaan. That this signifies that from the corrupted church sprang worship in externals without internals, which worship is signified by "Canaan" is likewise evident from what follows; for what is contained in this verse is premised to what is in the following verses. That "Ham" signifies the corrupted church, that is, those who make faith separate from charity the principal of their faith, is evident in David: He smote all the firstborn in Egypt, the beginning of strength, in the tents of Ham (Ps. 78:51). By "the firstborn in Egypt" was represented faith without charity. That faith is called the firstborn of the church may be seen above (n. 352, 367); and that faith is thence called the "beginning of strength" as here in David, may be seen in Genesis (49:3), in what is said of Reuben, who represented faith because he was the firstborn of Jacob, and is called the "beginning of strength." The "tents of Ham" are the worship therefrom. That "tents" signify worship may be seen above (n. 414). Egypt is hence called the "land of Ham" (Ps. 105:23, 27; 106:22). Such men, who in the Ancient Church were called "Ham" because they lived a life of all cupidities, merely prating that they could be saved by faith howsoever they lived, appeared to the ancient people black from the heat of cupidities, and from this were called "Ham." Ham is said to be the "father of Canaan" for the reason that such men care nothing how a man lives, provided he frequents sacred rites-for they do still desire some worship. But external worship is the only worship for them; internal worship, which belongs solely to charity, they reject. Hence Ham is said to be "the father of Canaan."1064.
Verse 19. These three were the sons of Noah; and from these was the whole earth overspread. "These three were the sons of Noah" signify these three kinds of doctrines, which are those of churches in general; "and from these was the whole earth overspread" signifies that from them have been derived all doctrines, both true and false.1065.
These three were the sons of Noah. That these signify these three kinds of doctrines, which are those of churches in general, has been shown just above. There are indeed innumerable less universal kinds of doctrines, but there are not more kinds that are universal. Those who do not acknowledge charity and faith, nor external worship, are not of any church. They are not treated of here, because it is the church that is treated of.1066.
And from these was the whole earth overspread. That this signifies that from them were derived all doctrines, both true and false, is evident from the signification of "earth." "Earth" or "land" in the Word, is used with various meanings. In the universal sense it denotes the place or region where the church is, or where it has been, as the land of Canaan, the land of Judah, the land of Israel. Thus it denotes universally everyone that belongs to the church, since the land is predicated of the man who is in it, as we know in common speech. In ancient times therefore when men spoke of the "whole earth" they did not mean the whole globe, but only the land where the church was, and thus the church itself; as is evident from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah: Behold, Jehovah maketh the earth empty; the earth shall be utterly emptied; the earth shall mourn and be confounded; the earth also shall be polluted under the inhabitants thereof; therefore shall the curse devour the earth; therefore the inhabitants of the earth shall be burned, and man shall be left feeble. The cataracts from on high are opened, and the foundations of the earth do shake; the earth is utterly broken; the earth is clean dissolved; the earth is moved exceedingly; the earth reeling shall reel like a drunken man, and shall be moved to and fro like a hut, and the transgression thereof shall be heavy upon it, and it shall fall, and not rise again (Isa. 24:1, 3-6, 18-20).The "earth" here denotes the people who are in it, and in fact the people of the church, thus the church itself, and the vastated things of the church, of which when vastated it is said that they are "emptied" "moved exceedingly" "reel like a drunken man" "move to and fro" and "fall, not to rise again."  That by "earth" or "land" is signified man, consequently the church, which is of man, may be seen in Malachi: All nations shall call you happy; for ye shall be a delightsome land (Mal. 3:12). That "earth" denotes the church is seen in Isaiah: Have ye not understood the foundations of the earth? (Isa. 40:21), where the "foundations of the earth" denote the foundations of the church. Again: For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth (Isa. 65:17; 66:22; Rev.21:1). "New heavens and a new earth" denote the kingdom of the Lord and the church. In Zechariah: Jehovah, who stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him (Zech. 12:1), meaning the church. Also, as before, in Genesis: In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth (Gen. 1:1). And the heavens and the earth were finished (Gen. 2:1). These are the nativities of the heavens and of the earth (Gen. 2:4), everywhere denoting the church created, formed, and made. In Joel: The earth quaked before Him, the heavens trembled, the sun and the moon were darkened (Joel 2:10), meaning the church and the things of the church; when these are vastated, "heaven and earth" are said to quake, and the "sun and moon" to grow dark, that is, love and faith.  In Jeremiah: I beheld the earth, and lo a void and emptiness; and the heavens, and they had no light (Jer. 4:23). Here the "earth" plainly denotes the man in whom there is not anything of the church. Again: The whole earth shall be desolate; yet will I not make a full consummation; for this shall the earth mourn, and the heavens above be black (Jer. 4:27-28). Here also the church is meant, whose exteriors are the "earth" and the interiors the "heavens" of which it is said that they shall be black, with no light in them, when there is no longer wisdom of good and intelligence of truth. Then the earth also is empty and void; and in like manner the man of the church who should be a church. That by the "whole earth" is meant in other places also only the church, may be seen in Daniel: The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces (Dan. 7:23); the "whole earth" denotes the church and what is of the church; for the Word does not treat, like profane writings, of monarchial sovereignties, but of the holy things and states of the church, which are here signified by the "kingdoms of the earth."  In Jeremiah: A great tempest shall be raised up from the uttermost parts of the earth; and the slain of Jehovah shall be at that day from one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth (Jer. 25:32-33); here "from one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth" means the church and everything that is of the church. In Isaiah: The whole earth is at rest and is quiet; they break forth into singing (Isa. 14:7), where the "whole earth" denotes the church. In Ezekiel: When the whole earth rejoiceth (Ezek. 35:14), where also the "whole earth" denotes the church. In Isaiah: I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth (Isa. 54:9), where the "earth" denotes the church, because the church is there treated of.  Because "land" or "earth" in the Word signifies the church, it signifies also what is not the church, for every such word has contrary or opposite meanings; as for example the various lands of the Gentiles; in general all lands outside the land of Canaan. "Land" is therefore taken also for the people and for the man outside the church, and hence for the external man, for his will, his Own, and so forth. The term is rarely used in the Word for the whole world, except when the whole human race is meant as regards their state, whether of the church or not of the church. And because the earth is the containant of the ground, which also signifies the church, and the ground is the containant of the field, the word "earth" signifies, because it involves, many things; and what it signifies is evident from the subject treated of, which is that of which the term is predicated. From all this it is evident that by the "whole earth" that was overspread by the sons of Noah, is not signified the whole world, or the whole human race, but all the doctrines both true and false that were of the churches.1067.
Verse 20. And Noah began to be a man of the ground, and he planted a vineyard. "And Noah began to be a man of the ground" signifies, in general, man instructed from the doctrinal things of faith; "and he planted a vineyard" signifies a church therefrom; a "vineyard" is the spiritual church.1068.
And Noah began to be a man of the ground. That this signifies in general man instructed from the doctrinal things of faith, is evident from the signification of "ground" (concerning which above, n. 268, 566), namely, the man of the church, or what is the same, the church; for that there may be a church, the man must be a church. The church is called "ground" because it receives the seeds of faith, or the truths and goods of faith. "Ground" is distinguished from "earth"-which, as shown, also signifies the church-as faith is distinguished from charity. Just as charity is the containant of faith, so is "earth" the containant of "ground." When therefore the church is treated of in general, it is called "earth;" and when specifically, it is called "ground" as in this verse; for the general is the complex of the things derived from it. The doctrinals possessed by the man of the Ancient Church were, as before said, from the revelations and perceptions of the Most Ancient Church, which had been preserved; and in these they had faith as at this day we have in the Word. These doctrinal things were their Word. Noah's beginning to be "a man of the ground" signifies therefore man instructed in the doctrinals of faith.1069.
And he planted a vineyard. That this signifies a church therefrom, and that a "vineyard" is the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of a "vineyard." In the Word churches are frequently described as "gardens" and also as the "trees of a garden" and are even so named. This is from their fruits, which signify the things belonging to love and charity; and therefore it is said that a man is "known by his fruit." The comparing of churches to "gardens" "trees" and "fruits" originates from representations in heaven, where gardens of inexpressible beauty are sometimes presented to view, in accordance with the spheres of the faith. From the same origin the celestial church was described by the Paradisal Garden, in which were trees of every kind; and by the "trees" of that garden were signified the perceptions of that church, and by the "fruits" the goods of love of every kind. But the Ancient Church, being spiritual, is described by a "vineyard" from its fruits, which are grapes, and which represent and signify the works of charity.  This is clearly evident from many passages of the Word, as in Isaiah: I will sing for My beloved a song of My beloved touching his vineyard: My beloved had a vineyard in a horn of the son of oil; and he made a hedge about it, and fenced it with stones, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also hewed out a wine-press therein and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes; and now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, judge, I pray you, betwixt Me and My vineyard: the vineyard of Jehovah of armies is the house of Israel (Isa. 5:1-3, 7). Here the "vineyard" signifies the Ancient Church, thus the spiritual church, and it is plainly said to he the house of Israel; for by "Israel" in the Word is signified the spiritual church, and by "Judah" the celestial church. In Jeremiah: Again will I build thee, and thou shalt be built, O virgin of Israel: again shalt thou deck thy timbrels, and shalt go forth in the dance of them that make merry again shalt thou plant vineyards upon the mountains of Samaria (Jer. 31:4, 5), where "vineyards" denote the spiritual church; and the subject is Israel, by whom is signified the spiritual church, as just said.  In Ezekiel: When I shall have gathered the house of Israel from the peoples, they shall dwell upon the land in confidence, and they shall build houses, and plant vineyards (Ezek. 28:25, 26). Here a "vineyard" is the spiritual church, or "Israel;" and "to plant vineyards" is to be instructed in the truths and goods of faith. In Amos: I have smitten you with blasting and mildew; the multitude of your gardens and your vineyards and your fig-trees and your olive-yards hath the palmer-worm devoured; thus will I do unto thee, O Israel (Amos 4:9, 12). "Gardens" here denote the things of the church, "vineyards" the spiritual things of the church, "fig-trees" the natural things, "olive-yards: the celestial things; thus "vineyards" denote the things of the spiritual church, or Israel. Again: I will bring again the captivity of My people Israel, and they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them and they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof, they shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of them (Amos 9:14). "Planting vineyards" denotes the planting of the spiritual church; thus a "vineyard" means the spiritual church, or Israel.  As a "vineyard" signifies the spiritual church, so also does a "vine;" for a vine is a part of a vineyard; so that they are as the church and a man of the church, and the signification is the same. In Jeremiah: Is Israel a servant? if he was born of the house, why is he become a prey? I had planted thee a wholly noble vine, a seed of truth; how then art thou turned into the averted branches of a strange vine unto Me? (Amos 2:14, 21), where a "vine" denotes the spiritual church, or "Israel." In Ezekiel: Take thou up a lamentation for the princes of Israel; thy mother was like a vine, in thy likeness, planted by the waters, fruitful and full of leaves by reason of many waters (Ezek.19:1, 10). A "vine" here denotes the Ancient Spiritual Church, which is the "mother;" thus "Israel" which is therefore said to be "in thy likeness." In Hosea: Israel is an empty vine, which putteth forth fruit like himself (Hosea 10:1)." A "vine" denotes the spiritual church, or "Israel" here desolated. Again: O Israel, return unto Jehovah thy God; I will be as the dew unto Israel; they that dwell in his shadow shall return; they shall revive the corn, and blossom as the vine; his memory shall be as the wine of Lebanon (Hos. 14:1, 5, 7), where the "vine" denotes the spiritual church, or "Israel." In Moses: Until Shiloh come; binding His young ass to the vine, and His ass's colt unto the choice vine (Gen. 49:10-11). This is a prophecy of the Lord; the "vine" and the "choice vine" denote spiritual churches.  The Lord's parables of the laborers in the vineyards in like manner signified spiritual churches (Matt. 20:1-16; 21:33-44; Mark 12:1-12; Luke 20:9-16). Since the "vine" signifies the spiritual church, and the primary thing of the spiritual church is charity, in which the Lord is present, and by means of which He conjoins Himself with man, and Himself alone works every good, therefore the Lord compares Himself to a vine, and describes the man of the church, or the spiritual church, in these words, in John: I am the true vine and My Father is the husbandman; every branch in Me that beareth not fruit He taketh away; and every branch that beareth fruit, He will prune it, that it may bear more fruit; abide in Me, and I in you; as the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine, so neither can ye, except ye abide in Me; I am the vine, ye are the branches; he that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same beareth much fruit; for without Me ye can do nothing; this is My commandment, that ye love one another, even as I have loved you (John 15:1-5, 12); from these words it is evident what the spiritual church is.1070.
Verse 21. And he drank of the wine and was drunken; and he was uncovered in the midst of his tent. "And he drank of the wine" signifies that he desired to investigate the things which are of faith; "and was drunken" signifies that he thereby fell into errors; "and he was uncovered in the midst of his tent" signifies the consequent perverted things; the "midst of a tent" is the principal of faith.1071.
And he drank of the wine. That this signifies that he desired to investigate the things which are of faith, is evident from the signification of "wine." The "vineyard" or the "vine" as has been shown, is the spiritual church, or the man of the spiritual church; the "grape" "bunches" and "clusters" are its fruit, and signify charity and what is of charity. But "wine" signifies the faith thence derived, and all things that belong to it. Thus the "grape" is the celestial of that church, and the "wine" is the spiritual of that church. The former, or the celestial, is of the will, as has been said before; the latter, or the spiritual, is of the understanding. That his "drinking of the wine" signifies that he desired to investigate the things of faith, and this by reasonings, is evident from his becoming drunken, that is, fallen into errors. For the man of this church had no perception, as had the man of the Most Ancient Church, but had to learn what was good and true from the doctrinal things of faith collected and preserved from the perception of the Most Ancient Church, which doctrinal things were the Word of the Ancient Church. Like the Word, the doctrinal things of faith were in many cases such as without perception could not be believed; for spiritual and celestial things infinitely transcend human apprehension, and hence arises reasoning. But he who will not believe them until he apprehends them, can never believe, as has been often shown before. (See n. 128-130, 195, 196, 215, 232, 233.)  That "grapes" in the Word signify charity and what is of charity, and that "wine" signifies the faith thence derived and the things that belong to it, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah: My beloved had a vineyard in a horn of the son of oil, and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes (Isa. 5:1-2, 4), where "grapes" denote charity and its fruits. In Jeremiah: Gathering I will gather them, saith Jehovah; there shall be no grapes on the vine, nor figs on the fig tree (Jer. 8:13), where the "vine" denotes the spiritual church; "grapes" charity. In Hosea: I found Israel like grapes in the wilderness; I saw your fathers as the first-ripe in the fig-tree, at the beginning (Hos. 9:10). "Israel" denotes the Ancient Church; "grapes" its being endued with charity. The sense is opposite when "Israel" denotes the sons of Jacob. In Micah: There is no cluster to eat; my soul desireth the first-ripe fig. The holy man is perished out of the earth, and there is none upright among men (Micah 7:1). "Cluster" denotes charity, or what is holy; "first-ripe fig" faith, or what is right.  In Isaiah: Thus saith Jehovah, As the new wine is found in the cluster, and one saith, Destroy it not, for a blessing is in it (Isa. 65:8); where "cluster" denotes charity, and "new wine" the goods of charity and the truths thence derived. In Moses: He washed His garment in wine, and His vesture in the blood of grapes (Gen. 49:11); a prophecy relating to the Lord. "Wine" denotes the spiritual from the celestial, the "blood of grapes" the celestial relatively to spiritual churches. Thus "grapes" denote charity itself, "wine" faith itself. In John: The angel said, Put forth thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe (Rev. 14:18). Here the subject is the last times when there is no faith, that is, when there is no charity; for faith is no other than of charity, and essentially is charity itself; so that when it is said that there is no longer any faith, as in the last times, it is meant that there is no charity.  As "grapes" signify charity, so "wine" signifies the faith thence derived, for wine is from grapes. This will be evident from the passages already cited about the vineyard and the vine, and also from the following. In Isaiah: Gladness is taken away, and exultation, from Carmel; and in the vineyards there shall be no singing, neither joyful noise; no treader shall tread out wine in the presses; I have made the vintage shout to cease (Isa. 16:10), meaning that the spiritual church, which is "Carmel" is vastated; "not treading out wine in the presses" means that there are no longer any who are in faith. Again: The inhabitants of the earth are burned, and man shall be left feeble; the new wine shall mourn, the vine shall languish; they shall not drink wine with a song; strong drink shall be bitter to them that drink it; there is a crying in the streets because of the wine (Isa. 24:6-7, 9, 11).The subject here is the vastated church, and "wine" denotes the truths of faith, there held to be of no value. In Jeremiah: They will say to their mothers, where is the corn and the wine? when they faint as one wounded in the streets of the city? (Lam. 2:12). "Where is the corn and the wine" signifies where is love and faith; the "streets of the city" signify here, as elsewhere in the Word, truths; "being wounded in them" signifies not to know what the truths of faith are.  In Amos: I will bring again the captivity of My people Israel, and they shall build the waste cities and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof (Amos 9:14). This is said of the spiritual church, or "Israel" of which planting vineyards and drinking the wine thereof is predicated, when it becomes such as to have faith from charity. In Zephaniah: They shall build houses, but shall not inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, but shall not drink the wine thereof (Zeph. 1:13; Amos 5:11). Here is described the opposite condition, when the spiritual church is vastated. In Zechariah: They shall be as the mighty Ephraim, and their heart shall rejoice as through wine; yea, their sons shall see it and be glad (Zech. 10:7); said of the house of Judah, that it should be such from the goods and truths of faith. In John: That they were not to hurt the oil and the wine (Rev. 6:6), meant that no injury is to be done to the celestial and the spiritual, or to what is of love and faith.  As "wine" signified faith in the Lord, in the Jewish Church faith was represented in the sacrifices by a libation of wine (Num. 15:2-15; 28:11-15, 18-31; 29:7-39; Lev. 23:12-13; Exod. 29:40). Wherefore it is said in Hosea: The threshing-floor and the wine-press shall not feed them, and the new wine shall deceive therein; they shall not dwell in the land of Jehovah; but Ephraim shall return to Egypt, and they shall eat what is unclean in Assyria; they shall not pour out wine to Jehovah, neither shall [their libations] be pleasing to Him (Hos. 9:2-4). Here the subject is Israel, or the spiritual church, and those in it who pervert and defile the holy and true things of faith by desiring to investigate them by means of knowledges and reasonings. "Egypt" is memory-knowledge, "Assyria" reasoning, "Ephraim" one who reasons.1072.
And was drunken. That this signifies that he thereby fell into errors, is evident from the signification of a "drunkard" in the Word. They are called "drunkards" who believe nothing but what they apprehend, and for this reason search into the mysteries of faith. And because this is done by means of sensuous things, either of memory or of philosophy, man being what he is, cannot but fall thereby into errors. For man's thought is merely earthly, corporeal, and material, because it is from earthly, corporeal, and material things, which cling constantly to it, and in which the ideas of his thought are based and terminated. To think and reason therefore from these concerning Divine things, is to bring oneself into errors and perversions; and it is as impossible to procure faith in this way as for a camel to go through the eye of a needle. The error and insanity from this source are called in the Word "drunkenness." Indeed the souls or spirits who in the other life reason about the truths of faith and against them, become like drunken men and act like them; concerning whom, of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter.  Spirits are perfectly well distinguished from each other, as to whether they are in the faith of charity or not. Those who are in the faith of charity do not reason about the truths of faith, but say that the thing is so, and also as far as possible confirm it by things of sense and of memory, and by the analysis of reason; but as soon as anything obscure comes in their way the truth of which they do not perceive, they defer it, and never suffer such a thing to bring them into doubt, saying that there are but very few things they can apprehend, and therefore to think that anything is not true because they do not apprehend it, would be madness. These are they who are in charity. But-on the contrary-those who are not in the faith of charity desire merely to reason whether a thing be so, and to know how it is, saying that unless they can know how it is, they cannot believe it to be so. From this alone they are known at once as being in no faith, a mark of which is that they not only doubt concerning all things, but also deny in their hearts; and when they are instructed how the case is, they still cling to their disbelief and start all kinds of objections, and never acquiesce, were it to eternity. Those who thus persist in their contumacy heap errors upon errors.  These, or such as these, are they who are called in the Word "drunken with wine or strong drink." As in Isaiah: These err through wine, and through strong drink are gone astray; the priest and the prophet err through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they are gone astray through strong drink; they err in vision; all tables are full of vomit and filthiness. Whom will He teach knowledge? and whom will He make to understand the report? Them that are weaned from the milk, and drawn from the breasts (Isa. 28:7-9). That such are meant here is evident. Again: How say ye unto Pharaoh, I am the son of the wise, the son of ancient kings? where then are thy wise men? and let them tell thee now; Jehovah hath mingled a spirit of perversities in the midst of her; and they have caused Egypt to go astray in every work thereof, as a drunken man goeth astray in his vomit (Isa. 19:11-12, 14). A "drunken man" here denotes those who desire, from memory-knowledges [scientifica], to investigate spiritual and celestial things. "Egypt" signifies these knowledges, and therefore calls itself the "son of the wise." In Jeremiah: Drink ye, and be drunken, and spue, and fall, and rise no more (Jer. 25:27), meaning falsities.  In David: They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and all their wisdom is swallowed up (Ps. 107:27). In Isaiah: Come ye, I will take wine, and we will be drunken with strong drink; and there shall be tomorrow, as this day, great abundance (Isa. 56:12), said of what is contrary to the truths of faith. In Jeremiah: Every bottle shall be filled with wine; all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, with drunkenness (Jer. 13:12-13); "wine" denotes faith; "drunkenness" errors. In Joel: Awake, ye drunkards, and weep; and howl, all ye drinkers of wine, because of the new wine, for it is cut off from your mouth; for a nation is come up upon My land; he hath laid My vine waste (Joel 1:5-7), said of the church when vastated as to the truths of faith. In John: Babylon hath made all the nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication. They that dwell in the earth were made drunken with the wine of her fornication (Rev. 14:8, 10; 16:19; 17:2; 18:3; 19:15). The "wine of fornication" means adulterated truths of faith, of which "drunkenness" is predicated. So in Jeremiah: Babylon hath been a golden cup in the hand of Jehovah, that made all the earth drunken; the nations have drunk of her wine, therefore the nations are mad (Jer. 51:7).  Because "drunkenness" signified insanities about the truths of faith, it also became representative and was forbidden to Aaron and his sons, thus: Drink no wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tent of meeting, that ye die not; that ye may put a difference between the holy and the profane, and between the unclean and the clean (Lev. 10:8, 9). Those who believe nothing but what they apprehend by things of sense and memory [scientifica] are also called "heroes to drink." In Isaiah: Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and intelligent before their own faces! Woe unto them that are heroes to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle strong drink! (Isa. 5:21, 22). They are called "wise in their own eyes and intelligent before their own faces" because those who reason against the truths of faith think themselves wiser than others.  But those who care nothing for the Word and the truths of faith, and thus are not willing to know anything about faith, denying its first principles, are called "drunken without wine." In Isaiah: They are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with strong drink; for Jehovah hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes (Isa. 29:9-10). That such is their quality is evident from what goes before and what follows, in that Prophet. Such "drunken men" think themselves more wide awake than others, but they are in deep sleep. That the Ancient Church in the beginning was such as is described in this verse, especially those who were of the stock of the Most Ancient Church, is evident from what has been said before (n. 788).1073.
And he was uncovered in the midst of his tent. That this signifies things thereby perverted, is evident from the signification of "uncovered" that is, naked. For he is called "uncovered and naked from the drunkenness of wine" in whom there are no truths of faith, and still more so is he in whom they are perverted. The truths of faith themselves are compared to garments which cover the goods of charity, or charity itself; for charity is the body itself, and therefore truths are its garments; or what amounts to the same thing, charity is the soul itself and the truths of faith are as the body, which is the clothing of the soul. The truths of faith are also called in the Word "garments" and a "covering" and therefore it is said in the twenty-third verse that Shem and Japheth took a garment and covered the nakedness of their father. Spiritual things relatively to celestial are as a body that clothes the soul, or as garments that clothe the body; and in heaven they are represented by garments. In this verse, because it is said that he lay uncovered, it is signified that he stripped himself of the truths of faith by desiring to investigate them by means of the things of sense and by reasonings therefrom. The like is signified in the Word by lying naked from drunkenness with wine, as in Jeremiah: Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, that dwellest in the land of Uz; the cup shall pass through unto thee also; thou shalt be drunken, and shalt make thyself naked (Lam. 4:21). And in Habakkuk: Woe unto him that maketh his companion drink, and also maketh him drunken, in order to look upon their nakednesses (Hab. 2:15).1074.
That "the midst of a tent" signifies the principal of faith, is evident from the signification of the "midst" and from that of a "tent." In the Word the "midst" signifies the inmost, and a "tent" charity, or worship from charity. Charity is the inmost, that is, is the principal of faith and of worship, and thus is "the midst of the tent." (That the "midst" signifies the inmost, has been shown before, and that a "tent" is the holy of love, that is, is charity, may be seen above, n. 414.)1075.
Verse 22. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without. "Ham" and "Canaan" have the same signification here as before; "Ham" the church corrupted; "Canaan" worship in externals without internal worship; "saw the nakedness of his father" signifies that he observed the errors and perversions mentioned above; "and told his two brethren without" signifies that he derided. They are called his "brethren" because he professed faith.1076.
That "Ham" signifies the church corrupted, is evident from what has been said before about Ham. A church is said to be corrupted when it acknowledges the Word and has a certain worship like that of a true church, but yet separates faith from charity, thus from its essential and from its life, whereby faith becomes a kind of dead affair; the result of which necessarily is that the church is corrupted. What the men of the church then become, is evident from the consideration that they can have no conscience; for conscience that is really conscience cannot possibly exist except from charity. Charity is what makes conscience, that is, the Lord through charity. What else is conscience than not to do evil to anyone in anyway; that is, to do well to all in every way? Thus conscience belongs to charity, and never to faith separated from charity. If such persons have any conscience, it is a false conscience (concerning which see above); and because they are without conscience, they rush into all wickedness, so far as outward bonds are relaxed. They do not even know what charity is, except that it is a word significant of something. And as they are without charity, they do not know what faith is. When questioned, they can only answer that it is a kind of thinking; some, that it is confidence; others, that it is the knowledges of faith; a few, that it is life according to these knowledges, and scarcely any that it is a life of charity or of mutual love. And if this is said to them, and opportunity is given them for reflection, they answer only that all love begins from self, and that he is worse than a heathen who does not take care of himself and his own family. They therefore study nothing but themselves and the world. Hence it comes to pass that they live in their Own, the nature of which has been described before. These are they who are called "Ham."1077.
That they who are here called "Ham" and "Canaan" that is, those who separate faith from charity and hence make worship consist in externals alone, cannot know what and whence is conscience, needs to be briefly shown. Conscience is formed by means of the truths of faith, for that which a man has heard, acknowledged, and believed makes the conscience in him; and afterwards to act contrary to this is to him to act contrary to conscience, as may be sufficiently evident to everyone; so that unless it is the truths of faith that a man hears, acknowledges, and believes, he cannot possibly have a true conscience. For it is through the truths of faith (the Lord working in charity) that man is regenerated, and therefore it is through the truths of faith that he receives conscience, conscience being the new man himself. From this it is evident that the truths of faith are the means by which this may take place, that is, that the man may live according to what faith teaches, the principal of which is to love the Lord above all things, and the neighbor as himself. If he does not so live, what is his faith but an empty affair, and a mere high-sounding word, or a thing that is separated from heavenly life, and in which when thus separated there is no possible salvation?  For to believe that no matter how a man lives, he may yet be saved provided he has faith, is to say that he may be saved if he has no charity, and no conscience (that is, if he passes his life in hatred, revenge, robbery, adultery, in a word, in all things contrary to charity and conscience) provided only that he has faith, even if it be but at the hour of death. Let such persons consider, when they are in such a false principle, what truth of faith there is that can form their conscience, and whether it be not what is false. If they suppose that they have anything of conscience, it must be only outward bonds-such as fear of the law, of loss of honor, of gain, or of reputation for the sake of these-that make, with them, what they call conscience, and which lead them not to injure the neighbor, but to do him good. But as this is not conscience, because not charity, therefore when these restraints are loosened or taken away, such persons rush into most wicked and obscene things. Very different is the case with those who, although they have declared that faith alone saves, have still lived a life of charity; for in their faith there has been charity from the Lord.1078.
That the "father of Canaan" signifies worship in externals without internal worship, has been stated before. From faith separated from charity no other worship can come forth; for the internal man is charity, never faith without charity; so that he who is destitute of charity can have no other worship than external worship without internal. And because such worship comes forth from faith separated from charity, Ham is called "the father of Canaan" and in what follows Ham is not treated of, but Canaan.1079.
Saw the nakedness of his father. That this signifies that he observed the errors and perversions, is evident from the signification of "nakedness" (concerning which see just above, and also before at n. 213, 214), as being what is evil and perverted. Here, those who are in faith separated from charity are described by "Ham" in his "seeing the nakedness of his father" that is, his errors and perversions; for they who are of this character see nothing else in a man; whereas-very differently-those who are in the faith of charity observe what is good, and if they see anything evil and false, they excuse it, and if they can, try to amend it in him, as is here said of Shem and Japheth. Where there is no charity, there is the love of self, and therefore hatred against all who do not favor self. Consequently such persons see in the neighbor only what is evil, and if they see anything good, they either perceive it as nothing, or put a bad interpretation upon it. It is just the other way with those who are in charity. By this difference these two kinds of men are distinguished from one another, especially when they come into the other life; for then with those who are in no charity, the feeling of hatred shines forth from every single thing; they desire to examine everyone, and even to judge him; nor do they desire anything more than to find out what is evil, constantly cherishing the disposition to condemn, punish, and torment. But they who are in charity scarcely see the evil of another, but observe all his goods and truths, and put a good interpretation on what is evil and false. Such are all the angels, which they have from the Lord, who bends all evil into good.1080.
And told his two brethren without. That this signifies that he derided, follows as a consequence from what has been said. For with those who are in no charity, there is continual contempt for others, or continual derision, and on every occasion a publishing of their errors. That they do not act openly, is solely owing to the restraining influence of external bonds, namely, fear of the law, of loss of life, of honor, of gain, and of reputation, on their account; and this is why they inwardly cherish such things, while outwardly they pretend friendship. In this way they acquire two spheres, which are plainly perceived in the other life: the one, interior, full of hatreds; the other, exterior, simulative of what is good. These spheres, being as they are utterly discordant, cannot but be in conflict with each other; and therefore when the exterior sphere is taken away from them, so that they cannot dissemble, they rush into all wickedness; and when it is not taken away, hatred lurks in every word they utter; and this is perceived. From this come their punishments and torments.1081.
That they are called his "brethren" because he professed faith, is evident from what has been shown above (n. 367), namely, that charity is the brother of faith.1082.
Verse 23. And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon the shoulder, both of them, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father's nakedness. By "Shem" as before said, is signified the internal church; by "Japheth" the external church corresponding thereto; "took a garment" signifies that they interpreted for good; "and laid it upon the shoulder, both of them" signifies that they did this with all their might; "and went backward" signifies that they did not attend to the errors and perversions; "and covered the nakedness of their father" signifies that they thus excused them; "and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father's nakedness" signifies that so it ought to be done, and that such things as errors and mistakes from reasonings should not be attended to.1083.
That by "Shem" is signified the internal church and by "Japheth" the external church corresponding thereto, has been stated before. Where there is a church, there must needs be what is internal and what is external; for man, who is the church, is internal and external. Before he becomes a church, that is, before he has been regenerated, man is in externals; and when he is being regenerated he is led from externals, nay, by means of externals, to internals (as has been already stated and shown); and afterwards, when he has been regenerated, all things of the internal man are terminated in the externals. Thus of necessity every church must be both internal and external, as was the Ancient Church, and as at this day is the Christian Church.  The internals of the Ancient Church were all the things of charity and of the derivative faith-all humiliation, all adoration of the Lord from charity, all good affection toward the neighbor, and other such things. The externals of the Ancient Church were sacrifices, libations, and many other things, all of which by representation had reference to the Lord and regarded Him. Hence there were internals in the externals, and they made one church. The internals of the Christian Church are exactly like the internals of the Ancient Church, but other externals have succeeded in their place, namely, in place of sacrifices and the like, the sacraments [symbolica], from which in like manner the Lord is regarded; and thus, again, internals and externals make a one.  The Ancient Church did not differ one whit from the Christian Church as to internals, but only as to externals. Worship of the Lord from charity can never differ, howsoever externals are varied. And since, as has been said, there cannot be a church unless there are both what is internal and what is external, the internal without an external would be something interminate, unless it were terminated in some external. For man for the most part is such that he does not know what the internal man is, and what belongs to the internal man; and therefore unless there were external worship, he would know nothing whatever of what is holy. When such men have charity and the derivative conscience, they have internal worship within themselves in the external worship; for in them the Lord works, in charity and in conscience, and causes all their worship to partake of what is internal. It is otherwise with those who have no charity and no derivative conscience. They may have worship in externals, but separated from internal worship, as they have faith separated from charity. Such worship is called "Canaan" and such faith is called "Ham." And because this worship comes forth from faith separated, Ham is called the "father of Canaan."1084.
Took a garment. That this signifies that they interpreted for good, is evident from what has been already said. To "take a garment and cover the nakedness" of anyone, can have no other signification, seeing that "being uncovered" and "nakedness" signify errors and perversions.1085.
And laid it upon the shoulder. That this signifies that they did this-that is, interpreted for good and excused-with all their might, is evident from the signification of "shoulder" as being all power. "Hand" in the Word signifies power, as shown before; "arm" signifies still greater power; and "shoulder" signifies all power, as is evident from the following passages in the Word, in Ezekiel: Ye thrust with side and with shoulder, and push all the diseased sheep with your horns, till ye have scattered them abroad (Ezek. 34:21). "With side and with shoulder" means with all the soul and all the might, and "pushing with their horns" means with all the strength.  Again: That all the inhabitants of Egypt may know that I am Jehovah, because they have been a staff of reed to the house of Israel; in their taking hold of thee in the hand thou shalt be broken, and shall rend for them every shoulder (Ezek. 29:6-7). This is said of those who desire to explore spiritual truths by means of memory-knowledges [scientifica]. The "staff of reed" denotes such power; "taking in the hand" means trusting therein; "rending every shoulder" means being deprived of all power so as to know nothing.  In Zephaniah: That they may all call upon the name of Jehovah, to serve Him with one shoulder (Zeph. 3:9); meaning with one soul, thus with one might. In Zechariah: But they refused to hearken, and turned a stubborn shoulder (Zech. 7:11); meaning that they resisted with all their might. In Isaiah: They hire a goldsmith, who maketh gold and silver into a god; they adore, yea, they bow down; they bear it upon the shoulder, they carry it (Isa. 46:6-7); meaning that they adore their idol with all their might, which is "bearing it on the shoulder."  Again: For unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder: and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6).This is said of the Lord, and of His power and might; and therefore it is said, "upon His shoulder." Again: The key of the house of David will I lay upon His shoulder; and He shall open, and none shall shut; and He shall shut and none shall open (Isa. 22:22). This likewise is said of the Lord, and "to lay upon His shoulder the key of the house of David" means His power and authority.1086.
And went backward. That this signifies that they did not attend to the errors and perversions, is evident from the signification of "going backward" as being to avert the eyes and not see; which is plain from what follows, where it is said that they did not see the nakedness of their father. "Not to see" in the internal sense is not to attend to.1087.
And covered the nakedness of their father. That this signifies that they excused them, is evident both from the connection, and from the signification of "nakedness" that is, perversions.1088.
And their faces were backward, and they saw not the nakedness of their father. That this signifies that so it ought to be done, and that such things as errors and mistakes from reasonings should not be attended to, is evident from the repetition; for nearly the same things are said here as just before, and therefore these words make at the same time a conclusion. For such was the character of this parent church, or of the man of this church, that he did not act in this way from malice, but from simplicity, as is evident from what presently follows, where it is said that "Noah awoke from his wine" that is, was better instructed. As regards the matter here treated of, we may say that those who are in no charity think nothing but evil of the neighbor, and say nothing but evil; if they say anything good, it is for their own sake, or for the sake of him whom they flatter under the appearance of friendship; whereas those who are in charity think nothing but good of their neighbor and speak only well of him, and this not for their own sake or the favor of another whom they flatter, but from the Lord thus working in charity. The former are like the evil spirits, the latter are like the angels, who are with a man. The evil spirits excite nothing but what is evil and false in the man, and condemn him; but the angels excite nothing but what is good and true, and excuse what is evil and false. From this it is evident that with those who are in no charity the evil spirits rule, through whom the man communicates with hell; and that with those who are in charity the angels rule, through whom he communicates with heaven.1089.
Verse 24. And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his younger son had done unto him. "And Noah awoke from his wine" signifies when he was better instructed; "and knew what his younger son had done unto him" signifies that external worship separate from internal is such that it derides.1090.
And Noah awoke from his wine. That this signifies when he was better instructed, is evident from the signification of "awaking" after drunkenness. When he was "drunken" (verse 21) it signified that he had fallen into errors, and therefore his "awaking" is nothing else than coming out of errors.1091.
What his younger son had done unto him. This signifies that external worship separate from internal is such that it derides. From the literal or historic sense it appears as if Ham were meant by his younger son, but from the following verse it is evident that Canaan is meant, for it is said, "Cursed be Canaan" and in the subsequent verses (26 and 27), it is said that Canaan should be a servant. The reason nothing is said of Ham will be explained under the next verse. Here we shall merely mention why the order is such that Shem is named first, Ham second, Japheth third, and Canaan fourth. Charity is the first of the church, or Shem; faith is the second, or Ham; worship from charity is the third, or Japheth; worship in externals without faith and charity is the fourth, or Canaan. Charity is the brother of faith, and therefore so also is worship from charity; but worship in externals without charity is "a servant of servants."1092.
Verse 25. And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be to his brethren. "Cursed be Canaan" signifies that external worship separate from internal averts itself from the Lord; "a servant of servants shall he be to his brethren" signifies the vilest thing in the church.1093.
Cursed be Canaan. That this signifies that external worship separate from internal averts itself from the Lord, is evident from the signification of "Canaan" and from that of "being cursed." That "Canaan" is external worship separate from internal, is evident from what has been said before about Canaan, and also from his being said to be "cursed" and from what follows about his being a servant of servants; moreover one who is a servant to both Shem and Japheth cannot signify anything else than something that is separated from the church itself, such as is worship in externals alone. This is evident from the signification of being "cursed" as being to avert oneself, because the Lord never curses anyone, nor is even angry; but it is man who curses himself by averting himself from the Lord. (See what was stated and shown above, n. 223, 245, 592.) The Lord is as far from cursing anyone and being angry with him as heaven is from earth. Who can believe that the Lord, who is omniscient and omnipotent, and by His wisdom rules the universe, and is thus infinitely above all infirmities, is angry with such wretched dust as men, who scarcely know anything of what they do, and can of themselves do nothing but evil? It is, therefore, never possible for the Lord to be angry, or be other than merciful.  That arcana are here contained, may be seen merely from this, that Ham is not cursed, when yet it was he who saw the nakedness of his father and told it to his brethren, but his son Canaan, who was not his only son nor his firstborn, but the fourth in order, as is evident from the tenth chapter, sixth verse, where the sons of Ham are named: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. It was also of the Divine Law that a son should not bear the iniquity of his father, as is evident in Ezekiel: The soul that sinneth, it shall die; the son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son (18:20; Deut. 24:16; 2 Kings 14:6). The same appears also from the consideration that this iniquity seems so light (that is to say, Ham's seeing the nakedness of his father and telling it to his brethren), that a whole posterity could not be cursed for it. From all this it is evident that there are arcana contained here.  That "Ham" is not now named, but "Canaan" is because "Ham" signifies faith separated from charity in the spiritual church; and this cannot be cursed, since in that church there is holiness in faith, because there is truth. Hence although there is no faith when there is no charity, still as man is regenerated by means of the knowledges of faith, this faith without charity may be joined to charity, and thus is in a certain sense a brother, or may become a brother; therefore not Ham but Canaan was cursed. Furthermore, the inhabitants of the land of Canaan were in great part of such a nature that they made all worship consist in externals, the Jews as well as the Gentiles. Such are the arcana here contained, and unless this were so, Canaan would never have been substituted in place of Ham. That external worship separated from internal averts itself and thus curses itself, is sufficiently evident from the consideration that those who are in external worship regard nothing but what is worldly, corporeal, and earthly; thus they look downward, and immerse their minds and their life in these things, of which we shall have more to say presently.1094.
A servant of servants shall he be to his brethren. That this signifies the vilest thing in the church, is evident from the nature of external worship when separated from internal. That, regarded in itself, external worship is nothing, unless there be internal worship to make it holy, must be evident to everyone. For what is external adoration, without adoration of the heart, but a gesture? Or what is prayer of the lips, if the mind is not in it, but mere babbling? And what is any work, if there is no intention in it, but a thing of nought? So that in itself every external thing is an inanimate affair, and lives solely from what is internal.  The nature of external worship when separated from what is internal, has been made evident to me from many things in the other life. The sorceresses there had in the world frequented churches and the sacraments equally with others; and so had the deceitful, in fact these had done so more than others; and so also had those who had been delighted with robbery, and the avaricious; and yet they are infernals, and bear the greatest hatred against the Lord and the neighbor. Their internal worship in external had been either that they might be seen by the world; or that they might gain worldly, earthly, and corporeal things which they desired; or that they might deceive under the appearance of sanctity; or from a certain acquired habit. That such persons are very prone to adore any god or any idol that favors them and their desires is very manifest, especially from the Jews, who in consequence of making their worship to consist in nothing but externals, so often lapsed into idolatry. The reason is that such worship is in itself merely idolatrous, for the external is what is worshiped by them.  The Gentiles also in the land of Canaan, who worshiped Baal and other gods, had a nearly similar external worship; for they had not only temples and altars, but also sacrifices; so that their external worship differed but little from the worship of the Jews, except that they gave the names of Baal, Ashtaroth, and others, to their god; and the Jews gave to him the name Jehovah, as is the case also at this day, for they suppose that the mere naming of Jehovah will make them holy and elect; when yet this has tended rather to condemn them more than others; for in this way they have been able to profane what is holy, which the Gentiles cannot do. Such worship is what is called "Canaan" who is said to be a "servant of servants." That a "servant of servants" denotes the vilest thing in the church, may be seen in the following verse.1095.
Verse 26. And he said, Blessed be Jehovah the God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. "Blessed be Jehovah the God of Shem" signifies every good for those who worship the Lord from internals; "Shem" is the internal church; "and Canaan shall be his servant" signifies that such as make worship consist solely in externals are among those who may perform vile services to the men of the church.1096.
Blessed be Jehovah the God of Shem. That this signifies every good for those who worship the Lord from internals, is evident from the signification of "blessed." Blessing involves every good: celestial, spiritual, and natural; and all these are signified by "blessing" in the internal sense. In the external sense, by "blessing" is signified every worldly, corporeal, and earthly good; but these, if they be a blessing, must necessarily be so from internal blessing; for this alone is blessing, because it is eternal, and is conjoined with every felicity, and is the very being of blessings. For what really is, unless it is eternal? Every other being ceases to be. It was customary among the ancients to say, "Blessed be Jehovah;" by which they meant that from Him is every blessing, that is, every good; and the same was also a formula of thanksgiving because the Lord blesses, and has blessed; as in David (Ps. 28:6; 31:21; 41:13; 66:20; 68:19, 35; 72:18, 19; 89:52; 119:12; 124:6; 135:21; 144:1; and many other places).  "Blessed be Jehovah" is said here because Shem, or the internal church, is the subject that is being treated of, which church is said to be internal, from charity. In charity the Lord is present, who is here called "Jehovah God." But He is not so called in the external church, for although the Lord is present in it, He is not present as He is in the man of the internal church. For the man of the external church still believes that he does the goods of charity from himself, and therefore when the subject treated of is the man of the external church, the Lord is called "God" as in the following verse concerning Japheth: "God shall enlarge Japheth." That every good is the portion of those who worship the Lord from internals, is evident also from the order of things; for the order is this: from the Lord is everything celestial, from the celestial is everything spiritual, from the spiritual is everything natural. This is the order of the coming forth of all things, and therefore it is the order of influx.  The celestial is love to the Lord and toward the neighbor. Where there is no love, the connection is broken, and the Lord is not present, who flows in solely through the celestial, that is, through love. When there is no celestial, there cannot possibly be any spiritual, because everything spiritual is through the celestial from the Lord. The spiritual is faith, and therefore there is no faith except through charity, or love, from the Lord. It is similar with the natural. According to this same order do all goods flow in; from which it follows that those have every good who worship the Lord from internals, that is, from charity; whereas those who do not worship Him from charity have no good, save such as counterfeits what is good, but in itself is evil, such as the delight of hatreds and adulteries, which regarded in itself is nothing but an excrementitious delight, into which also it is turned in the other life.1097.
And Canaan shall be his servant. That this signifies that such as make worship consist solely in externals are among those who may perform vile services to the men of the church, is evident especially from the representatives in the Jewish Church. In the Jewish Church the internal church was represented by Judah and Israel; by Judah the celestial church, by Israel the spiritual church, and by Jacob the external church. But those who made worship consist solely in externals were represented by the Gentiles, whom they called strangers, and who were their servants, and performed menial services in the church. As in Isaiah: Strangers shall stand and feed your flock, and the sons of the stranger shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers; but ye shall be called the priests of Jehovah; the ministers of our God shall ye be called; ye shall eat the wealth of the Gentiles, and in their glory shall ye boast yourselves (Isa. 61:5-6). Here celestial men are called the "priests of Jehovah" spiritual men the "ministers of our God;" those who make worship consist solely in externals are called the "sons of the stranger" who should serve in their fields and vineyards.  Again: The sons of the stranger shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee (Isa. 60:10), where in like manner their services are mentioned. In Joshua concerning the Gibeonites: Now therefore ye are cursed, and there shall not be cut off from you a servant, both hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of my God; and Joshua made them that day hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation, especially for the altar of Jehovah (Josh. 9:23, 27).It may be seen elsewhere who were represented by the Gibeonites, because of the covenant made with them, in spite of which however they were among those who served in the church. Concerning strangers, a law was delivered, that if they would receive peace and open their gates, they should be tributary and serve (Deut. 20:11; 1 Kings 9:21-22). Everything written in the Word concerning the Jewish Church was representative of the kingdom of the Lord. The kingdom of the Lord is such that everyone in it, whosoever and whatsoever he may be, must perform some use. Nothing but use is regarded by the Lord in His kingdom. Even the infernals must perform some use, but the uses which they perform are most vile. Among those who in the other life perform vile uses are those who have had merely external worship, separated from internal.  Moreover the representatives in the Jewish Church were of such a nature that there was no thought about the person that represented, but only about the thing represented thereby; as for instance in the case of the Jews, who were by no means celestial men, and yet represented them; and Israel again was by no means a spiritual man, yet represented him; and so it was with Jacob and the rest. The same was the case with the kings and priests, by whom was represented the royalty and holiness of the Lord. This is very evident from the use of inanimate things for representation, as Aaron's garments, the altar itself, the tables for bread, the lamps, the bread and wine, besides oxen, bullocks, goats, sheep, kids, lambs, pigeons, and turtledoves. And because the sons of Judah and Israel only represented the internal and external worship of the Lord's church, and yet more than others made all worship consist in externals, they above all others may be called "Canaan" according to his signification here.1098.
What is meant by "Shem" and what by "Japheth" that is, who is a man of the internal church, and who is a man of the external church; and hence what is meant by "Canaan" will be evident from the following considerations. The man of the internal church attributes to the Lord all the good that he does, and all the truth that he thinks; but the man of the external church does not know how to do this, and yet does what is good. The man of the internal church makes the worship of the Lord from charity, thus internal worship, essential, and external worship not so essential; but the man of the external church makes external worship essential, and does not know what internal worship is, although he has it. And therefore the man of the internal church believes that he is acting against his conscience if he does not worship the Lord from what is internal; while the man of the external church believes that he is acting against his conscience if he does not sacredly observe external rites. There are many things in the conscience of the man of the internal church, because he knows many things from the internal sense of the Word; but there are fewer things in the conscience of the man of the external church, because he knows few things from the internal sense of the Word. The former, that is, the man of the internal church, is he who is called "Shem;" and the latter, that is, the man of the external church, is he who is called "Japheth." But he who makes worship consist only in externals, and has no charity, consequently no conscience, is called "Canaan."1099.
Verse 27. May God enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. By "Japheth" is signified as before a corresponding external church; "May God enlarge Japheth" signifies its enlightenment; "and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem" signifies in order that the internals of worship may be in the externals; "and Canaan shall be his servant" signifies here as before that those who make worship consist solely in externals are able to perform vile services.1100.
That by "Japheth" is signified a corresponding external church, has been already stated, and also what is meant by an external church, namely, external worship, and thus those who do not know what the internal man is, nor anything that belongs to the internal man, and yet live in charity. With these the Lord is equally present, for the Lord works through charity, wherever charity exists. The case in this respect is the same as it is with little children, with whom, although they do not know what charity is, still less what faith is, the Lord is nevertheless much more present than with adults, especially when the little children live together in charity. And the case is the same with the simple who have innocence, charity, and mercy. It is utterly useless for a man to know many things if he does not live according to what he knows. For knowing has no other end than that the man may thereby become good. When he has become good, he has much more than one who knows innumerable things and yet is not good; for what the latter seeks by much knowledge, the former already has. Very different, however, is the case with one who knows many truths and goods, and at the same time has charity and conscience; for such a one is a man of the internal church, or "Shem." Those who know little and yet have conscience are enlightened in the other life, insomuch that they become angels, and possess wisdom and intelligence inexpressible. These are signified by "Japheth."
1062-1 As distinguished from the instrumental. [Reviser]