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BRABANTIO	a senator.

	Other Senators.
	(First Senator:)
	(Second Senator:)

GRATIANO	brother to Brabantio.

LODOVICO	kinsman to Brabantio.

OTHELLO	a noble Moor in the service of the Venetian state.

CASSIO	his lieutenant.

IAGO	his ancient.

RODERIGO	a Venetian gentleman.

MONTANO	Othello's predecessor in the government of Cyprus.

	Clown, servant to Othello. (Clown:)

DESDEMONA	daughter to Brabantio and wife to Othello.

EMILIA	wife to Iago.

BIANCA	mistress to Cassio.

	Sailor, Messenger, Herald, Officers, Gentlemen,
	Musicians, and Attendants.
	(First Officer:)
	(First Gentleman:)
	(Second Gentleman:)
	(Third Gentleman:)
	(First Musician:)

SCENE	Venice: a Sea-port in Cyprus.



SCENE I	Venice. A street.

	[Enter RODERIGO and IAGO]

RODERIGO	Tush! never tell me; I take it much unkindly
	That thou, Iago, who hast had my purse
	As if the strings were thine, shouldst know of this.

IAGO	'Sblood, but you will not hear me:
	If ever I did dream of such a matter, Abhor me.

RODERIGO	Thou told'st me thou didst hold him in thy hate.

IAGO	Despise me, if I do not. Three great ones of the city,
	In personal suit to make me his lieutenant,
	Off-capp'd to him: and, by the faith of man,
	I know my price, I am worth no worse a place:
	But he; as loving his own pride and purposes,
	Evades them, with a bombast circumstance
	Horribly stuff'd with epithets of war;
	And, in conclusion,
	Nonsuits my mediators; for, 'Certes,' says he,
	'I have already chose my officer.'
	And what was he?
	Forsooth, a great arithmetician,
	One Michael Cassio, a Florentine,
	A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife;
	That never set a squadron in the field,
	Nor the division of a battle knows
	More than a spinster; unless the bookish theoric,
	Wherein the toged consuls can propose
	As masterly as he: mere prattle, without practise,
	Is all his soldiership. But he, sir, had the election:
	And I, of whom his eyes had seen the proof
	At Rhodes, at Cyprus and on other grounds
	Christian and heathen, must be be-lee'd and calm'd
	By debitor and creditor: this counter-caster,
	He, in good time, must his lieutenant be,
	And I--God bless the mark!--his Moorship's ancient.

RODERIGO	By heaven, I rather would have been his hangman.

IAGO	Why, there's no remedy; 'tis the curse of service,
	Preferment goes by letter and affection,
	And not by old gradation, where each second
	Stood heir to the first. Now, sir, be judge yourself,
	Whether I in any just term am affined
	To love the Moor.

RODERIGO	I would not follow him then.

IAGO	O, sir, content you;
	I follow him to serve my turn upon him:
	We cannot all be masters, nor all masters
	Cannot be truly follow'd. You shall mark
	Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave,
	That, doting on his own obsequious bondage,
	Wears out his time, much like his master's ass,
	For nought but provender, and when he's old, cashier'd:
	Whip me such honest knaves. Others there are
	Who, trimm'd in forms and visages of duty,
	Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves,
	And, throwing but shows of service on their lords,
	Do well thrive by them and when they have lined
	their coats
	Do themselves homage: these fellows have some soul;
	And such a one do I profess myself. For, sir,
	It is as sure as you are Roderigo,
	Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago:
	In following him, I follow but myself;
	Heaven is my judge, not I for love and duty,
	But seeming so, for my peculiar end:
	For when my outward action doth demonstrate
	The native act and figure of my heart
	In compliment extern, 'tis not long after
	But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve
	For daws to peck at: I am not what I am.

RODERIGO	What a full fortune does the thicklips owe
	If he can carry't thus!

IAGO	Call up her father,
	Rouse him: make after him, poison his delight,
	Proclaim him in the streets; incense her kinsmen,
	And, though he in a fertile climate dwell,
	Plague him with flies: though that his joy be joy,
	Yet throw such changes of vexation on't,
	As it may lose some colour.

RODERIGO	Here is her father's house; I'll call aloud.

IAGO	Do, with like timorous accent and dire yell
	As when, by night and negligence, the fire
	Is spied in populous cities.

RODERIGO	What, ho, Brabantio! Signior Brabantio, ho!

IAGO	Awake! what, ho, Brabantio! thieves! thieves! thieves!
	Look to your house, your daughter and your bags!
	Thieves! thieves!

	[BRABANTIO appears above, at a window]

BRABANTIO	What is the reason of this terrible summons?
	What is the matter there?

RODERIGO	Signior, is all your family within?

IAGO	Are your doors lock'd?

BRABANTIO	Why, wherefore ask you this?

IAGO	'Zounds, sir, you're robb'd; for shame, put on
	your gown;
	Your heart is burst, you have lost half your soul;
	Even now, now, very now, an old black ram
	Is topping your white ewe. Arise, arise;
	Awake the snorting citizens with the bell,
	Or else the devil will make a grandsire of you:
	Arise, I say.

BRABANTIO	                  What, have you lost your wits?

RODERIGO	Most reverend signior, do you know my voice?

BRABANTIO	Not I	what are you?

RODERIGO	My name is Roderigo.

BRABANTIO	The worser welcome:
	I have charged thee not to haunt about my doors:
	In honest plainness thou hast heard me say
	My daughter is not for thee; and now, in madness,
	Being full of supper and distempering draughts,
	Upon malicious bravery, dost thou come
	To start my quiet.

RODERIGO	Sir, sir, sir,--

BRABANTIO	                  But thou must needs be sure
	My spirit and my place have in them power
	To make this bitter to thee.

RODERIGO	Patience, good sir.

BRABANTIO	What tell'st thou me of robbing? this is Venice;
	My house is not a grange.

RODERIGO	Most grave Brabantio,
	In simple and pure soul I come to you.

IAGO	'Zounds, sir, you are one of those that will not
	serve God, if the devil bid you. Because we come to
	do you service and you think we are ruffians, you'll
	have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse;
	you'll have your nephews neigh to you; you'll have
	coursers for cousins and gennets for germans.

BRABANTIO	What profane wretch art thou?

IAGO	I am one, sir, that comes to tell you your daughter
	and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs.

BRABANTIO	Thou art a villain.

IAGO	You are--a senator.

BRABANTIO	This thou shalt answer; I know thee, Roderigo.

RODERIGO	Sir, I will answer any thing. But, I beseech you,
	If't be your pleasure and most wise consent,
	As partly I find it is, that your fair daughter,
	At this odd-even and dull watch o' the night,
	Transported, with no worse nor better guard
	But with a knave of common hire, a gondolier,
	To the gross clasps of a lascivious Moor--
	If this be known to you and your allowance,
	We then have done you bold and saucy wrongs;
	But if you know not this, my manners tell me
	We have your wrong rebuke. Do not believe
	That, from the sense of all civility,
	I thus would play and trifle with your reverence:
	Your daughter, if you have not given her leave,
	I say again, hath made a gross revolt;
	Tying her duty, beauty, wit and fortunes
	In an extravagant and wheeling stranger
	Of here and every where. Straight satisfy yourself:
	If she be in her chamber or your house,
	Let loose on me the justice of the state
	For thus deluding you.

BRABANTIO	Strike on the tinder, ho!
	Give me a taper! call up all my people!
	This accident is not unlike my dream:
	Belief of it oppresses me already.
	Light, I say! light!

	[Exit above]

IAGO	Farewell; for I must leave you:
	It seems not meet, nor wholesome to my place,
	To be produced--as, if I stay, I shall--
	Against the Moor: for, I do know, the state,
	However this may gall him with some cheque,
	Cannot with safety cast him, for he's embark'd
	With such loud reason to the Cyprus wars,
	Which even now stand in act, that, for their souls,
	Another of his fathom they have none,
	To lead their business: in which regard,
	Though I do hate him as I do hell-pains.
	Yet, for necessity of present life,
	I must show out a flag and sign of love,
	Which is indeed but sign. That you shall surely find him,
	Lead to the Sagittary the raised search;
	And there will I be with him. So, farewell.


	[Enter, below, BRABANTIO, and Servants with torches]

BRABANTIO	It is too true an evil: gone she is;
	And what's to come of my despised time
	Is nought but bitterness. Now, Roderigo,
	Where didst thou see her? O unhappy girl!
	With the Moor, say'st thou? Who would be a father!
	How didst thou know 'twas she? O she deceives me
	Past thought! What said she to you? Get more tapers:
	Raise all my kindred. Are they married, think you?

RODERIGO	Truly, I think they are.

BRABANTIO	O heaven! How got she out? O treason of the blood!
	Fathers, from hence trust not your daughters' minds
	By what you see them act. Is there not charms
	By which the property of youth and maidhood
	May be abused? Have you not read, Roderigo,
	Of some such thing?

RODERIGO	Yes, sir, I have indeed.

BRABANTIO	Call up my brother. O, would you had had her!
	Some one way, some another. Do you know
	Where we may apprehend her and the Moor?

RODERIGO	I think I can discover him, if you please,
	To get good guard and go along with me.

BRABANTIO	Pray you, lead on. At every house I'll call;
	I may command at most. Get weapons, ho!
	And raise some special officers of night.
	On, good Roderigo: I'll deserve your pains.




SCENE II	Another street.

	[Enter OTHELLO, IAGO, and Attendants with torches]

IAGO	Though in the trade of war I have slain men,
	Yet do I hold it very stuff o' the conscience
	To do no contrived murder: I lack iniquity
	Sometimes to do me service: nine or ten times
	I had thought to have yerk'd him here under the ribs.

OTHELLO	'Tis better as it is.

IAGO	Nay, but he prated,

	And spoke such scurvy and provoking terms
	Against your honour
	That, with the little godliness I have,
	I did full hard forbear him. But, I pray you, sir,
	Are you fast married? Be assured of this,
	That the magnifico is much beloved,
	And hath in his effect a voice potential
	As double as the duke's: he will divorce you;
	Or put upon you what restraint and grievance
	The law, with all his might to enforce it on,
	Will give him cable.

OTHELLO	Let him do his spite:
	My services which I have done the signiory
	Shall out-tongue his complaints. 'Tis yet to know,--
	Which, when I know that boasting is an honour,
	I shall promulgate--I fetch my life and being
	From men of royal siege, and my demerits
	May speak unbonneted to as proud a fortune
	As this that I have reach'd: for know, Iago,
	But that I love the gentle Desdemona,
	I would not my unhoused free condition
	Put into circumscription and confine
	For the sea's worth. But, look! what lights come yond?

IAGO	Those are the raised father and his friends:
	You were best go in.

OTHELLO	Not I	I must be found:
	My parts, my title and my perfect soul
	Shall manifest me rightly. Is it they?

IAGO	By Janus, I think no.

	[Enter CASSIO, and certain Officers with torches]

OTHELLO	The servants of the duke, and my lieutenant.
	The goodness of the night upon you, friends!
	What is the news?

CASSIO	                  The duke does greet you, general,
	And he requires your haste-post-haste appearance,
	Even on the instant.

OTHELLO	What is the matter, think you?

CASSIO	Something from Cyprus as I may divine:
	It is a business of some heat: the galleys
	Have sent a dozen sequent messengers
	This very night at one another's heels,
	And many of the consuls, raised and met,
	Are at the duke's already: you have been
	hotly call'd for;
	When, being not at your lodging to be found,
	The senate hath sent about three several guests
	To search you out.

OTHELLO	'Tis well I am found by you.
	I will but spend a word here in the house,
	And go with you.


CASSIO	                  Ancient, what makes he here?

IAGO	'Faith, he to-night hath boarded a land carack:
	If it prove lawful prize, he's made for ever.

CASSIO	I do not understand.

IAGO	He's married.

CASSIO	To who?

	[Re-enter OTHELLO]

IAGO	Marry, to--Come, captain, will you go?

OTHELLO	Have with you.

CASSIO	Here comes another troop to seek for you.

IAGO	It is Brabantio. General, be advised;
	He comes to bad intent.

	[Enter BRABANTIO, RODERIGO, and Officers with
	torches and weapons]

OTHELLO	Holla! stand there!

RODERIGO	Signior, it is the Moor.

BRABANTIO	Down with him, thief!

	[They draw on both sides]

IAGO	You, Roderigo! come, sir, I am for you.

OTHELLO	Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust them.
	Good signior, you shall more command with years
	Than with your weapons.

BRABANTIO	O thou foul thief, where hast thou stow'd my daughter?
	Damn'd as thou art, thou hast enchanted her;
	For I'll refer me to all things of sense,
	If she in chains of magic were not bound,
	Whether a maid so tender, fair and happy,
	So opposite to marriage that she shunned
	The wealthy curled darlings of our nation,
	Would ever have, to incur a general mock,
	Run from her guardage to the sooty bosom
	Of such a thing as thou, to fear, not to delight.
	Judge me the world, if 'tis not gross in sense
	That thou hast practised on her with foul charms,
	Abused her delicate youth with drugs or minerals
	That weaken motion: I'll have't disputed on;
	'Tis probable and palpable to thinking.
	I therefore apprehend and do attach thee
	For an abuser of the world, a practiser
	Of arts inhibited and out of warrant.
	Lay hold upon him: if he do resist,
	Subdue him at his peril.

OTHELLO	Hold your hands,
	Both you of my inclining, and the rest:
	Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it
	Without a prompter. Where will you that I go
	To answer this your charge?

BRABANTIO	To prison, till fit time
	Of law and course of direct session
	Call thee to answer.

OTHELLO	What if I do obey?
	How may the duke be therewith satisfied,
	Whose messengers are here about my side,
	Upon some present business of the state
	To bring me to him?

First Officer	'Tis true, most worthy signior;
	The duke's in council and your noble self,
	I am sure, is sent for.

BRABANTIO	How! the duke in council!
	In this time of the night! Bring him away:
	Mine's not an idle cause: the duke himself,
	Or any of my brothers of the state,
	Cannot but feel this wrong as 'twere their own;
	For if such actions may have passage free,
	Bond-slaves and pagans shall our statesmen be.




SCENE III	A council-chamber.

	[The DUKE and Senators sitting at a table; Officers

DUKE OF VENICE	There is no composition in these news
	That gives them credit.

First Senator	Indeed, they are disproportion'd;
	My letters say a hundred and seven galleys.

DUKE OF VENICE	And mine, a hundred and forty.

Second Senator	And mine, two hundred:
	But though they jump not on a just account,--
	As in these cases, where the aim reports,
	'Tis oft with difference--yet do they all confirm
	A Turkish fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus.

DUKE OF VENICE	Nay, it is possible enough to judgment:
	I do not so secure me in the error,
	But the main article I do approve
	In fearful sense.

Sailor	[Within]  What, ho! what, ho! what, ho!

First Officer	A messenger from the galleys.

	[Enter a Sailor]

DUKE OF VENICE	Now, what's the business?

Sailor	The Turkish preparation makes for Rhodes;
	So was I bid report here to the state
	By Signior Angelo.

DUKE OF VENICE	How say you by this change?

First Senator	This cannot be,
	By no assay of reason: 'tis a pageant,
	To keep us in false gaze. When we consider
	The importancy of Cyprus to the Turk,
	And let ourselves again but understand,
	That as it more concerns the Turk than Rhodes,
	So may he with more facile question bear it,
	For that it stands not in such warlike brace,
	But altogether lacks the abilities
	That Rhodes is dress'd in: if we make thought of this,
	We must not think the Turk is so unskilful
	To leave that latest which concerns him first,
	Neglecting an attempt of ease and gain,
	To wake and wage a danger profitless.

DUKE OF VENICE	Nay, in all confidence, he's not for Rhodes.

First Officer	Here is more news.

	[Enter a Messenger]

Messenger	The Ottomites, reverend and gracious,
	Steering with due course towards the isle of Rhodes,
	Have there injointed them with an after fleet.

First Senator	Ay, so I thought. How many, as you guess?

Messenger	Of thirty sail: and now they do restem
	Their backward course, bearing with frank appearance
	Their purposes toward Cyprus. Signior Montano,
	Your trusty and most valiant servitor,
	With his free duty recommends you thus,
	And prays you to believe him.

DUKE OF VENICE	'Tis certain, then, for Cyprus.
	Marcus Luccicos, is not he in town?

First Senator	He's now in Florence.

DUKE OF VENICE	Write from us to him; post-post-haste dispatch.

First Senator	Here comes Brabantio and the valiant Moor.


DUKE OF VENICE	Valiant Othello, we must straight employ you
	Against the general enemy Ottoman.


	I did not see you; welcome, gentle signior;
	We lack'd your counsel and your help tonight.

BRABANTIO	So did I yours. Good your grace, pardon me;
	Neither my place nor aught I heard of business
	Hath raised me from my bed, nor doth the general care
	Take hold on me, for my particular grief
	Is of so flood-gate and o'erbearing nature
	That it engluts and swallows other sorrows
	And it is still itself.

DUKE OF VENICE	Why, what's the matter?

BRABANTIO	My daughter! O, my daughter!

Senator	|

BRABANTIO	Ay, to me;
	She is abused, stol'n from me, and corrupted
	By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks;
	For nature so preposterously to err,
	Being not deficient, blind, or lame of sense,
	Sans witchcraft could not.

DUKE OF VENICE	Whoe'er he be that in this foul proceeding
	Hath thus beguiled your daughter of herself
	And you of her, the bloody book of law
	You shall yourself read in the bitter letter
	After your own sense, yea, though our proper son
	Stood in your action.

BRABANTIO	Humbly I thank your grace.
	Here is the man, this Moor, whom now, it seems,
	Your special mandate for the state-affairs
	Hath hither brought.

	|                 We are very sorry for't.
Senator	|

DUKE OF VENICE	[To OTHELLO]  What, in your own part, can you say to this?

BRABANTIO	Nothing, but this is so.

OTHELLO	Most potent, grave, and reverend signiors,
	My very noble and approved good masters,
	That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter,
	It is most true; true, I have married her:
	The very head and front of my offending
	Hath this extent, no more. Rude am I in my speech,
	And little bless'd with the soft phrase of peace:
	For since these arms of mine had seven years' pith,
	Till now some nine moons wasted, they have used
	Their dearest action in the tented field,
	And little of this great world can I speak,
	More than pertains to feats of broil and battle,
	And therefore little shall I grace my cause
	In speaking for myself. Yet, by your gracious patience,
	I will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver
	Of my whole course of love; what drugs, what charms,
	What conjuration and what mighty magic,
	For such proceeding I am charged withal,
	I won his daughter.

BRABANTIO	A maiden never bold;
	Of spirit so still and quiet, that her motion
	Blush'd at herself; and she, in spite of nature,
	Of years, of country, credit, every thing,
	To fall in love with what she fear'd to look on!
	It is a judgment maim'd and most imperfect
	That will confess perfection so could err
	Against all rules of nature, and must be driven
	To find out practises of cunning hell,
	Why this should be. I therefore vouch again
	That with some mixtures powerful o'er the blood,
	Or with some dram conjured to this effect,
	He wrought upon her.

DUKE OF VENICE	To vouch this, is no proof,
	Without more wider and more overt test
	Than these thin habits and poor likelihoods
	Of modern seeming do prefer against him.

First Senator	But, Othello, speak:
	Did you by indirect and forced courses
	Subdue and poison this young maid's affections?
	Or came it by request and such fair question
	As soul to soul affordeth?

OTHELLO	I do beseech you,
	Send for the lady to the Sagittary,
	And let her speak of me before her father:
	If you do find me foul in her report,
	The trust, the office I do hold of you,
	Not only take away, but let your sentence
	Even fall upon my life.

DUKE OF VENICE	Fetch Desdemona hither.

OTHELLO	Ancient, conduct them: you best know the place.

	[Exeunt IAGO and Attendants]

	And, till she come, as truly as to heaven
	I do confess the vices of my blood,
	So justly to your grave ears I'll present
	How I did thrive in this fair lady's love,
	And she in mine.

DUKE OF VENICE	Say it, Othello.

OTHELLO	Her father loved me; oft invited me;
	Still question'd me the story of my life,
	From year to year, the battles, sieges, fortunes,
	That I have passed.
	I ran it through, even from my boyish days,
	To the very moment that he bade me tell it;
	Wherein I spake of most disastrous chances,
	Of moving accidents by flood and field
	Of hair-breadth scapes i' the imminent deadly breach,
	Of being taken by the insolent foe
	And sold to slavery, of my redemption thence
	And portance in my travels' history:
	Wherein of antres vast and deserts idle,
	Rough quarries, rocks and hills whose heads touch heaven
	It was my hint to speak,--such was the process;
	And of the Cannibals that each other eat,
	The Anthropophagi and men whose heads
	Do grow beneath their shoulders. This to hear
	Would Desdemona seriously incline:
	But still the house-affairs would draw her thence:
	Which ever as she could with haste dispatch,
	She'ld come again, and with a greedy ear
	Devour up my discourse: which I observing,
	Took once a pliant hour, and found good means
	To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart
	That I would all my pilgrimage dilate,
	Whereof by parcels she had something heard,
	But not intentively: I did consent,
	And often did beguile her of her tears,
	When I did speak of some distressful stroke
	That my youth suffer'd. My story being done,
	She gave me for my pains a world of sighs:
	She swore, in faith, twas strange, 'twas passing strange,
	'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful:
	She wish'd she had not heard it, yet she wish'd
	That heaven had made her such a man: she thank'd me,
	And bade me, if I had a friend that loved her,
	I should but teach him how to tell my story.
	And that would woo her. Upon this hint I spake:
	She loved me for the dangers I had pass'd,
	And I loved her that she did pity them.
	This only is the witchcraft I have used:
	Here comes the lady; let her witness it.

	[Enter DESDEMONA, IAGO, and Attendants]

DUKE OF VENICE	I think this tale would win my daughter too.
	Good Brabantio,
	Take up this mangled matter at the best:
	Men do their broken weapons rather use
	Than their bare hands.

BRABANTIO	I pray you, hear her speak:
	If she confess that she was half the wooer,
	Destruction on my head, if my bad blame
	Light on the man! Come hither, gentle mistress:
	Do you perceive in all this noble company
	Where most you owe obedience?

DESDEMONA	My noble father,
	I do perceive here a divided duty:
	To you I am bound for life and education;
	My life and education both do learn me
	How to respect you; you are the lord of duty;
	I am hitherto your daughter: but here's my husband,
	And so much duty as my mother show'd
	To you, preferring you before her father,
	So much I challenge that I may profess
	Due to the Moor my lord.

BRABANTIO	God be wi' you! I have done.
	Please it your grace, on to the state-affairs:
	I had rather to adopt a child than get it.
	Come hither, Moor:
	I here do give thee that with all my heart
	Which, but thou hast already, with all my heart
	I would keep from thee. For your sake, jewel,
	I am glad at soul I have no other child:
	For thy escape would teach me tyranny,
	To hang clogs on them. I have done, my lord.

DUKE OF VENICE	Let me speak like yourself, and lay a sentence,
	Which, as a grise or step, may help these lovers
	Into your favour.
	When remedies are past, the griefs are ended
	By seeing the worst, which late on hopes depended.
	To mourn a mischief that is past and gone
	Is the next way to draw new mischief on.
	What cannot be preserved when fortune takes
	Patience her injury a mockery makes.
	The robb'd that smiles steals something from the thief;
	He robs himself that spends a bootless grief.

BRABANTIO	So let the Turk of Cyprus us beguile;
	We lose it not, so long as we can smile.
	He bears the sentence well that nothing bears
	But the free comfort which from thence he hears,
	But he bears both the sentence and the sorrow
	That, to pay grief, must of poor patience borrow.
	These sentences, to sugar, or to gall,
	Being strong on both sides, are equivocal:
	But words are words; I never yet did hear
	That the bruised heart was pierced through the ear.
	I humbly beseech you, proceed to the affairs of state.

DUKE OF VENICE	The Turk with a most mighty preparation makes for
	Cyprus. Othello, the fortitude of the place is best
	known to you; and though we have there a substitute
	of most allowed sufficiency, yet opinion, a
	sovereign mistress of effects, throws a more safer
	voice on you: you must therefore be content to
	slubber the gloss of your new fortunes with this
	more stubborn and boisterous expedition.

OTHELLO	The tyrant custom, most grave senators,
	Hath made the flinty and steel couch of war
	My thrice-driven bed of down: I do agnise
	A natural and prompt alacrity
	I find in hardness, and do undertake
	These present wars against the Ottomites.
	Most humbly therefore bending to your state,
	I crave fit disposition for my wife.
	Due reference of place and exhibition,
	With such accommodation and besort
	As levels with her breeding.

DUKE OF VENICE	If you please,
	Be't at her father's.

BRABANTIO	I'll not have it so.


DESDEMONA	     Nor I; I would not there reside,
	To put my father in impatient thoughts
	By being in his eye. Most gracious duke,
	To my unfolding lend your prosperous ear;
	And let me find a charter in your voice,
	To assist my simpleness.

DUKE OF VENICE	What would You, Desdemona?

DESDEMONA	That I did love the Moor to live with him,
	My downright violence and storm of fortunes
	May trumpet to the world: my heart's subdued
	Even to the very quality of my lord:
	I saw Othello's visage in his mind,
	And to his honour and his valiant parts
	Did I my soul and fortunes consecrate.
	So that, dear lords, if I be left behind,
	A moth of peace, and he go to the war,
	The rites for which I love him are bereft me,
	And I a heavy interim shall support
	By his dear absence. Let me go with him.

OTHELLO	Let her have your voices.
	Vouch with me, heaven, I therefore beg it not,
	To please the palate of my appetite,
	Nor to comply with heat--the young affects
	In me defunct--and proper satisfaction.
	But to be free and bounteous to her mind:
	And heaven defend your good souls, that you think
	I will your serious and great business scant
	For she is with me: no, when light-wing'd toys
	Of feather'd Cupid seal with wanton dullness
	My speculative and officed instruments,
	That my disports corrupt and taint my business,
	Let housewives make a skillet of my helm,
	And all indign and base adversities
	Make head against my estimation!

DUKE OF VENICE	Be it as you shall privately determine,
	Either for her stay or going: the affair cries haste,
	And speed must answer it.

First Senator	You must away to-night.

OTHELLO	With all my heart.

DUKE OF VENICE	At nine i' the morning here we'll meet again.
	Othello, leave some officer behind,
	And he shall our commission bring to you;
	With such things else of quality and respect
	As doth import you.

OTHELLO	So please your grace, my ancient;
	A man he is of honest and trust:
	To his conveyance I assign my wife,
	With what else needful your good grace shall think
	To be sent after me.

DUKE OF VENICE	Let it be so.
	Good night to every one.


		   And, noble signior,
	If virtue no delighted beauty lack,
	Your son-in-law is far more fair than black.

First Senator	Adieu, brave Moor, use Desdemona well.

BRABANTIO	Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:
	She has deceived her father, and may thee.

	[Exeunt DUKE OF VENICE, Senators, Officers, &c]

OTHELLO	My life upon her faith! Honest Iago,
	My Desdemona must I leave to thee:
	I prithee, let thy wife attend on her:
	And bring them after in the best advantage.

	Come, Desdemona: I have but an hour
	Of love, of worldly matters and direction,
	To spend with thee: we must obey the time.



IAGO	What say'st thou, noble heart?

RODERIGO	What will I do, thinkest thou?

IAGO	Why, go to bed, and sleep.

RODERIGO	I will incontinently drown myself.

IAGO	If thou dost, I shall never love thee after. Why,
	thou silly gentleman!

RODERIGO	It is silliness to live when to live is torment; and
	then have we a prescription to die when death is our physician.

IAGO	O villainous! I have looked upon the world for four
	times seven years; and since I could distinguish
	betwixt a benefit and an injury, I never found man
	that knew how to love himself. Ere I would say, I
	would drown myself for the love of a guinea-hen, I
	would change my humanity with a baboon.

RODERIGO	What should I do? I confess it is my shame to be so
	fond; but it is not in my virtue to amend it.

IAGO	Virtue! a fig! 'tis in ourselves that we are thus
	or thus. Our bodies are our gardens, to the which
	our wills are gardeners: so that if we will plant
	nettles, or sow lettuce, set hyssop and weed up
	thyme, supply it with one gender of herbs, or
	distract it with many, either to have it sterile
	with idleness, or manured with industry, why, the
	power and corrigible authority of this lies in our
	wills. If the balance of our lives had not one
	scale of reason to poise another of sensuality, the
	blood and baseness of our natures would conduct us
	to most preposterous conclusions: but we have
	reason to cool our raging motions, our carnal
	stings, our unbitted lusts, whereof I take this that
	you call love to be a sect or scion.

RODERIGO	It cannot be.

IAGO	It is merely a lust of the blood and a permission of
	the will. Come, be a man. Drown thyself! drown
	cats and blind puppies. I have professed me thy
	friend and I confess me knit to thy deserving with
	cables of perdurable toughness; I could never
	better stead thee than now. Put money in thy
	purse; follow thou the wars; defeat thy favour with
	an usurped beard; I say, put money in thy purse. It
	cannot be that Desdemona should long continue her
	love to the Moor,-- put money in thy purse,--nor he
	his to her: it was a violent commencement, and thou
	shalt see an answerable sequestration:--put but
	money in thy purse. These Moors are changeable in
	their wills: fill thy purse with money:--the food
	that to him now is as luscious as locusts, shall be
	to him shortly as bitter as coloquintida. She must
	change for youth: when she is sated with his body,
	she will find the error of her choice: she must
	have change, she must: therefore put money in thy
	purse. If thou wilt needs damn thyself, do it a
	more delicate way than drowning. Make all the money
	thou canst: if sanctimony and a frail vow betwixt
	an erring barbarian and a supersubtle Venetian not
	too hard for my wits and all the tribe of hell, thou
	shalt enjoy her; therefore make money. A pox of
	drowning thyself! it is clean out of the way: seek
	thou rather to be hanged in compassing thy joy than
	to be drowned and go without her.

RODERIGO	Wilt thou be fast to my hopes, if I depend on
	the issue?

IAGO	Thou art sure of me:--go, make money:--I have told
	thee often, and I re-tell thee again and again, I
	hate the Moor: my cause is hearted; thine hath no
	less reason. Let us be conjunctive in our revenge
	against him: if thou canst cuckold him, thou dost
	thyself a pleasure, me a sport. There are many
	events in the womb of time which will be delivered.
	Traverse! go, provide thy money. We will have more
	of this to-morrow. Adieu.

RODERIGO	Where shall we meet i' the morning?

IAGO	At my lodging.

RODERIGO	I'll be with thee betimes.

IAGO	Go to; farewell. Do you hear, Roderigo?

RODERIGO	What say you?

IAGO	No more of drowning, do you hear?

RODERIGO	I am changed: I'll go sell all my land.


IAGO	Thus do I ever make my fool my purse:
	For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane,
	If I would time expend with such a snipe.
	But for my sport and profit. I hate the Moor:
	And it is thought abroad, that 'twixt my sheets
	He has done my office: I know not if't be true;
	But I, for mere suspicion in that kind,
	Will do as if for surety. He holds me well;
	The better shall my purpose work on him.
	Cassio's a proper man: let me see now:
	To get his place and to plume up my will
	In double knavery--How, how? Let's see:--
	After some time, to abuse Othello's ear
	That he is too familiar with his wife.
	He hath a person and a smooth dispose
	To be suspected, framed to make women false.
	The Moor is of a free and open nature,
	That thinks men honest that but seem to be so,
	And will as tenderly be led by the nose
	As asses are.
	I have't. It is engender'd. Hell and night
	Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light.




SCENE I	A Sea-port in Cyprus. An open place near the quay.

	[Enter MONTANO and two Gentlemen]

MONTANO	What from the cape can you discern at sea?

First Gentleman	Nothing at all: it is a highwrought flood;
	I cannot, 'twixt the heaven and the main,
	Descry a sail.

MONTANO	Methinks the wind hath spoke aloud at land;
	A fuller blast ne'er shook our battlements:
	If it hath ruffian'd so upon the sea,
	What ribs of oak, when mountains melt on them,
	Can hold the mortise? What shall we hear of this?

Second Gentleman	A segregation of the Turkish fleet:

	For do but stand upon the foaming shore,
	The chidden billow seems to pelt the clouds;
	The wind-shaked surge, with high and monstrous mane,
	seems to cast water on the burning bear,
	And quench the guards of the ever-fixed pole:
	I never did like molestation view
	On the enchafed flood.

MONTANO	If that the Turkish fleet
	Be not enshelter'd and embay'd, they are drown'd:
	It is impossible they bear it out.

	[Enter a third Gentleman]

Third Gentleman	News, lads! our wars are done.
	The desperate tempest hath so bang'd the Turks,
	That their designment halts: a noble ship of Venice
	Hath seen a grievous wreck and sufferance
	On most part of their fleet.

MONTANO	How! is this true?

Third Gentleman	The ship is here put in,
	A Veronesa; Michael Cassio,
	Lieutenant to the warlike Moor Othello,
	Is come on shore: the Moor himself at sea,
	And is in full commission here for Cyprus.

MONTANO	I am glad on't; 'tis a worthy governor.

Third Gentleman	But this same Cassio, though he speak of comfort
	Touching the Turkish loss, yet he looks sadly,
	And prays the Moor be safe; for they were parted
	With foul and violent tempest.

MONTANO	Pray heavens he be;
	For I have served him, and the man commands
	Like a full soldier. Let's to the seaside, ho!
	As well to see the vessel that's come in
	As to throw out our eyes for brave Othello,
	Even till we make the main and the aerial blue
	An indistinct regard.

Third Gentleman	Come, let's do so:
	For every minute is expectancy
	Of more arrivance.

	[Enter CASSIO]

CASSIO	Thanks, you the valiant of this warlike isle,
	That so approve the Moor! O, let the heavens
	Give him defence against the elements,
	For I have lost us him on a dangerous sea.

MONTANO	Is he well shipp'd?

CASSIO	His bark is stoutly timber'd, his pilot
	Of very expert and approved allowance;
	Therefore my hopes, not surfeited to death,
	Stand in bold cure.

	[A cry within 'A sail, a sail, a sail!']

	[Enter a fourth Gentleman]

CASSIO	What noise?

Fourth Gentleman	The town is empty; on the brow o' the sea
	Stand ranks of people, and they cry 'A sail!'

CASSIO	My hopes do shape him for the governor.

	[Guns heard]

Second Gentlemen	They do discharge their shot of courtesy:
	Our friends at least.

CASSIO	I pray you, sir, go forth,
	And give us truth who 'tis that is arrived.

Second Gentleman	I shall.


MONTANO	But, good lieutenant, is your general wived?

CASSIO	Most fortunately: he hath achieved a maid
	That paragons description and wild fame;
	One that excels the quirks of blazoning pens,
	And in the essential vesture of creation
	Does tire the ingener.

	[Re-enter second Gentleman]

	How now! who has put in?

Second Gentleman	'Tis one Iago, ancient to the general.

CASSIO	Has had most favourable and happy speed:
	Tempests themselves, high seas, and howling winds,
	The gutter'd rocks and congregated sands--
	Traitors ensteep'd to clog the guiltless keel,--
	As having sense of beauty, do omit
	Their mortal natures, letting go safely by
	The divine Desdemona.

MONTANO	What is she?

CASSIO	She that I spake of, our great captain's captain,
	Left in the conduct of the bold Iago,
	Whose footing here anticipates our thoughts
	A se'nnight's speed. Great Jove, Othello guard,
	And swell his sail with thine own powerful breath,
	That he may bless this bay with his tall ship,
	Make love's quick pants in Desdemona's arms,
	Give renew'd fire to our extincted spirits
	And bring all Cyprus comfort!


		        O, behold,
	The riches of the ship is come on shore!
	Ye men of Cyprus, let her have your knees.
	Hail to thee, lady! and the grace of heaven,
	Before, behind thee, and on every hand,
	Enwheel thee round!

DESDEMONA	I thank you, valiant Cassio.
	What tidings can you tell me of my lord?

CASSIO	He is not yet arrived: nor know I aught
	But that he's well and will be shortly here.

DESDEMONA	O, but I fear--How lost you company?

CASSIO	The great contention of the sea and skies
	Parted our fellowship--But, hark! a sail.

	[Within 'A sail, a sail!' Guns heard]

Second Gentleman	They give their greeting to the citadel;
	This likewise is a friend.

CASSIO	See for the news.

	[Exit Gentleman]

	Good ancient, you are welcome.


		         Welcome, mistress.
	Let it not gall your patience, good Iago,
	That I extend my manners; 'tis my breeding
	That gives me this bold show of courtesy.

	[Kissing her]

IAGO	Sir, would she give you so much of her lips
	As of her tongue she oft bestows on me,
	You'll have enough.

DESDEMONA	Alas, she has no speech.

IAGO	In faith, too much;
	I find it still, when I have list to sleep:
	Marry, before your ladyship, I grant,
	She puts her tongue a little in her heart,
	And chides with thinking.

EMILIA	You have little cause to say so.

IAGO	Come on, come on; you are pictures out of doors,
	Bells in your parlors, wild-cats in your kitchens,
	Saints m your injuries, devils being offended,
	Players in your housewifery, and housewives' in your beds.

DESDEMONA	O, fie upon thee, slanderer!

IAGO	Nay, it is true, or else I am a Turk:
	You rise to play and go to bed to work.

EMILIA	You shall not write my praise.

IAGO	No, let me not.

DESDEMONA	What wouldst thou write of me, if thou shouldst
	praise me?

IAGO	O gentle lady, do not put me to't;
	For I am nothing, if not critical.

DESDEMONA	Come on assay. There's one gone to the harbour?

IAGO	Ay, madam.

DESDEMONA	I am not merry; but I do beguile
	The thing I am, by seeming otherwise.
	Come, how wouldst thou praise me?

IAGO	I am about it; but indeed my invention
	Comes from my pate as birdlime does from frize;
	It plucks out brains and all: but my Muse labours,
	And thus she is deliver'd.
	If she be fair and wise, fairness and wit,
	The one's for use, the other useth it.

DESDEMONA	Well praised! How if she be black and witty?

IAGO	If she be black, and thereto have a wit,
	She'll find a white that shall her blackness fit.

DESDEMONA	Worse and worse.

EMILIA	How if fair and foolish?

IAGO	She never yet was foolish that was fair;
	For even her folly help'd her to an heir.

DESDEMONA	These are old fond paradoxes to make fools laugh i'
	the alehouse. What miserable praise hast thou for
	her that's foul and foolish?

IAGO	There's none so foul and foolish thereunto,
	But does foul pranks which fair and wise ones do.

DESDEMONA	O heavy ignorance! thou praisest the worst best.
	But what praise couldst thou bestow on a deserving
	woman indeed, one that, in the authority of her
	merit, did justly put on the vouch of very malice itself?

IAGO	She that was ever fair and never proud,
	Had tongue at will and yet was never loud,
	Never lack'd gold and yet went never gay,
	Fled from her wish and yet said 'Now I may,'
	She that being anger'd, her revenge being nigh,
	Bade her wrong stay and her displeasure fly,
	She that in wisdom never was so frail
	To change the cod's head for the salmon's tail;
	She that could think and ne'er disclose her mind,
	See suitors following and not look behind,
	She was a wight, if ever such wight were,--

DESDEMONA	To do what?

IAGO	To suckle fools and chronicle small beer.

DESDEMONA	O most lame and impotent conclusion! Do not learn
	of him, Emilia, though he be thy husband. How say
	you, Cassio? is he not a most profane and liberal

CASSIO	He speaks home, madam: You may relish him more in
	the soldier than in the scholar.

IAGO	[Aside]  He takes her by the palm: ay, well said,
	whisper: with as little a web as this will I
	ensnare as great a fly as Cassio. Ay, smile upon
	her, do; I will gyve thee in thine own courtship.
	You say true; 'tis so, indeed: if such tricks as
	these strip you out of your lieutenantry, it had
	been better you had not kissed your three fingers so
	oft, which now again you are most apt to play the
	sir in. Very good; well kissed! an excellent
	courtesy! 'tis so, indeed. Yet again your fingers
	to your lips? would they were clyster-pipes for your sake!

	[Trumpet within]

	The Moor! I know his trumpet.

CASSIO	'Tis truly so.

DESDEMONA	Let's meet him and receive him.

CASSIO	Lo, where he comes!

	[Enter OTHELLO and Attendants]

OTHELLO	O my fair warrior!

DESDEMONA	                  My dear Othello!

OTHELLO	It gives me wonder great as my content
	To see you here before me. O my soul's joy!
	If after every tempest come such calms,
	May the winds blow till they have waken'd death!
	And let the labouring bark climb hills of seas
	Olympus-high and duck again as low
	As hell's from heaven! If it were now to die,
	'Twere now to be most happy; for, I fear,
	My soul hath her content so absolute
	That not another comfort like to this
	Succeeds in unknown fate.

DESDEMONA	The heavens forbid
	But that our loves and comforts should increase,
	Even as our days do grow!

OTHELLO	Amen to that, sweet powers!
	I cannot speak enough of this content;
	It stops me here; it is too much of joy:
	And this, and this, the greatest discords be

	[Kissing her]

	That e'er our hearts shall make!

IAGO	[Aside]  O, you are well tuned now!
	But I'll set down the pegs that make this music,
	As honest as I am.

OTHELLO	                  Come, let us to the castle.
	News, friends; our wars are done, the Turks
	are drown'd.
	How does my old acquaintance of this isle?
	Honey, you shall be well desired in Cyprus;
	I have found great love amongst them. O my sweet,
	I prattle out of fashion, and I dote
	In mine own comforts. I prithee, good Iago,
	Go to the bay and disembark my coffers:
	Bring thou the master to the citadel;
	He is a good one, and his worthiness
	Does challenge much respect. Come, Desdemona,
	Once more, well met at Cyprus.

	[Exeunt OTHELLO, DESDEMONA, and Attendants]

IAGO	Do thou meet me presently at the harbour. Come
	hither. If thou be'st valiant,-- as, they say, base
	men being in love have then a nobility in their
	natures more than is native to them--list me. The
	lieutenant tonight watches on the court of
	guard:--first, I must tell thee this--Desdemona is
	directly in love with him.

RODERIGO	With him! why, 'tis not possible.

IAGO	Lay thy finger thus, and let thy soul be instructed.
	Mark me with what violence she first loved the Moor,
	but for bragging and telling her fantastical lies:
	and will she love him still for prating? let not
	thy discreet heart think it. Her eye must be fed;
	and what delight shall she have to look on the
	devil? When the blood is made dull with the act of
	sport, there should be, again to inflame it and to
	give satiety a fresh appetite, loveliness in favour,
	sympathy in years, manners and beauties; all which
	the Moor is defective in: now, for want of these
	required conveniences, her delicate tenderness will
	find itself abused, begin to heave the gorge,
	disrelish and abhor the Moor; very nature will
	instruct her in it and compel her to some second
	choice. Now, sir, this granted,--as it is a most
	pregnant and unforced position--who stands so
	eminent in the degree of this fortune as Cassio
	does? a knave very voluble; no further
	conscionable than in putting on the mere form of
	civil and humane seeming, for the better compassing
	of his salt and most hidden loose affection? why,
	none; why, none: a slipper and subtle knave, a
	finder of occasions, that has an eye can stamp and
	counterfeit advantages, though true advantage never
	present itself; a devilish knave. Besides, the
	knave is handsome, young, and hath all those
	requisites in him that folly and green minds look
	after: a pestilent complete knave; and the woman
	hath found him already.

RODERIGO	I cannot believe that in her; she's full of
	most blessed condition.

IAGO	Blessed fig's-end! the wine she drinks is made of
	grapes: if she had been blessed, she would never
	have loved the Moor. Blessed pudding! Didst thou
	not see her paddle with the palm of his hand? didst
	not mark that?

RODERIGO	Yes, that I did; but that was but courtesy.

IAGO	Lechery, by this hand; an index and obscure prologue
	to the history of lust and foul thoughts. They met
	so near with their lips that their breaths embraced
	together. Villanous thoughts, Roderigo! when these
	mutualities so marshal the way, hard at hand comes
	the master and main exercise, the incorporate
	conclusion, Pish! But, sir, be you ruled by me: I
	have brought you from Venice. Watch you to-night;
	for the command, I'll lay't upon you. Cassio knows
	you not. I'll not be far from you: do you find
	some occasion to anger Cassio, either by speaking
	too loud, or tainting his discipline; or from what
	other course you please, which the time shall more
	favourably minister.


IAGO	Sir, he is rash and very sudden in choler, and haply
	may strike at you: provoke him, that he may; for
	even out of that will I cause these of Cyprus to
	mutiny; whose qualification shall come into no true
	taste again but by the displanting of Cassio. So
	shall you have a shorter journey to your desires by
	the means I shall then have to prefer them; and the
	impediment most profitably removed, without the
	which there were no expectation of our prosperity.

RODERIGO	I will do this, if I can bring it to any

IAGO	I warrant thee. Meet me by and by at the citadel:
	I must fetch his necessaries ashore. Farewell.



IAGO	That Cassio loves her, I do well believe it;
	That she loves him, 'tis apt and of great credit:
	The Moor, howbeit that I endure him not,
	Is of a constant, loving, noble nature,
	And I dare think he'll prove to Desdemona
	A most dear husband. Now, I do love her too;
	Not out of absolute lust, though peradventure
	I stand accountant for as great a sin,
	But partly led to diet my revenge,
	For that I do suspect the lusty Moor
	Hath leap'd into my seat; the thought whereof
	Doth, like a poisonous mineral, gnaw my inwards;
	And nothing can or shall content my soul
	Till I am even'd with him, wife for wife,
	Or failing so, yet that I put the Moor
	At least into a jealousy so strong
	That judgment cannot cure. Which thing to do,
	If this poor trash of Venice, whom I trash
	For his quick hunting, stand the putting on,
	I'll have our Michael Cassio on the hip,
	Abuse him to the Moor in the rank garb--
	For I fear Cassio with my night-cap too--
	Make the Moor thank me, love me and reward me.
	For making him egregiously an ass
	And practising upon his peace and quiet
	Even to madness. 'Tis here, but yet confused:
	Knavery's plain face is never seen tin used.




SCENE II	A street.

	[Enter a Herald with a proclamation; People

Herald	It is Othello's pleasure, our noble and valiant
	general, that, upon certain tidings now arrived,
	importing the mere perdition of the Turkish fleet,
	every man put himself into triumph; some to dance,
	some to make bonfires, each man to what sport and
	revels his addiction leads him: for, besides these
	beneficial news, it is the celebration of his
	nuptial. So much was his pleasure should be
	proclaimed. All offices are open, and there is full
	liberty of feasting from this present hour of five
	till the bell have told eleven. Heaven bless the
	isle of Cyprus and our noble general Othello!




SCENE III	A hall in the castle.

	[Enter OTHELLO, DESDEMONA, CASSIO, and Attendants]

OTHELLO	Good Michael, look you to the guard to-night:
	Let's teach ourselves that honourable stop,
	Not to outsport discretion.

CASSIO	Iago hath direction what to do;
	But, notwithstanding, with my personal eye
	Will I look to't.

OTHELLO	                  Iago is most honest.
	Michael, good night: to-morrow with your earliest
	Let me have speech with you.


		       Come, my dear love,
	The purchase made, the fruits are to ensue;
	That profit's yet to come 'tween me and you.
	Good night.

	[Exeunt OTHELLO, DESDEMONA, and Attendants]

	[Enter IAGO]

CASSIO	Welcome, Iago; we must to the watch.

IAGO	Not this hour, lieutenant; 'tis not yet ten o' the
	clock. Our general cast us thus early for the love
	of his Desdemona; who let us not therefore blame:
	he hath not yet made wanton the night with her; and
	she is sport for Jove.

CASSIO	She's a most exquisite lady.

IAGO	And, I'll warrant her, fun of game.

CASSIO	Indeed, she's a most fresh and delicate creature.

IAGO	What an eye she has! methinks it sounds a parley of

CASSIO	An inviting eye; and yet methinks right modest.

IAGO	And when she speaks, is it not an alarum to love?

CASSIO	She is indeed perfection.

IAGO	Well, happiness to their sheets! Come, lieutenant, I
	have a stoup of wine; and here without are a brace
	of Cyprus gallants that would fain have a measure to
	the health of black Othello.

CASSIO	Not to-night, good Iago: I have very poor and
	unhappy brains for drinking: I could well wish
	courtesy would invent some other custom of

IAGO	O, they are our friends; but one cup: I'll drink for

CASSIO	I have drunk but one cup to-night, and that was
	craftily qualified too, and, behold, what innovation
	it makes here: I am unfortunate in the infirmity,
	and dare not task my weakness with any more.

IAGO	What, man! 'tis a night of revels: the gallants
	desire it.

CASSIO	Where are they?

IAGO	Here at the door; I pray you, call them in.

CASSIO	I'll do't; but it dislikes me.


IAGO	If I can fasten but one cup upon him,
	With that which he hath drunk to-night already,
	He'll be as full of quarrel and offence
	As my young mistress' dog. Now, my sick fool Roderigo,
	Whom love hath turn'd almost the wrong side out,
	To Desdemona hath to-night caroused
	Potations pottle-deep; and he's to watch:
	Three lads of Cyprus, noble swelling spirits,
	That hold their honours in a wary distance,
	The very elements of this warlike isle,
	Have I to-night fluster'd with flowing cups,
	And they watch too. Now, 'mongst this flock of drunkards,
	Am I to put our Cassio in some action
	That may offend the isle.--But here they come:
	If consequence do but approve my dream,
	My boat sails freely, both with wind and stream.

	[Re-enter CASSIO; with him MONTANO and Gentlemen;
	servants following with wine]

CASSIO	'Fore God, they have given me a rouse already.

MONTANO	Good faith, a little one; not past a pint, as I am
	a soldier.

IAGO	Some wine, ho!


	And let me the canakin clink, clink;
	And let me the canakin clink
	A soldier's a man;
	A life's but a span;
	Why, then, let a soldier drink.
	Some wine, boys!

CASSIO	'Fore God, an excellent song.

IAGO	I learned it in England, where, indeed, they are
	most potent in potting: your Dane, your German, and
	your swag-bellied Hollander--Drink, ho!--are nothing
	to your English.

CASSIO	Is your Englishman so expert in his drinking?

IAGO	Why, he drinks you, with facility, your Dane dead
	drunk; he sweats not to overthrow your Almain; he
	gives your Hollander a vomit, ere the next pottle
	can be filled.

CASSIO	To the health of our general!

MONTANO	I am for it, lieutenant; and I'll do you justice.

IAGO	O sweet England!
	King Stephen was a worthy peer,
	His breeches cost him but a crown;
	He held them sixpence all too dear,
	With that he call'd the tailor lown.
	He was a wight of high renown,
	And thou art but of low degree:
	'Tis pride that pulls the country down;
	Then take thine auld cloak about thee.
	Some wine, ho!

CASSIO	Why, this is a more exquisite song than the other.

IAGO	Will you hear't again?

CASSIO	No; for I hold him to be unworthy of his place that
	does those things. Well, God's above all; and there
	be souls must be saved, and there be souls must not be saved.

IAGO	It's true, good lieutenant.

CASSIO	For mine own part,--no offence to the general, nor
	any man of quality,--I hope to be saved.

IAGO	And so do I too, lieutenant.

CASSIO	Ay, but, by your leave, not before me; the
	lieutenant is to be saved before the ancient. Let's
	have no more of this; let's to our affairs.--Forgive
	us our sins!--Gentlemen, let's look to our business.
	Do not think, gentlemen. I am drunk: this is my
	ancient; this is my right hand, and this is my left:
	I am not drunk now; I can stand well enough, and
	speak well enough.

All	Excellent well.

CASSIO	Why, very well then; you must not think then that I am drunk.


MONTANO	To the platform, masters; come, let's set the watch.

IAGO	You see this fellow that is gone before;
	He is a soldier fit to stand by Caesar
	And give direction: and do but see his vice;
	'Tis to his virtue a just equinox,
	The one as long as the other: 'tis pity of him.
	I fear the trust Othello puts him in.
	On some odd time of his infirmity,
	Will shake this island.

MONTANO	But is he often thus?

IAGO	'Tis evermore the prologue to his sleep:
	He'll watch the horologe a double set,
	If drink rock not his cradle.

MONTANO	It were well
	The general were put in mind of it.
	Perhaps he sees it not; or his good nature
	Prizes the virtue that appears in Cassio,
	And looks not on his evils: is not this true?


IAGO	[Aside to him]  How now, Roderigo!
	I pray you, after the lieutenant; go.


MONTANO	And 'tis great pity that the noble Moor
	Should hazard such a place as his own second
	With one of an ingraft infirmity:
	It were an honest action to say
	So to the Moor.

IAGO	                  Not I, for this fair island:
	I do love Cassio well; and would do much
	To cure him of this evil--But, hark! what noise?

	[Cry within: 'Help! help!']

	[Re-enter CASSIO, driving in RODERIGO]

CASSIO	You rogue! you rascal!

MONTANO	What's the matter, lieutenant?

CASSIO	A knave teach me my duty!
	I'll beat the knave into a twiggen bottle.


CASSIO	       Dost thou prate, rogue?

	[Striking RODERIGO]

MONTANO	Nay, good lieutenant;

	[Staying him]

	I pray you, sir, hold your hand.

CASSIO	Let me go, sir,
	Or I'll knock you o'er the mazzard.

MONTANO	Come, come,
		                  you're drunk.


	[They fight]

IAGO	[Aside to RODERIGO]  Away, I say; go out, and cry a mutiny.


	Nay, good lieutenant,--alas, gentlemen;--
	Help, ho!--Lieutenant,--sir,--Montano,--sir;
	Help, masters!--Here's a goodly watch indeed!

	[Bell rings]

	Who's that which rings the bell?--Diablo, ho!
	The town will rise: God's will, lieutenant, hold!
	You will be shamed for ever.

	[Re-enter OTHELLO and Attendants]

OTHELLO	What is the matter here?

MONTANO	'Zounds, I bleed still; I am hurt to the death.


OTHELLO	Hold, for your lives!

IAGO	Hold, ho! Lieutenant,--sir--Montano,--gentlemen,--
	Have you forgot all sense of place and duty?
	Hold! the general speaks to you; hold, hold, for shame!

OTHELLO	Why, how now, ho! from whence ariseth this?
	Are we turn'd Turks, and to ourselves do that
	Which heaven hath forbid the Ottomites?
	For Christian shame, put by this barbarous brawl:
	He that stirs next to carve for his own rage
	Holds his soul light; he dies upon his motion.
	Silence that dreadful bell: it frights the isle
	From her propriety. What is the matter, masters?
	Honest Iago, that look'st dead with grieving,
	Speak, who began this? on thy love, I charge thee.

IAGO	I do not know: friends all but now, even now,
	In quarter, and in terms like bride and groom
	Devesting them for bed; and then, but now--
	As if some planet had unwitted men--
	Swords out, and tilting one at other's breast,
	In opposition bloody. I cannot speak
	Any beginning to this peevish odds;
	And would in action glorious I had lost
	Those legs that brought me to a part of it!

OTHELLO	How comes it, Michael, you are thus forgot?

CASSIO	I pray you, pardon me; I cannot speak.

OTHELLO	Worthy Montano, you were wont be civil;
	The gravity and stillness of your youth
	The world hath noted, and your name is great
	In mouths of wisest censure: what's the matter,
	That you unlace your reputation thus
	And spend your rich opinion for the name
	Of a night-brawler? give me answer to it.

MONTANO	Worthy Othello, I am hurt to danger:
	Your officer, Iago, can inform you,--
	While I spare speech, which something now
	offends me,--
	Of all that I do know: nor know I aught
	By me that's said or done amiss this night;
	Unless self-charity be sometimes a vice,
	And to defend ourselves it be a sin
	When violence assails us.

OTHELLO	Now, by heaven,
	My blood begins my safer guides to rule;
	And passion, having my best judgment collied,
	Assays to lead the way: if I once stir,
	Or do but lift this arm, the best of you
	Shall sink in my rebuke. Give me to know
	How this foul rout began, who set it on;
	And he that is approved in this offence,
	Though he had twinn'd with me, both at a birth,
	Shall lose me. What! in a town of war,
	Yet wild, the people's hearts brimful of fear,
	To manage private and domestic quarrel,
	In night, and on the court and guard of safety!
	'Tis monstrous. Iago, who began't?

MONTANO	If partially affined, or leagued in office,
	Thou dost deliver more or less than truth,
	Thou art no soldier.

IAGO	Touch me not so near:
	I had rather have this tongue cut from my mouth
	Than it should do offence to Michael Cassio;
	Yet, I persuade myself, to speak the truth
	Shall nothing wrong him. Thus it is, general.
	Montano and myself being in speech,
	There comes a fellow crying out for help:
	And Cassio following him with determined sword,
	To execute upon him. Sir, this gentleman
	Steps in to Cassio, and entreats his pause:
	Myself the crying fellow did pursue,
	Lest by his clamour--as it so fell out--
	The town might fall in fright: he, swift of foot,
	Outran my purpose; and I return'd the rather
	For that I heard the clink and fall of swords,
	And Cassio high in oath; which till to-night
	I ne'er might say before. When I came back--
	For this was brief--I found them close together,
	At blow and thrust; even as again they were
	When you yourself did part them.
	More of this matter cannot I report:
	But men are men; the best sometimes forget:
	Though Cassio did some little wrong to him,
	As men in rage strike those that wish them best,
	Yet surely Cassio, I believe, received
	From him that fled some strange indignity,
	Which patience could not pass.

OTHELLO	I know, Iago,
	Thy honesty and love doth mince this matter,
	Making it light to Cassio. Cassio, I love thee
	But never more be officer of mine.

	[Re-enter DESDEMONA, attended]

	Look, if my gentle love be not raised up!
	I'll make thee an example.

DESDEMONA	What's the matter?

OTHELLO	All's well now, sweeting; come away to bed.
	Sir, for your hurts, myself will be your surgeon:
	Lead him off.

	[To MONTANO, who is led off]

	Iago, look with care about the town,
	And silence those whom this vile brawl distracted.
	Come, Desdemona: 'tis the soldiers' life
	To have their balmy slumbers waked with strife.

	[Exeunt all but IAGO and CASSIO]

IAGO	What, are you hurt, lieutenant?

CASSIO	Ay, past all surgery.

IAGO	Marry, heaven forbid!

CASSIO	Reputation, reputation, reputation! O, I have lost
	my reputation! I have lost the immortal part of
	myself, and what remains is bestial. My reputation,
	Iago, my reputation!

IAGO	As I am an honest man, I thought you had received
	some bodily wound; there is more sense in that than
	in reputation. Reputation is an idle and most false
	imposition: oft got without merit, and lost without
	deserving: you have lost no reputation at all,
	unless you repute yourself such a loser. What, man!
	there are ways to recover the general again: you
	are but now cast in his mood, a punishment more in
	policy than in malice, even so as one would beat his
	offenceless dog to affright an imperious lion: sue
	to him again, and he's yours.

CASSIO	I will rather sue to be despised than to deceive so
	good a commander with so slight, so drunken, and so
	indiscreet an officer. Drunk? and speak parrot?
	and squabble? swagger? swear? and discourse
	fustian with one's own shadow? O thou invisible
	spirit of wine, if thou hast no name to be known by,
	let us call thee devil!

IAGO	What was he that you followed with your sword? What
	had he done to you?

CASSIO	I know not.

IAGO	Is't possible?

CASSIO	I remember a mass of things, but nothing distinctly;
	a quarrel, but nothing wherefore. O God, that men
	should put an enemy in their mouths to steal away
	their brains! that we should, with joy, pleasance
	revel and applause, transform ourselves into beasts!

IAGO	Why, but you are now well enough: how came you thus

CASSIO	It hath pleased the devil drunkenness to give place
	to the devil wrath; one unperfectness shows me
	another, to make me frankly despise myself.

IAGO	Come, you are too severe a moraler: as the time,
	the place, and the condition of this country
	stands, I could heartily wish this had not befallen;
	but, since it is as it is, mend it for your own good.

CASSIO	I will ask him for my place again; he shall tell me
	I am a drunkard! Had I as many mouths as Hydra,
	such an answer would stop them all. To be now a
	sensible man, by and by a fool, and presently a
	beast! O strange! Every inordinate cup is
	unblessed and the ingredient is a devil.

IAGO	Come, come, good wine is a good familiar creature,
	if it be well used: exclaim no more against it.
	And, good lieutenant, I think you think I love you.

CASSIO	I have well approved it, sir. I drunk!

IAGO	You or any man living may be drunk! at a time, man.
	I'll tell you what you shall do. Our general's wife
	is now the general: may say so in this respect, for
	that he hath devoted and given up himself to the
	contemplation, mark, and denotement of her parts and
	graces: confess yourself freely to her; importune
	her help to put you in your place again: she is of
	so free, so kind, so apt, so blessed a disposition,
	she holds it a vice in her goodness not to do more
	than she is requested: this broken joint between
	you and her husband entreat her to splinter; and, my
	fortunes against any lay worth naming, this
	crack of your love shall grow stronger than it was before.

CASSIO	You advise me well.

IAGO	I protest, in the sincerity of love and honest kindness.

CASSIO	I think it freely; and betimes in the morning I will
	beseech the virtuous Desdemona to undertake for me:
	I am desperate of my fortunes if they cheque me here.

IAGO	You are in the right. Good night, lieutenant; I
	must to the watch.

CASSIO: Good night, honest Iago.


IAGO	And what's he then that says I play the villain?
	When this advice is free I give and honest,
	Probal to thinking and indeed the course
	To win the Moor again? For 'tis most easy
	The inclining Desdemona to subdue
	In any honest suit: she's framed as fruitful
	As the free elements. And then for her
	To win the Moor--were't to renounce his baptism,
	All seals and symbols of redeemed sin,
	His soul is so enfetter'd to her love,
	That she may make, unmake, do what she list,
	Even as her appetite shall play the god
	With his weak function. How am I then a villain
	To counsel Cassio to this parallel course,
	Directly to his good? Divinity of hell!
	When devils will the blackest sins put on,
	They do suggest at first with heavenly shows,
	As I do now: for whiles this honest fool
	Plies Desdemona to repair his fortunes
	And she for him pleads strongly to the Moor,
	I'll pour this pestilence into his ear,
	That she repeals him for her body's lust;
	And by how much she strives to do him good,
	She shall undo her credit with the Moor.
	So will I turn her virtue into pitch,
	And out of her own goodness make the net
	That shall enmesh them all.

	[Re-enter RODERIGO]

		      How now, Roderigo!

RODERIGO	I do follow here in the chase, not like a hound that
	hunts, but one that fills up the cry. My money is
	almost spent; I have been to-night exceedingly well
	cudgelled; and I think the issue will be, I shall
	have so much experience for my pains, and so, with
	no money at all and a little more wit, return again to Venice.

IAGO	How poor are they that have not patience!
	What wound did ever heal but by degrees?
	Thou know'st we work by wit, and not by witchcraft;
	And wit depends on dilatory time.
	Does't not go well? Cassio hath beaten thee.
	And thou, by that small hurt, hast cashier'd Cassio:
	Though other things grow fair against the sun,
	Yet fruits that blossom first will first be ripe:
	Content thyself awhile. By the mass, 'tis morning;
	Pleasure and action make the hours seem short.
	Retire thee; go where thou art billeted:
	Away, I say; thou shalt know more hereafter:
	Nay, get thee gone.


	Two things are to be done:
	My wife must move for Cassio to her mistress;
	I'll set her on;
	Myself the while to draw the Moor apart,
	And bring him jump when he may Cassio find
	Soliciting his wife: ay, that's the way
	Dull not device by coldness and delay.




SCENE I	Before the castle.

	[Enter CASSIO and some Musicians]

CASSIO	Masters, play here; I will content your pains;
	Something that's brief; and bid 'Good morrow, general.'


	[Enter Clown]

Clown	Why masters, have your instruments been in Naples,
	that they speak i' the nose thus?

First Musician	How, sir, how!

Clown	Are these, I pray you, wind-instruments?

First Musician	Ay, marry, are they, sir.

Clown	O, thereby hangs a tail.

First Musician	Whereby hangs a tale, sir?

Clown	Marry. sir, by many a wind-instrument that I know.
	But, masters, here's money for you: and the general
	so likes your music, that he desires you, for love's
	sake, to make no more noise with it.

First Musician	Well, sir, we will not.

Clown	If you have any music that may not be heard, to't
	again: but, as they say to hear music the general
	does not greatly care.

First Musician	We have none such, sir.

Clown	Then put up your pipes in your bag, for I'll away:
	go; vanish into air; away!

	[Exeunt Musicians]

CASSIO	Dost thou hear, my honest friend?

Clown	No, I hear not your honest friend; I hear you.

CASSIO	Prithee, keep up thy quillets. There's a poor piece
	of gold for thee: if the gentlewoman that attends
	the general's wife be stirring, tell her there's
	one Cassio entreats her a little favour of speech:
	wilt thou do this?

Clown	She is stirring, sir: if she will stir hither, I
	shall seem to notify unto her.

CASSIO	Do, good my friend.

	[Exit Clown]

	[Enter IAGO]

	In happy time, Iago.

IAGO	You have not been a-bed, then?

CASSIO	Why, no; the day had broke
	Before we parted. I have made bold, Iago,
	To send in to your wife: my suit to her
	Is, that she will to virtuous Desdemona
	Procure me some access.

IAGO	I'll send her to you presently;
	And I'll devise a mean to draw the Moor
	Out of the way, that your converse and business
	May be more free.

CASSIO	I humbly thank you for't.

	[Exit IAGO]

		    I never knew
	A Florentine more kind and honest.

	[Enter EMILIA]

EMILIA	Good morrow, good Lieutenant: I am sorry
	For your displeasure; but all will sure be well.
	The general and his wife are talking of it;
	And she speaks for you stoutly: the Moor replies,
	That he you hurt is of great fame in Cyprus,
	And great affinity, and that in wholesome wisdom
	He might not but refuse you; but he protests he loves you
	And needs no other suitor but his likings
	To take the safest occasion by the front
	To bring you in again.

CASSIO	Yet, I beseech you,
	If you think fit, or that it may be done,
	Give me advantage of some brief discourse
	With Desdemona alone.

EMILIA	Pray you, come in;
	I will bestow you where you shall have time
	To speak your bosom freely.

CASSIO	I am much bound to you.




SCENE II	A room in the castle.

	[Enter OTHELLO, IAGO, and Gentlemen]

OTHELLO	These letters give, Iago, to the pilot;
	And by him do my duties to the senate:
	That done, I will be walking on the works;
	Repair there to me.

IAGO	Well, my good lord, I'll do't.

OTHELLO	This fortification, gentlemen, shall we see't?

Gentleman	We'll wait upon your lordship.




SCENE III	The garden of the castle.


DESDEMONA	Be thou assured, good Cassio, I will do
	All my abilities in thy behalf.

EMILIA	Good madam, do: I warrant it grieves my husband,
	As if the case were his.

DESDEMONA	O, that's an honest fellow. Do not doubt, Cassio,
	But I will have my lord and you again
	As friendly as you were.

CASSIO	Bounteous madam,
	Whatever shall become of Michael Cassio,
	He's never any thing but your true servant.

DESDEMONA	I know't; I thank you. You do love my lord:
	You have known him long; and be you well assured
	He shall in strangeness stand no further off
	Than in a polite distance.

CASSIO	Ay, but, lady,
	That policy may either last so long,
	Or feed upon such nice and waterish diet,
	Or breed itself so out of circumstance,
	That, I being absent and my place supplied,
	My general will forget my love and service.

DESDEMONA	Do not doubt that; before Emilia here
	I give thee warrant of thy place: assure thee,
	If I do vow a friendship, I'll perform it
	To the last article: my lord shall never rest;
	I'll watch him tame and talk him out of patience;
	His bed shall seem a school, his board a shrift;
	I'll intermingle every thing he does
	With Cassio's suit: therefore be merry, Cassio;
	For thy solicitor shall rather die
	Than give thy cause away.

EMILIA	Madam, here comes my lord.

CASSIO	Madam, I'll take my leave.

DESDEMONA	Why, stay, and hear me speak.

CASSIO	Madam, not now: I am very ill at ease,
	Unfit for mine own purposes.

DESDEMONA	Well, do your discretion.

	[Exit CASSIO]

	[Enter OTHELLO and IAGO]

IAGO	Ha! I like not that.

OTHELLO	What dost thou say?

IAGO	Nothing, my lord: or if--I know not what.

OTHELLO	Was not that Cassio parted from my wife?

IAGO	Cassio, my lord! No, sure, I cannot think it,
	That he would steal away so guilty-like,
	Seeing you coming.

OTHELLO	                  I do believe 'twas he.

DESDEMONA	How now, my lord!
	I have been talking with a suitor here,
	A man that languishes in your displeasure.

OTHELLO	Who is't you mean?

DESDEMONA	Why, your lieutenant, Cassio. Good my lord,
	If I have any grace or power to move you,
	His present reconciliation take;
	For if he be not one that truly loves you,
	That errs in ignorance and not in cunning,
	I have no judgment in an honest face:
	I prithee, call him back.

OTHELLO	Went he hence now?

DESDEMONA	Ay, sooth; so humbled
	That he hath left part of his grief with me,
	To suffer with him. Good love, call him back.

OTHELLO	Not now, sweet Desdemona; some other time.

DESDEMONA	But shall't be shortly?

OTHELLO	The sooner, sweet, for you.

DESDEMONA	Shall't be to-night at supper?

OTHELLO	No, not to-night.

DESDEMONA	To-morrow dinner, then?

OTHELLO	I shall not dine at home;
	I meet the captains at the citadel.

DESDEMONA	Why, then, to-morrow night; or Tuesday morn;
	On Tuesday noon, or night; on Wednesday morn:
	I prithee, name the time, but let it not
	Exceed three days: in faith, he's penitent;
	And yet his trespass, in our common reason--
	Save that, they say, the wars must make examples
	Out of their best--is not almost a fault
	To incur a private cheque. When shall he come?
	Tell me, Othello: I wonder in my soul,
	What you would ask me, that I should deny,
	Or stand so mammering on. What! Michael Cassio,
	That came a-wooing with you, and so many a time,
	When I have spoke of you dispraisingly,
	Hath ta'en your part; to have so much to do
	To bring him in! Trust me, I could do much,--

OTHELLO	Prithee, no more: let him come when he will;
	I will deny thee nothing.

DESDEMONA	Why, this is not a boon;
	'Tis as I should entreat you wear your gloves,
	Or feed on nourishing dishes, or keep you warm,
	Or sue to you to do a peculiar profit
	To your own person: nay, when I have a suit
	Wherein I mean to touch your love indeed,
	It shall be full of poise and difficult weight
	And fearful to be granted.

OTHELLO	I will deny thee nothing:
	Whereon, I do beseech thee, grant me this,
	To leave me but a little to myself.

DESDEMONA	Shall I deny you? no: farewell, my lord.

OTHELLO	Farewell, my Desdemona: I'll come to thee straight.

DESDEMONA	Emilia, come. Be as your fancies teach you;
	Whate'er you be, I am obedient.


OTHELLO	Excellent wretch! Perdition catch my soul,
	But I do love thee! and when I love thee not,
	Chaos is come again.

IAGO	My noble lord--

OTHELLO	                  What dost thou say, Iago?

IAGO	Did Michael Cassio, when you woo'd my lady,
	Know of your love?

OTHELLO	He did, from first to last: why dost thou ask?

IAGO	But for a satisfaction of my thought;
	No further harm.

OTHELLO	                  Why of thy thought, Iago?

IAGO	I did not think he had been acquainted with her.

OTHELLO	O, yes; and went between us very oft.

IAGO	Indeed!

OTHELLO	Indeed! ay, indeed: discern'st thou aught in that?
	Is he not honest?

IAGO	Honest, my lord!

OTHELLO	                  Honest! ay, honest.

IAGO	My lord, for aught I know.

OTHELLO	What dost thou think?

IAGO	Think, my lord!

OTHELLO	Think, my lord!
	By heaven, he echoes me,
	As if there were some monster in his thought
	Too hideous to be shown. Thou dost mean something:
	I heard thee say even now, thou likedst not that,
	When Cassio left my wife: what didst not like?
	And when I told thee he was of my counsel
	In my whole course of wooing, thou criedst 'Indeed!'
	And didst contract and purse thy brow together,
	As if thou then hadst shut up in thy brain
	Some horrible conceit: if thou dost love me,
	Show me thy thought.

IAGO	My lord, you know I love you.

OTHELLO	I think thou dost;
	And, for I know thou'rt full of love and honesty,
	And weigh'st thy words before thou givest them breath,
	Therefore these stops of thine fright me the more:
	For such things in a false disloyal knave
	Are tricks of custom, but in a man that's just
	They are close delations, working from the heart
	That passion cannot rule.

IAGO	For Michael Cassio,
	I dare be sworn I think that he is honest.

OTHELLO	I think so too.

IAGO	                  Men should be what they seem;
	Or those that be not, would they might seem none!

OTHELLO	Certain, men should be what they seem.

IAGO	Why, then, I think Cassio's an honest man.

OTHELLO	Nay, yet there's more in this:
	I prithee, speak to me as to thy thinkings,
	As thou dost ruminate, and give thy worst of thoughts
	The worst of words.

IAGO	Good my lord, pardon me:
	Though I am bound to every act of duty,
	I am not bound to that all slaves are free to.
	Utter my thoughts? Why, say they are vile and false;
	As where's that palace whereinto foul things
	Sometimes intrude not? who has a breast so pure,
	But some uncleanly apprehensions
	Keep leets and law-days and in session sit
	With meditations lawful?

OTHELLO	Thou dost conspire against thy friend, Iago,
	If thou but think'st him wrong'd and makest his ear
	A stranger to thy thoughts.

IAGO	I do beseech you--
	Though I perchance am vicious in my guess,
	As, I confess, it is my nature's plague
	To spy into abuses, and oft my jealousy
	Shapes faults that are not--that your wisdom yet,
	From one that so imperfectly conceits,
	Would take no notice, nor build yourself a trouble
	Out of his scattering and unsure observance.
	It were not for your quiet nor your good,
	Nor for my manhood, honesty, or wisdom,
	To let you know my thoughts.

OTHELLO	What dost thou mean?

IAGO	Good name in man and woman, dear my lord,
	Is the immediate jewel of their souls:
	Who steals my purse steals trash; 'tis something, nothing;
	'Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands:
	But he that filches from me my good name
	Robs me of that which not enriches him
	And makes me poor indeed.

OTHELLO	By heaven, I'll know thy thoughts.

IAGO	You cannot, if my heart were in your hand;
	Nor shall not, whilst 'tis in my custody.


IAGO	O, beware, my lord, of jealousy;
	It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock
	The meat it feeds on; that cuckold lives in bliss
	Who, certain of his fate, loves not his wronger;
	But, O, what damned minutes tells he o'er
	Who dotes, yet doubts, suspects, yet strongly loves!

OTHELLO	O misery!

IAGO	Poor and content is rich and rich enough,
	But riches fineless is as poor as winter
	To him that ever fears he shall be poor.
	Good heaven, the souls of all my tribe defend
	From jealousy!

OTHELLO	                  Why, why is this?
	Think'st thou I'ld make a lie of jealousy,
	To follow still the changes of the moon
	With fresh suspicions? No; to be once in doubt
	Is once to be resolved: exchange me for a goat,
	When I shall turn the business of my soul
	To such exsufflicate and blown surmises,
	Matching thy inference. 'Tis not to make me jealous
	To say my wife is fair, feeds well, loves company,
	Is free of speech, sings, plays and dances well;
	Where virtue is, these are more virtuous:
	Nor from mine own weak merits will I draw
	The smallest fear or doubt of her revolt;
	For she had eyes, and chose me. No, Iago;
	I'll see before I doubt; when I doubt, prove;
	And on the proof, there is no more but this,--
	Away at once with love or jealousy!

IAGO	I am glad of it; for now I shall have reason
	To show the love and duty that I bear you
	With franker spirit: therefore, as I am bound,
	Receive it from me. I speak not yet of proof.
	Look to your wife; observe her well with Cassio;
	Wear your eye thus, not jealous nor secure:
	I would not have your free and noble nature,
	Out of self-bounty, be abused; look to't:
	I know our country disposition well;
	In Venice they do let heaven see the pranks
	They dare not show their husbands; their best conscience
	Is not to leave't undone, but keep't unknown.

OTHELLO	Dost thou say so?

IAGO	She did deceive her father, marrying you;
	And when she seem'd to shake and fear your looks,
	She loved them most.

OTHELLO	And so she did.

IAGO	Why, go to then;
	She that, so young, could give out such a seeming,
	To seal her father's eyes up close as oak-
	He thought 'twas witchcraft--but I am much to blame;
	I humbly do beseech you of your pardon
	For too much loving you.

OTHELLO	I am bound to thee for ever.

IAGO	I see this hath a little dash'd your spirits.

OTHELLO	Not a jot, not a jot.

IAGO	I' faith, I fear it has.
	I hope you will consider what is spoke
	Comes from my love. But I do see you're moved:
	I am to pray you not to strain my speech
	To grosser issues nor to larger reach
	Than to suspicion.

OTHELLO	I will not.

IAGO	          Should you do so, my lord,
	My speech should fall into such vile success
	As my thoughts aim not at. Cassio's my worthy friend--
	My lord, I see you're moved.

OTHELLO	No, not much moved:
	I do not think but Desdemona's honest.

IAGO	Long live she so! and long live you to think so!

OTHELLO	And yet, how nature erring from itself,--

IAGO	Ay, there's the point: as--to be bold with you--
	Not to affect many proposed matches
	Of her own clime, complexion, and degree,
	Whereto we see in all things nature tends--
	Foh! one may smell in such a will most rank,
	Foul disproportion thoughts unnatural.
	But pardon me; I do not in position
	Distinctly speak of her; though I may fear
	Her will, recoiling to her better judgment,
	May fall to match you with her country forms
	And happily repent.

OTHELLO	Farewell, farewell:
	If more thou dost perceive, let me know more;
	Set on thy wife to observe: leave me, Iago:

IAGO	[Going]  My lord, I take my leave.

OTHELLO	Why did I marry? This honest creature doubtless
	Sees and knows more, much more, than he unfolds.

IAGO	[Returning]  My lord, I would I might entreat
	your honour
	To scan this thing no further; leave it to time:
	Though it be fit that Cassio have his place,
	For sure, he fills it up with great ability,
	Yet, if you please to hold him off awhile,
	You shall by that perceive him and his means:
	Note, if your lady strain his entertainment
	With any strong or vehement importunity;
	Much will be seen in that. In the mean time,
	Let me be thought too busy in my fears--
	As worthy cause I have to fear I am--
	And hold her free, I do beseech your honour.

OTHELLO	Fear not my government.

IAGO	I once more take my leave.


OTHELLO	This fellow's of exceeding honesty,
	And knows all qualities, with a learned spirit,
	Of human dealings. If I do prove her haggard,
	Though that her jesses were my dear heartstrings,
	I'ld whistle her off and let her down the wind,
	To pray at fortune. Haply, for I am black
	And have not those soft parts of conversation
	That chamberers have, or for I am declined
	Into the vale of years,--yet that's not much--
	She's gone. I am abused; and my relief
	Must be to loathe her. O curse of marriage,
	That we can call these delicate creatures ours,
	And not their appetites! I had rather be a toad,
	And live upon the vapour of a dungeon,
	Than keep a corner in the thing I love
	For others' uses. Yet, 'tis the plague of great ones;
	Prerogatived are they less than the base;
	'Tis destiny unshunnable, like death:
	Even then this forked plague is fated to us
	When we do quicken. Desdemona comes:

	[Re-enter DESDEMONA and EMILIA]

	If she be false, O, then heaven mocks itself!
	I'll not believe't.

DESDEMONA	How now, my dear Othello!
	Your dinner, and the generous islanders
	By you invited, do attend your presence.

OTHELLO	I am to blame.

DESDEMONA	                  Why do you speak so faintly?
	Are you not well?

OTHELLO	I have a pain upon my forehead here.

DESDEMONA	'Faith, that's with watching; 'twill away again:
	Let me but bind it hard, within this hour
	It will be well.

OTHELLO	                  Your napkin is too little:

	[He puts the handkerchief from him; and it drops]

	Let it alone. Come, I'll go in with you.

DESDEMONA	I am very sorry that you are not well.


EMILIA	I am glad I have found this napkin:
	This was her first remembrance from the Moor:
	My wayward husband hath a hundred times
	Woo'd me to steal it; but she so loves the token,
	For he conjured her she should ever keep it,
	That she reserves it evermore about her
	To kiss and talk to. I'll have the work ta'en out,
	And give't Iago: what he will do with it
	Heaven knows, not I;
	I nothing but to please his fantasy.

	[Re-enter Iago]

IAGO	How now! what do you here alone?

EMILIA	Do not you chide; I have a thing for you.

IAGO	A thing for me? it is a common thing--


IAGO	To have a foolish wife.

EMILIA	O, is that all? What will you give me now
	For the same handkerchief?

IAGO	What handkerchief?

EMILIA	What handkerchief?
	Why, that the Moor first gave to Desdemona;
	That which so often you did bid me steal.

IAGO	Hast stol'n it from her?

EMILIA	No, 'faith; she let it drop by negligence.
	And, to the advantage, I, being here, took't up.
	Look, here it is.

IAGO	                  A good wench; give it me.

EMILIA	What will you do with 't, that you have been
	so earnest
	To have me filch it?

IAGO	[Snatching it]  Why, what's that to you?

EMILIA	If it be not for some purpose of import,
	Give't me again: poor lady, she'll run mad
	When she shall lack it.

IAGO	Be not acknown on 't; I have use for it.
	Go, leave me.

	[Exit EMILIA]

	I will in Cassio's lodging lose this napkin,
	And let him find it. Trifles light as air
	Are to the jealous confirmations strong
	As proofs of holy writ: this may do something.
	The Moor already changes with my poison:
	Dangerous conceits are, in their natures, poisons.
	Which at the first are scarce found to distaste,
	But with a little act upon the blood.
	Burn like the mines of Sulphur. I did say so:
	Look, where he comes!

	[Re-enter OTHELLO]

		Not poppy, nor mandragora,
	Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,
	Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep
	Which thou owedst yesterday.

OTHELLO	Ha! ha! false to me?

IAGO	Why, how now, general! no more of that.

OTHELLO	Avaunt! be gone! thou hast set me on the rack:
	I swear 'tis better to be much abused
	Than but to know't a little.

IAGO	How now, my lord!

OTHELLO	What sense had I of her stol'n hours of lust?
	I saw't not, thought it not, it harm'd not me:
	I slept the next night well, was free and merry;
	I found not Cassio's kisses on her lips:
	He that is robb'd, not wanting what is stol'n,
	Let him not know't, and he's not robb'd at all.

IAGO	I am sorry to hear this.

OTHELLO	I had been happy, if the general camp,
	Pioners and all, had tasted her sweet body,
	So I had nothing known. O, now, for ever
	Farewell the tranquil mind! farewell content!
	Farewell the plumed troop, and the big wars,
	That make ambition virtue! O, farewell!
	Farewell the neighing steed, and the shrill trump,
	The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife,
	The royal banner, and all quality,
	Pride, pomp and circumstance of glorious war!
	And, O you mortal engines, whose rude throats
	The immortal Jove's dead clamours counterfeit,
	Farewell! Othello's occupation's gone!

IAGO	Is't possible, my lord?

OTHELLO	Villain, be sure thou prove my love a whore,
	Be sure of it; give me the ocular proof:
	Or by the worth of man's eternal soul,
	Thou hadst been better have been born a dog
	Than answer my waked wrath!

IAGO	Is't come to this?

OTHELLO	Make me to see't; or, at the least, so prove it,
	That the probation bear no hinge nor loop
	To hang a doubt on; or woe upon thy life!

IAGO	My noble lord,--

OTHELLO	If thou dost slander her and torture me,
	Never pray more; abandon all remorse;
	On horror's head horrors accumulate;
	Do deeds to make heaven weep, all earth amazed;
	For nothing canst thou to damnation add
	Greater than that.

IAGO	                  O grace! O heaven forgive me!
	Are you a man? have you a soul or sense?
	God be wi' you; take mine office. O wretched fool.
	That livest to make thine honesty a vice!
	O monstrous world! Take note, take note, O world,
	To be direct and honest is not safe.
	I thank you for this profit; and from hence
	I'll love no friend, sith love breeds such offence.

OTHELLO	Nay, stay: thou shouldst be honest.

IAGO	I should be wise, for honesty's a fool
	And loses that it works for.

OTHELLO	By the world,
	I think my wife be honest and think she is not;
	I think that thou art just and think thou art not.
	I'll have some proof. Her name, that was as fresh
	As Dian's visage, is now begrimed and black
	As mine own face. If there be cords, or knives,
	Poison, or fire, or suffocating streams,
	I'll not endure it. Would I were satisfied!

IAGO	I see, sir, you are eaten up with passion:
	I do repent me that I put it to you.
	You would be satisfied?

OTHELLO	Would! nay, I will.

IAGO	And may: but, how? how satisfied, my lord?
	Would you, the supervisor, grossly gape on--
	Behold her topp'd?

OTHELLO	                  Death and damnation! O!

IAGO	It were a tedious difficulty, I think,
	To bring them to that prospect: damn them then,
	If ever mortal eyes do see them bolster
	More than their own! What then? how then?
	What shall I say? Where's satisfaction?
	It is impossible you should see this,
	Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys,
	As salt as wolves in pride, and fools as gross
	As ignorance made drunk. But yet, I say,
	If imputation and strong circumstances,
	Which lead directly to the door of truth,
	Will give you satisfaction, you may have't.

OTHELLO	Give me a living reason she's disloyal.

IAGO	I do not like the office:
	But, sith I am enter'd in this cause so far,
	Prick'd to't by foolish honesty and love,
	I will go on. I lay with Cassio lately;
	And, being troubled with a raging tooth,
	I could not sleep.
	There are a kind of men so loose of soul,
	That in their sleeps will mutter their affairs:
	One of this kind is Cassio:
	In sleep I heard him say 'Sweet Desdemona,
	Let us be wary, let us hide our loves;'
	And then, sir, would he gripe and wring my hand,
	Cry 'O sweet creature!' and then kiss me hard,
	As if he pluck'd up kisses by the roots
	That grew upon my lips: then laid his leg
	Over my thigh, and sigh'd, and kiss'd; and then
	Cried 'Cursed fate that gave thee to the Moor!'

OTHELLO	O monstrous! monstrous!

IAGO	Nay, this was but his dream.

OTHELLO	But this denoted a foregone conclusion:
	'Tis a shrewd doubt, though it be but a dream.

IAGO	And this may help to thicken other proofs
	That do demonstrate thinly.

OTHELLO	I'll tear her all to pieces.

IAGO	Nay, but be wise: yet we see nothing done;
	She may be honest yet. Tell me but this,
	Have you not sometimes seen a handkerchief
	Spotted with strawberries in your wife's hand?

OTHELLO	I gave her such a one; 'twas my first gift.

IAGO	I know not that; but such a handkerchief--
	I am sure it was your wife's--did I to-day
	See Cassio wipe his beard with.

OTHELLO	If it be that--

IAGO	If it be that, or any that was hers,
	It speaks against her with the other proofs.

OTHELLO	O, that the slave had forty thousand lives!
	One is too poor, too weak for my revenge.
	Now do I see 'tis true. Look here, Iago;
	All my fond love thus do I blow to heaven.
	'Tis gone.
	Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell!
	Yield up, O love, thy crown and hearted throne
	To tyrannous hate! Swell, bosom, with thy fraught,
	For 'tis of aspics' tongues!

IAGO	Yet be content.

OTHELLO	O, blood, blood, blood!

IAGO	Patience, I say; your mind perhaps may change.

OTHELLO	Never, Iago: Like to the Pontic sea,
	Whose icy current and compulsive course
	Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on
	To the Propontic and the Hellespont,
	Even so my bloody thoughts, with violent pace,
	Shall ne'er look back, ne'er ebb to humble love,
	Till that a capable and wide revenge
	Swallow them up. Now, by yond marble heaven,


	In the due reverence of a sacred vow
	I here engage my words.

IAGO	Do not rise yet.


	Witness, you ever-burning lights above,
	You elements that clip us round about,
	Witness that here Iago doth give up
	The execution of his wit, hands, heart,
	To wrong'd Othello's service! Let him command,
	And to obey shall be in me remorse,
	What bloody business ever.

	[They rise]

OTHELLO	I greet thy love,
	Not with vain thanks, but with acceptance bounteous,
	And will upon the instant put thee to't:
	Within these three days let me hear thee say
	That Cassio's not alive.

IAGO	My friend is dead; 'tis done at your request:
	But let her live.

OTHELLO	Damn her, lewd minx! O, damn her!
	Come, go with me apart; I will withdraw,
	To furnish me with some swift means of death
	For the fair devil. Now art thou my lieutenant.

IAGO	I am your own for ever.




SCENE IV	Before the castle.

	[Enter DESDEMONA, EMILIA, and Clown]

DESDEMONA	Do you know, sirrah, where Lieutenant Cassio lies?

Clown	I dare not say he lies any where.


Clown	He's a soldier, and for one to say a soldier lies,
	is stabbing.

DESDEMONA	Go to: where lodges he?

Clown	To tell you where he lodges, is to tell you where I lie.

DESDEMONA	Can any thing be made of this?

Clown	I know not where he lodges, and for me to devise a
	lodging and say he lies here or he lies there, were
	to lie in mine own throat.

DESDEMONA	Can you inquire him out, and be edified by report?

Clown	I will catechise the world for him; that is, make
	questions, and by them answer.

DESDEMONA	Seek him, bid him come hither: tell him I have
	moved my lord on his behalf, and hope all will be well.

Clown	To do this is within the compass of man's wit: and
	therefore I will attempt the doing it.


DESDEMONA	Where should I lose that handkerchief, Emilia?

EMILIA	I know not, madam.

DESDEMONA	Believe me, I had rather have lost my purse
	Full of crusadoes: and, but my noble Moor
	Is true of mind and made of no such baseness
	As jealous creatures are, it were enough
	To put him to ill thinking.

EMILIA	Is he not jealous?

DESDEMONA	Who, he? I think the sun where he was born
	Drew all such humours from him.

EMILIA	Look, where he comes.

DESDEMONA	I will not leave him now till Cassio
	Be call'd to him.

	[Enter OTHELLO]

	How is't with you, my lord

OTHELLO	Well, my good lady.


	O, hardness to dissemble!--
	How do you, Desdemona?

DESDEMONA	Well, my good lord.

OTHELLO	Give me your hand: this hand is moist, my lady.

DESDEMONA	It yet hath felt no age nor known no sorrow.

OTHELLO	This argues fruitfulness and liberal heart:
	Hot, hot, and moist: this hand of yours requires
	A sequester from liberty, fasting and prayer,
	Much castigation, exercise devout;
	For here's a young and sweating devil here,
	That commonly rebels. 'Tis a good hand,
	A frank one.

DESDEMONA	                  You may, indeed, say so;
	For 'twas that hand that gave away my heart.

OTHELLO	A liberal hand: the hearts of old gave hands;
	But our new heraldry is hands, not hearts.

DESDEMONA	I cannot speak of this. Come now, your promise.

OTHELLO	What promise, chuck?

DESDEMONA	I have sent to bid Cassio come speak with you.

OTHELLO	I have a salt and sorry rheum offends me;
	Lend me thy handkerchief.

DESDEMONA	Here, my lord.

OTHELLO	That which I gave you.

DESDEMONA	I have it not about me.


DESDEMONA	   No, indeed, my lord.

OTHELLO	That is a fault.

	That handkerchief
	Did an Egyptian to my mother give;
	She was a charmer, and could almost read
	The thoughts of people: she told her, while
	she kept it,
	'Twould make her amiable and subdue my father
	Entirely to her love, but if she lost it
	Or made gift of it, my father's eye
	Should hold her loathed and his spirits should hunt
	After new fancies: she, dying, gave it me;
	And bid me, when my fate would have me wive,
	To give it her. I did so: and take heed on't;
	Make it a darling like your precious eye;
	To lose't or give't away were such perdition
	As nothing else could match.

DESDEMONA	Is't possible?

OTHELLO	'Tis true: there's magic in the web of it:
	A sibyl, that had number'd in the world
	The sun to course two hundred compasses,
	In her prophetic fury sew'd the work;
	The worms were hallow'd that did breed the silk;
	And it was dyed in mummy which the skilful
	Conserved of maidens' hearts.

DESDEMONA	Indeed! is't true?

OTHELLO	Most veritable; therefore look to't well.

DESDEMONA	Then would to God that I had never seen't!

OTHELLO	Ha! wherefore?

DESDEMONA	Why do you speak so startingly and rash?

OTHELLO	Is't lost? is't gone? speak, is it out
	o' the way?

DESDEMONA	Heaven bless us!

OTHELLO	Say you?

DESDEMONA	It is not lost; but what an if it were?


DESDEMONA	I say, it is not lost.

OTHELLO	Fetch't, let me see't.

DESDEMONA	Why, so I can, sir, but I will not now.
	This is a trick to put me from my suit:
	Pray you, let Cassio be received again.

OTHELLO	Fetch me the handkerchief: my mind misgives.

DESDEMONA	Come, come;
	You'll never meet a more sufficient man.

OTHELLO	The handkerchief!

DESDEMONA	                  I pray, talk me of Cassio.

OTHELLO	The handkerchief!

DESDEMONA	                  A man that all his time
	Hath founded his good fortunes on your love,
	Shared dangers with you,--

OTHELLO	The handkerchief!

DESDEMONA	In sooth, you are to blame.



EMILIA	Is not this man jealous?

DESDEMONA	I ne'er saw this before.
	Sure, there's some wonder in this handkerchief:
	I am most unhappy in the loss of it.

EMILIA	'Tis not a year or two shows us a man:
	They are all but stomachs, and we all but food;
	To eat us hungerly, and when they are full,
	They belch us. Look you, Cassio and my husband!

	[Enter CASSIO and IAGO]

IAGO	There is no other way; 'tis she must do't:
	And, lo, the happiness! go, and importune her.

DESDEMONA	How now, good Cassio! what's the news with you?

CASSIO	Madam, my former suit: I do beseech you
	That by your virtuous means I may again
	Exist, and be a member of his love
	Whom I with all the office of my heart
	Entirely honour: I would not be delay'd.
	If my offence be of such mortal kind
	That nor my service past, nor present sorrows,
	Nor purposed merit in futurity,
	Can ransom me into his love again,
	But to know so must be my benefit;
	So shall I clothe me in a forced content,
	And shut myself up in some other course,
	To fortune's alms.

DESDEMONA	                  Alas, thrice-gentle Cassio!
	My advocation is not now in tune;
	My lord is not my lord; nor should I know him,
	Were he in favour as in humour alter'd.
	So help me every spirit sanctified,
	As I have spoken for you all my best
	And stood within the blank of his displeasure
	For my free speech! you must awhile be patient:
	What I can do I will; and more I will
	Than for myself I dare: let that suffice you.

IAGO	Is my lord angry?

EMILIA	                  He went hence but now,
	And certainly in strange unquietness.

IAGO	Can he be angry? I have seen the cannon,
	When it hath blown his ranks into the air,
	And, like the devil, from his very arm
	Puff'd his own brother:--and can he be angry?
	Something of moment then: I will go meet him:
	There's matter in't indeed, if he be angry.

DESDEMONA	I prithee, do so.

	[Exit IAGO]

	Something, sure, of state,
	Either from Venice, or some unhatch'd practise
	Made demonstrable here in Cyprus to him,
	Hath puddled his clear spirit: and in such cases
	Men's natures wrangle with inferior things,
	Though great ones are their object. 'Tis even so;
	For let our finger ache, and it indues
	Our other healthful members even to that sense
	Of pain: nay, we must think men are not gods,
	Nor of them look for such observances
	As fit the bridal. Beshrew me much, Emilia,
	I was, unhandsome warrior as I am,
	Arraigning his unkindness with my soul;
	But now I find I had suborn'd the witness,
	And he's indicted falsely.

EMILIA	Pray heaven it be state-matters, as you think,
	And no conception nor no jealous toy
	Concerning you.

DESDEMONA	Alas the day! I never gave him cause.

EMILIA	But jealous souls will not be answer'd so;
	They are not ever jealous for the cause,
	But jealous for they are jealous: 'tis a monster
	Begot upon itself, born on itself.

DESDEMONA	Heaven keep that monster from Othello's mind!

EMILIA	Lady, amen.

DESDEMONA	I will go seek him. Cassio, walk hereabout:
	If I do find him fit, I'll move your suit
	And seek to effect it to my uttermost.

CASSIO	I humbly thank your ladyship.


	[Enter BIANCA]

BIANCA	Save you, friend Cassio!

CASSIO	What make you from home?
	How is it with you, my most fair Bianca?
	I' faith, sweet love, I was coming to your house.

BIANCA	And I was going to your lodging, Cassio.
	What, keep a week away? seven days and nights?
	Eight score eight hours? and lovers' absent hours,
	More tedious than the dial eight score times?
	O weary reckoning!

CASSIO	                  Pardon me, Bianca:
	I have this while with leaden thoughts been press'd:
	But I shall, in a more continuate time,
	Strike off this score of absence. Sweet Bianca,

	[Giving her DESDEMONA's handkerchief]

	Take me this work out.

BIANCA	O Cassio, whence came this?
	This is some token from a newer friend:
	To the felt absence now I feel a cause:
	Is't come to this? Well, well.

CASSIO	Go to, woman!
	Throw your vile guesses in the devil's teeth,
	From whence you have them. You are jealous now
	That this is from some mistress, some remembrance:
	No, in good troth, Bianca.

BIANCA	Why, whose is it?

CASSIO	I know not, sweet: I found it in my chamber.
	I like the work well: ere it be demanded--
	As like enough it will--I'ld have it copied:
	Take it, and do't; and leave me for this time.

BIANCA	Leave you! wherefore?

CASSIO	I do attend here on the general;
	And think it no addition, nor my wish,
	To have him see me woman'd.

BIANCA	Why, I pray you?

CASSIO	Not that I love you not.

BIANCA	But that you do not love me.
	I pray you, bring me on the way a little,
	And say if I shall see you soon at night.

CASSIO	'Tis but a little way that I can bring you;
	For I attend here: but I'll see you soon.

BIANCA	'Tis very good; I must be circumstanced.




SCENE I	Cyprus. Before the castle.

	[Enter OTHELLO and IAGO]

IAGO	Will you think so?

OTHELLO	                  Think so, Iago!

IAGO	What,
	To kiss in private?

OTHELLO	An unauthorized kiss.

IAGO	Or to be naked with her friend in bed
	An hour or more, not meaning any harm?

OTHELLO	Naked in bed, Iago, and not mean harm!
	It is hypocrisy against the devil:
	They that mean virtuously, and yet do so,
	The devil their virtue tempts, and they tempt heaven.

IAGO	So they do nothing, 'tis a venial slip:
	But if I give my wife a handkerchief,--

OTHELLO	What then?

IAGO	Why, then, 'tis hers, my lord; and, being hers,
	She may, I think, bestow't on any man.

OTHELLO	She is protectress of her honour too:
	May she give that?

IAGO	Her honour is an essence that's not seen;
	They have it very oft that have it not:
	But, for the handkerchief,--

OTHELLO	By heaven, I would most gladly have forgot it.
	Thou said'st, it comes o'er my memory,
	As doth the raven o'er the infected house,
	Boding to all--he had my handkerchief.

IAGO	Ay, what of that?

OTHELLO	                  That's not so good now.

IAGO	What,
	If I had said I had seen him do you wrong?
	Or heard him say,--as knaves be such abroad,
	Who having, by their own importunate suit,
	Or voluntary dotage of some mistress,
	Convinced or supplied them, cannot choose
	But they must blab--

OTHELLO	Hath he said any thing?

IAGO	He hath, my lord; but be you well assured,
	No more than he'll unswear.

OTHELLO	What hath he said?

IAGO	'Faith, that he did--I know not what he did.

OTHELLO	What? what?

IAGO	Lie--

OTHELLO	    With her?

IAGO	With her, on her; what you will.

OTHELLO	Lie with her! lie on her! We say lie on her, when
	they belie her. Lie with her! that's fulsome.
	confess, and be hanged for his labour;--first, to be
	hanged, and then to confess.--I tremble at it.
	Nature would not invest herself in such shadowing
	passion without some instruction. It is not words
	that shake me thus. Pish! Noses, ears, and lips.
	--Is't possible?--Confess--handkerchief!--O devil!--

	[Falls in a trance]

IAGO	Work on,
	My medicine, work! Thus credulous fools are caught;
	And many worthy and chaste dames even thus,
	All guiltless, meet reproach. What, ho! my lord!
	My lord, I say! Othello!

	[Enter CASSIO]

		    How now, Cassio!

CASSIO	What's the matter?

IAGO	My lord is fall'n into an epilepsy:
	This is his second fit; he had one yesterday.

CASSIO	Rub him about the temples.

IAGO	No, forbear;
	The lethargy must have his quiet course:
	If not, he foams at mouth and by and by
	Breaks out to savage madness. Look he stirs:
	Do you withdraw yourself a little while,
	He will recover straight: when he is gone,
	I would on great occasion speak with you.

	[Exit CASSIO]

	How is it, general? have you not hurt your head?

OTHELLO	Dost thou mock me?

IAGO	                  I mock you! no, by heaven.
	Would you would bear your fortune like a man!

OTHELLO	A horned man's a monster and a beast.

IAGO	There's many a beast then in a populous city,
	And many a civil monster.

OTHELLO	Did he confess it?

IAGO	                  Good sir, be a man;
	Think every bearded fellow that's but yoked
	May draw with you: there's millions now alive
	That nightly lie in those unproper beds
	Which they dare swear peculiar: your case is better.
	O, 'tis the spite of hell, the fiend's arch-mock,
	To lip a wanton in a secure couch,
	And to suppose her chaste! No, let me know;
	And knowing what I am, I know what she shall be.

OTHELLO	O, thou art wise; 'tis certain.

IAGO	Stand you awhile apart;
	Confine yourself but in a patient list.
	Whilst you were here o'erwhelmed with your grief--
	A passion most unsuiting such a man--
	Cassio came hither: I shifted him away,
	And laid good 'scuse upon your ecstasy,
	Bade him anon return and here speak with me;
	The which he promised. Do but encave yourself,
	And mark the fleers, the gibes, and notable scorns,
	That dwell in every region of his face;
	For I will make him tell the tale anew,
	Where, how, how oft, how long ago, and when
	He hath, and is again to cope your wife:
	I say, but mark his gesture. Marry, patience;
	Or I shall say you are all in all in spleen,
	And nothing of a man.

OTHELLO	Dost thou hear, Iago?
	I will be found most cunning in my patience;
	But--dost thou hear?--most bloody.

IAGO	That's not amiss;
	But yet keep time in all. Will you withdraw?

	[OTHELLO retires]

	Now will I question Cassio of Bianca,
	A housewife that by selling her desires
	Buys herself bread and clothes: it is a creature
	That dotes on Cassio; as 'tis the strumpet's plague
	To beguile many and be beguiled by one:
	He, when he hears of her, cannot refrain
	From the excess of laughter. Here he comes:

	[Re-enter CASSIO]

	As he shall smile, Othello shall go mad;
	And his unbookish jealousy must construe
	Poor Cassio's smiles, gestures and light behavior,
	Quite in the wrong. How do you now, lieutenant?

CASSIO	The worser that you give me the addition
	Whose want even kills me.

IAGO	Ply Desdemona well, and you are sure on't.

	[Speaking lower]

	Now, if this suit lay in Bianco's power,
	How quickly should you speed!

CASSIO	Alas, poor caitiff!

OTHELLO	Look, how he laughs already!

IAGO	I never knew woman love man so.

CASSIO	Alas, poor rogue! I think, i' faith, she loves me.

OTHELLO	Now he denies it faintly, and laughs it out.

IAGO	Do you hear, Cassio?

OTHELLO	Now he importunes him
	To tell it o'er: go to; well said, well said.

IAGO	She gives it out that you shall marry hey:
	Do you intend it?

CASSIO	Ha, ha, ha!

OTHELLO	Do you triumph, Roman? do you triumph?

CASSIO	I marry her! what? a customer! Prithee, bear some
	charity to my wit: do not think it so unwholesome.
	Ha, ha, ha!

OTHELLO	So, so, so, so: they laugh that win.

IAGO	'Faith, the cry goes that you shall marry her.

CASSIO	Prithee, say true.

IAGO	I am a very villain else.

OTHELLO	Have you scored me? Well.

CASSIO	This is the monkey's own giving out: she is
	persuaded I will marry her, out of her own love and
	flattery, not out of my promise.

OTHELLO	Iago beckons me; now he begins the story.

CASSIO	She was here even now; she haunts me in every place.
	I was the other day talking on the sea-bank with
	certain Venetians; and thither comes the bauble,
	and, by this hand, she falls me thus about my neck--

OTHELLO	Crying 'O dear Cassio!' as it were: his gesture
	imports it.

CASSIO	So hangs, and lolls, and weeps upon me; so hales,
	and pulls me: ha, ha, ha!

OTHELLO	Now he tells how she plucked him to my chamber. O,
	I see that nose of yours, but not that dog I shall
	throw it to.

CASSIO	Well, I must leave her company.

IAGO	Before me! look, where she comes.

CASSIO	'Tis such another fitchew! marry a perfumed one.

	[Enter BIANCA]

	What do you mean by this haunting of me?

BIANCA	Let the devil and his dam haunt you! What did you
	mean by that same handkerchief you gave me even now?
	I was a fine fool to take it. I must take out the
	work?--A likely piece of work, that you should find
	it in your chamber, and not know who left it there!
	This is some minx's token, and I must take out the
	work? There; give it your hobby-horse: wheresoever
	you had it, I'll take out no work on't.

CASSIO	How now, my sweet Bianca! how now! how now!

OTHELLO	By heaven, that should be my handkerchief!

BIANCA	An you'll come to supper to-night, you may; an you
	will not, come when you are next prepared for.


IAGO	After her, after her.

CASSIO	'Faith, I must; she'll rail in the street else.

IAGO	Will you sup there?

CASSIO	'Faith, I intend so.

IAGO	Well, I may chance to see you; for I would very fain
	speak with you.

CASSIO	Prithee, come; will you?

IAGO	Go to; say no more.

	[Exit CASSIO]

OTHELLO	[Advancing]  How shall I murder him, Iago?

IAGO	Did you perceive how he laughed at his vice?


IAGO	And did you see the handkerchief?

OTHELLO	Was that mine?

IAGO	Yours by this hand: and to see how he prizes the
	foolish woman your wife! she gave it him, and he
	hath given it his whore.

OTHELLO	I would have him nine years a-killing.
	A fine woman! a fair woman! a sweet woman!

IAGO	Nay, you must forget that.

OTHELLO	Ay, let her rot, and perish, and be damned to-night;
	for she shall not live: no, my heart is turned to
	stone; I strike it, and it hurts my hand. O, the
	world hath not a sweeter creature: she might lie by
	an emperor's side and command him tasks.

IAGO	Nay, that's not your way.

OTHELLO	Hang her! I do but say what she is: so delicate
	with her needle: an admirable musician: O! she
	will sing the savageness out of a bear: of so high
	and plenteous wit and invention:--

IAGO	She's the worse for all this.

OTHELLO	O, a thousand thousand times: and then, of so
	gentle a condition!

IAGO	Ay, too gentle.

OTHELLO	Nay, that's certain: but yet the pity of it, Iago!
	O Iago, the pity of it, Iago!

IAGO	If you are so fond over her iniquity, give her
	patent to offend; for, if it touch not you, it comes
	near nobody.

OTHELLO	I will chop her into messes: cuckold me!

IAGO	O, 'tis foul in her.

OTHELLO	With mine officer!

IAGO	That's fouler.

OTHELLO	Get me some poison, Iago; this night: I'll not
	expostulate with her, lest her body and beauty
	unprovide my mind again: this night, Iago.

IAGO	Do it not with poison, strangle her in her bed, even
	the bed she hath contaminated.

OTHELLO	Good, good: the justice of it pleases: very good.

IAGO	And for Cassio, let me be his undertaker: you
	shall hear more by midnight.

OTHELLO	Excellent good.

	[A trumpet within]

	What trumpet is that same?

IAGO	Something from Venice, sure. 'Tis Lodovico
	Come from the duke: and, see, your wife is with him.

	[Enter LODOVICO, DESDEMONA, and Attendants]

LODOVICO	Save you, worthy general!

OTHELLO	With all my heart, sir.

LODOVICO	The duke and senators of Venice greet you.

	[Gives him a letter]

OTHELLO	I kiss the instrument of their pleasures.

	[Opens the letter, and reads]

DESDEMONA	And what's the news, good cousin Lodovico?

IAGO	I am very glad to see you, signior
	Welcome to Cyprus.

LODOVICO	I thank you. How does Lieutenant Cassio?

IAGO	Lives, sir.

DESDEMONA	Cousin, there's fall'n between him and my lord
	An unkind breach: but you shall make all well.

OTHELLO	Are you sure of that?


OTHELLO	[Reads]  'This fail you not to do, as you will--'

LODOVICO	He did not call; he's busy in the paper.
	Is there division 'twixt my lord and Cassio?

DESDEMONA	A most unhappy one: I would do much
	To atone them, for the love I bear to Cassio.

OTHELLO	Fire and brimstone!


OTHELLO	       Are you wise?

DESDEMONA	What, is he angry?

LODOVICO	                  May be the letter moved him;
	For, as I think, they do command him home,
	Deputing Cassio in his government.

DESDEMONA	Trust me, I am glad on't.



OTHELLO	I am glad to see you mad.

DESDEMONA	Why, sweet Othello,--

OTHELLO	[Striking her]  Devil!

DESDEMONA	I have not deserved this.

LODOVICO	My lord, this would not be believed in Venice,
	Though I should swear I saw't: 'tis very much:
	Make her amends; she weeps.

OTHELLO	O devil, devil!
	If that the earth could teem with woman's tears,
	Each drop she falls would prove a crocodile.
	Out of my sight!

DESDEMONA	I will not stay to offend you.


LODOVICO	Truly, an obedient lady:
	I do beseech your lordship, call her back.

OTHELLO	Mistress!

DESDEMONA	        My lord?

OTHELLO	What would you with her, sir?

LODOVICO	Who, I, my lord?

OTHELLO	Ay; you did wish that I would make her turn:
	Sir, she can turn, and turn, and yet go on,
	And turn again; and she can weep, sir, weep;
	And she's obedient, as you say, obedient,
	Very obedient. Proceed you in your tears.
	Concerning this, sir,--O  well-painted passion!--
	I am commanded home. Get you away;
	I'll send for you anon. Sir, I obey the mandate,
	And will return to Venice. Hence, avaunt!


	Cassio shall have my place. And, sir, tonight,
	I do entreat that we may sup together:
	You are welcome, sir, to Cyprus.--Goats and monkeys!


LODOVICO	Is this the noble Moor whom our full senate
	Call all in all sufficient? Is this the nature
	Whom passion could not shake? whose solid virtue
	The shot of accident, nor dart of chance,
	Could neither graze nor pierce?

IAGO	He is much changed.

LODOVICO	Are his wits safe? is he not light of brain?

IAGO	He's that he is: I may not breathe my censure
	What he might be: if what he might he is not,
	I would to heaven he were!

LODOVICO	What, strike his wife!

IAGO	'Faith, that was not so well; yet would I knew
	That stroke would prove the worst!

LODOVICO	Is it his use?
	Or did the letters work upon his blood,
	And new-create this fault?

IAGO	Alas, alas!
	It is not honesty in me to speak
	What I have seen and known. You shall observe him,
	And his own courses will denote him so
	That I may save my speech: do but go after,
	And mark how he continues.

LODOVICO	I am sorry that I am deceived in him.




SCENE II	A room in the castle.


OTHELLO	You have seen nothing then?

EMILIA	Nor ever heard, nor ever did suspect.

OTHELLO	Yes, you have seen Cassio and she together.

EMILIA	But then I saw no harm, and then I heard
	Each syllable that breath made up between them.

OTHELLO	What, did they never whisper?

EMILIA	Never, my lord.

OTHELLO	Nor send you out o' the way?


OTHELLO	To fetch her fan, her gloves, her mask, nor nothing?

EMILIA	Never, my lord.

OTHELLO	That's strange.

EMILIA	I durst, my lord, to wager she is honest,
	Lay down my soul at stake: if you think other,
	Remove your thought; it doth abuse your bosom.
	If any wretch have put this in your head,
	Let heaven requite it with the serpent's curse!
	For, if she be not honest, chaste, and true,
	There's no man happy; the purest of their wives
	Is foul as slander.

OTHELLO	Bid her come hither: go.

	[Exit EMILIA]

	She says enough; yet she's a simple bawd
	That cannot say as much. This is a subtle whore,
	A closet lock and key of villanous secrets
	And yet she'll kneel and pray; I have seen her do't.


DESDEMONA	My lord, what is your will?

OTHELLO	Pray, chuck, come hither.

DESDEMONA	What is your pleasure?

OTHELLO	Let me see your eyes;
	Look in my face.

DESDEMONA	                  What horrible fancy's this?

OTHELLO	[To EMILIA]  Some of your function, mistress;
	Leave procreants alone and shut the door;
	Cough, or cry 'hem,' if any body come:
	Your mystery, your mystery: nay, dispatch.

	[Exit EMILIA]

DESDEMONA	Upon my knees, what doth your speech import?
	I understand a fury in your words.
	But not the words.

OTHELLO	Why, what art thou?

DESDEMONA	Your wife, my lord; your true
	And loyal wife.

OTHELLO	                  Come, swear it, damn thyself
	Lest, being like one of heaven, the devils themselves
	Should fear to seize thee: therefore be double damn'd:
	Swear thou art honest.

DESDEMONA	Heaven doth truly know it.

OTHELLO	Heaven truly knows that thou art false as hell.

DESDEMONA	To whom, my lord? with whom? how am I false?

OTHELLO	O Desdemona! away! away! away!

DESDEMONA	Alas the heavy day! Why do you weep?
	Am I the motive of these tears, my lord?
	If haply you my father do suspect
	An instrument of this your calling back,
	Lay not your blame on me: If you have lost him,
	Why, I have lost him too.

OTHELLO	Had it pleased heaven
	To try me with affliction; had they rain'd
	All kinds of sores and shames on my bare head.
	Steep'd me in poverty to the very lips,
	Given to captivity me and my utmost hopes,
	I should have found in some place of my soul
	A drop of patience: but, alas, to make me
	A fixed figure for the time of scorn
	To point his slow unmoving finger at!
	Yet could I bear that too; well, very well:
	But there, where I have garner'd up my heart,
	Where either I must live, or bear no life;
	The fountain from the which my current runs,
	Or else dries up; to be discarded thence!
	Or keep it as a cistern for foul toads
	To knot and gender in! Turn thy complexion there,
	Patience, thou young and rose-lipp'd cherubin,--
	Ay, there, look grim as hell!

DESDEMONA	I hope my noble lord esteems me honest.

OTHELLO	O, ay; as summer flies are in the shambles,
	That quicken even with blowing. O thou weed,
	Who art so lovely fair and smell'st so sweet
	That the sense aches at thee, would thou hadst
	ne'er been born!

DESDEMONA	Alas, what ignorant sin have I committed?

OTHELLO	Was this fair paper, this most goodly book,
	Made to write 'whore' upon? What committed!
	Committed! O thou public commoner!
	I should make very forges of my cheeks,
	That would to cinders burn up modesty,
	Did I but speak thy deeds. What committed!
	Heaven stops the nose at it and the moon winks,
	The bawdy wind that kisses all it meets
	Is hush'd within the hollow mine of earth,
	And will not hear it. What committed!
	Impudent strumpet!

DESDEMONA	                  By heaven, you do me wrong.

OTHELLO	Are you not a strumpet?

DESDEMONA	No, as I am a Christian:
	If to preserve this vessel for my lord
	From any other foul unlawful touch
	Be not to be a strumpet, I am none.

OTHELLO	What, not a whore?

DESDEMONA	                  No, as I shall be saved.

OTHELLO	Is't possible?

DESDEMONA	                  O, heaven forgive us!

OTHELLO	I cry you mercy, then:
	I took you for that cunning whore of Venice
	That married with Othello.

	[Raising his voice]

		     You, mistress,
	That have the office opposite to Saint Peter,
	And keep the gate of hell!

	[Re-enter EMILIA]

		     You, you, ay, you!
	We have done our course; there's money for your pains:
	I pray you, turn the key and keep our counsel.


EMILIA	Alas, what does this gentleman conceive?
	How do you, madam? how do you, my good lady?

DESDEMONA	'Faith, half asleep.

EMILIA	Good madam, what's the matter with my lord?


EMILIA	Why, with my lord, madam.

DESDEMONA	Who is thy lord?

EMILIA	                  He that is yours, sweet lady.

DESDEMONA	I have none: do not talk to me, Emilia;
	I cannot weep; nor answer have I none,
	But what should go by water. Prithee, tonight
	Lay on my bed my wedding sheets: remember;
	And call thy husband hither.

EMILIA	Here's a change indeed!


DESDEMONA	'Tis meet I should be used so, very meet.
	How have I been behaved, that he might stick
	The small'st opinion on my least misuse?

	[Re-enter EMILIA with IAGO]

IAGO	What is your pleasure, madam?
	How is't with you?

DESDEMONA	I cannot tell. Those that do teach young babes
	Do it with gentle means and easy tasks:
	He might have chid me so; for, in good faith,
	I am a child to chiding.

IAGO	What's the matter, lady?

EMILIA	Alas, Iago, my lord hath so bewhored her.
	Thrown such despite and heavy terms upon her,
	As true hearts cannot bear.

DESDEMONA	Am I that name, Iago?

IAGO	What name, fair lady?

DESDEMONA	Such as she says my lord did say I was.

EMILIA	He call'd her whore: a beggar in his drink
	Could not have laid such terms upon his callat.

IAGO	Why did he so?

DESDEMONA	I do not know; I am sure I am none such.

IAGO	Do not weep, do not weep. Alas the day!

EMILIA	Hath she forsook so many noble matches,
	Her father and her country and her friends,
	To be call'd whore? would it not make one weep?

DESDEMONA	It is my wretched fortune.

IAGO	Beshrew him for't!
	How comes this trick upon him?

DESDEMONA	Nay, heaven doth know.

EMILIA	I will be hang'd, if some eternal villain,
	Some busy and insinuating rogue,
	Some cogging, cozening slave, to get some office,
	Have not devised this slander; I'll be hang'd else.

IAGO	Fie, there is no such man; it is impossible.

DESDEMONA	If any such there be, heaven pardon him!

EMILIA	A halter pardon him! and hell gnaw his bones!
	Why should he call her whore? who keeps her company?
	What place? what time? what form? what likelihood?
	The Moor's abused by some most villanous knave,
	Some base notorious knave, some scurvy fellow.
	O heaven, that such companions thou'ldst unfold,
	And put in every honest hand a whip
	To lash the rascals naked through the world
	Even from the east to the west!

IAGO	Speak within door.

EMILIA	O, fie upon them! Some such squire he was
	That turn'd your wit the seamy side without,
	And made you to suspect me with the Moor.

IAGO	You are a fool; go to.

DESDEMONA	O good Iago,
	What shall I do to win my lord again?
	Good friend, go to him; for, by this light of heaven,
	I know not how I lost him. Here I kneel:
	If e'er my will did trespass 'gainst his love,
	Either in discourse of thought or actual deed,
	Or that mine eyes, mine ears, or any sense,
	Delighted them in any other form;
	Or that I do not yet, and ever did.
	And ever will--though he do shake me off
	To beggarly divorcement--love him dearly,
	Comfort forswear me! Unkindness may do much;
	And his unkindness may defeat my life,
	But never taint my love. I cannot say 'whore:'
	It does abhor me now I speak the word;
	To do the act that might the addition earn
	Not the world's mass of vanity could make me.

IAGO	I pray you, be content; 'tis but his humour:
	The business of the state does him offence,
	And he does chide with you.

DESDEMONA	If 'twere no other--

IAGO	'Tis but so, I warrant.

	[Trumpets within]

	Hark, how these instruments summon to supper!
	The messengers of Venice stay the meat;
	Go in, and weep not; all things shall be well.



	How now, Roderigo!

RODERIGO	I do not find that thou dealest justly with me.

IAGO	What in the contrary?

RODERIGO	Every day thou daffest me with some device, Iago;
	and rather, as it seems to me now, keepest from me
	all conveniency than suppliest me with the least
	advantage of hope. I will indeed no longer endure
	it, nor am I yet persuaded to put up in peace what
	already I have foolishly suffered.

IAGO	Will you hear me, Roderigo?

RODERIGO	'Faith, I have heard too much, for your words and
	performances are no kin together.

IAGO	You charge me most unjustly.

RODERIGO	With nought but truth. I have wasted myself out of
	my means. The jewels you have had from me to
	deliver to Desdemona would half have corrupted a
	votarist: you have told me she hath received them
	and returned me expectations and comforts of sudden
	respect and acquaintance, but I find none.

IAGO	Well; go to; very well.

RODERIGO	Very well! go to! I cannot go to, man; nor 'tis
	not very well: nay, I think it is scurvy, and begin
	to find myself fobbed in it.

IAGO	Very well.

RODERIGO	I tell you 'tis not very well. I will make myself
	known to Desdemona: if she will return me my
	jewels, I will give over my suit and repent my
	unlawful solicitation; if not, assure yourself I
	will seek satisfaction of you.

IAGO	You have said now.

RODERIGO	Ay, and said nothing but what I protest intendment of doing.

IAGO	Why, now I see there's mettle in thee, and even from
	this instant to build on thee a better opinion than
	ever before. Give me thy hand, Roderigo: thou hast
	taken against me a most just exception; but yet, I
	protest, I have dealt most directly in thy affair.

RODERIGO	It hath not appeared.

IAGO	I grant indeed it hath not appeared, and your
	suspicion is not without wit and judgment. But,
	Roderigo, if thou hast that in thee indeed, which I
	have greater reason to believe now than ever, I mean
	purpose, courage and valour, this night show it: if
	thou the next night following enjoy not Desdemona,
	take me from this world with treachery and devise
	engines for my life.

RODERIGO	Well, what is it? is it within reason and compass?

IAGO	Sir, there is especial commission come from Venice
	to depute Cassio in Othello's place.

RODERIGO	Is that true? why, then Othello and Desdemona
	return again to Venice.

IAGO	O, no; he goes into Mauritania and takes away with
	him the fair Desdemona, unless his abode be
	lingered here by some accident: wherein none can be
	so determinate as the removing of Cassio.

RODERIGO	How do you mean, removing of him?

IAGO	Why, by making him uncapable of Othello's place;
	knocking out his brains.

RODERIGO	And that you would have me to do?

IAGO	Ay, if you dare do yourself a profit and a right.
	He sups to-night with a harlotry, and thither will I
	go to him: he knows not yet of his horrorable
	fortune. If you will watch his going thence, which
	I will fashion to fall out between twelve and one,
	you may take him at your pleasure: I will be near
	to second your attempt, and he shall fall between
	us. Come, stand not amazed at it, but go along with
	me; I will show you such a necessity in his death
	that you shall think yourself bound to put it on
	him. It is now high suppertime, and the night grows
	to waste: about it.

RODERIGO	I will hear further reason for this.

IAGO	And you shall be satisfied.




SCENE III	Another room In the castle.


LODOVICO	I do beseech you, sir, trouble yourself no further.

OTHELLO	O, pardon me: 'twill do me good to walk.

LODOVICO	Madam, good night; I humbly thank your ladyship.

DESDEMONA	Your honour is most welcome.

OTHELLO	Will you walk, sir?


OTHELLO	Get you to bed on the instant; I will be returned
	forthwith: dismiss your attendant there: look it be done.

DESDEMONA	I will, my lord.

	[Exeunt OTHELLO, LODOVICO, and Attendants]

EMILIA	How goes it now? he looks gentler than he did.

DESDEMONA	He says he will return incontinent:
	He hath commanded me to go to bed,
	And bade me to dismiss you.

EMILIA	Dismiss me!

DESDEMONA	It was his bidding: therefore, good Emilia,.
	Give me my nightly wearing, and adieu:
	We must not now displease him.

EMILIA	I would you had never seen him!

DESDEMONA	So would not I	my love doth so approve him,
	That even his stubbornness, his cheques, his frowns--
	Prithee, unpin me,--have grace and favour in them.

EMILIA	I have laid those sheets you bade me on the bed.

DESDEMONA	All's one. Good faith, how foolish are our minds!
	If I do die before thee prithee, shroud me
	In one of those same sheets.

EMILIA	Come, come you talk.

DESDEMONA	My mother had a maid call'd Barbara:
	She was in love, and he she loved proved mad
	And did forsake her: she had a song of 'willow;'
	An old thing 'twas, but it express'd her fortune,
	And she died singing it: that song to-night
	Will not go from my mind; I have much to do,
	But to go hang my head all at one side,
	And sing it like poor Barbara. Prithee, dispatch.

EMILIA	Shall I go fetch your night-gown?

DESDEMONA	No, unpin me here.
	This Lodovico is a proper man.

EMILIA	A very handsome man.

DESDEMONA	He speaks well.

EMILIA	I know a lady in Venice would have walked barefoot
	to Palestine for a touch of his nether lip.

DESDEMONA	[Singing]  The poor soul sat sighing by a sycamore tree,
	Sing all a green willow:
	Her hand on her bosom, her head on her knee,
	Sing willow, willow, willow:
	The fresh streams ran by her, and murmur'd her moans;
	Sing willow, willow, willow;
	Her salt tears fell from her, and soften'd the stones;
	Lay by these:--


	Sing willow, willow, willow;
	Prithee, hie thee; he'll come anon:--


	Sing all a green willow must be my garland.
	Let nobody blame him; his scorn I approve,-
	Nay, that's not next.--Hark! who is't that knocks?

EMILIA	It's the wind.

DESDEMONA	[Singing]  I call'd my love false love; but what
	said he then?
	Sing willow, willow, willow:
	If I court moe women, you'll couch with moe men!
	So, get thee gone; good night Ate eyes do itch;
	Doth that bode weeping?

EMILIA	'Tis neither here nor there.

DESDEMONA	I have heard it said so. O, these men, these men!
	Dost thou in conscience think,--tell me, Emilia,--
	That there be women do abuse their husbands
	In such gross kind?

EMILIA	There be some such, no question.

DESDEMONA	Wouldst thou do such a deed for all the world?

EMILIA	Why, would not you?

DESDEMONA	No, by this heavenly light!

EMILIA	Nor I neither by this heavenly light;
	I might do't as well i' the dark.

DESDEMONA	Wouldst thou do such a deed for all the world?

EMILIA	The world's a huge thing: it is a great price.
	For a small vice.

DESDEMONA	In troth, I think thou wouldst not.

EMILIA	In troth, I think I should; and undo't when I had
	done. Marry, I would not do such a thing for a
	joint-ring, nor for measures of lawn, nor for
	gowns, petticoats, nor caps, nor any petty
	exhibition; but for the whole world,--why, who would
	not make her husband a cuckold to make him a
	monarch? I should venture purgatory for't.

DESDEMONA	Beshrew me, if I would do such a wrong
	For the whole world.

EMILIA	Why the wrong is but a wrong i' the world: and
	having the world for your labour, tis a wrong in your
	own world, and you might quickly make it right.

DESDEMONA	I do not think there is any such woman.

EMILIA	Yes, a dozen; and as many to the vantage as would
	store the world they played for.
	But I do think it is their husbands' faults
	If wives do fall: say that they slack their duties,
	And pour our treasures into foreign laps,
	Or else break out in peevish jealousies,
	Throwing restraint upon us; or say they strike us,
	Or scant our former having in despite;
	Why, we have galls, and though we have some grace,
	Yet have we some revenge. Let husbands know
	Their wives have sense like them: they see and smell
	And have their palates both for sweet and sour,
	As husbands have. What is it that they do
	When they change us for others? Is it sport?
	I think it is: and doth affection breed it?
	I think it doth: is't frailty that thus errs?
	It is so too: and have not we affections,
	Desires for sport, and frailty, as men have?
	Then let them use us well: else let them know,
	The ills we do, their ills instruct us so.

DESDEMONA	Good night, good night: heaven me such uses send,
	Not to pick bad from bad, but by bad mend!




SCENE I	Cyprus. A street.

	[Enter IAGO and RODERIGO]

IAGO	Here, stand behind this bulk; straight will he come:
	Wear thy good rapier bare, and put it home:
	Quick, quick; fear nothing; I'll be at thy elbow:
	It makes us, or it mars us; think on that,
	And fix most firm thy resolution.

RODERIGO	Be near at hand; I may miscarry in't.

IAGO	Here, at thy hand: be bold, and take thy stand.


RODERIGO	I have no great devotion to the deed;
	And yet he hath given me satisfying reasons:
	'Tis but a man gone. Forth, my sword: he dies.

IAGO	I have rubb'd this young quat almost to the sense,
	And he grows angry. Now, whether he kill Cassio,
	Or Cassio him, or each do kill the other,
	Every way makes my gain: live Roderigo,
	He calls me to a restitution large
	Of gold and jewels that I bobb'd from him,
	As gifts to Desdemona;
	It must not be: if Cassio do remain,
	He hath a daily beauty in his life
	That makes me ugly; and, besides, the Moor
	May unfold me to him; there stand I in much peril:
	No, he must die. But so: I hear him coming.

	[Enter CASSIO]

RODERIGO	I know his gait, 'tis he.--Villain, thou diest!

	[Makes a pass at CASSIO]

CASSIO	That thrust had been mine enemy indeed,
	But that my coat is better than thou know'st
	I will make proof of thine.

	[Draws, and wounds RODERIGO]

RODERIGO	O, I am slain!

	[IAGO from behind wounds CASSIO in the leg, and exit]

CASSIO	I am maim'd for ever. Help, ho! murder! murder!


	[Enter OTHELLO]

OTHELLO	The voice of Cassio: Iago keeps his word.

RODERIGO	O, villain that I am!

OTHELLO	It is even so.

CASSIO	O, help, ho! light! a surgeon!

OTHELLO	'Tis he:--O brave Iago, honest and just,
	That hast such noble sense of thy friend's wrong!
	Thou teachest me. Minion, your dear lies dead,
	And your unblest fate hies: strumpet, I come.
	Forth of my heart those charms, thine eyes, are blotted;
	Thy bed, lust-stain'd, shall with lust's blood be spotted.



CASSIO	What, ho! no watch? no passage? murder! murder!

GRATIANO	'Tis some mischance; the cry is very direful.

CASSIO	O, help!


RODERIGO	O wretched villain!

LODOVICO	Two or three groan: it is a heavy night:
	These may be counterfeits: let's think't unsafe
	To come in to the cry without more help.

RODERIGO	Nobody come? then shall I bleed to death.


	[Re-enter IAGO, with a light]

GRATIANO	Here's one comes in his shirt, with light and weapons.

IAGO	Who's there? whose noise is this that ones on murder?

LODOVICO	We do not know.

IAGO	                  Did not you hear a cry?

CASSIO	Here, here! for heaven's sake, help me!

IAGO	What's the matter?

GRATIANO	This is Othello's ancient, as I take it.

LODOVICO	The same indeed; a very valiant fellow.

IAGO	What are you here that cry so grievously?

CASSIO	Iago? O, I am spoil'd, undone by villains!
	Give me some help.

IAGO	O me, lieutenant! what villains have done this?

CASSIO	I think that one of them is hereabout,
	And cannot make away.

IAGO	O treacherous villains!
	What are you there? come in, and give some help.


RODERIGO	O, help me here!

CASSIO	That's one of them.

IAGO	O murderous slave! O villain!


RODERIGO	O damn'd Iago! O inhuman dog!

IAGO	Kill men i' the dark!--Where be these bloody thieves?--
	How silent is this town!--Ho! murder! murder!--
	What may you be? are you of good or evil?

LODOVICO	As you shall prove us, praise us.

IAGO	Signior Lodovico?


IAGO	I cry you mercy. Here's Cassio hurt by villains.


IAGO	How is't, brother!

CASSIO	My leg is cut in two.

IAGO	Marry, heaven forbid!
	Light, gentlemen; I'll bind it with my shirt.

	[Enter BIANCA]

BIANCA	What is the matter, ho? who is't that cried?

IAGO	Who is't that cried!

BIANCA	O my dear Cassio! my sweet Cassio! O Cassio,
	Cassio, Cassio!

IAGO	O notable strumpet! Cassio, may you suspect
	Who they should be that have thus many led you?


GRATIANO	I am to find you thus: I have been to seek you.

IAGO	Lend me a garter. So. O, for a chair,
	To bear him easily hence!

BIANCA	Alas, he faints! O Cassio, Cassio, Cassio!

IAGO	Gentlemen all, I do suspect this trash
	To be a party in this injury.
	Patience awhile, good Cassio. Come, come;
	Lend me a light. Know we this face or no?
	Alas my friend and my dear countryman
	Roderigo! no:--yes, sure: O heaven! Roderigo.

GRATIANO	What, of Venice?

IAGO	Even he, sir; did you know him?

GRATIANO	Know him! ay.

IAGO	Signior Gratiano? I cry you gentle pardon;
	These bloody accidents must excuse my manners,
	That so neglected you.

GRATIANO	I am glad to see you.

IAGO	How do you, Cassio? O, a chair, a chair!

GRATIANO	Roderigo!

IAGO	He, he 'tis he.

	[A chair brought in]

	O, that's well said; the chair!

GRATIANO	Some good man bear him carefully from hence;
	I'll fetch the general's surgeon.


		                  For you, mistress,
	Save you your labour. He that lies slain
	here, Cassio,
	Was my dear friend: what malice was between you?

CASSIO	None in the world; nor do I know the man.

IAGO	[To BIANCA]  What, look you pale? O, bear him out
	o' the air.

	[CASSIO and RODERIGO are borne off]

	Stay you, good gentlemen. Look you pale, mistress?
	Do you perceive the gastness of her eye?
	Nay, if you stare, we shall hear more anon.
	Behold her well; I pray you, look upon her:
	Do you see, gentlemen? nay, guiltiness will speak,
	Though tongues were out of use.

	[Enter EMILIA]

EMILIA	'Las, what's the matter? what's the matter, husband?

IAGO	Cassio hath here been set on in the dark
	By Roderigo and fellows that are scaped:
	He's almost slain, and Roderigo dead.

EMILIA	Alas, good gentleman! alas, good Cassio!

IAGO	This is the fruit of whoring. Prithee, Emilia,
	Go know of Cassio where he supp'd to-night.


	What, do you shake at that?

BIANCA	He supp'd at my house; but I therefore shake not.

IAGO	O, did he so? I charge you, go with me.

EMILIA	Fie, fie upon thee, strumpet!

BIANCA	I am no strumpet; but of life as honest
	As you that thus abuse me.

EMILIA	As I! foh! fie upon thee!

IAGO	Kind gentlemen, let's go see poor Cassio dress'd.
	Come, mistress, you must tell's another tale.
	Emilia run you to the citadel,
	And tell my lord and lady what hath happ'd.
	Will you go on? I pray.


		   This is the night
	That either makes me or fordoes me quite.




SCENE II	A bedchamber in the castle: DESDEMONA in bed asleep;
	a light burning.

	[Enter OTHELLO]

OTHELLO	It is the cause, it is the cause, my soul,--
	Let me not name it to you, you chaste stars!--
	It is the cause. Yet I'll not shed her blood;
	Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow,
	And smooth as monumental alabaster.
	Yet she must die, else she'll betray more men.
	Put out the light, and then put out the light:
	If I quench thee, thou flaming minister,
	I can again thy former light restore,
	Should I repent me: but once put out thy light,
	Thou cunning'st pattern of excelling nature,
	I know not where is that Promethean heat
	That can thy light relume. When I have pluck'd the rose,
	I cannot give it vital growth again.
	It must needs wither: I'll smell it on the tree.

	[Kissing her]

	Ah balmy breath, that dost almost persuade
	Justice to break her sword! One more, one more.
	Be thus when thou art dead, and I will kill thee,
	And love thee after. One more, and this the last:
	So sweet was ne'er so fatal. I must weep,
	But they are cruel tears: this sorrow's heavenly;
	It strikes where it doth love. She wakes.

DESDEMONA	Who's there? Othello?

OTHELLO	Ay. Desdemona.

DESDEMONA	Will you come to bed, my lord?

OTHELLO	Have you pray'd to-night, Desdemona?

DESDEMONA	Ay, my lord.

OTHELLO	If you bethink yourself of any crime
	Unreconciled as yet to heaven and grace,
	Solicit for it straight.

DESDEMONA	Alas, my lord, what do you mean by that?

OTHELLO	Well, do it, and be brief; I will walk by:
	I would not kill thy unprepared spirit;
	No; heaven forfend! I would not kill thy soul.

DESDEMONA	Talk you of killing?


DESDEMONA	Then heaven
	Have mercy on me!

OTHELLO	                  Amen, with all my heart!

DESDEMONA	If you say so, I hope you will not kill me.


DESDEMONA	And yet I fear you; for you are fatal then
	When your eyes roll so: why I should fear I know not,
	Since guiltiness I know not; but yet I feel I fear.

OTHELLO	Think on thy sins.

DESDEMONA	                  They are loves I bear to you.

OTHELLO	Ay, and for that thou diest.

DESDEMONA	That death's unnatural that kills for loving.
	Alas, why gnaw you so your nether lip?
	Some bloody passion shakes your very frame:
	These are portents; but yet I hope, I hope,
	They do not point on me.

OTHELLO	Peace, and be still!

DESDEMONA	I will so. What's the matter?

OTHELLO	That handkerchief which I so loved and gave thee
	Thou gavest to Cassio.

DESDEMONA	No, by my life and soul!
	Send for the man, and ask him.

OTHELLO	Sweet soul, take heed,
	Take heed of perjury; thou art on thy deathbed.

DESDEMONA	Ay, but not yet to die.

OTHELLO	Yes, presently:
	Therefore confess thee freely of thy sin;
	For to deny each article with oath
	Cannot remove nor choke the strong conception
	That I do groan withal. Thou art to die.

DESDEMONA	Then Lord have mercy on me!

OTHELLO	I say, amen.

DESDEMONA	And have you mercy too! I never did
	Offend you in my life; never loved Cassio
	But with such general warranty of heaven
	As I might love: I never gave him token.

OTHELLO	By heaven, I saw my handkerchief in's hand.
	O perjured woman! thou dost stone my heart,
	And makest me call what I intend to do
	A murder, which I thought a sacrifice:
	I saw the handkerchief.

DESDEMONA	He found it then;
	I never gave it him: send for him hither;
	Let him confess a truth.

OTHELLO	He hath confess'd.

DESDEMONA	What, my lord?

OTHELLO	That he hath used thee.

DESDEMONA	How? unlawfully?


DESDEMONA	He will not say so.

OTHELLO	No, his mouth is stopp'd;
	Honest Iago hath ta'en order for't.

DESDEMONA	O! my fear interprets: what, is he dead?

OTHELLO	Had all his hairs been lives, my great revenge
	Had stomach for them all.

DESDEMONA	Alas! he is betray'd and I undone.

OTHELLO	Out, strumpet! weep'st thou for him to my face?

DESDEMONA	O, banish me, my lord, but kill me not!

OTHELLO	Down, strumpet!

DESDEMONA	Kill me to-morrow: let me live to-night!

OTHELLO	Nay, if you strive--

DESDEMONA	But half an hour!

OTHELLO	                  Being done, there is no pause.

DESDEMONA	But while I say one prayer!

OTHELLO	It is too late.

	[He stifles her]

EMILIA	[Within]  My lord, my lord! what, ho! my lord, my lord!

OTHELLO	What noise is this? Not dead? not yet quite dead?
	I that am cruel am yet merciful;
	I would not have thee linger in thy pain: So, so.

EMILIA	[Within]  What, ho! my lord, my lord!

OTHELLO	Who's there?

EMILIA	[Within]  O, good my lord, I would speak a word with you!

OTHELLO	Yes: 'tis Emilia. By and by. She's dead.
	'Tis like she comes to speak of Cassio's death.--
	The noise was here. Ha! no more moving?
	Still as the grave. Shall she come in? were't good?--
	I think she stirs again:--no. What's best to do?
	If she come in, she'll sure speak to my wife:
	My wife! my wife! what wife? I have no wife.
	O insupportable! O heavy hour!
	Methinks it should be now a huge eclipse
	Of sun and moon, and that the affrighted globe
	Should yawn at alteration.

EMILIA	[Within]  I do beseech you
	That I may speak with you, O, good my lord!

OTHELLO	I had forgot thee: O, come in, Emilia;
	Soft; by and by. Let me the curtains draw.
	Where art thou?

	[Unlocks the door]

	[Enter EMILIA]

	What's the matter with thee now?

EMILIA	O, my good lord, yonder's foul murders done!

OTHELLO	What, now?

EMILIA	But now, my lord.

OTHELLO	It is the very error of the moon;
	She comes more nearer earth than she was wont,
	And makes men mad.

EMILIA	Cassio, my lord, hath kill'd a young Venetian
	Call'd Roderigo.

OTHELLO	                  Roderigo kill'd!
	And Cassio kill'd!

EMILIA	No, Cassio is not kill'd.

OTHELLO	Not Cassio kill'd! then murder's out of tune,
	And sweet revenge grows harsh.

DESDEMONA	O, falsely, falsely murder'd!

EMILIA	Alas, what cry is that?

OTHELLO	That! what?

EMILIA	Out, and alas! that was my lady's voice.
	Help! help, ho! help! O lady, speak again!
	Sweet Desdemona! O sweet mistress, speak!

DESDEMONA	A guiltless death I die.

EMILIA	O, who hath done this deed?

DESDEMONA	Nobody; I myself. Farewell
	Commend me to my kind lord: O, farewell!


OTHELLO	Why, how should she be murder'd?

EMILIA	Alas, who knows?

OTHELLO	You heard her say herself, it was not I.

EMILIA	She said so: I must needs report the truth.

OTHELLO	She's, like a liar, gone to burning hell:
	'Twas I that kill'd her.

EMILIA	O, the more angel she,
	And you the blacker devil!

OTHELLO	She turn'd to folly, and she was a whore.

EMILIA	Thou dost belie her, and thou art a devil.

OTHELLO	She was false as water.

EMILIA	Thou art rash as fire, to say
	That she was false: O, she was heavenly true!

OTHELLO	Cassio did top her; ask thy husband else.
	O, I were damn'd beneath all depth in hell,
	But that I did proceed upon just grounds
	To this extremity. Thy husband knew it all.

EMILIA	My husband!

OTHELLO	Thy husband.

EMILIA	That she was false to wedlock?

OTHELLO	Ay, with Cassio. Nay, had she been true,
	If heaven would make me such another world
	Of one entire and Perfect chrysolite,
	I'ld not have sold her for it.

EMILIA	My husband!

OTHELLO	          Ay, 'twas he that told me first:
	An honest man he is, and hates the slime
	That sticks on filthy deeds.

EMILIA	My husband!

OTHELLO	What needs this iteration, woman? I say thy husband.

EMILIA	O mistress, villany hath made mocks with love,
	My husband say that she was false!

OTHELLO	He, woman;
	I say thy husband: dost understand the word?
	My friend, thy husband, honest, honest Iago.

EMILIA	If he say so, may his pernicious soul
	Rot half a grain a day! he lies to the heart:
	She was too fond of her most filthy bargain.


EMILIA	Do thy worst:
	This deed of thine is no more worthy heaven
	Than thou wast worthy her.

OTHELLO	Peace, you were best.

EMILIA	Thou hast not half that power to do me harm
	As I have to be hurt. O gull! O dolt!
	As ignorant as dirt! thou hast done a deed--
	I care not for thy sword; I'll make thee known,
	Though I lost twenty lives.--Help! help, ho! help!
	The Moor hath kill'd my mistress! Murder! murder!

	[Enter MONTANO, GRATIANO, IAGO, and others]

MONTANO	What is the matter? How now, general!

EMILIA	O, are you come, Iago? you have done well,
	That men must lay their murders on your neck.

GRATIANO	What is the matter?

EMILIA	Disprove this villain, if thou be'st a man:
	He says thou told'st him that his wife was false:
	I know thou didst not, thou'rt not such a villain:
	Speak, for my heart is full.

IAGO	I told him what I thought, and told no more
	Than what he found himself was apt and true.

EMILIA	But did you ever tell him she was false?

IAGO	I did.

EMILIA	You told a lie, an odious, damned lie;
	Upon my soul, a lie, a wicked lie.
	She false with Cassio!--did you say with Cassio?

IAGO	With Cassio, mistress. Go to, charm your tongue.

EMILIA	I will not charm my tongue; I am bound to speak:
	My mistress here lies murder'd in her bed,--

All	O heavens forfend!

EMILIA	And your reports have set the murder on.

OTHELLO	Nay, stare not, masters: it is true, indeed.

GRATIANO	'Tis a strange truth.

MONTANO	O monstrous act!

EMILIA	                  Villany, villany, villany!
	I think upon't, I think: I smell't: O villany!--
	I thought so then:--I'll kill myself for grief:--
	O villany, villany!

IAGO	What, are you mad? I charge you, get you home.

EMILIA	Good gentlemen, let me have leave to speak:

	'Tis proper I obey him, but not now.
	Perchance, Iago, I will ne'er go home.


	[He falls on the bed]

EMILIA	       Nay, lay thee down and roar;
	For thou hast kill'd the sweetest innocent
	That e'er did lift up eye.

OTHELLO	[Rising]  O, she was foul!
	I scarce did know you, uncle: there lies your niece,
	Whose breath, indeed, these hands have newly stopp'd:
	I know this act shows horrible and grim.

GRATIANO	Poor Desdemona! I am glad thy father's dead:
	Thy match was mortal to him, and pure grief
	Shore his old thread in twain: did he live now,
	This sight would make him do a desperate turn,
	Yea, curse his better angel from his side,
	And fall to reprobation.

OTHELLO	'Tis pitiful; but yet Iago knows
	That she with Cassio hath the act of shame
	A thousand times committed; Cassio confess'd it:
	And she did gratify his amorous works
	With that recognizance and pledge of love
	Which I first gave her; I saw it in his hand:
	It was a handkerchief, an antique token
	My father gave my mother.

EMILIA	O heaven! O heavenly powers!

IAGO	Come, hold your peace.

EMILIA	'Twill out, 'twill out: I peace!
	No, I will speak as liberal as the north:
	Let heaven and men and devils, let them all,
	All, all, cry shame against me, yet I'll speak.

IAGO	Be wise, and get you home.

EMILIA	I will not.

	[IAGO offers to stab EMILIA]

	Your sword upon a woman?

EMILIA	O thou dull Moor! that handkerchief thou speak'st of
	I found by fortune and did give my husband;
	For often, with a solemn earnestness,
	More than indeed belong'd to such a trifle,
	He begg'd of me to steal it.

IAGO	Villanous whore!

EMILIA	She give it Cassio! no, alas! I found it,
	And I did give't my husband.

IAGO	Filth, thou liest!

EMILIA	By heaven, I do not, I do not, gentlemen.
	O murderous coxcomb! what should such a fool
	Do with so good a woman?

OTHELLO	Are there no stones in heaven
	But what serve for the thunder?--Precious villain!

	[He runs at IAGO  IAGO, from behind, stabs EMILIA, and exit]

GRATIANO	The woman falls; sure, he hath kill'd his wife.

EMILIA	Ay, ay: O, lay me by my mistress' side.

GRATIANO	He's gone, but his wife's kill'd.

MONTANO	'Tis a notorious villain. Take you this weapon,
	Which I have here recover'd from the Moor:
	Come, guard the door without; let him not pass,
	But kill him rather. I'll after that same villain,
	For 'tis a damned slave.


OTHELLO	I am not valiant neither,
	But ever puny whipster gets my sword:
	But why should honour outlive honesty?
	Let it go all.

EMILIA	What did thy song bode, lady?
	Hark, canst thou hear me? I will play the swan.
	And die in music.


	Willow, willow, willow,--
	Moor, she was chaste; she loved thee, cruel Moor;
	So come my soul to bliss, as I speak true;
	So speaking as I think, I die, I die.


OTHELLO	I have another weapon in this chamber;
	It is a sword of Spain, the ice-brook's temper:--
	O, here it is. Uncle, I must come forth.

GRATIANO	[Within]  If thou attempt it, it will cost thee dear:
	Thou hast no weapon, and perforce must suffer.

OTHELLO	Look in upon me then and speak with me,
	Or, naked as I am, I will assault thee.

	[Re-enter GRATIANO]

GRATIANO	What is the matter?

OTHELLO	Behold, I have a weapon;
	A better never did itself sustain
	Upon a soldier's thigh: I have seen the day,
	That, with this little arm and this good sword,
	I have made my way through more impediments
	Than twenty times your stop: but, O vain boast!
	Who can control his fate? 'tis not so now.
	Be not afraid, though you do see me weapon'd;
	Here is my journey's end, here is my butt,
	And very sea-mark of my utmost sail.
	Do you go back dismay'd? 'tis a lost fear;
	Man but a rush against Othello's breast,
	And he retires. Where should Othello go?
	Now, how dost thou look now? O ill-starr'd wench!
	Pale as thy smock! when we shall meet at compt,
	This look of thine will hurl my soul from heaven,
	And fiends will snatch at it. Cold, cold, my girl!
	Even like thy chastity. O cursed slave!
	Whip me, ye devils,
	From the possession of this heavenly sight!
	Blow me about in winds! roast me in sulphur!
	Wash me in steep-down gulfs of liquid fire!
	O Desdemona! Desdemona! dead!
	Oh! Oh! Oh!

	[Enter LODOVICO. MONTANO, CASSIO carried in a chair,
	and Officers with IAGO, prisoner]

LODOVICO	Where is this rash and most unfortunate man?

OTHELLO	That's he that was Othello: here I am.

LODOVICO	Where is that viper? bring the villain forth.

OTHELLO	I look down towards his feet; but that's a fable.
	If that thou best a devil, I cannot kill thee.

	[Wounds IAGO]

LODOVICO	Wrench his sword from him.

IAGO	I bleed, sir; but not kill'd.

OTHELLO	I am not sorry neither: I'ld have thee live;
	For, in my sense, 'tis happiness to die.

LODOVICO	O thou Othello, thou wert once so good,
	Fall'n in the practise of a damned slave,
	What shall be said to thee?

OTHELLO	Why, any thing:
	An honourable murderer, if you will;
	For nought I did in hate, but all in honour.

LODOVICO	This wretch hath part confess'd his villany:
	Did you and he consent in Cassio's death?


CASSIO	Dear general, I never gave you cause.

OTHELLO	I do believe it, and I ask your pardon.
	Will you, I pray, demand that demi-devil
	Why he hath thus ensnared my soul and body?

IAGO	Demand me nothing: what you know, you know:
	From this time forth I never will speak word.

LODOVICO	What, not to pray?

GRATIANO	                  Torments will ope your lips.

OTHELLO	Well, thou dost best.

LODOVICO	Sir, you shall understand what hath befall'n,
	Which, as I think, you know not. Here is a letter
	Found in the pocket of the slain Roderigo;
	And here another: the one of them imports
	The death of Cassio to be undertook
	By Roderigo.

OTHELLO	O villain!

CASSIO	Most heathenish and most gross!

LODOVICO	Now here's another discontented paper,
	Found in his pocket too; and this, it seems,
	Roderigo meant to have sent this damned villain;
	But that belike Iago in the interim
	Came in and satisfied him.

OTHELLO	O the pernicious caitiff!
	How came you, Cassio, by that handkerchief
	That was my wife's?

CASSIO	I found it in my chamber:
	And he himself confess'd but even now
	That there he dropp'd it for a special purpose
	Which wrought to his desire.

OTHELLO	O fool! fool! fool!

CASSIO	There is besides in Roderigo's letter,
	How he upbraids Iago, that he made him
	Brave me upon the watch; whereon it came
	That I was cast: and even but now he spake,
	After long seeming dead, Iago hurt him,
	Iago set him on.

LODOVICO	You must forsake this room, and go with us:
	Your power and your command is taken off,
	And Cassio rules in Cyprus. For this slave,
	If there be any cunning cruelty
	That can torment him much and hold him long,
	It shall be his. You shall close prisoner rest,
	Till that the nature of your fault be known
	To the Venetian state. Come, bring him away.

OTHELLO	Soft you; a word or two before you go.
	I have done the state some service, and they know't.
	No more of that. I pray you, in your letters,
	When you shall these unlucky deeds relate,
	Speak of me as I am; nothing extenuate,
	Nor set down aught in malice: then must you speak
	Of one that loved not wisely but too well;
	Of one not easily jealous, but being wrought
	Perplex'd in the extreme; of one whose hand,
	Like the base Indian, threw a pearl away
	Richer than all his tribe; of one whose subdued eyes,
	Albeit unused to the melting mood,
	Drop tears as fast as the Arabian trees
	Their medicinal gum. Set you down this;
	And say besides, that in Aleppo once,
	Where a malignant and a turban'd Turk
	Beat a Venetian and traduced the state,
	I took by the throat the circumcised dog,
	And smote him, thus.

	[Stabs himself]

LODOVICO	O bloody period!

GRATIANO	                  All that's spoke is marr'd.

OTHELLO	I kiss'd thee ere I kill'd thee: no way but this;
	Killing myself, to die upon a kiss.

	[Falls on the bed, and dies]

CASSIO	This did I fear, but thought he had no weapon;
	For he was great of heart.

LODOVICO	[To IAGO]  O Spartan dog,
	More fell than anguish, hunger, or the sea!
	Look on the tragic loading of this bed;
	This is thy work: the object poisons sight;
	Let it be hid. Gratiano, keep the house,
	And seize upon the fortunes of the Moor,
	For they succeed on you. To you, lord governor,
	Remains the censure of this hellish villain;
	The time, the place, the torture: O, enforce it!
	Myself will straight aboard: and to the state
	This heavy act with heavy heart relate.


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