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On the Improvement of Understanding, by Benedict de Spinoza, [1883], at


 1 On the Improvement of the Understanding

 3 Of the ordinary objects of men's desires

12 Of the true and final good

17 Certain rules of life

19 Of the four modes of perception

25 Of the best mode of perception

33 Of the instruments of the intellect, or true ideas

43 Answers to objections

First part of method:

50 Distinction of true ideas from fictitious ideas

64 And from false ideas

77 Of doubt

81 Of memory and forgetfulness

86 Mental hindrances from words—and from the popular confusion of ready imagination with distinct understanding.

Second part of method:

91 Its object, the acquisition of clear and distinct ideas

94 Its means, good definitions Conditions of definition

107 How to define understanding

Next: Notice to the Reader