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Te Pito Te Henua, or Easter Island, by William J. Thompson, [1891], at

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In order to form an estimate of the magnitude of the work performed by the image-makers, every one on the island was carefully counted, and the list shows a total of five hundred and fifty-five images (Plate XXV and XXVI). Of this number forty are standing inside of the crater and nearly as many more on the outside of Rana Roraka (Plate XXVII), at the foot of the slope where they were placed as finished and ready for removal to the different platforms for which they were designed; some finished statues lie scattered over the plains (Plate XXVIII) as though they were being dragged toward a particular locality but were suddenly abandoned. The large majority of the images, however, are lying near the platforms all around the coast, all more or less mutilated and some reduced to a mere shapeless fragment. Not one stands in its original position upon a platform. The largest image is in one of the workshops in an unfinished state and measures 70 feet in length; the smallest was found in one of the caves and is a little short of 3 feet in length. One of the largest images that has been in position lies near the platform which it ornamented, near Ovahe; it is 32 feet long and weighs 50 tons.

Images representing females were found. One at Anakena is called "Viri-viri Moai-a-Taka" and is apparently as perfect as the day it was finished; another, on the plain west of Rana Roraka is called "Moai Putu," and is in a fair state of preservation. The natives have names for every one of the images. The designation of images and platforms as obtained from the guides during the exploration was afterwards checked off in company with other individuals without confusion in the record. The coarse gray trachytic lava of which the images were made, is found only in the vicinity of Rana Roraka and was selected because the conglomerate character of the material made it easily worked with the rude stone implements that constituted the only tools possessed by the natives. The disintegration of the material when exposed to the action of the elements is about equivalent to that of sandstone under similar conditions, and admits of an estimate in regard to the probable age. The traditions in regard to the images are numerous, but relate principally to impossible occurrences, such as being endowed with power to walk about in the darkness, assisting certain clans by subtle means in contests, and delivering oracular judgments. The legends state that a son of King Mahuta Ariiki, named Tro Kaiho, designed the first image, but it is difficult to arrive at an estimation of the period. The journals of the early navigators throw but little light upon the subject. The workshops must have been in operation at the time of Captain Cook's visit, but unfortunately his exploration of the island was not directed towards the crater of Rana Roraka.

Although the images range in size from the colossus of 70 feet down to the pigmy of 3 feet, they are clearly all of the same type and general

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characteristics. The head is long, the eyes close under the heavy brows, the nose long, low-bridged, and expanded at the nostrils, the upper lip short and the lips pouting. The aspect is, slightly upwards, and the expression is firm and profoundly solemn. Careful investigation failed to detect the slightest evidence that the sockets had ever been fitted with artificial eyes, made of bone and obsidian, such as are placed in the wooden images.

The head was in all cases cut flat on top to accommodate the red tufa crowns with. which they were ornamented, but the images standing, on the outside of the crater had flatter heads and bodies than those found around the coast. The images represent the human body only from the head to the hips, where it is cut squarely off to afford a good polygon of support when standing. The artists seem to have exhausted their talents in executing the features, very little work being done below the shoulders, and the arms being merely cut in low relief. The ears are only rectangular projections, but the lobes are represented longer in the older statues than in those of more recent date.

The images were designed as effigies of distinguished persons and intended as monuments to perpetuate their memory. They were never regarded as idols, and were not venerated or worshiped in any manner. The natives had their tutelary genii, gods, and goddesses, but they were represented by small wooden or stone idols, which bore no relation to the images that ornamented the burial platforms. The image-makers were a privileged class, and the profession descended from father to son. Some of the natives still claim a descent from the image-makers, and refer to their ancestors with as much pride as to the royal family. One of our guides never missed an opportunity of stating that one of his forefathers was Unrautahui, the distinguished image-maker.

The work of carving the image into shape and detaching it from the rock of which it was a part, did not consume a great deal of time, but the chief difficulty was in the absence of mechanical contrivances, to launch it safely down the slope of the mountain and, transport it to a distant point. It was lowered to the plain by a system of chocks and wedges, and the rest was a dead drag accomplished by main strength. A roadway was constructed, over which the images were dragged by means of ropes made of indigenous hemp, and sea-weed and grass made excellent lubricants. The platforms were all built with sloping terraces in the rear, and up this incline a temporary road-way was constructed of a suitable height, upon which the statue could be rolled until the base was over its proper resting-place. The earth was then dug away to allow the image to settle down into position, the ropes being used to steady it in the mean time. It was a work of great magnitude, but we can clearly see how it was accomplished with a large force of able bodied men.

The crowns, or head ornaments, were made of red vesicular tufa, quarried in the Teraai Hills, where many finished specimens are still standing.

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[paragraph continues] These truncated cones, nearly cylindrical in shape, were easily transported. The material is readily quarried and fashioned, being light, only about 1.4 times heavier than water, while the average density of the image-stone is about 2.1.

The largest crown measured was 12½ feet in diameter, but of those that had actually been placed in position the average weight would not be more than 3 tons. The crowns were placed in position upon 'he heads of the standing images by building a road-way upon which they could be rolled to the proper spot. The clearing away of the incline was the final act. The earth which formed the surface was utilized as garden-patches, and the stones which formed the foundation of the roadway were disposed of in building the wing-extensions of the platform. The platforms differ greatly in dimensions, but the general plan and characteristics are invariably the same. Many of them are in a fair state of preservation, except that the images have been thrown down and the terraces in the rear obliterated or strewn with rubbish, while others have been reduced to a state of complete ruin. The platforms are usually located near the beach, and on the high bluff some of them are quite Dear the edge, overlooking the sea. The general plan consists of a front elevation composed of blocks of stone fairly well squared and neatly fitted together without cement, a parallel wall forming the inside boundary, built of uncut stone, inclosing small chambers or tombs placed at irregular intervals. Loose bowlders fill the spaces between the tombs and form the horizontal plane of the platform, into which are let the rectangular stones which constituted the base upon which the images stood. The façade stones are large and heavy, and in some cases the smooth surface presented could not well be attributed to the rude implements at the command of the builders, and must have been produced by friction or grinding. Long wings composed of uncut stone extend from the platform proper, built up to the summit at the line of junction and sloping away to the surface of the ground at the ends. In the rear of the platform a few steps descend to a gently sloping terrace, which terminates in a low wall and is bounded by a squarely built wall raised above the ground so as to join the top of the platform. Human remains fill the inner chambers, and bones lie scattered about among the loose bowlders of the platform and its extensions. The ruined condition of these solid specimens of architecture, with the overthrown images and immense deposit of loose bowlders on the surface of the ground, are strongly suggestive of earthquakes and volcanic eruption. The images in all stages of incompletion in the workshops, and abandoned en route to the coast in various directions, indicate, that the work was suddenly arrested, and not gradually brought to an end; but the traditions are silent upon the subject, and no record has been handed down of the disturbance of any of the volcanoes on the island.

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Platform No. 1.--Known to the natives as "Hanga Roa". Only the base remains, measuring 59 feet long by 7 feet wide. This pile was demolished to obtain material for the construction of a house for one of the Catholic missionaries formerly stationed on the island.

Platform No. 2.--Called "Ana Koiroraroa"; 160 feet long by 12½ feet wide and 10 feet high. The facing-stones on the front line remain intact, but the body of the platform is a mere mass of loose stones, probably torn up by the natives in recent years for the purpose of depositing their dead in these ancient structures. The three statues that formerly adorned this pile are lying immediately in the rear, and show from their positions that they had faced inboard, with their backs to the sea. These images are much weather-worn and defaced: one is entire; another has the head lying close by, probably broken off in the fall; and the third is minus the head and with the neck showing saw-marks. We afterwards found out that a French vessel of war visited the island a few years ago and the head of this image was cut off by them and taken to Europe.

Platform No. 3 (See Fig. 17).--Called "Hanga Varevare"; 50 feet long and 8 feet wide. This has the appearance of all unfinished pile and is merely a burial place covered with loose rocks and without the usual smoothly faced stones in front. We found the catacombs or tombs underneath this platform had been robbed of the most ancient skulls, and concluded that the Frenchmen had taken everything of interest away.


FIG. 17.


Platform No. 4.--Called "Tahai"; 160 feet long, 7½ feet wide, and 7 feet high. In a bad state of preservation, but the facing-stones on the front are sufficiently plain, while the rest of the pile is a mass of loose

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stones. Five large flat stones at regular intervals along the platform, show where the images once stood. The statues have fallen downward on the inshore side, and are much broken and dilapidated. The one on the north end is of gigantic size, and much larger than the others. The red tufa crown that adorned this image lies near it, and measures 7 feet 9 inches wide; 5 feet 9 inches in ellipse; and 4 feet 9 inches high, and the top is ornamented by sculptured lines that have the appearance of geometrical figures, but are too much obliterated to decipher.

Platform No. 5.-- Called by the same name as the last, only a few yards distant, is shaped like a right angle, and it is possible that these two platforms may have been originally designed for one of huge proportions. The stones of which it is composed have been thrown about in such disorder that the original design can not be followed, but the flat base stones indicate where the images once stood. At one end of this platform a statue 14 feet high and 9 feet across the hips, lies face downward on the inboard side, and at the other end, one measuring 15 feet long and 6 feet wide, lies face downward toward the sea, being one of the few images on the island found in that position, admitting the possibility of having faced outboard.

Platform No. 6.--Called "Anotai"; 120 feet long, 17½ feet wide, and 7½ feet high. In a bad state of preservation, though the faced stones on the front may be traced. The remains of one image lies on the inboard side, but minus the head. A large cavity in the center of the back of this image attracted attention, but could not be explained. The red tufa crown belonging to this statue lies half-buried in the earth, about 100 feet distant. Under the center of this platform were, obtained some interesting relies, and the tombs bore evidence of great antiquity.

Platform No. 7.--Called "Ahuakapu"; 101 feet long, 9 feet wide, and 8 feet high. In a bad state of preservation. Three images lying on the front side with the appearance of having been pulled over backwards, and one upon the inshore side down upon its face. All four statues are in good condition, except that the heads have been broken off at the neck by the fall. One of these detached beads measured 5 feet 3 inches in length by 3 feet 2 inches from ear to ear. The four pedestal stones are still in place on the platform and average 4 feet long and 3 feet 8 inches wide, and are composed of hard volcanic rock, roughly squared.

Platform No. 8.--Called "Anaoraka"; 95 feet long and 8 feet wide and 7 feet high. Remarkable for the large stones that support the sea face, the largest of which measures 6 feet 9 inches high and 4 feet 7 inches wide. Four images have fallen upon their faces upon the inboard side. Only a pedestal stone remains in position, which is 5 feet 2 inches square by 2 feet 2 inches thick. (Fig. 18).

Platform No. 9--Called "Kihikihiraumea"; 186 feet long, 8 feet 10 inches wide, and 7 feet 5 inches thick. The central section of this structure contains stones so remarkably well cut and fitted together that it

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merits the accompanying sketch. Four images were found, which had been thrown down on their faces on the inboard side. These are in a fair state of preservation. From this ruin we obtained skulls, obsidian spear-heads, and stone tools.


FIG. 18.


Platform No. 10.--Called "Ahutepeu". Is in such a state of dilapidation that it was impossible to obtain accurate measurements. Portions of an image are here, but it looks as though others might have been rolled over the edge of the cliff, which is only a few feet distant and about 450 feet high, and against the base of which the sea dashes incessantly.

Platform No. 11.--Called "Hananakou". Central sections 48 feet long, 12 feet wide, and 9 feet high; total length, with wings, 248 feet. This is an exceedingly fine platform, and contains some remarkably large stones. In the face of the main structure are huge blocks of igneous rock that appear to have once been fashioned into faces and figures, but now so destroyed by the action of the elements and perhaps by the hand of the iconoclast that the features can only be dimly traced. Hard work with




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our entire force disclosed beneath this platform well constructed catacombs and tombs, containing human remains so old that they crumbled into dust upon exposure to the air. The removal of one of the facing stones revealed a lot of skulls with remarkably broad, heavy underjaws. These were generally too brittle to be handled, and a peculiar feature about the find was the fact that these heads had been entombed together, and the surroundings excluded the idea of any other portions of the bodies having been interred with them. Only one image is in sight, and the proximity of the platform to the edge of the bluff suggests the possibility that other statues may have been thrown into the sea. From the size and character of the work on the structure it is not reasonable to suppose that it was designed to support the one insignificant statue that lies near it.

Platform No. 12.--Called "Ohau". Central section 18 feet long, 9 feet wide, and 6 feet high. One image thrown down upon its face on the inboard side, 8 feet 4 inches long; extreme, width of body 5 feet; length of head 4 feet; and width from ear to ear, 3 feet 3 inches. Good state of preservation. (Plate XXIX).

Platform No. 13.--Called "Ahukinokino". In such a state of ruin that measurements were not obtainable. Situated close to the edge of the high cliff.

Platform No. 14.--Called "Ahutoretore". Has been so completely destroyed that nothing can be determined about its original size and importance. Excavations in this vicinity produced nothing but a few stray spear heads of obsidian.

Platform No. 15.--Called "Hangatariri"; 103 feet long 11 feet wide; and 6 feet high. In very bad condition, but some of the large cut facing-stones are in position. Four images lie face downward on the island side, and two more have fallen on their backs toward the sea. A few yards back of this structure is a tomb 50 feet long and 6 feet wide, built of stones taken from the platform and those peculiarly cut stones that form the foundations of the image-builders' houses. At one end is a hard stone slab that appears to have been covered with hieroglyphics, but they are too nearly obliterated to be accurately traced. After a thorough investigation we concluded that it was of comparatively recent date and had no distinctive features of its own. On the plain, a few hundred yards distant, is an image of gigantic proportions lying upon its face with the head toward the sea. The indications are that it was designed for this platform and was being moved into position when from some sudden emergency it had to be abandoned. The ground underneath the statue has been dug out by later generations in such a manner that the body of the image forms the roof of the cave. The base of the statue shows traces of rudely sculptured figures, nearly obliterated. In this vicinity are several large caves. with the narrow entrances completely blocked up with loose stones, which were not investigated for the want of time.

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Platform No. 16.--Called "Haugaoteo"; 70 feet long and 12 feet wide. Has the appearance of having been in process of construction. when the work was suddenly suspended.

Platform No. 17.--Called "Tumuheipara"; 40 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet high. This structure also appears to have been abandoned before completion. The chances are that several days could have been spent upon the extensive plain, back of these images, to great advantage and it is regretted that the limited time at our disposal did not allow a more thorough investigation.

Platform No. 18.--Called "Haahuroa". Central section 40 feet long, 12 feet wide, and 7 feet high, with wings 145 feet in length. One image lying on the inboard side measures 7 feet 5 inches long and 3 feet 5 inches wide; length of head to shoulders 3 feet 4 inches, and width from ear to ear 3 feet 5 inches. The fragments of two other images lie in front of the platform. The huge facing-stones of this structure have been thrown about as though by some great convulsion of nature, and some of them bear evidences of having been ornamented with sculptured figures.

Platform No. 19.--Called "Akane". Seems to have been abandoned while in the process of construction. A few faced stones intended for the front of the central section are lying about, but were never placed in position.

Platform No. 20.--Called "Ahuroa". Is a mere mass of loose rocks, said to have been destroyed in the tribal wars, but it has the appearance of having never been completed.

Platform No. 21.--Called "Vaiavangarenga". In the same condition as the last. No images.

Platform No. 22.--Called "Maiki". Same as the last; merely a pile of loose stones covering human remains. These platforms may have been robbed to supply the material for the construction of the numerous houses and cairns, the ruins of which cover the hills in this vicinity.

Platform No. 23.--Called "Tauka". Central section 38 feet long, feet wide, and 12 feet high, the extreme length with wings 120 feet. In very bad condition. One small image lies face-upward toward the sea, much broken. Facing and other suitable stones have been removed from this platform for the construction of tombs and houses. Near at hand is one of those peculiar ways, made by paving the sloping bank with regular lines of smooth, round bowlders, as though intended for hauling up heavy boats or weights.

Platform No. 24.--Called "Punamuta". In its incipient stage, and important only from the fact that it shows the manner of laying the foundation of the work.

Platform No. 25.--Called "Koteva", This has been an important structure and was built in the shape of a right angle 60 feet long, 11 feet wide, and 20 feet, high. Portions of the walls have been thrown down, and no images could be found.

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Platform No. 26.--Called "Tetonga". Similar in shape and structure to the last, but of smaller size. From these piles we obtained relics in the shape of obsidian spear-heads, stone implements and skulls.

Platform No. 27.--Called "Hanghaogio"; 150 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 10 feet high. Three small images have been thrown down and much broken.

Platform No. 28.--Called "Huarero". Very similar to the last, but located on the hill-side, about three-quarters of a mile back of the bay. The facing-stones show traces of carving, but so nearly obliterated that only these figures could be made out: , and they seemed to be often repeated. The fragments of two images lie behind the platform.

Platform No. 29.--Called "Anakena"; 75 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 10 feet high. An image lies upon its face upon the inboard side, 13 feet long and 9 feet across the hips; length of head, to shoulders, 5 feet. and width, from ear to ear, 6 feet 6 inches. This image is in the best state of preservation of any found about the platforms of the island. The traditions state that it was the last statue finished and set up in place. Our guides maintained that this is the statue of a female, and that it was only thrown down about twenty-four years ago. Its size, and proximity to the perfectly smooth landing place at Anakena Bay, would insure its easy removal to a vessel. From the sand beach at Anakena Bay we passed over hills composed of volcanic cinder as light as coke, but very hard. Beyond this are numerous ruins of houses, each with a small stone building connected that was evidently designed for fowls. The largest of these was about 8 feet square, and the only opening was a small hole for the chickens to pass through.

Platform No. 30.--Called "Ahutrature". Central section 30 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 6 feet high. Extreme length 80 feet. In ruins, with no images.

Platform No. 31.--Called "Anateka"; 30 feet long, 12 feet wide, and feet high. Extreme length 100 feet. In a very bad condition. Small fragments are in that remain of two images and two crowns.

Platform No. 32.--Called 14 "Ahupuapuatetea". Merely a shapeless mass of uncut stones remain to indicate the site of the structure.

Platform No. 33.--Called "Ahangakihikihi"; 20 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 9 feet high. In ruins. One small image lies on the inboard side, in a bad condition.

Platform No. 34.--Called "Punahoa". Although in ruins, this has evidently been a structure of some importance; 175 feet long, 8 feet wide, with the central section projecting 6 feet forward of the main line. The facing-stones are from 6 feet to 9 feet in length by 5 feet and 1 foot in thickness. An image lies upon its face on the inboard side, and measures 32 feet long, 10 feet 3 inches wide; length of head, to shoulders, 12 feet and 6 inches. Near this platform we found a peculiar stone nearly buried in the earth. After much digging it proved to be

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nearly spherical in shape and about 8 feet 4 inches in circumference.

The natives called "Petakula", and we could only make out that was a grinding stone of some sort.

Platform No. 35.--Called "Paupau"; 150 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 8 feet high, with a small platform in front of it. The building of this elaborate structure must have furnished employment for a large number of people. The foundation stones are of hard rock of immense size, all smoothly faced. Four images have been thrown down, two on each side, and all much broken.

Platform No. 36.--"Hangakouri". Central section 70 feet long, 7 feet and 8 feet high. Extreme length 300 feet. 1n a state of absolute ruin and no images.

Platform No. 37.--Called "Hangahohoonu". Completely in ruin s and with one image in a bad condition. Between these last two platforms is a paved way leading to a small channel through the rocks that affords a safe and convenient landing for small boats.

Platform No. 38--Called "Mari". Central section 80 feet long, 12 feet wide, and 7 feet high. Extreme length 300 feet, situated very close to edge of the bluff.

Platform No. 39--Called "Ahurai". Very large; but, like the last, in a state of ruin.

Platform No. 40--Called "Tehahitunukiolaira". Of great size; but, like the last, in a state of absolute ruin; covering human remains.

Platform No. 41--Called "Naruaanga". Small and inferior; also in ruins and no images.

Platform No. 42--Called "Hangaopuna"; 100 feet long and 10 feet wide. Has two layers of roughly cut stones in the front face, and appears to have been left in an unfinished state.

Platform No. 43--Called "Tumatuma"; 25 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 7 feet high. Poorly constructed, and contains nothing of interest but one small image.

Platform No. 44--Called "Tokaie". Larger than the last, but in a bad condition. A much battered head lies just behind the pile, but the rest of the image can not be found.

Platform No. 45.--Called "Vaimangeo"; 50 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 15 feet high. Extreme length, including wings, 150 feet. In a state of ruin, and has one large image thrown down on the inboard side.

Platform No. 46.--Called "Moukuhoi"; 20 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 5 feet. Extreme length, including wings, 60 feet. Situated very close to the edge of the bluff, and looks as if the destroyers of the structure may have tossed the most of it into the sea.

Platform No. 47.--Called "Moukuroa". In all respects a duplicate of the last one.

Platform No. 48.--Called "Moluariki"; 20 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 5 feet high. Extreme length, including wings 260 feet. This. has been a large and imposing structure. The central section, upon which the image

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stood projects beyond the line of the platform, and was higher. In the rear, and extending the entire length of the pile, is a broad terrace, neatly paved with smooth round bowlders. The fragments of three images lie upon the terrace.

Platform No. 49.--Called "Oneonepuhea". Central section is about 45 feet long by 6 feet high. This is a crescent shaped structure, and the only one of the kind that we saw on the island. It is situated on the extreme edge of the cliff, which at this point has a straight away fall of over 500 feet to the sea, which dashes against its wall-like base. There is no image in sight, but a large pedestal stone, inclined at a sharp angle towards the sea, shows where one has stood and suggests what became of it.

Platform No. 50.--Called "Ahatakaure". Located on Poike cliff, facing westward; is small and unimportant and in a state of complete ruin. On the east slope of the mountain we found an image, the head of which had been broken off, but it lies near by. There is no platform here and no indications that one was intended to be built in the vicinity; so we concluded that the statue was being moved to some distant locality when it was broken and abandoned.

Platform No. 51.--Called "Hangaiti"; 30 feet long and 8 feet wide and 5 feet high. In a bad condition and one small image broken.

Platform No. 52.--Called "Tongariki"; 150 feet long, 9 feet wide, and 8 feet high (Plates XXX-XXXIV). Extreme length, including original wings, 540 feet, This is the largest platform on the island, and was ornamented with fifteen gigantic statues. These have been thrown down upon their faces on the inshore side, and the most of these are broken, the one, on the south end being fractured across the middle of the body, leaving the lower section still standing. The red tufa crowns are lying a short distance away and are also much broken. The hard stones of which the sea-front of this platform is constructed are of immense size, faced and neatly joined together. One of the foundation-stones in the center of this wall is of red tufa and represents a human head.

Our investigations were commenced at this point by throwing down the facing-stones and working straight backwards through the platform. The labor was great, and occupied the most of our force for nearly two days, but the catacombs and tombs underlying the structure were thoroughly examined. Under the central section are small, narrow passages forming a part of the original design, having been built up while the platform was in process of construction, and containing human remains. The oldest of these tombs appear to have been sealed up before the structure was completed, and the probability is that they were not intended to be opened, from the fact that there is nothing to indicate their exact locality. The pedestal-stones, all of which are still in place, show that the images were put up at equal distances and with a view to symmetry, and without regard to the position of the tombs; though

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it is pretty well established that they were intended as effigies of chiefs or distinguished persons. The terrace behind the platform was also used as a burial-place, and contained remains of an ancient date. Succeeding generations have utilized the same places for the same purposes, but there are passages under the platform that have never been opened since the structure was built. The entire plain back of Tongariki Bay is one vast cemetery, containing the decaying remains of thousands of people. Every pile of stones, cave or ruined platform, house or cairn, has been used as a tomb. The christianized natives of to-day still regard this as a favorite burial-place. They have neither the ambition nor the industry to construct tombs for themselves, but are content to place their dead in receptacles filled with the remains of their ancestors. The recess-angles between the bodies of the fallen images, and the platforms upon which the base rests, are filled with remains of a recent date.

Platform No. 53.--Called "One-tea". Completely in ruins. Three images much broken. Foundation proper about 100 feet long.

Platform No. 54.--Called "Opaarionga". Small and unimportant. Central section 20 feet long, 6 feet wide, and 7 feet high. Remains of one small image.

Platform No. 55.--Called "Hangatufata"; 125 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 7 feet high. Five images thrown down, broken and in bad condition.

Platform No. 56.--Called "Onemakihi". Central section 40 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 7 feet high. Extreme length, including wings, 100 feet. One image much mutilated.

Platform No. 57.--Called "Punakape". Central section 40 feet long, 6 feet wide, and 6 feet high. Extreme length 80 feet. In ruins, and no images.

Platform No. 58.--Called "Moaitutahi". Central section 150 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 7 feet high. Extreme length 250 feet. Only two images remain. but appearances indicate that others have been destroyed. Upon terraces sloping towards the sea from the front are numerous remains of image-builders' houses. From the back of the structure a nicely paved way, 10 feet wide, extends inland for a distance of 200 yards.

Platform No. 59.--Called "Hanga-mahihiku". A mere mass of ruins, and almost devoid of shape. No images.

Platform No. 60.--Called "Ahuakoi". Central section 75 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 6 feet high. Extreme length, 160 feet. In a bad condition, and no images.

Platform No. 61.--Called "Hanga-tutaki". A mere mass of ruins covering human remains.

Platform No. 62.--Called "Ahupoepoe". In same condition as the last and without images.

Platform No. 63.--Called "Vaimoai". Central section 40 feet long, 6 feet wide, and 8 feet high. Extreme length, 90 feet. In bad condition, and no images.

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Platform No. 64.--Called "Kai". Same dimensions and general appearance as the last, but has one broken image.

Platform No. 65.--Called "Ruruoa". Central section 150 feet long, feet wide, and 6 feet high. Extreme length, including wings, 24-5 feet. Two large images, each 33 feet in length by 5 wide. Length of head, to shoulders, 10 feet, and width, from ear to ear, 4 feet. The stones on the front wall of the structure are neatly squared and smoothly faced.

Platform No. 66.--Called "Mahatua". Central section 30 feet long, feet wide, and 6 feet high. Extreme length, 100 feet. Two images, much defaced, lie on the inboard side on their faces. Between this platform and the last there is a nicely graded and paved road, with gentle slope from the cliff to the water-edge.

Platform No. 67.--Called "Ahukirirera". Has been pretty well demolished. No images.

Platform No. 68.--Called "Tehangakiri". Central section 40 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 7 feet high. Extreme length, 250 feet. Here are seven images, three large ones and four small sized, all in a damaged condition.

Platform No. 69.--Called "Kirikiriroa". Has been pretty thoroughly demolished, and has the fragments of one image.

Platform No. 70.--Called "Onepuhea". A duplicate of the last one in all respects.

Platform No. 71.--Called "Hanga-tetera"; 60 feet long, 6 feet wide, and 7 feet high, and has no wings. The main stones of sea-face average in size 5½ feet long and 1½ feet wide. No images.

Platform No. 72.--Called "Hanga-rea". Has been completely demolished and the fragments of two images lie among the ruins.

Platform No. 73.--Called "Oteu". Has a small foundation and seems to have been abandoned in an unfinished condition.

Platform No. 74.--Called "Tahureue". Has been destroyed, and the fragments of two images lie in the ruins.

Platform No. 75.--Called "Oroi". Central section 40 feet long, 6 feet wide, and 6 feet high. Extreme length, 140 feet. In a bad condition and no images.

Platform No. 76.--Called "Ahukinokino". Somewhat smaller than the last, but destitute of all interest.

Platform No. 77.--Called "Papaturei". A duplicate of the last, and in a demolished condition.

Platform No. 78.--Called "Tutuira". A mere mass of ruins, and with no images.

Platform No. 79.--Called "Ue". Central section 30 feet long, 6 feet wide, 6 feet high. Extreme length, 120 feet. Two images in a bad condition.

Platform No. 80.--Called "Akahanga" (Plate XXXV). Two hundred and fifty feet long, 10 feet wide, and 7 feet high, with no wings.

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[paragraph continues] Thirteen colossal images that once ornamented this remarkable structure have been thrown down and more or less damaged. Their red tufa crowns, also considerably broken, lie near at hand. On the inland facing-wall there is a ground tier of gray volcanic stone finely dressed, and on this is a tier of tufa stones 4½ feet long, 2½ feet high, and 8 inches thick each and these are covered with hieroglyphics.

This is known as the King's platform, and is regarded as one of the most important on the island, on account of the finished work on the structure as well as the numerous sculptures (Fig. 19). The tradition


FIG. 19


asserts that this was the burial place of Hotu-Matua, the first king, and a long line of his descendants. Our excavations in the vicinity produced nothing of interest beyond a few ancient skulls with lower jaws of extraordinary size and width. From the foundation of image-builders houses we obtained fine stone, implements and carving tools.

Platform No. 81.--Called "Harerora". Small and unimportant. One image, much broken.

Platform No. 82.--Called "Motupope". Central section 252 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 7 feet high. Extreme length, 375 feet. Six images in rather bad condition. This structure is important from the fact that the statues have short ears, the only ones of the kind we found on the island. The sketches will show that on all the platforms, as well the images, in the workshops as those left in an unfinished state were all carved with long ears. Why there was in exception made to the general rule in the images that adorned this structure, could not be determined.

Platform No. 83.--Called "Anaonero". Consisting of foundation stones only, showing that the work was abandoned shortly after being commenced.

Platform No. 84.--Called "Ruareva". A mere, mass of ruins.

Platform No. 85.--Called "Hoekoe". Has been completely demolished and shows fragments of two large images.

Platform No. 86.--Called "Pakaea". Central section 45 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 7 feet high, with wings extending 250 feet on either side. One image, in a bad condition.

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Platform No. 87.--Called "Manumea". A mere mass of ruins.

Platform No. 88.--Called "Hanga-tee". Same condition as the last.

Platform No. 89.--Called "Kope-iti". only the foundation-stones in place; probably never finished.

Platform No. 90.--Called "Runga-vae". Same condition as last.

Platform No. 91.--Called "Kote-one" In same unfinished state.

Platform No. 92.--Called "Renga-havini". A mere mass of ruins.

Platform No. 93.--Called "Kote-ara-ara". In a complete state of ruin.

Platform No. 94.--Called "Puepau". In same condition as the last.

Platform No. 95.--Called "Kivaau". A shapeless ruin.

Platform No. 96.--Called "Taroe". Central section 200 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 6½ feet high. Extreme length, 350 feet. Eleven images, all mutilated.

Platform No. 97.--Called "Ariki-iki". A shapeless ruin.

Platform No. 98.--Called "Kone-iti". Same condition as the last.

Platform No. 99.--Called "Koturara". In a very bad condition, with one broken image.

Platform No. 100.--Called "Moturea". In a state of absolute ruin.

Platform No. 101.--Called "Hanga-paukura". Shows that it was originally well built, and has six images lying behind it.

Platform No. l02.--In a very bad condition, and the name could not be ascertained.

Platform No. 101.--Called "Mataakira". A shapeless mass of ruins.

Platform No. 104.--Called "Anokahi". Similar to the last.

Platform No. 105.--Called "Hanga-hahue". In a bad condition, but has been an extensive structure with long wings. Four images.

Platform No. 106.--Called "Tehuteaheru". A mass of ruins.

Platform No. 107.--Called "Ahumeamea". Small and irregular construction. One image much damaged.

Platform No. 108.--Called "Ahumata-iti". This structure has been pretty thoroughly demolished and shows the fragments of one image.

Platform No. 109.--Called "Tahiri". The dimensions of this structure are not great, but it is remarkable on account of the finished workmanship. The sea front is built of immense blocks of hard heavy volcanic rock, smoothly faced and neatly joined together. In places, small stones have been mortised into the larger ones. It is surprising that such results could be produced by the rude stone implements that are known to have, been the only tools at the command of the natives. Finished surfaces might be the result of grinding with sand and water, but the joints and fittings could only be accomplished by long and patient labor. Some of the facing-stones were estimated at a weight of upwards of 5 tons. Under the impression that the superior character of the work indicated a platform of more than usual importance, it was thoroughly investigated at the expense of great labor and time. A section of the front wall was thrown down and the stones removed

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until an opening was made clear through the structure. No results having been obtained except a knowledge of how the pile was constructed from the foundation up, additional efforts were directed towards the two ends. To our great disappointment, we had nothing to show for the great labor expended upon this platform. The only human remains about the place are those of recent date, in shallow tombs on the rear side of the pile. There is a tradition to the effect that this was the last platform built on the island and was intended for the colossal image (70 feet) lying in the workshops on the west side of the crater of Rana Roraka. The legend asserts that when the work upon the platform and images had arrived at a certain stage, a great feast was held in honor of the event by the powerful tribe of Vinapu. The wife of the chief was of the Tongariki clan and during the ceremonies this "lady" was slighted in the division of "long pig," but whether intentionally or otherwise does not appear. Cannibalism was practiced on the island down to the advent of the first missionaries, and was always an important feature of the ancient feasts. The bodies were roasted in ovens made of hot stones covered with earth, after the manner practiced all through Polynesia, and certain portions were awarded to prominent individuals. Upon this particular occasion the rib-roast, "tenderloin" steak, or whatever the favorite morsel was which belonged to the aforesaid female by reason of her rank, was given to another, The insulted individual immediately sought the protection of her own clan, who arose en masse to vindicate the Tongariki honor. Long and bloody wars followed. Image-builders and platform-makers were drawn into the conflict from all parts of the island and, in a spirit of revenge, platforms were destroyed and images thrown down whenever opportunity offered. This is believed to have been the origin of the trouble which has laid waste the extraordinary works of this island.




Platform No. 110.--Called "Vinapu" (Fig. 20). A large structure with six mutilated images, and of the same general character and appearance as those already described. immediately behind this platform a wall of earth incloses a piece of ground about 225 feet in

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diameter and circular in shape. This is believed to have been the theater of the native ceremonies, and perhaps the spot where the feast, were held. We made excavations in the center and around the sides, but without a "find".

Platform No. 111.--Called "Ahutupai." Has been pretty thoroughly demolished. Six images in a bad condition lie on the top of the pile.

Platform No. 112.-Called "Ahurikiriki." Situated on the extreme southwestern end of the island, and remarkable from its position on the face of a perpendicular cliff nearly 1,000 feet high and midway between the sea and the top. Sixteen small images are lying on this platform and many of them seem to be in excellent condition. We could find no way of reaching the narrow ledge upon which this platform stands. No road leads down from the top; it can not be approached from either side, and from below it is a straight up and down wall against which the sea dashes continually. It is hardly probable that the images were lowered from the top by ropes, and the natural conclusion is, that a roadway once existed, which has been undermined by the waves and has fallen into the sea.

Platform No. 113.--Called "Kaokaoe." This was originally a large structure, but has been completely demolished by Mr. Brander to obtain material for the construction of stone-fences about his place.

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