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Gypsy Folk Tales, by Francis Hindes Groome, [1899], at


From whatever cause, it seems certain that a confusion did exist between the Ἀτσίγκανοι, or Gypsies, and the Ἀθίγγανοι, or heretics forming a branch of the Manichæan sect of the Paulicians, which renders it sometimes extremely difficult to determine whom the Byzantine historians are speaking of in seven passages collected by Dr. Franz von Miklosich in his great work, Ueber die Mundarten and die Wanderungen der Zigeuner Europa's (part vi., 1876, Vienna, pp. 57-64). It appears from these that the Athingani, described as magicians, soothsayers, and serpent-charmers, first emerge in Byzantine history under Nicephorus I.

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[paragraph continues] (802-11), were banished by Michael I. (811-13), and were restored to favour by Michael II. (820-29). But Miklosich's grounds for absolutely identifying them with Gypsies, and positively asserting the latter to have appeared at Byzantium in 810 under Nicephorus, are hard to recognise.

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