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The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg, Vol. I., ed. by J. Williams Ab Ithel, [1862], at


Question. Why is the face turned towards the sun in every asseveration and Prayer?

Answer. Because God is in every light, and the chief of every light is the sun. 4 It is through fire that God brings

p. 264 p. 265

back to Himself all things that have emanated from Him; therefore it is not right to ally one's self to God, but in the light. There are three kinds of light, namely: that of the sun, and hence fire; that which is obtained in the sciences of teachers; and that which is possessed in the understanding of the head and heart, that is, in the soul. On that account, every vow is made in the face of the three lights, that is, in the light of the sun is seen the light of a teacher, or demonstration; and from both of these is the light of the intellect, or that of the soul.


263:4 p. 262 Howel ap Davydd ap Ieuan ap Rhys, (A.D. 1450--1480,) clearly alludes to the doctrine of the text in the following couplet;--

Y (Drindod, Duwdod) yn rhod y r haul
Ai annedd yn y wennaul.

The (Trinity, Deity) in the course of the sun,
Having His habitation in the bright sun.
                           I Fair a Sioseb.

p. 263

[paragraph continues] On which Ieuan Tir Iarll, who presided in the Chair of Glamorgan A.D. 1760, and was remarkably well versed in Bardic lore, has the following observations;--

"There was a general opinion in the age when this was composed, that the sun was the abode, or habitation of God--in other words, that the sun was heaven. There are many words and sentences in other poems and odes which show p. 264 that such was the view held by our ancestors respecting the sun. One of the Names of God in primitive times was Hu, and therefore the sun was designated Huan, which means annedd Hu, or the abode of God. Sion Mowddwy, in a poem in which he sends the sun as a messenger, says,

Yr haul glan hir olau glwys,
A’i rhediad o Baradwys,
Gan ENW DUW y gwnai’n dawel
Golianu o beutu ’r bel;
Golan nef wyd gwiwlawn faeth,
Golau ’r byd glaer wybodaeth.

Fair sun, with enduring and beautiful light,
Having thy course from Paradise,
By the NAME OF GOD dost thou quietly
Illumine all around the globe;
Thou art the light of heaven, worthy fosterer,
Light of the world, clear knowledge.
                               Sion Mowddwy.

"It may be supposed that they formerly sacrificed to the sun, or at least in the face of the sun, which, in the opinion of those who are skilled in the Mysteries of the Bards, is the most probable, for I have not yet noticed in any place which p. 265 I have read, that they themselves worshipped the sun, but only Him who dwelt in it. Therefore, in the act of worshipping, as well as in the performance of every other solemn rite, they did all in the face of the sun and the eye of light, that is, in the face, or before the face of Him, whom they regarded as living and existing in the sun and the light.

"Gwilym Tew, in a poem eulogistic of the large wine flagon of Rhys ap Sion of Glyn Nedd, says thus;--

Grenn our llaw gywrain Eurych,
A mîn gronn yn trammwy ’n grych,
Aberth yr haul, a byrth Rys
Yn ei hwyneb yw ’n hynys.

Golden vessel, the ingenious workmanship of a goldsmith,
With a rounded rim, running along in curls;
The sacrifice of the sun, supported by Rhys,
In its face, is our island."

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