When these preliminary formalities have been fulfilled in this manner, the Candidate is thereby prepared to receive the instructions that should be given him to fit him to dance either of the last three forms of the Sun Dance, also for the purpose of his undertaking. If his purpose is to become a Shaman, he should be informed that as a Shaman the people will consider that he is endowed with a knowledge of the laws and customs of the Lakota and supernatural wisdom; that he can communicate with supernatural beings and interpret Their wills; that he will have supervisory authority over all ceremonies; and that if he knows the will of a supernatural being to be that any law, customs, or ceremony be altered or prohibited, he should act according to such will. He should also be informed that the people will hold him to strict account for his action as a Shaman, and if they find that he exercises his authority only to gratify his own desires, the akicita, or marshals of the camp, may adjudge and punish him according to his offense, even to the taking of his life. If, in the exercise of his authority or attributes as a Shaman he wrongfully injures another, the one injured may exact from him a satisfaction for the injury, which might be to take his life. After receiving this information, if he persists in his desire to become a Shaman, he should be instructed so that he may have a knowledge of the following matters before he dances:--
The Lakotapi are the original people, superior to all others of mankind, and it is a matter of grace on their part to concede rights of any kind to any other people. Long ago, they were one tribe and made their winter camp in the region of the pines near the Sacred Lake, maintaining but one council fire. Bands wandered far away, making winter camps and maintaining council fires elsewhere, thus becoming independent tribes. Seven tribes were formed in this manner, which, at one time, encamped together in a formal camp. circle, each maintaining its own council fire. This time is known as "The Time of the Seven Great Council Fires," and is the beginning of an era for the Lakotapi. These tribes recognize each other as kindred peoples having like laws and customs.
According to their customs, when two or more tribes encamp together, the ranking tribe takes precedence by placing its camp at the chief place in the camp circle, which is opposite the entrance to the circle and other tribes should place their camps in the circle next from the chief place in the order of their precedence. At first, the order of precedence was according to the age of a tribe, counting from the time when it first made its council fire. Thus, the tribe that made its winter camp near the Sacred Lake had
the chief place in a camp circle of the Lakotapi. But the tribe that made its winter camp on the plains became the most powerful, usurped the chief place, and has held it. This tribe is the Teton, who are a haughty people who arrogate for themselves the name Lakota, as a distinction from the other Lakotapi. After the manner of the original seven tribes, the Teton were divided into seven subtribes, which when encamped together observe the customs that govern the formation of a camp circle of the tribes. At first, another subtribe had the precedence, but the Oglala became the most powerful and usurped it and holds it. Thus, in a formal camp circle of any or all of the Lakotapi, the Oglala would take precedence and place its camp at the chief place. For this reason, the Oglala are the chief people of the original peoples, and are superior to all mankind. Therefore, in a conflict of laws, customs, or ceremonies, those of the Oglala should prevail.
The Oglala are divided into a number of bands, each of which is called a camp, and is known by the name of its chief. An Oglala band consists of a number of families organized so as to form a camp with a council fire as a symbol of its autonomy. When different bands encamp together, the oldest, counting from the time when it first maintained a council fire, takes precedence and maintains its council fire. The other bands place their camps in the circle according to their age, but they hold their organization in abeyance while in the circle and do not make a council fire.
A camp is organized when it has a chief, a council, a magistrate, a herald, and marshals, and maintains a council fire. It ought to have a council lodge and may have a dancing lodge. Members of the band may be members of military societies and while such are controlled as militia by the societies they must aid in maintaining the organization of the camp.
A camp may be organized by any number of any persons who erect a sufficient number of tipis so that there may be men enough to form the organization. There should not be less than seven tipis in a camp and there may be as many more as the organization will permit. Only husbanded tipis are counted when estimating the size or strength of a camp, a husbanded tipi being one in which dwells a husband and wife; if a man has more than one wife who erects a tipi, all such are counted as one tipi only. Anyone may become a member of a band by encamping with it and expressing a wish to belong to it. Thus, a popular band may have an indefinite number of members and become powerful. Anyone may withdraw from a band by simply saying he does not wish to be counted as a member. Thus, an unpopular band may dwindle until it has not enough tipis to maintain an organized camp and then it is no longer recognized as a band. The members of a band are entitled to the force of the entire band in the protection of their rights and they must obey the laws and customs of the Oglala and the edicts of their council.
Any member may present any matter for the consideration of the council, except matters authorized by a Shaman and may ,peak before the council relative to any matter it may have under consideration. A member may be suspended by the council when he must place his tipi outside the camp circle. When a tipi is thus placed its inhabitants are barred from all communal privileges, but are entitled to the protection of the band. When a member is expelled by the council, lie must not place his tipi near the encampment of the band from which he is expelled and the inhabitants of his tipi are not entitled to protection by this band. A Shaman may give advice relative to the standing of any member of a band or relative to the exemption of any member from the operation of any edict by the council and his advice should be heeded. He may taboo anyone and relief from such taboo or ban can be had only by act of the council approved by a Shaman.
The first chief of a band is he who has sufficient following to organize a camp. His tenure of office is for life, but he may be deposed by the council. The succession of chieftainship is hereditary, but the heir may be debarred by the council. If a vacancy in the chieftainship occurs with no heir-apparent, the council should choose a chief. One who has sufficient following can usurp the chieftainship. A chief is acknowledged by the band when at a formal meeting of the council he is invited to sit at the chief place and an influential councilor fills and lights a pipe and offers it to him and he and the councilors smoke it in communion. The chief is the administrator of, and entitled to precedence in, all the communal affairs of the band, and is the commander of all that pertains to war. When on a foray he is entitled to the largest personal share of the booty and always entitled to the largest personal share of the products of a communal hunt or chase. He may command the marshals to do anything, and if the command accords with the laws or customs of the Oglala, or the edicts of the council, they should obey him, but they should judge the propriety of the command. Like any other member of the band, he is subject to judgment and punishment by the marshals. He may adopt any device lie chooses as the insignum of his chieftaincy. Usually, this is made of the quills from the tail of the golden eagle. He may have such other insignia as lie is entitled to, like other members of the band. A Shaman may make taboo for him anything that is a perquisite of his chieftainship and such a ban can be removed only by the council acting on the advice of a Shaman.
The council of the camp is composed of men who are accepted as councilors because they customarily assemble in formal circle about the council fire to consider matters of common interest to the band. It usually consists of the chief and elderly men of good repute, knowledge, and experience, though any renowned man may sit in the council, and if the councilors give
heed to his speeches or ask his views upon matters they are considering, he thereby becomes a councilor. Any councilor may cease to be such by not sitting in the circle about the council fire. A Shaman may taboo the councilorship for any member of the band. The duties of the council are to consider and decide upon all matters of common interest to the band; to issue such edicts as they see fit; to command the herald to make such proclamations as they desire; and to hear and decide upon appeals from the judgments of the marshals. A Shaman can act only as advisor of the council. The council must appoint the herald and the marshals of the camp, but each councilor is subject to the discipline of the marshals in the same manner as are all other members of the band. The only perquisites of the councilorship are the honors of being a councilor. An act of the council is accepted when it is not opposed by councilors who have a sufficient following of members to enforce their opposition.
The wakiconze, or magistrate, of the camp, is one who acts as such by common consent of the band. He should be a mihunka, that is, an elderly man who has the respect and confidence of the people. When the band is encamped his duties are to decide upon all disputed points in friendly controversies, contests, or games; and to give advice when such is needed or requested. The magistrate may be a Shaman, the chief, a councilor, or a marshal, and if he is either of these, when applicable, he should first act as magistrate and then in his other capacity. When the band makes a peaceful journey, the magistrate has entire command and the duties of other officers of the camp are held in abeyance from the time the tipis are taken down for the move, until they are erected in an encampment. His duties then are to appoint marshals of the movement; to select the route; to order the halts for refreshment; to select the places for temporary encampment; and to provide against surprise by an enemy during movement. It is customary for him to appoint the marshals of the camp as marshals of the movement, but he may appoint any others as such. Their duties are to enforce the customs that govern a band when making a movement and to carry out such instructions as the magistrate may give. The most important of these should be that some of the marshals shall go in advance and far at both sides of the route as scouts watching for game or an enemy, and if signs of either are seen, to signal by smoke. When such a signal is seen the magistrate should immediately order a temporary encampment and when it is made his authority ceases until the movement is again resumed. If the journey is to be to and from a place, as for instance, to a ceremony or to make a formal visit to another band, the appointments made by the magistrate do not terminate until that journey is complete, no difference how long the intervals of the movement may be.
The herald is a marshal, usually selected because his, voice is full and deep-toned. His badge of office is a willow wand about four forearm lengths long, forked at its smaller end, and peeled and dried. The tips of the forks are ornamented with dangling smaller quills from the wing of a golden eagle and maybe ornamented in any other manner the herald chooses. The insignum of his office is the same as that of other marshals. He may wear such other insignia as be is entitled to have. He may exercise all the duties of a marshal, but ordinarily only the duties of a herald are required of him. These are to proclaim to the camp matters of common interest, or that any member wishes to make known by the band; to summon councilors to assemble and persons to appear before the council; to supervise making and maintaining a council fire, the erection and care of a council lodge; and to herald the approach of a band or of visitors.
The appointment of a marshal is a formality that should be accomplished by the council in the following manner. The council may appoint any number of marshals for it manifests an honor regarded as little less than that of being a chief or a renowned warrior. Anyone may nominate any man who is physically fit for appointment as a marshal. The , council should consider any such nomination and accept or reject it. If the nomination is accepted, the council should hold it for one or more intervals of its assemblage and consider such electioneering as the band may do. Then it may agree to reject or accept the nominee. If the council accepts the nominee it should direct the herald to summon him to appear before it to be appointed a marshal. This the herald should do by public proclamation so that the nominee may be either absent or present in his tipi when the herald goes there, for if he is then absent, it is considered that he refuses the nomination; if he is present, that he accepts it. After giving the nominee sufficient time to locate himself, the herald, accompanied by a marshal, should go to the tipi of the nominee and examine it, and if the nominee is there he should paint a perpendicular black stripe on the door flap of the tipi. Then the marshal should enter the tipi, grasp the nominee by his arm, and so conduct him into the presence of the council. In the meantime, the council should invite a Shaman to sit at the chief place in the circle. The herald should announce to the council the presence of the nominee and then the Shaman should invite the nominee to sit between the chief place and the council fire. When he is thus seated the Shaman should fill and light a pipe and offer it to the nominee who should smoke and pass it, so that he and the council men may smoke in communion. When this rite is ended, the Shaman should inform the nominee that he is about to be appointed a marshal and instruct him relative to his functions as such, in substance as follows:--
The duties of a marshal are to enforce compliance with the laws, customs, and usages of the Oglala, and the edicts of the council; they are authorized to adjudge infractions; to determine disagreements and disorders; and to inflict penalties even to that of death. They may act individually or collectively, as they choose. They are subordinate to no official and appeals from their judgments may be made only to the council which may adjudge their decisions justifiable or unjustifiable. In the exercise of his function, a marshal is liable for misconduct or neglect, but only to the marshals, who may adjudge him and inflict such penalties as they deem proper, but the penalties should always be greater than those inflicted upon others for like offenses. Anyone may plead relative to a cause and a marshal should hear and heed such pleas. A Shaman may advise a marshal relative to his functions and such advice should be duly considered.
When the Shaman thinks the nominee understands the functions of a marshal he should inform him that he was nominated a marshal and had signified an acceptance of the nomination and that thereupon he was so appointed, as attested by the herald placing the black stripe on his door flap which he is entitled to have there while he is marshal. Then the Shaman should paint a black stripe on the marshal's right cheek, from the outer corner of the eye to the lower edge of the jaw, and inform him that a black stripe so placed on the face is the insignum of a marshal, and is recognized by the people as a sufficient warrant of office.
This ends the formality of appointing a marshal; but it is expected that the new marshal will give a feast to celebrate the occasion. The council may appoint temporary marshals. without ceremony. But such are subordinate to the council, have no authority other than that of a policeman, and should be displaced by regularly appointed marshals at the earliest opportunity. The council may appoint marshals for special purposes with no ceremony other than instructions relative to these purposes. Such marshals have no functions other than those necessary for the accomplishment of that for which they were appointed; when that is accomplished and the council so informed, their appointments terminate. A Shaman may advise relative to the appointment of marshals without ceremony, but such is all that he should have to do with the acts of the council in such appointments.
A band, when encamped together, should make the formal camp circle by placing their tipis so as to enclose a circular space, leaving a small vacant space in the circle. The tipis so placed form the camp circle, the vacant space is the entrance, and the enclosed space, the area, while that part of the circle opposite the entrance is the chief place. The entrance should be at the east side of the circle and the parts of the circle that abut on it
are the horns of the camp circle. The tipis should be so placed that their doors will be toward the center of the area and in the order of precedence of their occupants. The tipi of the chief should be at the chief place and those of prominent men next to the chief place in the order of their accepted standing, except that the tipis at the horns are considered guards of the entrance and places of honor, usually those of tried warriors. The council lodge should be erected on the area with its door toward the chief place and usually is placed near the tipi of the chief. If there is a dance or ceremonial lodge or enclosure of any kind, it should be placed at the center of the area with its entrance toward the south. A society may erect its lodge on the area any place it chooses, except at the center. Structures of any kind to be used only by their owners for purposes other than habitation, must be placed outside the camp circle, such, for instance, as menstrual lodges, vitalizing lodges, etc. The marshals may compel anyone to place his tipi outside the camp circle and this is an ostracism. A heyoka must place the door of his tipi so that it will not be towards the center of the area. The marshals should assign to visitors places in the circle for their tipis, relative to the chief place according to their importance. A Shaman may place his tipi where he chooses, except at the chief place, and he may determine the location of anything placed on the area. He may taboo, restricted or unlimited, any person or tipi in the circle.
When two or more bands camp together and become as one band, the tipis of the members of different bands do not intermingle, but are grouped so that members of a band may have their tipis together. If there are a number of bands so encamped that it is practicable, these groups are entire bands, placed in the circle relative to the chief place in the order of precedence of the bands. A Shaman should know this order of precedence, for he should control the establishment and organization of a ceremonial camp, as will appear when describing the establishment of a camp for dancing the Sun Dance.