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The Traditions of the Hopi, by H.R. Voth, [1905], at


While living below, everything at first is good. Chiefs and then people begin to do bad. Sorcerers increase. People become very bad and take away wives of chiefs. Chiefs think of escaping. They hear sounds above and they decide to investigate. They make Pawáok'aya and sing over it. It comes to life, and they tell it to go up and find out. Chief plants lö'oqö tree, but it does not reach up. Then they plant reed that reaches up. Pawáok'aya ascends and finds opening. He goes through and flies around, but does not find anybody. He descends tired out and tells chiefs. They make Tóhcha, which ascends and also finds nothing, returning exhausted. The same occurs with Hawk. Chiefs then make Mótsni, which flies up through opening and finds place where Oraíbi now is, and somebody sitting. it is Skeleton. Mótsni tells him why he has come, and Skeleton says he is living in poverty, but they are welcome if they are willing to live with him. Mótsni returns and tells chiefs, who determine to go. White Man, Paiute, Pueblo, and all people except Zuni and Kohoníno then live down there. Those whose hearts are not very bad, assemble with chiefs. In four days they meet again and commence to climb up reed, led by Village Chief, followed by other chiefs and their people. Village Chief thinks Pópwaktu are going to come up and he pulls up reed. He addresses people and says they must live with single heart. Chief's son sickens and dies. Chief says Powáka has come with them and he throws ball of fine meal upward. It alights on head of maiden. Chief accuses her, and says he will throw her down. She tells chief to look down and he will see his

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child running around. He looks, and lets maiden remain, but says she is to stay there for day after they leave. It is dark, and Spider Woman, assisted by Flute Priest, makes drawing on white cloth. They sing songs over it, and Spider Woman takes disk towards east. Soon moon rises, but it is not very light. They then draw sun symbol on circular piece of buckskin and sing over it. Spider Woman takes it away, and something rises again, and it becomes light and very warm. They have rubbed yolks of eggs over sun symbol, and this is why chickens know all about time. Chiefs make different kinds of plants and other things. Hopi language is spoken, but chief asks Mockingbird to give to different people different language. Mocking-bird does so. They sit down to common meal, and chief lays out many corn ears of different lengths and tells people to choose of them before they start. Every one wants longest ears. Small ears are left for Hopi, who only have corn. Chief agrees that elder brother shall go with party ahead towards sunrise. He is to touch sun with forehead and remain where sun rises. An old woman goes with each party. Each party takes stone having marks and figures and that fit together. If Hopi live again way they did in lower world, elder brother to come back and cut off heads of Powákas. Elder brother and party start and become White Men. Chief and party take southern route. Maiden Powáka follows them. People travel eastward in different parties with chief. They stop at certain places, and this is why there are so many ruins. Pueblo passed through while Hopi live. Spider Woman makes horses and burros for White Men and they go along much faster. Parties stay where there are good fields or springs for one or more years. They plant crops and create springs by burying báuypi containing certain herbs, báhos, etc. They can create rain. Contentions arise among parties, and they war on each other. So they build villages on bluffs and mesas. Bear and other clans, whose names are taken from dead bear, arrive at Mû'enkapi. Another Bear Clan arrives at Shongópavi, which is first village started. Skeleton is living where Oraíbi now is . gear and two other clans move towards Oraíbi. Spider Clan make marks on bluff east of Mû'enkapi, claiming water for Hopi. Snake Clan arrives and afterwards Burrowing Owl clan, and they write something on bluff. Skeleton comes to meet Bear clan, who want him to be chief. Skeleton refuses, but gives them land, and Bear clan builds houses east of Oraíbi bluff where now are ruins. Bear clan brings Â'ototo and Soyál Katcinas. Different clans arrive, and fields are allotted to them. Bow clan one of first to arrive, and leader arranges Katcina dance. On last day of dance it rains fearfully. Village chief tells them they shall have their ceremony Wúwûchim, first. Other clans bring other cults, and villages are built up slowly. Everything is good yet. When Katcinas dance it rains. They are simple and good Katcinas brought by Hopi from under-world. But Powáka maiden has taught others her evil arts, and Pópwaktu have increased at Palátkwapi, which is destroyed by great water produced by Bálölöokongs. Some of its people are saved and reach Wálpi and other villages, where they teach evil arts. They put sickness into people, and make enemies of Utes, Apache, and Navaho, who used to be friends of Hopi. White Men are called by Pópwaktu and worry Hopi. But Hopi are still looking towards elder brother who arrived at sunrise first, and he is watching how they are getting along.

Next: 5.--The Origin of Some Oraíbi Clans.