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History of Utah, 1540-1886, by Hubert Howe Bancroft, [1889], at

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Boundaries and Extent of Utah—Configuration and Physical Features of the Country—Its Lands and Waters—Flora and Fauna—State University—Curriculum—Educational Ideas—Library—Periodicals—Tabernacle and Temple—New Fort—Progress of the Useful Arts—Mills, Factories, and Manufactures—Farm Products—Traffic—Population—Revenue—Mortality—Healthful Airs and Medicinal Springs.

    In the year 1850 Utah, bounded on the south and east by New Mexico, Kansas, and Nebraska, on the west by California, on the north by Oregon, which then included Idaho, was one of the largest territories in the United States. Its length from east to west was 650 miles, its breadth 350 miles, and its area 145,000,000 acres. The portion known as the great basin, beyond which were no settlements in 1852, has an elevation of 4,000 to 5,000 feet, and is surrounded and intersected by mountain ranges, the highest peaks of the Humboldt Range near its centre being more than 5,000 feet, and of the Wasatch on the east about 7,000 feet, above the level of the basin.

    For 300 miles along the western base of the Wasatch Range is a narrow strip of alluvial land. 1 Elsewhere in the valley the soil is not for the most part fertile until water is conducted to it, and some of the alkali washed out. Rain seldom falls in spring

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or summer, and during winter the snow-fall is not enough to furnish irrigating streams in sufficient number and volume. Throughout the valley, vegetation is scant except in favored spots. With the exception of the Santa Clara River in the south-west, the Green River in the east, the Grand and other branches of the Colorado in the south and east, the streams all discharge into lakes or are lost in the alkali soil of the bottom-lands. On the hillsides bunch-grass is plentiful the year round, and in winter there is pasture in the cañons. Around Salt Lake the soil is poor; in the north and east are narrow tracts of fertile land; toward the valleys of the Jordan and Tooele, separated by the Oquirrh Range, and on the banks of the Timpanogos and San Pete, is soil of good quality, that yielded in places from sixty to a hundred bushels of grain to the acre.

    The Jordan and Timpanogos furnished good waterpower, and on the banks of the latter stream was built a woollen-mill that ranked as the largest factory of the kind west of the Missouri River. In the Green River basin, immense deposits of coal were known to exist, and the Iron Mountains near Little Salt Lake were so called from the abundance of ore found in their midst. Other valuable minerals were afterward discovered, among them being gold, silver, copper, zinc, lead, sulphur, alum, and borax; the waters of Great Salt Lake were so densely impregnated that one measure of salt was obtained from five of brine. 2

    In the streams were fish of several varieties; 3 in

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the mountains roamed the deer, elk, antelope, and bear, and on the marshy flats amid the plains were smaller game. 4 Timber was scarce and of poor quality, except in places difficult of access; 5 but with this exception there was no great lack of resources in the territory which the saints had made their abode.


    During the first years that followed their migration, while yet engaged in building houses, fencing lands, planting crops, and tending herds, the Mormons provided liberally for the cause of education. In the third general epistle of the twelve, dated the 12th of April, 1850, it is stated that an appropriation of $5,000 per annum, for a period of twenty years, had been made for a state university 6 in Salt Lake City, branches to be established elsewhere throughout the territory as they were needed. In the curriculum the Keltic and Teutonic languages were to rank side by side with the Romanic, and all living languages spoken by men were to be included. Astronomy, geology, chemistry, agriculture, engineering, and other branches of science were to be studied; for having sought first the kingdom of heaven, the saints were now assured that knowledge and all other things should be added unto them. 7 The world of science was to be revolutionized;

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the theories of gravitation, repulsion, and attraction overthrown, the motion of atoms, whether single or in mass, being ascribed to the all-pervading presence of the holy spirit. The planetary systems were to be rearranged, their number and relations modified, for in the book of Abraham it was revealed that in the centre of the universe was the great orb Kolob, the greatest of all the stars seen by that patriarch, revolving on its axis once in a thousand years, and around which all other suns and planets revolved in endless cycles. 8

    At first, however, education among the settlers was mainly of an elementary nature. There were many, even among the adults, who could not write or spell, and not a few who could not read. A parents’ school was therefore established at Salt Lake City, for the heads of families and for the training of teachers, among the pupils being Brigham Young. 9 Primary and other schools were opened in all the principal settlements, 10 and for those who were sufficiently advanced, classes were organized as early as the winter of 1848-9, for the study of ancient and modern languages. 11

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    In 1850, by vote of congress, twenty thousand dollars were appropriated for the building of a state-house, and the sum of five thousand dollars was appropriated for the foundation of a library in Salt Lake City. The delegate from Utah was authorized to make a selection of books, and several thousand volumes were forwarded from the east during this and the following year. 12 Rooms were prepared in the council-house for their reception, and many periodicals, both Mormon and gentile, were added to the stock of reading matter. Among the former was the Millennial Star, already mentioned, and the Frontier Guardian, published bi-monthly at Kanesville, Iowa, between February 1849 and March 1852, and afterward as a weekly paper under the style of the Frontier Guardian and Iowa Sentinel13

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    On the 15th of June, 1850, was published at Salt Lake City, under the editorship of Willard Richards, the first number of the Deseret News, a weekly paper, and the church organ of the saints. 14 In this number, a copy of which I have before me, is a report of the conflagration which occurred in San Francisco on christmas eve of 1849, and of Zachary Taylor's message to the house of representatives relating to the admission of California as a state.

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    At Salt Lake City and elsewhere throughout the country manufactures began to thrive. Isolated, poor, having brought little or nothing with them, these settlers were peculiarly dependent for necessaries and comforts upon themselves, and what they could do with their hands. And it would be difficult to find anywhere in the history of colonization settlers who could do more. Among them were many of the best of Europe's artisans, workers in wood, iron, wool, and cotton, besides farmers, miners, and all kinds of laborers.

    At Tooele and several other settlements gristmills and saw-mills were established before the close of 1852. 15 Near Salt Lake City, a small woollen-mill was in operation. 16 At Parowan and Cedar City, iron-works were in course of construction; at Paragoonah, a tannery had been built; and at Salt Lake City, in addition to other branches of manufacture, flannels, linseys, jeans, pottery, and cutlery were produced, 17 and sold at lower prices than were asked for eastern cods of inferior quality "Produce what you consume, writes Governor Brigham Young in his message of January 5, 1852; "draw from the native elements the necessaries of life; permit no vitiated taste to lead you into indulgence of expensive luxuries which can only be obtained by involving yourselves in debt; let home industry produce every article of home consumption." 18 This excellent advice

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was not unheeded; but the supply of home-manufactured goods did not, of course, keep pace with the demand. Such commodities as were not the products of home industry were, for the most part, obtained by barter with passing emigrants, or were brought in wagon trains by way of Kanesville; 19 though already traffic had been opened with regions far to the westward on either side of the Sierra Nevada. 20

    According to the United States census returns for the year 1850, the population of the valley of Great Salt Lake mustered 11,354 persons, of whom about 53 per cent were males, and 6,000 residents of Salt Lake City. 21 There were 16,333 acres under cultivation, on which were raised 128,711 bushels of grain. The value of live-stock was estimated at $546,698, and of farming implements at $84,288. At the close of 1852, the total population was variously estimated at from 25,000 to 30,000, 22 of whom perhaps 10,000 resided in the metropolis. The assessed value of

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taxable property at the latter date was $1,160,883.80, or an average of more than $400 per capita. The entire revenue amounted to $26,690.58, 23 of which sum $9,725.87 was expended for public improvements, the encouragement of industries, or educational purposes.


    Little more than five years had elapsed since the pioneer band entered the valley of Great Salt Lake, and now the settlers found themselves amidst plenty and comfort in the land of promise, where until their arrival scarce a human being was to be seen, save the Indians whose clothing was the skins of rabbits and whose food was roasted crickets. 24 There was no destitution in their midst; 25 there was little sickness. 26 In these and some other respects, the wildest misstatements have been made by certain gentile writers, among them Mr Ferris, who, as we shall see, was appointed secretary for Utah. 27 In this pure

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mountain air, with its invigorating embrace, the aged and infirm regained the elasticity of a second youth. Here was no rank vegetation, here were no stagnant pools to generate miasma, no vapors redolent of death, like those amid which the saints encamped on the banks of the Missouri. In the valley were mineral springs, the temperature of which ranged from 36° to 150° of Fahrenheit, some of them being prized for their medicinal properties. From the warm spring 28 in the vicinity of Salt Lake City, waters which varied between 98° in summer and 104° in winter 29 were conducted by pipes to a large bath-house in the northern part of the city. 30

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321:1 Gunnison's The Mormons, 15.

322:2 An analysis of the mineral matter forty years ago showed 97.8 per cent of chloride of sodium, 1.12 of sulphate of lime, .24 of magnesium, and .23 of sulphate of soda. Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 101. The specific gravity of the water is given by L. D. Gale, in Stansbury's Expedition to G. S. Lake, at 1.117. Out of 22.422 parts of solid matter Gale found 20.196 of common salt, 1.834 of soda, .252 of magnesium, and of chloride of calcium a trace. See also Sloan's Utah Gazetteer, 1884, 177-8; Hist. Nev., 11, this series. In chap. i. of that vol. is a further description of the great basin, its topography, climate, soil, springs and rivers, fauna and flora.

322:3 'The angler can choose his fish either in the swift torrents of the cañons, where the trout delights to live, or in the calmer currents on the plains, p. 323 where he will find abundance of the pike, the perch, the bass, and the chub. Gunnison's The Mormons, 20.

323:4 Wild ducks and geese were abundant in 1852. Ibid. There were also quail and herons. In summer, boys filled their baskets with eggs found among the reeds on the banks of streams or on the islands in the Great Salt Lake.

323:5 'Hidden away in the profound chasms and along the streams, whose beds are deeply worn in the mountain-sides, are the cedar, pine, dwarf-maple, and occasionally oak, where the inhabitants of the vale seek their fuel and building timber, making journeys to obtain these necessaries twenty to forty miles from their abodes.' Id., 21.

323:6 Under the supervision and control of a chancellor, twelve regents, a secretary, and a treasurer. Frontier Guardian, June 12, 1850.

323:7 'But what,' says Phelps in an oration delivered July 24, 1851, 'will all the precious things of time, the inventions of men, the records, from Japheth in the ark to Jonathan in congress, embracing the wit and the gist, the fashions and the folly, which so methodically, grammatically and transcendentally grace the libraries of the élite of nations, really be worth to a saint, when our father sends down his regents, the angels, from the grand library of Zion above, with a copy of the history of eternal lives, the records of worlds, the genealogy of the gods, the philosophy of truth, the names of our spirits from p. 324 the Lamb's book of life, and the songs of the sanctified?' Deseret News, July 26, 1851.

324:8 'I saw the stars that they were very great, and that one of them was nearest unto the throne of God; and there were many great ones that were near it; and the Lord said unto me, These are the governing ones: and the name of the great one is Kolob, because it is near unto me, for I am the Lord thy God; I have set this one to govern all those which belong to the same order of that upon which thou standest. And the Lord said unto me, By the urim and thummim, that Kolob was after the manner of the Lord, according to its times and seasons in the revolution thereof, that one revolution was a day unto the Lord, after his manner of reckoning, it being one thousand years according to the time appointed unto that whereon thou standest.' Reynolds’ Book of Abraham, 29. See also Orson Pratt's lecture on astronomy in Deseret News, Dec. 27, 1851.

324:9 The parent school is in successful operation in the council-house, and schools have been built in most of the wards. Hist. B. Young, MS., 1851, 32; Gunnison's The Mormons, 80; Utah Early Records, MS., 115. Lyons Collins was appointed teacher by the chancellor and board of regents.

324:10 Jesse W. Fox taught the first school at Manti in 1850. Utah Sketches, MS., 172. The first school at Nephi was opened in 1851. Id., 111. The best school-house in Utah county was at Palmyra; at Provo, Evan M. Greene opened a select school in the second ward. Deseret News, Dec. 11, 1852.

324:11 'There have been a large number of schools the past winter, in which the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, German, Tahitian, and English languages p. 325 have been taught successfully. First General Epistle of the Twelve, in Utah Early Records, MS., 74, and Frontier Guardian, May 30, 1849. 'German books were bought in order that the elders might learn that language. 'Hist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 3.

325:12 Dr Bernhisel was appointed by the president of the U.S. as special agent to expend the U.S. appropriation of $5,000. Hist. B. Young, MS., 80. Many valuable donations of maps, papers, etc., were received. Contributor, 270; Gunnison's The Mormons, 83; Utah Early Records, MS., 130; Millennial Star, xii. 330-1. William C. Staines was appointed librarian. Deseret News, Feb. 21, 1852.

325:13 Of the Frontier Guardian, brief mention has already been made. The first number, published Feb. 7, 1849, with Orson Hyde as editor and proprietor, will bear comparison with many of the leading newspapers in eastern or European cities. In the prospectus Mr Hyde states that 'it will be devoted to the news of the day, to the signs of the times, to religion and prophecy, both ancient and modern; to literature and poetry; to the arts and sciences, together with all and singular whatever the spirit of the times may dictate.' Published, as was the Guardian, on the extreme frontier of the states, Mr Hyde was enabled to furnish the latest news from Salt Lake City, and many valuable items have been gleaned from its pages. Glancing at them for the first time, one asks, How did he contrive to bring out his newspaper in such creditable shape, at a place which one year before was only an encampment of emigrants en route for the valley? During this year, however, Kanesville—later Florence—had made very rapid progress, due, in part, to the migration to California. Glancing over the first numbers of the Guardian, we find advertised for sale dry goods, groceries, provisions, hardware, clothing, and most of the commodities needed by emigrants. There was a hotel, a fashionable tailor, a lawyer, a doctor, and of course a tabernacle, which served for social parties and religious worship. Provisions rose to very high rates, though not to the prices demanded in Salt Lake City. On Feb. 7, 1849, flour, beef, and pork were selling at Kanesville for about $2 per 100 lbs. On May 1, 1850, flour was worth $6 to $6.50, beef $3.50 to $4.50, and pork $5 to $6. Potatoes had risen meanwhile from 25 cents to $1, corn from 20 cents to $2.25, and wheat from 50 cents to $1.75, per bushel. On March 4, 1852, appeared the first number p. 326 of the Frontier Guardian and Iowa Sentinel, the paper having then passed into the hands of Jacob Dawson & Co.

326:14 Until Aug. 19, 1851, it was issued as an eight-page quarto, the pages being about 8½ by 6½ in., and without column rules. After that date it was suspended for want of paper until Nov. 19th. 'We got short of type, and I happened to have some stereotyped plates,…which we melted down and used for type. We were short, too, of paper, and all went to work to make it. We collected all the rags we could and made the pulp, sifted it through a sieve, and pressed it as well as we could.' Taylor's Rem., MS., 17. The terms were $5 per year, payable half-yearly in advance, single copies being sold for fifteen cents. There seems to have been some difficulty in collecting subscriptions, for in the issue of November 15, 1851, the editor states that payment will be due at the office on receipt of the first number, 'and no one need expect the second number until these terms are complied with, as credit will not create the paper, ink, press, or hands to labor.' In his prospectus, Richards said that the Deseret News is designed 'to record the passing events of our state, and in connection refer to the arts and sciences, embracing general education, medicine, law, divinity, domestic and political economy, and everything that may fall under our observation which may tend to promote the best interest, welfare, pleasure, and amusement of our fellow-citizens…We shall ever take pleasure in communicating foreign news as we have opportunity; in receiving communications from our friends at home and abroad; and solicit ornaments for the News from our poets and poetesses.' In the first issue is the following, perhaps by Beta, who afterward wrote a number of papers styled the Chronicles of Utah in the Salt Lake City Contributor:

To my Friends in the Valley.

Let all who would have a good paper,
  Their talents and time ne’er abuse;
Since ’tis said by the wise and the humored,
  That the best in the world is the News.

Then ye who so long have been thinking
  What paper this year you will choose,
Come trip gayly up to the office
  And subscribe for the Deseret News.

And now, dearest friends, I will leave you;
  This counsel, I pray you, don't lose;
The best of advice I can give you
  Is, pay in advance for the News.

[paragraph continues] Fortunately for the prospects and reputation of the paper, such effusions were rare even in its early pages. The Deseret News was at first less ably edited, and inferior, as to type and paper, to the Frontier Guardian. It appears, indeed, to have lacked support, for in the first number are only two advertisements, one from a blacksmith and the other from a surgeon-dentist, who also professes to cure the scurvy. In Nov. 1851 it appeared in folio and in greatly improved form; for years it was the only paper, and is still the leading Mormon journal, in the territory.

327:15 The first grist-mill built at Tooele was erected by Ezaias Edwards; in 1849 a saw-mill was built at Provo by James Porter and Alex. Williams, and in 1850 a grist-mill, by James A. Smith and Isaac Higbee. At American Fork Ezra Adams built a grist-mill in 1851; at Mantia grist-mill was built by Brigham Young and Isaac Morley, and a saw-mill by Charles Shumway; in 1848 Samuel Parish built a grist-mill at Centreville. Utah Sketches, MS., passim. In Salt Lake county there were, in the autumn of 1851, four gristmills and five saw-mills. Utah Early Records, MS., 158. Near Ogden, Lorin Farr built a grist-mill and saw-mill in 1850. Stanford's Ogden City, MS., 3.

327:16 In March 1851 the general assembly appropriated $2,000 for this purpose. Utah Early Records, MS., 123.

327:17 'Our pottery is nearly completed;…cutlery establishments are completed.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 26.

327:18 In Id., Nov. 6, 1852, similar advice is given to the saints: 'Buy no article from the stores that you can possibly do without. Stretch our means, skill, and wisdom to the utmost to manufacture what we need, beginning with p. 328 a shoestring (if we cannot begin higher).' 'When we have manufactured an article, sell it for cash or its equivalent, as low, or lower, than it can be bought for at the stores.' In the fifth general epistle is the following: 'Beach and Blair have opened a general manufacturing establishment;…are now making molasses and vinegar. Several grain and lumber mills have been erected in the various settlements,…chairs and various articles of furniture are multiplying,…two or three threshing-machines have been in successful operation.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1851, 24. 'We are going in extensively for home manufactures. My own family alone have this season manufactured over 500 yds of cloth, and the home-made frequently makes its appearance in our streets'—a great blessing, 'if it will prove an inducement to the people to depend and rely upon their own resources for their own supplies.' Id., 1852, 16.

328:19 On May l, 1851, the first train of merchandise for the season arrived in the city, laden partly with sugar, coffee, and calicoes. Utah Early Records, MS., 127.

328:20 On Nov. 19, 1848, Capt. Grant of the Hudson's Bay Company arrived from Fort Hall with pack-horses laden with skins, groceries, and other goods. On April 17, 1851, a small party arrived from Fort Hall in search of provisions and Indian trading goods. On the 10th of the same month, Col Reese sent ten or twelve wagon-loads of flour to Carson Valley for trading purposes. Id., 39, 125, 127.

328:21 The returns were made under the direction of Brigham Young, who was appointed census agent. Utah Early Records, MS., 112; Deseret News, Oct. 5, 1850.

328:22 Early in 1853 the Deseret Almanac places the number at 30,000, while in Orson Pratt's Seer it is given at 30,000 to 35,000. Olshausen's Mormonen, 192. At this date it was estimated at 25,000 by the gentiles. Burton's City of the Saints, 357. Probably the Mormons exaggerated, as they desired to p. 329 show as soon as possible a population of 100,000, which would entitle them to claim admission as a state.

329:23 Not more than one tenth was collected in cash, payment being usually made in grain. Contributor, 332. 'Securing a territorial revenue of $23,000, including merchants’ licenses and tax on liquors.' Hist. B. Young, MS, 1852, 2.

329:24 'The most exposed parts of the country are annually run over by the fires set by the Indians to kill and roast the crickets, which they gather in summer for winter food.' Gunnison's The Mormons, 21.

329:25 The country was canvassed to ascertain how many inmates there would be for a poor-house, then projected. Only two were found, and the Mormons concluded that it was not yet time for such an institution. Id., 34.

329:26 The number of deaths in the territory during the year ending June 1, 1850, was 239. U.S. Census, 1850, 997; and in Salt Lake county, which virtually meant Salt Lake City, 121; in both, the mortality was therefore less than 20 per thousand, or about the average death-rate in San Francisco during recent years. Moreover, the population of Utah included a very large proportion of infants. Of 64 deaths reported in the Deseret News of March 8, 1851, 34 occurred between the ages of one and ten.

329:27 Utah and the Morrmons: the History, Government, Doctrines, Customs, and Prospects of the Latter-day Saints; from personal observation during a six months’ residence at Great Salt Lake City. By Benjamin G. Ferris, late secretary of Utah Territory, New York, 1854. Mr Ferris is not the first one whom in his own opinion a six months’ residence in the west justifies in writing a book. It was the winter of 1852-3 which he spent there, and while professing that he writes wholly from an anti-Mormon standpoint, as a rule he is comparatively moderate in his expressions. The illustrations in this volume are many of them the same which are found in several other works. Beginning with the physical features of Utah, he goes through the whole range of Mormon history, and concludes with chapters on government, doctrines, polygamy, book of Mormon proselytizing, and society. While sometimes interesting, there is little original information; and aside from what the author saw during his residence in Utah, the book has no special value.

330:28 The water was analyzed in 1851 by L. D. Gale. Its specific gravity was found to be 1.0112; it was strongly impregnated with sulphur, and 100 parts of water yielded 1.082 of solid matter. The specific gravity of the hot spring in the same neighborhood was 1.013, and 100 parts yielded 1.1454 of solid matter. Detailed analyses are given in Stunsbury's Expedition to G. S. Lake, i. 419-20. An analysis of the warm spring given by Joseph T. Kingsbury in Contributor, iv. 59-60, differs somewhat from that of Gale. Further information on these and other springs and mineral waters will be found in Id., iv. 86-9; Hist. Nev., 17, this series; Salt Lake Weekly Herald, July 29, 1880; S. L. C. Tribune, Jan. 5, 1878; Wheeler's Surveys, iii. 105-17; Hollister's Resources of Utah, 83-5; Hardy's Through Cities and Prairie, 121; Burton's City of the Saints, 222; Sac. Union, Aug. 7, 1860.

330:29 Contributor, iv. 59. One of the brethren, writing to Orson Hyde from Salt Lake City, Sept. 10, 1850, says that the temperature stands, winter and summer, at about 92°. Frontier Guardian, Jan. 8, 1851.

330:30 On Nov. 27, 1850, the warm-spring bath-house was dedicated and opened with prayer, festival, and dance. Utah Early Records, MS., 116.

    The material for the preceding chapters has been gathered mainly from a number of manuscripts furnished at intervals between 1880 and 1885. As I have already stated, to F. D. Richards I am especially indebted for his unremitting effort in supplying data for this volume. The period between Feb. 1846 and the close of 1851—say between the commencement of the exodus from Nauvoo and the opening of the legislature of Utah territory—is one of which there are few authentic printed records. From Kane's The Mormons, from Fullmer's Expulsion, and other sources, I have gleaned a little; but as far as I am aware, no work has yet been published that gives, or pretends to give, in circumstantial detail the fall story of this epoch in the annals of Mormonism. In the Utah Early Records, MS., I have been supplied with a brief but full statement of all the noteworthy incidents from the entrance of Orson Pratt and Erastus Snow into the valley of the Great Salt Lake to the close of the year 1851. In the Narrative of Franklin D. Richards, MS.; the Reminiscences of Mrs F. D. Richards, MS.; Inner Facts of Social Life in Utah, MS., by the same writer; History of Brigham Young, MS., which is indeed a continuation of the History of Joseph Smith, or the history of the church; Martin's Narrative, MS.—I have been kindly furnished with many details that it would have been impossible to obtain elsewhere. Some of them I have already noticed, and others I shall mention in their place.

    In Reminiscences of President John Taylor, MS., we have an account of the migration from Nauvoo to Winter Quarters, the organization of the various p. 331 companies, and much information of a miscellaneous nature, relating to house-building in Salt Lake City, the first manufactures, the location of the temple, and other matters. The manuscript also makes mention of his visit to England as a missionary in 1846, in company with Parley P. Pratt and Orson Hyde.

    The Narrative of General Daniel H. Wells, MS., gives an account of the disturbances in Hancock county, the troubles at Nauvoo before the exodus, the journey to Winter Quarters, the organization of the Nauvoo legion, and of the state of Deseret; but perhaps the most valuable portion is a condensed narrative of all the Indian outbreaks between 1849 and 1864, a task for which General Wells, who during this period had charge of the Nauvoo legion and aided in suppressing some of the disturbances, is specially qualified.

    Wilford Woodruff's Journal, MS., commencing with the claims of Sidney Rigdon to the guardianship of the church, in 1846, and closing with a summary of the operations of the pioneers in the following year. Mr Woodruff gives some valuable details concerning this most interesting period in the annals of Mormonism. Being himself a pioneer, he furnishes minute particulars as to their journey and their early labors in the valley.

    In A Woman's Experiences with the Pioneer Band, by Mrs Clara Decker Young, MS., we have also some information as to the work accomplished during the single month that the pioneers remained in the valley, among other matters being the building of the old fort. Items of interest are also given concerning those who were left alone in the valley after the pioneers' departure, until the arrival of Parley Pratt's companies. Clara Decker Young, a native of Freedom, N.Y., moved with her parents to Daviess co., Mo., in 1837, the family being driven, during the persecutions of that year, to Far West, whence they removed to Quincy, and later to Nauvoo. When 16 years of age she became the fifth wife of Brigham Young.

    From the Material Progress of Utah, by William Jennings, MS., I have gathered many details as to the industrial condition of the Mormons from the earliest settlement of S. L. City up to a recent date, among them being items relating to manufactures, agriculture, stock-raising, the grasshopper plague, and the influence of the railroad on the population of Utah.

    Early Justice, by John Nebeker, MS., besides describing the punishment of offenders in the days of 1847, when, as I have already stated, the whipping-post was substituted for imprisonment, furnishes other material of value relating to early times. In his capacity of public complainer, Mr Nebeker prosecuted one culprit before the high council for stealing, and himself administered the flogging. Mr Nebeker, a native of Delaware, came to Nauvoo in the winter of 1846; crossed the plains with the first companies, and left Winter Quarters with Parley Pratt's detachment.

    In The Migration and Settlements of the Latter-day Saints, by Mrs Joseph H. Horne, MS., is an account of her conversion, her experiences at Far West, Quincy, and Nauvoo, and the hardships suffered during the migration. Then follows a description of the first years in S. L. City, the food, dress, and dwellings of the saints, their make-shifts and privations, with some mention of the Mormon battalion, and the ill feeling caused by the withdrawal of 500 able-bodied men at this crisis in their affairs. Mrs Horne, a native of Rainham, England, moved with her parents to New York (now Toronto, Canada) when ten years of age. In 1836, the year of her marriage, she was converted by the preaching of Parley and Orson Pratt, her house being afterward open to the elders, who frequently held meetings there.

    From the Utah Sketches, MS., I have gathered much information as to the founding of various settlements and their progress up to the year 1880, of which mention will be made later. Most of them were written by persons who were themselves among the earliest settlers, and of whom some are still prominent members of the several communities among which their lot was cast. In this connection may be mentioned the Brief Historical Sketch of the Settlements in Weber County, by Joseph Stanford, MS., and the Historical Sketch of Ogden City, by the same author.

    In addition to the manuscripts and journals constituting the vast original p. 332 sources upon which I have drawn, I would mention also the following printed and secondary authorities: Millen. Star, iv. 187-90, v. 174-7, vi. 41-2, vii. 71-2, 87-9, 103-4, 149-53, viii. 68-71, 97-8, 102-3, 113-21, 149-58, ix. 11-22, xi. 46-7; Times and Seasons, i. 30-1, 44, 185-7, 517, ii. 273-4, 281-6, 309, 319, 321-2, 336, 355-6, 370-1, 375-7, 380-2, 417-18, 435, 517, 567-70, iii. 630-1, 666, 638, 654, 683-6, 700, 718, 733-4, 743, 767-9, 775-6, 806-7, 831-2, 902-3, 919-21, 936-7, iv. 10-11, 33-6, 65-71, 154-7, 198-9, 241-78, v. 392-6, 418-23, 455, 471-2, 536-48, 560-75, 584-99, 618-22, vi. 762, 773-8O, 926, 972-3; Beadle, Life in Utah, 58-9, 63-121, 125-54, 161-2, 280; Bennett, Morm. Exposed, 5-10, 140-62, 188-214, 278-302, 307-40; Bertrand, Mem. Morm., 61, 65-70; Bonwick, Morm. and Silv. Mines, 3; Burton, City of Saints, 183-4, 433, 625-67; Busch, Gesch. Morm., 43-5, 97-113, 125-30, 205-17, 254-98; Death of the Prophets, with Offic. Doc., no. 23, in Utah Pamph. Relig.; Deseret News, 1851, Apr. 8, Nov. 29, Dee. 13, 27; 1867, July 24; 1868, July 1, Dec. 16, 30; 1869, Apr. 7, Sept. 1; 1876, Mar. 22; 1877, Nov. 14; Hall, Morm. Exposed, 7-8, 15-16, 24-7, 28-34, 55-70, 91-9, 106-7; Tucker, Morm., 37, 167-207; Tullidge, Life of Young, 6-191, 204; Women of Morm., 297-300, 425-32, 443-4, 488-95; Edinburg Rev., Apr. 1854, 319-83; Ford (Thos, Gov. Ill.), in Utah Tracts, no. 11; Ferris, Utah and Morm., 51, 92-107, 114-15, 137-46, 151-4, 120-30; Gunnison, Morm., 133, 115-39; Stansbury, Exped., 135-7; Green, Morm., 28-9, 36-7, 54-64; Hickman, Destroying Angel, 41-5; Hyde, Morm., 140, 144-6, 152-3, 155-7, 172-5, 183-5, 189-92; Kidder, Morm., 157-9, 182-92; Kanesville (Ia), Front. Guard., 1849, Feb. 7, 21, Mar. 7, June 27, Aug. 8, Nov. 14; Id., 1850, May 1, 29, Oct. 2, 30; Id., 1852, Mar. 18, 25; Linforth, Route from Liverpool, 61-9, 72-5; Lee, Morm., 109-12, 144-8, 152-5, 167-8, 173-4, 179-80; Mackay, The Morm., 115-206; Niles' Reg., lxix. 70, 134, lxx. 208, 211, 327, lxxii. 206, 370, lxxiii. 6; Olshausen, Gesch. Mormonen, 59-65, 88-90, 100-3, 144-51, 202-34; Hon. Polynesian, ii. 1846, 91; Pratt (P.), Autobiog., 378, 398-401,405-6; Remy, Journey to G. S. L. City, i. 336-406, 434-8, ii. 258-63; Smucker, Hist. Morm., 119-34, 148-276, passim; Snow (Eliza), in Utah Pioineers, 33d Ann., 41-50, in Times and Seasons, iv. 287; Snow (Lorenzo), with Taylor, Govt of God, no. 12, 9-11; Stenhouse, Tell It All, 306; Crimes of L. D. Saints, 11-15; Dunbar, Romance of Age, 45; Ebberts, Trapper's Life, MS., 18; Fullmer, in Utah Tracts, no. 9. 1-40; Mather, in Lippincott's Mag., Aug. 1880; McGlashen, Hist. Donner Party, 34-56; Spence, Settler's Guide, 268-9; Sala, Amer. Revisited, ii. 289; Salt Lake City, Contributor, ii. 86, 134-7, 195-8, 239, 301, 354-6, 366, iii. passim, iv. 370-6; Salt Lake City, Deseret News, 1850, July 27; 1851, July 26, Aug. 19; 1852, Feb. 7, Aug. 7, 21; 1854, July 27, Aug. 3; 1855, Sept. 26; 1857, July 29, Aug. 5; 1858, June 30; Salt Lake City, Herald, 1880, July 3, 29; Salt Lake City, Telegraph, 1868, May 30, Oct. 10, 12-14; Smith, Rise, Progress, etc., 6-18, 314-22, 334-6; Smoot (Margaret S.), Experience, etc., MS., 4-5; Cal., Its Past Hist., 218-19; Tracy (Mrs N. N.), Narr., MS., 10-19; Thornton, Or. and Cal., i. 158-9; Utah Pioneer, 33d Ann., 50-2; Narrative of the Murders of the Smiths, in Utah Tracts, no. 1, passim; The Murder of Jos Smith, in Utah Tracts, no. 1, 54-5; Tyler, Hist. Morm. Battalion, passim; U. S. Ex. Doc., 24, 31 Cong. 1st Sess.; Van Tramp, Adventures, 313-38; Woodruff (W.), in Utah Pion., 33d Ann., 19-24; Ward, Mormon Wife, 81-4, 109-40, 165; White (Mrs C. V.), The Mormon Prophet, etc., 4-8; Young (Ann Eliza), Wife No. 19, 54-7; Marshall, Through Amer., 184; Murphy, Mineral Resour., 84-5; Miller (J.), First Families, etc., 65-73; Martin (Thos S.), Narrative, etc., MS., 42; San Francisco, Alta Cal., 1851, Aug. 8; Id., Cal. Star, 1848, Feb. 26; Id., Call, 1869, Sept. 5, 1877, Aug. 31; Id., Chronicle, 1881, Jan. 9; Id., Herald, 1851, Oct. 12, 1859, Nov. 15; Sacramento, Placer Times, 1849, May 26; Id., Union, 1855, Sept. 10, 27, 1859, Aug. 24; Portland (Or.), Telegram, 1879, Mar. 15; Salem (Or.), Argus, 1858, Feb. 13, Aug. 28; Id., Statesman, 1851, Dec. 23; Or. City (Or.), Spectator, 1846, July 4; Ogden (Utah), Freeman, 1879, May 2; Gold Hill (Nev.), News, 1872, May 1, Oct. 24; Eureka (Nev.), Leader, 1880, July 24; Carson (Nev.), State Register, 1872, Nov. 24; Rae, Westward by Rail, 125-7.

Next: Chapter XV. Mormonism and Polygamy.