Tractate Berakoth, by , by A. Lukyn Williams, , at sacred-texts.com
9 (8). Suppose that wine comes to them after the food, and there is there only that [one] cup, 4 the School of Shammai say: One says the Benediction over the wine, and afterwards the Benediction over the food. But the School of Hillel say: One says the Benediction over the food, and afterwards the Benediction over the wine. 5 They answer "Amen" after an Israelite who says the Benediction, but they do not say "Amen" after a Cuthæan (i.e.
M.[paragraph continues] Samaritan) who says the Benediction, until one hears all the Benediction. 1
V. 21. In the case of a heathen who says the Benediction in the Name (of the Loan), they respond "Amen" after him. In the case of a Samaritan who says the Benediction in the Name (of the LORD), they do not respond "Amen" after him until the whole Benediction is heard. 3
22. If one is offering sacrifices 4 in Jerusalem 5 one says: "Blessed be He who hath brought us to this time"; and when they eat one says: "Blessed be He who sanctified us by His commands, and commanded us to eat this sacrifice." If one is offering meal-offerings in Jerusalem one says: "Blessed be He who kept us alive and brought us to this time"; when they eat he says: "Blessed be He who bringeth forth bread from the earth."
23. If ten are walking on a journey, although they all eat of one loaf, 6 each single one says the Benediction for himself. If they have sat down to eat, although each single one eats of his own loaf, one says the Benediction for them all. 7
24. In the case of workmen who are doing their work near the master of the house, behold, these say two Benedictions. One says the first Benediction,
72:4 that [one] cup. No other wine having been drunk during the meal, cf. M. VI. 8.
72:5 and afterwards the Benediction over the wine. Presumably the School of Shammai feared that the blessing over the wine might be forgotten if that for the food was given first. But the School of Hillel did not consider that there was any danger of this, for the Benediction over the food could not include that over the wine, so it might be said first.
73:1 See T.
73:2 See p. 9.
73:3 A heathen proselyte has learned the ordinary Jewish form. But a Samaritan may say something heretical.
73:4 sacrifices. i.e. animal.
73:5 in Jerusalem. This seems therefore to be earlier than 70 A.D., unless the rule is purely academic. That no sacrifices were offered after the destruction see Schürer, Geschichte 4, I. 652-655 (E. T. I. ii. 268-272).
73:6 1 Cor. 1017.
73:7 If it is to be a common meal all must sit down.
74:1 that for Jerusalem. The third Benediction in the Grace after meals (SA, p. 282).
74:2 that for the Land. The second (SA, p. 280).
74:3 for their food. Not for wages.
74:4 they say four Benedictions, i.e. to themselves, saying the "Amen" aloud after their master. Observe that in the first case the master would not want his men to spend more time away from their work than was necessary. In the second case he would not so much mind.